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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430245/operation-of-ho-yag-ultrafast-laser-inscribed-waveguide-lasers
#1
Sean McDaniel, Fiona Thorburn, Adam Lancaster, Ronald Stites, Gary Cook, Ajoy Kar
We report fabrication and operation of multi-watt level waveguide lasers utilizing holmium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Ho:YAG). The waveguides were fabricated using ultrafast laser inscription, which relies on a chirped pulse ytterbium fiber laser to create depressed cladding structures inside the material. A variety of waveguides were created inside the Ho:YAG samples. We demonstrate output powers of ∼2  W from both a single-mode 50 μm waveguide laser and a multimode 80 μm waveguide laser. In addition, laser action from a co-doped Yb:Ho:YAG sample under in-band pumping conditions was demonstrated...
April 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429683/biokinetics-of-yttrium-and-comparison-with-its-geochemical-twin-holmium
#2
Richard Wayne Leggett
The transition metal yttrium (Y, atomic number 39) is chemically similar to elements in the lanthanide family (atomic numbers 57-71) and is found with the lanthanides in rare earth ores. Yttrium and the lanthanide holmium are referred to as geochemical twins because they generally show little fractionation from metamorphic or weathering processes, due to their closely similar chemical properties and nearly identical ionic radii. Extensive measurements on rocks, soils, and meteorites indicate that the Y/Ho mass concentration ratio rarely falls far from the so-called chondritic or solar system ratio of ~26...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429191/melanogenesis-inhibition-in-mice-using-a-low-fluence-1064-nm-q-switched-neodymium-doped-yttrium-aluminum-garnet-laser-a-pilot-study
#3
Jae-Hui Nam, Joon Hong Min, Wang-Kyun Kim, Sunmin Yim, Won-Serk Kim
A low-fluence 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser, or laser toning, has yielded favorable outcomes in various benign pigmented disorders. However, the exact mechanism of action of laser toning has not been fully elucidated. We sought to determine the inhibitory effect of laser toning on melanogenesis and to assess how laser passes influence the outcomes. To produce perceptible pigmentation, nine HRM-2 melanin-possessing hairless mice were treated with ultraviolet (UV) B radiation on the dorsal skin...
April 20, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428282/whither-radioimmunotherapy-to-be-or-not-to-be
#4
Damian J Green, Oliver W Press
Therapy of cancer with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies has produced impressive results in preclinical experiments and in clinical trials conducted in radiosensitive malignancies, particularly B-cell lymphomas. Two "first-generation," directly radiolabeled anti-CD20 antibodies, (131)iodine-tositumomab and (90)yttrium-ibritumomab tiuxetan, were FDA-approved more than a decade ago but have been little utilized because of a variety of medical, financial, and logistic obstacles. Newer technologies employing multistep "pretargeting" methods, particularly those utilizing bispecific antibodies, have greatly enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of radioimmunotherapy and diminished its toxicities...
April 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418940/assessment-of-the-albumin-bilirubin-albi-grade-as-a-prognostic-indicator-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patients-treated-with-radioembolization
#5
Bin Gui, Ashley A Weiner, John Nosher, Shou-En Lu, Gretchen M Foltz, Omar Hasan, Seung K Kim, Vyacheslav Gendel, Naganathan B Mani, Darren R Carpizo, Nael E Saad, Timothy J Kennedy, Darryl A Zuckerman, Jeffrey R Olsen, Parag J Parikh, Salma K Jabbour
OBJECTIVE: As the utility of Child-Pugh (C-P) class is limited by the subjectivity of ascites and encephalopathy, we evaluated a previously established objective method, the albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade, as a prognosticator for yttrium-90 radioembolization (RE) treatment for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 117 patients who received RE for HCC from 2 academic centers were reviewed and stratified by ALBI grade, C-P class, and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage...
April 17, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415671/predictors-and-prognosticators-for-survival-with-yttrium-90-radioembolization-therapy-for-unresectable-colorectal-cancer-liver-metastasis
#6
REVIEW
Meaghan S Dendy, Johannes M Ludwig, Hyun S Kim
This critical review aims to explore predictive and prognostic biomarkers of Yttrium-90 (Y90) radioembolization therapy of colorectal liver metastases. A brief overview of established predictive and prognostic molecular and genetic biomarkers in colorectal cancer therapies will be discussed. A review of the literature on imaging modalities, genetic, metabolic and other molecular markers and the subsequent outcomes in post-Y90 treatment will be presented. How these biomarkers and future biomarker research can inform locoregional treatment decisions in the clinical setting of metastatic colorectal cancer lesions of the liver will be explored...
March 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412013/investigation-of-the-imaging-characteristics-of-the-albira-ii-small-animal-pet-system-for-18-f-68-ga-and-64-cu
#7
Ali Asgar Attarwala, Yvonne Wanjiku Karanja, Deni Hardiansyah, Chiara Romanó, Mareike Roscher, Björn Wängler, Gerhard Glatting
AIM: In this study the performance characteristics of the Albira II PET sub-system and the response of the system for the following radionuclides (18)F, (68)Ga and (64)Cu was analyzed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Albira II tri-modal system (Bruker BioSpin MRI GmbH, Ettlingen, Germany) is a pre-clinical device for PET, SPECT and CT. The PET sub-system uses single continuous crystal detectors of lutetium yttrium orthosilicate (LYSO). The detector assembly consists of three rings of 8 detector modules...
April 12, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Physik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408731/long-term-outcome-after-liver-transplantation-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-following-yttrium-90-radioembolization-bridging-treatment
#8
Sonia Radunz, Jürgen Treckmann, Hideo A Baba, Jan Best, Stefan Müller, Jens M Theysohn, Andreas Paul, Tamás Benkö
BACKGROUND Bridging treatments are employed in liver transplant waitlist patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) because of the risk of tumor progression during the waiting time. Radioembolization is mostly employed in the control of large or multifocal HCCs when other locoregional treatment modalities cannot be applied because of the number or size of lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate our experience with the use of radioembolization as a bridge to transplantation and its effect on tumor recurrence and survival after liver transplantation...
April 14, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408533/brachytherapy-with-intratumoral-injections-of-radiometal-labeled-polymers-that-thermo-responsively-self-aggregate-in-tumor-tissues
#9
Kohei Sano, Yuko Kanada, Kengo Kanazaki, Ning Ding, Masahiro Ono, Hideo Saji
Brachytherapy is a type of radiotherapy wherein titanium capsules containing therapeutic radioisotopes are implanted within tumor tissues, enabling high-dose radio-irradiation to tumor tissues around the seeds. Although marked therapeutic effects have been demonstrated, brachytherapy needs complicated implantation technique under general anesthesia and the seeds could migrate to other organs. The aim of this study is to establish a novel brachytherapy using biocompatible, injectable thermo-responsive polymers (polyoxazoline; POZ) labeled with yttrium-90 ((90)Y), which can self-aggregate above a specific transition temperature, resulting in long-term intratumoral retention of radioactivity and therapeutic effect...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407343/fluorophores-for-excited-state-intramolecular-proton-transfer-by-an-yttrium-triflate-catalyzed-reaction-of-isocyanides-with-thiocarboxylic-acids
#10
Shuo Tong, Shun Zhao, Qing He, Qian Wang, Mei-Xiang Wang, Jieping Zhu
Discovery of new chemical reactivity of a given functional group can often result in innovative synthesis of important chemical entities that possess unprecedented properties. We designed and developed a one-step synthesis of 5-amino-4-carboxamidothiazoles 1 by an yttrium-triflate-catalyzed reaction of thiocarboxylic acids 2 with isocyanides 3. In this reaction, both reactants 2 and 3 deviated from their normal reactivities because of metal coordination. The resulting heterocycles are novel prototypical structures for the double ESIPT process...
April 13, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407278/prevention-and-treatment-of-complications-of-selective-internal-radiation-therapy-expert-guidance-and-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Bruno Sangro, Diego Martínez-Urbistondo, Lourens Bester, Jose I Bilbao, Douglas M Coldwell, Patrick Flamen, Andrew Kennedy, Jens Ricke, Ricky A Sharma
Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT or radioembolisation) by intraarterial injection of radioactive yttrium-90 ((90) Y)-loaded microspheres is increasingly used for the treatment of patients with liver metastases or primary liver cancer. The high-dose beta-radiation penetrates an average of only 2.5 mm from the source so that its effects are limited to the site of delivery. However the off-target diversion of (90) Y microspheres to tissues other than the tumor may lead to complications. The most prominent ones include: radiation gastritis and gastrointestinal (GI) ulcers, cholecystitis, radiation pneumonitis, and radioembolisation-induced liver disease (REILD)...
April 13, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405537/vascular-air-embolism-during-bronchoscopy-procedures-incidence-pathophysiology-diagnosis-management-and-outcomes
#12
REVIEW
Venkatkiran Kanchustambham, Swetha Saladi, Kris Mehta, John Mwangi, Zafar Jamkhana, Setu Patolia
Vascular air embolism (VAE) is a rare, but potentially fatal complication of invasive medical or surgical procedures. It is a very rare complication of bronchoscopy and is most frequently reported with therapeutic bronchoscopy with Argon plasma coagulation (APC) or neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd-YAG) laser. Despite being rare, as a result of its high chance of mortality and morbidity, it is imperative that physicians have high clinical suspicion to allow for early recognition and treatment. In this article, we provide a concise review of the incidence, pathophysiology, diagnosis management and outcomes of air embolism during bronchoscopy procedures...
March 9, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394240/effect-of-laser-activated-irrigations-on-smear-layer-removal-from-the-root-canal-wall
#13
Xiaoli Wang, Xiaogang Cheng, Baogang Liu, Xin Liu, Qing Yu, Wenxi He
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of laser-activated irrigations (LAI) by using the Erbium: Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er:YAG) laser and the Erbium Chromium: Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser on removing smear layer (SL) from the root canal wall. BACKGROUND DATA: LAI has been proposed as an adjuvant to conventional protocols of endodontic treatment to enhance the disinfection, which is a promising protocol for SL removal...
April 5, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392716/er-yag-pre-treatment-for-bonding-of-orthodontic-bracket-1-year-of-in-vitro-treatment
#14
Rudys Rodolfo de Jesus Tavarez, Gisele Lima Bezerra, Karla Janilee de Souza Penha, Carlos Rocha Gomes Torres, Leily Macedo Firoozmand
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro bond strength of metal brackets bonded with: total etch, total etch with erbium: yttrium aluminum garnet laser (Er:YAG) and self-etching adhesive systems, submitted to thermal-mechanical cycling, simulating 1 year of orthodontic treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For the study, 80 bovine incisors were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups (n=16 each): XT- acid etching + Transbond XT, XT/Er:YAG- Transbond XT associated with Er:YAG laser irradiation (λ=2...
2017: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385438/effect-of-coarse-grinding-overglazing-and-2-polishing-systems-on-the-flexural-strength-surface-roughness-and-phase-transformation-of-yttrium-stabilized-tetragonal-zirconia
#15
Mahshid Mohammadi-Bassir, Mahdieh Jamshidian, Mohammad Bagher Rezvani, Mansoure Babasafari
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Limited information is available for the best polishing systems and methods to obtain minimally abrasive monolithic zirconia surfaces after contouring and occlusal adjustment. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of grinding and polishing procedures on the flexural strength, quality and quantity of surface roughness, topography, and phase transformation of a zirconia-based ceramic system. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty bar-shaped yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide specimens (20×4×2 mm) were cut from presintered zirconia blanks...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382365/methylene-bridged-intramolecular-donor-acceptor-systems-based-on-rare-earth-metals-and-phosphinomethanides
#16
Martin Pieper, Jan-Hendrik Lamm, Beate Neumann, Hans-Georg Stammler, Norbert W Mitzel
New geminally bonded intramolecular donor-acceptor systems, Cp2LnCH2PR2 (Ln = Y, Ho, Er, R = CHMe2, CMe3), were prepared by salt elimination reactions between the dicyclopentadienyl-element chlorides (Cp2LnCl, Ln = Y, Ho, Er) and diorganylphosphinomethanides (R2PCH2Li; R = CHMe2, CMe3). These compounds, 1-6, were characterized by elemental analyses, mass spectrometry and X-ray diffraction experiments and the yttrium species additionally by NMR spectroscopy. In the solid state the molecular structures differ from each other, depending on the steric demand of the phosphorus substituents...
April 19, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381063/method-to-simulate-and-analyse-induced-stresses-for-laser-crystal-packaging-technologies
#17
Pol Ribes-Pleguezuelo, Site Zhang, Erik Beckert, Ramona Eberhardt, Frank Wyrowski, Andreas Tünnermann
A method to simulate induced stresses for a laser crystal packaging technique and the consequent study of birefringent effects inside the laser cavities has been developed. The method has been implemented by thermo-mechanical simulations implemented with ANSYS 17.0. ANSYS results were later imported in VirtualLab Fusion software where input/output beams in terms of wavelengths and polarization were analysed. The study has been built in the context of a low-stress soldering technique implemented for glass or crystal optics packaging's called the solderjet bumping technique...
March 20, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381016/lasing-of-surface-polished-polycrystalline-ho-yag-yttrium-aluminum-garnet-fiber
#18
Hyunjun Kim, Randall S Hay, Sean A McDaniel, Gary Cook, Nicholas G Usechak, Augustine M Urbas, Kathleen N Shugart, HeeDong Lee, Ali H Kadhim, Dean P Brown, Benjamin Griffin, Geoff E Fair, Randall G Corns, Santeri A Potticary, Frank K Hopkins, Kent L Averett, David E Zelmon, Triplicane A Parthasarathy, Kristin A Keller
A polycrystalline 1.5% Ho: YAG fiber with a diameter of 31 µm was prepared. Surface roughness from grain boundary grooving was reduced by polishing, which decreased the fiber scattering coefficient from 76 m<sup>-1</sup> to 35 m<sup>-1</sup>. Lasing tests were done on this fiber with a SF57 Schott glass cladding. Lasing was confirmed by spectrum narrowing with threshold pump power lower than 500 mW and a slope efficiency of 7%. To our knowledge, this is the first lasing demonstration from a small diameter polycrystalline ceramic fiber...
March 20, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380993/temperature-stable-operation-of-ycob-crystal-for-giant-pulse-green-microlaser
#19
Arvydas Kausas, Pascal Loiseau, Gerard Aka, Yanqing Zheng, Lihe Zheng, Takunori Taira
In this work the performance of two yttrium calcium oxyborate (YCOB) crystals made by Czochralski and Bridgman growth process was measured. By using high peak power, passively Q-switched Nd<sup>3+</sup>:YAG/Cr<sup>4+</sup>:YAG microlaser, high conversion second harmonic generation efficiency were obtained. Laser pulses at 532 nm with 1.14 mJ energy and 223 ps duration were obtained with a 15-mm long YCOB crystal that was grown by Bridgman method. The conversion efficiency was 70.2%, comparable with the conversion efficiency of 72...
March 20, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376350/production-of-zr-89-using-sputtered-yttrium-coin-targets-89-zr-using-sputtered-yttrium-coin-targets
#20
Stacy Lee Queern, Tolulope Aramide Aweda, Adriana Vidal Fernandes Massicano, Nicholas Ashby Clanton, Retta El Sayed, Jayden Andrew Sader, Alexander Zyuzin, Suzanne Elizabeth Lapi
An increasing interest in zirconium-89 ((89)Zr) can be attributed to the isotope's half-life which is compatible with antibody imaging using positron emission tomography (PET). The goal of this work was to develop an efficient means of production for (89)Zr that provides this isotope with high radionuclidic purity and specific activity. We investigated the irradiation of yttrium sputtered niobium coins and compared the yields and separation efficiency to solid yttrium coins. The sputtered coins were irradiated with an incident beam energy of 17...
March 23, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
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