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feline immunodeficiency virus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467316/the-formation-of-rna-granule-derived-capsid-assembly-intermediates-appears-to-be-conserved-between-hiv-1-and-the-non-primate-lentivirus-fiv
#1
Jonathan C Reed, Nick Westergreen, Brook C Barajas, Dylan T B Ressler, Daryl J Phuong, John V Swain, Vishwanath R Lingappa, Jaisri R Lingappa
During immature capsid assembly in cells, HIV-1 Gag co-opts a host RNA granule, forming a pathway of intracellular assembly intermediates containing host components, including two cellular facilitators of assembly, ABCE1 and DDX6. A similar assembly pathway has been observed for other primate lentiviruses. Here we asked whether feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a non-primate lentivirus, also forms RNA-granule-derived capsid assembly intermediates. First, we showed that the released FIV immature capsid and a large FIV-Gag-containing intracellular complex are unstable during analysis, unlike for HIV-1...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426469/implications-of-zoonotic-and-vector-borne-parasites-to-free-roaming-cats-in-central-spain
#2
A Montoya, M García, R Gálvez, R Checa, V Marino, J Sarquis, J P Barrera, C Rupérez, L Caballero, C Chicharro, I Cruz, G Miró
Cats are definitive hosts and reservoirs for several parasites, some of which are responsible for serious zoonotic diseases. We conducted a case-control study of data from a trap-neuter-return (TNR) programme (years 2014-2017) designed to examine the prevalence of zoonotic parasites in free-roaming cats living in urban areas of central Spain. In the animal population tested (n = 263), we detected a 29.2% prevalence of endoparasites, including high rates of cestodes (12.9%) and Toxocara cati (11.7%). While faecal samples showed no Toxoplasma gondii oocysts, the seroprevalence of T...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406082/survival-time-and-effect-of-selected-predictor-variables-on-survival-in-owned-pet-cats-seropositive-for-feline-immunodeficiency-and-leukemia-virus-attending-a-referral-clinic-in-northern-italy
#3
Eva Spada, Roberta Perego, Elena Assunta Sgamma, Daniela Proverbio
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are among the most important feline infectious diseases worldwide. This retrospective study investigated survival times and effects of selected predictor factors on survival time in a population of owned pet cats in Northern Italy testing positive for the presence of FIV antibodies and FeLV antigen. One hundred and three retrovirus-seropositive cats, 53 FIV-seropositive cats, 40 FeLV-seropositive cats, and 10 FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats were included in the study...
February 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364950/the-structure-of-fiv-reverse-transcriptase-and-its-implications-for-non-nucleoside-inhibitor-resistance
#4
Meytal Galilee, Akram Alian
Reverse transcriptase (RT) is the target for the majority of anti-HIV-1 drugs. As with all anti-AIDS treatments, continued success of RT inhibitors is persistently disrupted by the occurrence of resistance mutations. To explore latent resistance mechanisms potentially accessible to therapeutically challenged HIV-1 viruses, we examined RT from the related feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). FIV closely parallels HIV-1 in its replication and pathogenicity, however, is resistant to all non-nucleoside inhibitors (NNRTI)...
January 24, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355998/prevalence-and-disease-associations-in-feline-thrombocytopenia-a-retrospective-study-of-194-cases
#5
J Ellis, R Bell, D C Barnes, R Miller
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of thrombocytopenia in a referral population of cats in the UK, to identify disease processes associated with thrombocytopenia and to assess the proportion of thrombocytopenic cats that tested positive for feline leukaemia virus or feline immunodeficiency virus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of medical records at a UK referral hospital. Cats were grouped by mechanism of thrombocytopenia and disease process (where known)...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247305/neurologic-disease-in-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-disease-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-interventions-for-neuroaids
#6
Christopher Power
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes immunosuppression through virus-mediated CD4+ T cell depletion in feline species. FIV infection is complicated by virus-induced disease in the nervous system. FIV enters the brain soon after primary infection and is detected as FIV-encoded RNA, DNA, and proteins in microglia, macrophages, and astrocytes. FIV infection activates neuroinflammatory pathways including cytokines, chemokines, proteases, and ROS with accompanying neuronal injury and loss...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197389/foamy-virus-zoonotic-infections
#7
Delia M Pinto-Santini, Carolyn R Stenbak, Maxine L Linial
BACKGROUND: Foamy viruses (FV) are ancient complex retroviruses that differ from orthoretroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and murine leukemia virus (MLV) and comprise a distinct subfamily of retroviruses, the Spumaretrovirinae. FV are ubiquitous in their natural hosts, which include cows, cats, and nonhuman primates (NHP). FV are transmitted mainly through saliva and appear nonpathogenic by themselves, but they may increase morbidity of other pathogens in coinfections...
December 2, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134339/feline-immudeficiency-virus-subtypes-b-and-a-in-cats-from-s%C3%A3-o-luis-maranh%C3%A3-o-brazil
#8
Nathálya Dos S Martins, Ana Paula de S Rodrigues, Luciana A da Luz, Luana da L Dos Reis, Renata M de Oliveira, Rudson A de Oliveira, Ana Lucia Abreu-Silva, Jenner Karlisson P Dos Reis, Ferdinan A Melo
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a retrovirus of the genus Lentivirus that is distributed worldwide, with prevalence rates varying between 2.5% and 44%. FIV causes immunosuppression, with depletion of TCD4(+) lymphocytes, with the majority of clinical signs caused by secondary and opportunistic infections. Blood samples were collected from nine domestic cats (Felis catus domesticus) from the city of São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil. All samples were positive in a rapid immunochromatographic test (SNAP® Combo FeLV Ag/FIV Antibody Test) and in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay...
November 14, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121060/the-effects-of-demographic-social-and-environmental-characteristics-on-pathogen-prevalence-in-wild-felids-across-a-gradient-of-urbanization
#9
Jesse S Lewis, Kenneth A Logan, Mat W Alldredge, Scott Carver, Sarah N Bevins, Michael Lappin, Sue VandeWoude, Kevin R Crooks
Transmission of pathogens among animals is influenced by demographic, social, and environmental factors. Anthropogenic alteration of landscapes can impact patterns of disease dynamics in wildlife populations, increasing the potential for spillover and spread of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife, human, and domestic animal populations. We evaluated the effects of multiple ecological mechanisms on patterns of pathogen exposure in animal populations. Specifically, we evaluated how ecological factors affected the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Toxoplasma), Bartonella spp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120364/crystal-structure-of-the-full-length-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-capsid-protein-shows-an-n-terminal-%C3%AE-hairpin-in-the-absence-of-n-terminal-proline
#10
Christelle Folio, Natalia Sierra, Marie Dujardin, Guzman Alvarez, Christophe Guillon
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a member of the Retroviridae family. It is the causative agent of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in cats and wild felines. Its capsid protein (CA) drives the assembly of the viral particle, which is a critical step in the viral replication cycle. Here, the first atomic structure of full-length FIV CA to 1.67 Å resolution is determined. The crystallized protein exhibits an original tetrameric assembly, composed of dimers which are stabilized by an intermolecular disulfide bridge induced by the crystallogenesis conditions...
November 9, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056740/the-use-of-recombinant-feline-interferon-omega-therapy-as-an-immune-modulator-in-cats-naturally-infected-with-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-new-perspectives
#11
REVIEW
Rodolfo Oliveira Leal, Solange Gil
Type I interferons (IFNs) are well-known cytokines that, among their main functions, are key components of the host immune response against viral infections. Due to its immune modulation properties, they are commonly used in the therapeutic approach of various retroviral infections, namely human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). In HIV infection, it has been shown that IFN therapy limits early viral replication, particularly useful on post-exposure prophylaxis. In veterinary medicine, recombinant feline interferon omega (rFeIFN-ω) was the first interferon licensed for use in cats...
October 27, 2016: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056675/felis-catus-gammaherpesvirus-1-dnaemia-in-whole-blood-from-therapeutically-immunosuppressed-or-retrovirus-infected-cats
#12
Alicia J McLuckie, Vanessa R Barrs, Bethany Wilson, Mark E Westman, Julia A Beatty
Gammaherpesviruses are major co-pathogens of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, making the interactions between feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1) pertinent to both human and veterinary medical research. FIV-infected cats are at increased risk of FcaGHV1 DNAemia and consistently harbor higher FcaGHV1 loads than FIV-uninfected cats. Whether immune deficiencies unrelated to FIV are associated with similar risks is unknown. Using whole blood FcaGHV1 qPCR, we found no difference in the frequency of DNAemia or DNA load in therapeutically immunosuppressed (P1, n = 18) or feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-infected (P2, n = 57) patients compared with age- and sex-matched controls (C1, n = 58; C2, n = 57)...
March 14, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056673/feline-immunodeficiency-virus-neuropathogenesis-a-model-for-hiv-induced-cns-inflammation-and-neurodegeneration
#13
REVIEW
Rick B Meeker, Lola Hudson
Feline Immunodeficiency virus (FIV), similar to its human analog human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), enters the central nervous system (CNS) soon after infection and establishes a protected viral reservoir. The ensuing inflammation and damage give rise to varying degrees of cognitive decline collectively known as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Because of the similarities to HIV infection and disease, FIV has provided a useful model for both in vitro and in vivo studies of CNS infection, inflammation and pathology...
March 6, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056671/micro-rna-10a-is-increased-in-feline-t-regulatory-cells-and-increases-foxp3-protein-expression-following-in-vitro-transfection
#14
Yan Wang, Mukta Nag, Joanne L Tuohy, Jonathan E Fogle
CD4⁺CD25⁺Foxp3⁺ T regulatory (Treg) cells are activated during the course of lentiviral infection and exhibit heightened suppressor function when compared to Treg cells from uninfected controls. Foxp3 is essential to Treg cell function and multiple studies have documented that lentivirus-activated Treg cells exhibit heightened Foxp3 expression when compared to Treg cells from uninfected controls. Our hypothesis was that lentivirus-induced micro-RNAs (miRNAs) contribute to heightened Treg cell suppressor function by stabilizing Foxp3 expression...
February 21, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056666/the-comparative-value-of-feline-virology-research-can-findings-from-the-feline-lentiviral-vaccine-be-translated-to-humans
#15
REVIEW
Margaret J Hosie, Navapon Techakriengkrai, Paweł M Bęczkowski, Matthew Harris, Nicola Logan, Brian J Willett
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus of domestic cats that shares several similarities with its human counterpart, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Their analogies include genomic organization, lymphocyte tropism, viral persistence and induction of immunodeficiency. FIV is the only lentivirus for which a commercial vaccine is registered for prevention in either human or veterinary medicine. This provides a unique opportunity to investigate the mechanisms of protection induced by lentivirus vaccines at the population level and might contribute to the development of efficacious HIV vaccines...
January 28, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037051/t-regulatory-cell-induced-foxp3-binds-the-il2-ifn%C3%AE-and-tnf%C3%AE-promoters-in-virus-specific-cd8-t-cells-from-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-cats
#16
Yan Wang, Mukta Nag, Joanne L Tuohy, Kristina De Paris, Jonathan E Fogle
Polyfunctional CD8(+) T cells play a critical role in controlling viremia during AIDS lentiviral infections. However, for most HIV-infected individuals, virus-specific CD8(+) T cells exhibit loss of polyfunctionality, including loss of IL2, TNFα, and IFNγ. Using the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) model for AIDS lentiviral persistence, our laboratory has demonstrated that FIV-activated Treg cells target CD8(+) T cells, leading to a reduction in IL2 and IFNγ production. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that Treg cells induce expression of the repressive transcription factor, Foxp3, in CD8(+) T cells...
November 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987024/urban-landscapes-can-change-virus-gene-flow-and-evolution-in-a-fragmentation-sensitive-carnivore
#17
Nicholas M Fountain-Jones, Meggan E Craft, W Chris Funk, Chris Kozakiewicz, Daryl R Trumbo, Erin E Boydston, Lisa M Lyren, Kevin Crooks, Justin S Lee, Sue VandeWoude, Scott Carver
Urban expansion has widespread impacts on wildlife species globally, including the transmission and emergence of infectious diseases. However, there is almost no information about how urban landscapes shape transmission dynamics in wildlife. Using an innovative phylodynamic approach combining host and pathogen molecular data with landscape characteristics and host traits, we untangle the complex factors that drive transmission networks of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in bobcats (Lynx rufus). We found that the urban landscape played a significant role in shaping FIV transmission...
November 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963205/first-nearly-complete-genome-sequence-of-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-from-brazil
#18
Sueli A Taniwaki, João P Araújo, Paulo E Brandão
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) has worldwide distribution; nevertheless, only a few FIV genomes from domestic cats are available. This is the first report of a nearly complete genome of FIV from a Brazilian cat (8,967 nucleotides [nt]), including the entire coding region and the 3' untranslated region.
September 28, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957693/interferon-omega-current-status-in-clinical-applications
#19
REVIEW
Shi-Fang Li, Fu-Rong Zhao, Jun-Jun Shao, Yin-Li Xie, Hui-Yun Chang, Yong-Guang Zhang
Since 1985, interferon (IFN)-ω, a type I IFN, has been identified in many animals, but not canines and mice. It has been demonstrated to have antiviral, anti-proliferation, and antitumor activities that are similar to those of IFN-α. To date, IFN-ω has been explored as a treatment option for some diseases or viral infections in humans and other animals. Studies have revealed that human IFN-ω displays antitumor activities in some models of human cancer cells and that it can be used to diagnose some diseases...
September 25, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955476/periaortic-lymphoma-in-a-cat
#20
Laura Bree, Chiara Bergamino, Ronan Mullins, Pamela Kelly, Robert Shiel
CASE SUMMARY: A 14-year-old neutered male Siamese cat was presented with a 3 month history of lethargy, inappetence, dehydration, hindlimb ataxia and intermittent proprioceptive deficits in the hindlimbs. Physical examination revealed low body condition score (1.75/5), pallor and bilateral basilar grade II/VI systolic heart murmur. Neurological examination revealed hindlimb ataxia, severe atrophy of the hindlimb musculature, intermittent hindlimb proprioceptive deficits and normoreflexia...
July 2017: JFMS Open Reports
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