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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197389/foamy-virus-zoonotic-infections
#1
Delia M Pinto-Santini, Carolyn R Stenbak, Maxine L Linial
BACKGROUND: Foamy viruses (FV) are ancient complex retroviruses that differ from orthoretroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and murine leukemia virus (MLV) and comprise a distinct subfamily of retroviruses, the Spumaretrovirinae. FV are ubiquitous in their natural hosts, which include cows, cats, and nonhuman primates (NHP). FV are transmitted mainly through saliva and appear nonpathogenic by themselves, but they may increase morbidity of other pathogens in coinfections...
December 2, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192808/a-splice-site-variant-in-flvcr1-produces-retinitis-pigmentosa-without-posterior-column-ataxia
#2
Imran H Yusuf, Morag E Shanks, Penny Clouston, Robert E MacLaren
FLVCR1 (feline leukemia virus subgroup c receptor 1) is a transmembrane protein involved in the trafficking of intracellular heme. Homozygous variants in FLVCR1 have been described in association with a clinical syndrome of posterior column ataxia with retinitis pigmentosa (PCARP). Here, we describe a patient with non-syndromic retinitis pigmentosa homozygous for a splice-site variant in FLVCR1 (c.1092 + 5G>A) without evidence of posterior column ataxia or cerebellar degeneration. We suggest an association between intronic splice-site variants in FLVCR1 and the absence of posterior column degeneration and suggest a hypothesis to explain this observation...
December 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149857/putative-progressive-and-abortive-feline-leukemia-virus-infection-outcomes-in-captive-jaguarundis-puma-yagouaroundi
#3
Claudia Filoni, A Katrin Helfer-Hungerbuehler, José Luiz Catão-Dias, Mara Cristina Marques, Luciana Neves Torres, Manfred Reinacher, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann
BACKGROUND: Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is an exogenous gammaretrovirus of domestic cats (Felis catus) and some wild felids. The outcomes of FeLV infection in domestic cats vary according to host susceptibility, virus strain, and infectious challenge dose. Jaguarundis (Puma yagouaroundi) are small wild felids from South and Central America. We previously reported on FeLV infections in jaguarundis. We hypothesized here that the outcomes of FeLV infection in P. yagouaroundi mimic those observed in domestic cats...
November 17, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056675/felis-catus-gammaherpesvirus-1-dnaemia-in-whole-blood-from-therapeutically-immunosuppressed-or-retrovirus-infected-cats
#4
Alicia J McLuckie, Vanessa R Barrs, Bethany Wilson, Mark E Westman, Julia A Beatty
Gammaherpesviruses are major co-pathogens of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, making the interactions between feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1) pertinent to both human and veterinary medical research. FIV-infected cats are at increased risk of FcaGHV1 DNAemia and consistently harbor higher FcaGHV1 loads than FIV-uninfected cats. Whether immune deficiencies unrelated to FIV are associated with similar risks is unknown. Using whole blood FcaGHV1 qPCR, we found no difference in the frequency of DNAemia or DNA load in therapeutically immunosuppressed (P1, n = 18) or feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-infected (P2, n = 57) patients compared with age- and sex-matched controls (C1, n = 58; C2, n = 57)...
March 14, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957693/interferon-omega-current-status-in-clinical-applications
#5
REVIEW
Shi-Fang Li, Fu-Rong Zhao, Jun-Jun Shao, Yin-Li Xie, Hui-Yun Chang, Yong-Guang Zhang
Since 1985, interferon (IFN)-ω, a type I IFN, has been identified in many animals, but not canines and mice. It has been demonstrated to have antiviral, anti-proliferation, and antitumor activities that are similar to those of IFN-α. To date, IFN-ω has been explored as a treatment option for some diseases or viral infections in humans and other animals. Studies have revealed that human IFN-ω displays antitumor activities in some models of human cancer cells and that it can be used to diagnose some diseases...
September 25, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932815/a-multicenter-study-to-evaluate-the-performance-of-high-throughput-sequencing-for-virus-detection
#6
Arifa S Khan, Siemon H S Ng, Olivier Vandeputte, Aisha Aljanahi, Avisek Deyati, Jean-Pol Cassart, Robert L Charlebois, Lanyn P Taliaferro
The capability of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) for detection of known and unknown viruses makes it a powerful tool for broad microbial investigations, such as evaluation of novel cell substrates that may be used for the development of new biological products. However, like any new assay, regulatory applications of HTS need method standardization. Therefore, our three laboratories initiated a study to evaluate performance of HTS for potential detection of viral adventitious agents by spiking model viruses in different cellular matrices to mimic putative materials for manufacturing of biologics...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895871/type-i-interferons-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-canine-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Daniela Klotz, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Ingo Gerhauser
Type I interferons (IFNs) such as IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-ε, IFN-κ, and IFN-ω represent cytokines, which are deeply involved in the regulation and activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. They possess strong antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activities allowing their use in the therapy of different viral diseases, neoplasms, and immune-mediated disorders, respectively. Initially, treatment strategies were based on nonspecific inducers of type I IFNs, which were soon replaced by different recombinant proteins...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782421/epidemiologic-survey-of-feline-leukemia-virus-in-domestic-cats-on-tsushima-island-japan-management-strategy-for-tsushima-leopard-cats
#8
Isaac Makundi, Yushi Koshida, Kyohei Kuse, Takahiro Hiratsuka, Jumpei Ito, Takuya Baba, Shinya Watanabe, Maki Kawamura, Yuka Odahara, Ariko Miyake, Hanae Yamamoto, Sawako Kuniyoshi, Manabu Onuma, Kazuo Nishigaki
The Tsushima leopard cat (TLC) Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus, a subspecies of P. bengalensis, is designated a National Natural Monument of Japan, and lives only on Tsushima Island, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. TLCs are threatened by various infectious diseases. Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) causes a serious infectious disease with a poor prognosis in cats. Therefore, the transmission of FeLV from Tsushima domestic cats (TDCs) to TLCs may threaten the TLC population. We investigated the FeLV infection status of both TDCs and TLCs on Tsushima Island by screening blood samples for FeLV p27 antigen and using PCR to amplify the full-length FeLV env gene...
November 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768854/presence-of-a-shared-5-leader-sequence-in-ancestral-human-and-mammalian-retroviruses-and-its-transduction-into-feline-leukemia-virus
#9
Junna Kawasaki, Maki Kawamura, Yoshiharu Ohsato, Jumpei Ito, Kazuo Nishigaki
Recombination events induce significant genetic changes, and this process can result in virus genetic diversity or in the generation of novel pathogenicity. We discovered a new recombinant feline leukemia virus (FeLV) gag gene harboring an unrelated insertion, termed the X region, which was derived from Felis catus endogenous gammaretrovirus 4 (FcERV-gamma4). The identified FcERV-gamma4 proviruses have lost their coding capabilities, but some can express their viral RNA in feline tissues. Although the X-region-carrying recombinant FeLVs appeared to be replication-defective viruses, they were detected in 6...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746448/fatal-toxoplasmosis-in-an-immunosuppressed-domestic-cat-from-brazil-caused-by-toxoplasma-gondii-clonal-type-i
#10
Hilda Fátima de Jesus Pena, Camila Mariellen Evangelista, Renata Assis Casagrande, Giovana Biezus, Claudia Salete Wisser, Paulo Eduardo Ferian, Anderson Barbosa de Moura, Veronica Machado Rolim, David Driemeier, Solange Oliveira, Bruna Farias Alves, Solange Maria Gennari, Sandra Davi Traverso
The objective of the study was to report on a fatal case of feline toxoplasmosis with coinfection with the feline leukemia virus (FeLV). A domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) presented intense dyspnea and died three days later. In the necropsy, the lungs were firm, without collapse and with many white areas; moderate lymphadenomegaly and splenomegaly were also observed. The histopathological examination showed severe necrotic interstitial bronchopneumonia and mild necrotic hepatitis, associated with intralesional cysts and tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii that were positive by anti-T...
April 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677421/molecular-detection-of-viral-agents-in-free-ranging-and-captive-neotropical-felids-in-brazil
#11
Mariana Malzoni Furtado, Sueli Akemi Taniwaki, Iracema Nunes de Barros, Paulo Eduardo Brandão, José Luiz Catão-Dias, Sandra Cavalcanti, Laury Cullen, Claudia Filoni, Anah Tereza de Almeida Jácomo, Rodrigo Silva Pinto Jorge, Nairléia Dos Santos Silva, Leandro Silveira, José Soares Ferreira Neto
We describe molecular testing for felid alphaherpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), carnivore protoparvovirus 1 (CPPV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), alphacoronavirus 1 (feline coronavirus [FCoV]), feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and canine distemper virus (CDV) in whole blood samples of 109 free-ranging and 68 captive neotropical felids from Brazil. Samples from 2 jaguars ( Panthera onca) and 1 oncilla ( Leopardus tigrinus) were positive for FHV-1; 2 jaguars, 1 puma ( Puma concolor), and 1 jaguarundi ( Herpairulus yagouaroundi) tested positive for CPPV-1; and 1 puma was positive for FIV...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671491/seroprevalences-of-feline-leukemia-virus-and-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-in-cats-in-the-united-states-and-canada-and-risk-factors-for-seropositivity
#12
Amie N Burling, Julie K Levy, H Morgan Scott, Michael M Crandall, Sylvia J Tucker, Erin G Wood, Jessie D Foster
OBJECTIVE To estimate seroprevalences for FeLV antigen and anti-FIV antibody and risk factors for seropositivity among cats in the United States and Canada. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 62,301 cats tested at 1,396 veterinary clinics (n = 45,406) and 127 animal shelters (16,895). PROCEDURES Blood samples were tested with a point-of-care ELISA for FeLV antigen and anti-FIV antibody. Seroprevalence was estimated, and risk factors for seropositivity were evaluated with bivariate and multivariable mixed-model logistic regression analyses adjusted for within-clinic or within-shelter dependencies...
July 15, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548572/analytical-validation-of-a-reference-laboratory-elisa-for-the-detection-of-feline-leukemia-virus-p27-antigen
#13
Jesse S Buch, Genevieve H Clark, Roberta Cahill, Brendon Thatcher, Peter Smith, Ramaswamy Chandrashekar, Christian M Leutenegger, Thomas P O'Connor, Melissa J Beall
Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is an oncogenic retrovirus of cats. Immunoassays for the p27 core protein of FeLV aid in the detection of FeLV infections. Commercial microtiter-plate ELISAs have rapid protocols and visual result interpretation, limiting their usefulness in high-throughput situations. The purpose of our study was to validate the PetChek FeLV 15 ELISA, which is designed for the reference laboratory, and incorporates sequential, orthogonal screening and confirmatory protocols. A cutoff for the screening assay was established with 100% accuracy using 309 feline samples (244 negative, 65 positive) defined by the combined results of FeLV PCR and an independent reference p27 antigen ELISA...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510253/feline-immunodeficiency-virus-and-feline-leukemia-virus-frequency-and-associated-factors-in-cats-in-northeastern-brazil
#14
L C Lacerda, A N Silva, J S Freitas, R D S Cruz, R A Said, A D Munhoz
Our aims were to determine the frequencies of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in owned and stray cats in the northeastern region of Brazil, ascertain the status of FeLV infection, and investigate potential associated factors among the owned cats. Blood samples from 200 asymptomatic owned cats and 30 stray cats were processed using nested PCR and commercial immunochromatographic tests to diagnose infections. To evaluate the factors associated with FIV and/or FeLV in owned cats, a semi-structured interview was conducted with each owner about the animal's environment, and these data were subjected to unconditional logistic regression...
May 10, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491433/evaluation-of-rapid-diagnostic-test-kits-for-feline-leukemia-virus-infection-using-samples-from-naturally-infected-cats
#15
Jiayou Liu, Thomas O'Connor, Melissa Beall, Ramaswamy Chandrashekar, Michael Lappin
OBJECTIVES: Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a potentially life-threatening oncogenic retrovirus. The p27 viral core protein is produced by the virus in infected feline cells, is found in the cytoplasm in several blood cells and can be free in the serum and plasma. ELISA or particle-based immunoassay are commonly used to detect the presence of the p27 core protein in samples obtained from blood. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of several in-clinic tests: the SNAP Feline Triple Test (IDEXX Laboratories), the WITNESS FeLV-FIV Test (Zoetis) and the VetScan Feline FeLV/FIV Rapid Test (Abaxis)...
July 2016: JFMS Open Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399176/pathological-findings-in-the-red-fox-vulpes-vulpes-stone-marten-martes-foina-and-raccoon-dog-nyctereutes-procyonoides-with-special-emphasis-on-infectious-and-zoonotic-agents-in-northern-germany
#16
Charlotte Lempp, Nicole Jungwirth, Miguel L Grilo, Anja Reckendorf, Arlena Ulrich, Abbo van Neer, Rogier Bodewes, Vanessa M Pfankuche, Christian Bauer, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Ursula Siebert
Anthropogenic landscape changes contributed to the reduction of availability of habitats to wild animals. Hence, the presence of wild terrestrial carnivores in urban and peri-urban sites has increased considerably over the years implying an increased risk of interspecies spillover of infectious diseases and the transmission of zoonoses. The present study provides a detailed characterisation of the health status of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in their natural rural and peri-urban habitats in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany between November 2013 and January 2016 with focus on zoonoses and infectious diseases that are potentially threatening to other wildlife or domestic animal species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382853/primary-cerebellar-lymphoma-with-hodgkin-lymphoma-like-morphology-in-a-cat
#17
Yuka Yoshino, James K Chambers, Taichi Nakamori, Yuko Goto-Koshino, Kazuo Nishigaki, Hajime Tsujimoto, Naoaki Matsuki, Hiroyuki Nakayama, Kazuyuki Uchida
A 4-y-old cat exhibited neurologic signs such as wobbling, right head tilt, and intention tremor, and MRI revealed a mass in the cerebellum. The cat died 5 mo after initial presentation, and no neoplastic lesions, other than the cerebellar mass, were observed at autopsy. Histologically, large atypical cells resembling Hodgkin cells, with single large inclusion-like nucleoli, and those resembling Reed-Sternberg cells, with symmetrically arranged nuclei, had infiltrated the left side of the cerebellum and were admixed with small lymphocytes...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285590/molecular-detection-of-hepatozoon-spp-and-cytauxzoon-sp-in-domestic-and-stray-cats-from-madrid-spain
#18
David Díaz-Regañón, Alejandra Villaescusa, Tania Ayllón, Fernando Rodríguez-Franco, Gad Baneth, Lydia Calleja-Bueno, Mercedes García-Sancho, Beatriz Agulla, Ángel Sainz
BACKGROUND: Different species of apicomplexan protozoans of the genera Hepatozoon and Cytauxzoon can infect domestic cats, but their epidemiology and clinical relevance are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to assess the molecular prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon spp. and to identify associated risk factors and clinical and laboratory abnormalities in a population of cats from Madrid, Spain. METHODS: Six hundred and forty-four client-owned and stray cats from Madrid, Spain, were included in this study...
March 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202016/risk-factors-of-different-hemoplasma-species-infections-in-cats
#19
Michèle Bergmann, Theresa Englert, Bianca Stuetzer, Jennifer R Hawley, Michael R Lappin, Katrin Hartmann
BACKGROUND: Hemoplasma species (spp.) commonly cause infections in cats worldwide. However, data on risk factors for infections are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hemoplasma spp. infections in cats in Southern Germany and to assess risk factors associated with infection. RESULTS: DNA was extracted from blood samples of 479 cats presented to different veterinary hospitals for various reasons. DNA of feline hemoplasmas was amplified by use of a previously reported PCR assay...
February 16, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158913/performance-of-4-point-of-care-screening-tests-for-feline-leukemia-virus-and-feline-immunodeficiency-virus
#20
J K Levy, P Cynda Crawford, S J Tucker
BACKGROUND: More than 3 million cats in the United States are infected with FeLV or FIV. The cornerstone of control is identification and segregation of infected cats. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To compare test performance with well-characterized clinical samples of currently available FeLV antigen/FIV antibody combination test kits. ANIMALS: Surplus serum and plasma from diagnostic samples submitted by animal shelters, diagnostic laboratories, veterinary clinics, and cat research colonies...
March 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
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