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feline immunodeficiency virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107367/first-molecular-characterization-of-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-in-domestic-cats-from-mainland-china
#1
Jilei Zhang, Liang Wang, Jing Li, Patrick Kelly, Stuart Price, Chengming Wang
The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a retrovirus of the Lentivirus genus that was initially isolated from a colony of domestic cats in California in 1986 and has now been recognized as a common feline pathogen worldwide. To date, there is only one recent serology-based report on FIV in mainland China which was published in 2016. We designed this study to investigate the molecular prevalence and diversity of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in domestic cats from mainland China. We studied the prevalence of FIV in whole blood samples of 615 domestic cats in five cities (Beijing, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Shanghai and Yangzhou) of mainland China and examined them using FRET-PCR (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer-Polymerase Chain Reaction) and regular PCRs for the gag and env genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094661/diagnosis-of-pancreatic-disease-in-feline-platynosomosis
#2
Liza S Köster, Linda Shell, Jennifer Ketzis, Sreekumari Rajeev, Oscar Illanes
Objectives Platynosomum species are cat-specific parasitic trematodes that parasitize the biliary ducts and gall bladder. Due to the common connection to the major duodenal papilla of the pancreas and common bile ducts in addition to the periductal proximity of the pancreas, it is possible that platynosomosis could cause pancreatitis. The objective of this study was to determine whether platynosomosis, a commonly diagnosed parasitic disease in cats on St Kitts, has any association with pancreatic disease. Methods To investigate this possibility, the pancreas of free-roaming cats with naturally acquired platynosomosis were evaluated via ultrasound, serum concentrations of feline pancreatic lipase (fPL), cobalamin, folate and feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity (fTLI) and histopathology...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039030/sexually-transmitted-infections-and-mate-finding-allee-effects
#3
Luděk Berec, Eva Janoušková, Michal Theuer
Infectious diseases can seriously impact dynamics of their host species. In this study, we model and analyze an interaction between a sexually transmitted infection and its animal host population affected by a mate-finding Allee effect. Since mating drives both host reproduction and infection transmission, the Allee effect shapes the transmission rate of the infection which we show takes a saturating form. Our model combining sexually transmitted infections with the mate-finding Allee effect in the host produces quite rich dynamics, including oscillations, several multistability regimes, and infection-induced host extinction...
December 27, 2016: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003486/feline-immunodeficiency-virus-cross-species-transmission-implications-for-emergence-of-new-lentiviral-infections
#4
Justin Lee, Jennifer L Malmberg, Britta A Wood, Sahaja Hladky, Ryan Troyer, Melody Roelke, Mark Cunningham, Roy McBride, Winston Vickers, Walter Boyce, Erin Boydston, Laurel Serieys, Seth Riley, Kevin Crooks, Sue VandeWoude
: Owing to a complex history of host-parasite coevolution, lentiviruses exhibit a high degree of species specificity. Given the well-documented viral archeology of HIV emergence following human exposures to SIV, understanding processes that promote successful cross-species lentiviral transmissions is highly relevant. We have previously reported natural cross-species transmission of a subtype of feline immunodeficiency virus, puma lentivirus A (PLVA), between bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in a small number of animals in California and Florida...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875092/morphological-variability-of-demodex-cati-in-a-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-cat
#5
Elien R L Taffin, Stijn Casaert, Edwin Claerebout, Thomas J J Vandekerkhof, Sophie Vandenabeele
CASE DESCRIPTION A 17-year-old FIV-positive cat was evaluated because of weight loss during the preceding few months. The cat had a weight loss of 0.5 kg (1.1 lb) during the last month. Because of its FIV-positive status, the cat was confined indoors. CLINICAL FINDINGS A large nonpruritic area of alopecia with hyperpigmentation and comedones was present on the right lateral aspect of the neck. The chin had diffuse alopecia and comedones. Mild alopecia was present on the dorsal aspect of the muzzle. Trichography and microscopic examination of acetate tape imprint preparations and skin scrapings revealed a very morphologically heterogeneous population of Demodex mites...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870069/suspected-myelodysplastic-myeloproliferative-neoplasm-in-a-feline-leukemia-virus-negative-cat
#6
Amy L Weeden, Kyle R Taylor, Scott P Terrell, Alexander E Gallagher, Heather L Wamsley
A 10-year-old castrated Domestic Short-Haired cat was presented to a primary care veterinarian for a wellness examination and laboratory examination for monitoring of diabetes mellitus. The CBC revealed marked thrombocytosis, leukopenia and macrocytic, normochromic anemia. The cat tested negative for FeLV and feline immunodeficiency virus, but was positive for Mycoplasma haemominutum by PCR. Hematologic abnormalities were not responsive to therapy, so a repeat CBC and a bone marrow aspiration for cytology were performed...
December 2016: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862288/commercially-available-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-and-polymerase-chain-reaction-tests-for-detection-of-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#7
J Nichols, H Y Weng, A Litster, C Leutenegger, L Guptill
BACKGROUND: Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection is an important cause of disease of cats worldwide. Initial screening is commonly performed by commercially available point-of-care (POC) ELISA tests. Confirmatory testing for positive POC test results is recommended. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for FIV are commonly used additional testing methods; however, reported measures of diagnostic accuracy vary widely between PCR tests, making interpretation of results difficult...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836726/differences-in-env-and-gag-protein-expression-patterns-and-epitope-availability-in-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-pbmc-compared-to-infected-and-transfected-feline-model-cell-lines
#8
Inge D M Roukaerts, Chris K Grant, Sebastiaan Theuns, Isaura Christiaens, Delphine D Acar, Sebastiaan Van Bockstael, Lowiese M B Desmarets, Hans J Nauwynck
Env and Gag are key components of the FIV virion that are targeted to the plasma membrane for virion assembly. They are both important stimulators and targets of anti-FIV immunity. To investigate and compare the expression pattern and antigenic changes of Gag and Env in various research models, infected PBMC (the natural FIV host cells) and GFox, and transfected CrFK were stained over time with various Env and Gag specific MAbs. In FIV infected GFox and PBMC, Env showed changes in epitope availability for antibody binding during processing and trafficking, which was not seen in transfected CrFK...
January 2, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825735/viral-diagnostic-criteria-for-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-and-feline-leukemia-virus-infections-in-domestic-cats-from-buenos-aires-argentina
#9
Sabrina Galdo Novo, Danilo Bucafusco, Leandro M Diaz, Ana Cristina Bratanich
A cross-sectional study was carried out on cats attending the Small Animal Hospital at the Faculty of Veterinary Sciences of the University of Buenos Aires to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Blood samples from 255 cats with symptoms compatible with FIV or FeLV infection, collected between 2009 and 2013 were analyzed by serology (immunochromatography, IA) and by hemi-nested PCR (n-PCR)...
October 2016: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808347/clinical-efficacy-of-melittin-in-the-treatment-of-cats-infected-with-the-feline-immunodeficiency-virus
#10
Anja D Hartmann, Natalie Wilhelm, Volker Erfle, Katrin Hartmann
OBJECTIVE: The bee venom melittin shows an antiviral efficacy against the human immunodeficiency virus in cell culture. It was shown to be non-toxic for cats. Aim of this pilot study was to investigate the clinical efficacy and side-effects of melittin in cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was performed as a prospective, placebo-controlled double-blinded trial. Twenty cats were included, of which 10 cats each were treated with either melittin (500 µg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline (placebo) subcutaneously twice per week...
December 5, 2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770018/duration-of-antibody-response-following-vaccination-against-feline-immunodeficiency-virus
#11
Mark E Westman, Richard Malik, Evelyn Hall, Matthew Harris, Margaret J Hosie, Jacqueline M Norris
OBJECTIVES: Recently, two point-of-care (PoC) feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibody test kits (Witness and Anigen Rapid) were reported as being able to differentiate FIV-vaccinated from FIV-infected cats at a single time point, irrespective of the gap between testing and last vaccination (0-7 years). The aim of the current study was to investigate systematically anti-FIV antibody production over time in response to the recommended primary FIV vaccination series. METHODS: First, residual plasma from the original study was tested using a laboratory-based ELISA to determine whether negative results with PoC testing were due to reduced as opposed to absent antibodies to gp40...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763827/serosurvey-for-selected-viral-pathogens-among-sympatric-species-of-the-african-large-predator-guild-in-northern-botswana
#12
Anne-Lise Chaber, Gabriele Cozzi, Femke Broekhuis, Robyn Hartley, John W McNutt
The recent increase in the creation of transboundary protected areas and wildlife corridors between them lends importance to information on pathogen prevalence and transmission among wildlife species that will become connected. One such initiative is the Kavango Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area of which Botswana's Okavango Delta constitutes a major contribution for wildlife and ecosystems. Between 2008 and 2011, we collected serum samples from 14 lions ( Panthera leo ), four leopards ( Panthera pardus ), 19 spotted hyenas ( Crocuta crocuta ), and six cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus ) in the Okavango...
January 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748043/the-small-molecule-3g11-inhibits-hiv-1-reverse-transcription
#13
Silvana Opp, Thomas Fricke, Caitlin Shepard, Dmytro Kovalskyy, Akash Bhattacharya, Frank Herkules, Dmitri N Ivanov, Kim Baek, Jose Valle-Casuso, Felipe Diaz-Griffero
The small molecule 6-(tert-butyl)-4-phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H,3H-1,3,5-triazin-2-one (3G11) inhibits HIV-1 replication in the human T cell line MT-2. Here we showed that 3G11 specifically and potently blocks HIV-1 infection. By contrast, 3G11 did not block other retroviruses such as HIV-2, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac ), bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV), B-tropic murine leukemia virus (B-MLV) and Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MLV)...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733618/insulin-treatment-prevents-neuroinflammation-and-neuronal-injury-with-restored-neurobehavioral-function-in-models-of-hiv-aids-neurodegeneration
#14
Manmeet K Mamik, Eugene L Asahchop, Wing F Chan, Yu Zhu, William G Branton, Brienne A McKenzie, Eric A Cohen, Christopher Power
: HIV-1 infection of the brain causes the neurodegenerative syndrome HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), for which there is no specific treatment. Herein, we investigated the actions of insulin using ex vivo and in vivo models of HAND. Increased neuroinflammatory gene expression was observed in brains from patients with HIV/AIDS. The insulin receptor was detected on both neurons and glia, but its expression was unaffected by HIV-1 infection. Insulin treatment of HIV-infected primary human microglia suppressed supernatant HIV-1 p24 levels, reduced CXCL10 and IL-6 transcript levels, and induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) expression...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669009/surveillance-for-viral-and-parasitic-pathogens-in-a-vulnerable-african-lion-panthera-leo-population-in-the-northern-tuli-game-reserve-botswana
#15
Kimberly R McDermid, Andrei Snyman, Frederick J Verreynne, John P Carroll, Banie L Penzhorn, Michael J Yabsley
African lion ( Panthera leo ) numbers are decreasing rapidly and populations are becoming smaller and more fragmented. Infectious diseases are one of numerous issues threatening free-ranging lion populations, and low-density populations are particularly at risk. We collected data on the prevalence and diversity of viral and parasitic pathogens in a small lion population in eastern Botswana. During 2012 and 2014, blood samples were collected from 59% (n=13) of the adult-subadult lions in the Northern Tuli Game Reserve in eastern Botswana...
January 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630243/feline-immunodeficiency-virus-vif-n-terminal-residues-selectively-counteract-feline-apobec3s
#16
Qinyong Gu, Zeli Zhang, Lucía Cano Ortiz, Ana Cláudia Franco, Dieter Häussinger, Carsten Münk
: Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) Vif protein counteracts feline APOBEC3s (FcaA3s) restriction factors by inducing their proteasomal degradation. The functional domains in FIV Vif for interaction with FcaA3s are poorly understood. Here, we have identified several motifs in FIV Vif that are important for selective degradation of different FcaA3s. Cats (Felis catus) express three types of A3s: single-domain A3Z2, single-domain A3Z3, and double-domain A3Z2Z3. We proposed that FIV Vif would selectively interact with the Z2 and the Z3 A3s...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549192/mutagenesis-of-n-terminal-residues-of-feline-foamy-virus-gag-reveals-entirely-distinct-functions-during-capsid-formation-particle-assembly-gag-processing-and-budding
#17
Yang Liu, Matthew J Betts, Janet Lei, Guochao Wei, Qiuying Bao, Timo Kehl, Robert B Russell, Martin Löchelt
BACKGROUND: Foamy viruses (FVs) of the Spumaretrovirinae subfamily are distinct retroviruses, with many features of their molecular biology and replication strategy clearly different from those of the Orthoretroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency, murine leukemia, and human T cell lymphotropic viruses. The FV Gag N-terminal region is responsible for capsid formation and particle budding via interaction with Env. However, the critical residues or motifs in this region and their functional interaction are currently ill-defined, especially in non-primate FVs...
2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522177/the-protective-rate-of-the-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-vaccine-an-australian-field-study
#18
M E Westman, R Malik, E Hall, M Harris, J M Norris
A case-control field study was undertaken to determine the level of protection conferred to client-owned cats in Australia against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) using a commercial vaccine. 440 cats with outdoor access from five Australian states/territories underwent testing, comprising 139 potential cases (complete course of primary FIV vaccinations and annual boosters for three or more years), and 301 potential controls (age, sex and postcode matched FIV-unvaccinated cats). FIV status was determined using a combination of antibody testing (using point-of-care test kits) and nucleic acid amplification, as well as virus isolation in cases where results were discordant and in all suspected FIV-vaccinated/FIV-infected cats ('vaccine breakthroughs')...
September 7, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511289/evaluation-of-substituted-1-2-3-dithiazoles-as-inhibitors-of-the-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-fiv-nucleocapsid-protein-via-a-proposed-zinc-ejection-mechanism
#19
Christopher R M Asquith, Lidia S Konstantinova, Tuomo Laitinen, Marina L Meli, Antti Poso, Oleg A Rakitin, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann, Stephen T Hilton
A diverse library of 5-thieno-, 5-oxo-, and 5-imino-1,2,3-dithiazole derivatives was synthesized and evaluated for efficacy against the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) as a model for HIV in cells. Several diverse compounds from this series displayed nanomolar activity and low toxicity, representing a potential new class of compounds for the treatment of FIV and HIV.
October 6, 2016: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497183/detection-of-felis-catus-gammaherpesvirus-1-fcaghv1-in-peripheral-blood-b-and-t-lymphocytes-in-asymptomatic-naturally-infected-domestic-cats
#20
Alicia J McLuckie, Vanessa R Barrs, Adrian L Smith, Julia A Beatty
The domestic cat is natural host to both feline immunodeficiency virus and Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1). Comparative data suggest that these agents might act as synergistic copathogens in feline AIDS-related lymphoma. To identify leucocyte subsets harbouring gammaherpesvirus DNA, whole blood from 5 healthy, FcaGHV1-infected cats was labelled with monoclonal antibodies to feline CD21, CD4, CD8 and CD14 for 4-way fluorescence-activated cell sorting. FcaGHV1gB qPCR was performed on DNA extracted from purified fractions and whole blood longitudinally...
October 2016: Virology
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