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Obstetric violence

Carlos Herrera Vacaflor
Argentina has recognized women's right to not be subjected to obstetric violence, the violence exercised by health personnel on the body and reproductive processes of pregnant women, as expressed through dehumanizing treatment, medicalization abuse, and the conversion of natural processes of reproduction into pathological ones. Argentina's legislative decision to frame this abuse and mistreatment of women under the rubric of gender-based violence permits the identification of failures in both the healthcare system and women's participation in society...
May 2016: Reproductive Health Matters
Farah Diaz-Tello
In recent years, there has been growing public attention to a problem many US health institutions and providers disclaim: bullying and coercion of pregnant women during birth by health care personnel, known as obstetric violence. Through a series of real case studies, this article provides a legal practitioner's perspective on a systemic problem of institutionalized gender-based violence with only individual tort litigation as an avenue for redress, and even that largely out of reach for women. It provides an overview of the limitations of the civil justice system in addressing obstetric violence, and compares alternatives from Latin American jurisdictions...
May 2016: Reproductive Health Matters
Michelle Sadler, Mário Jds Santos, Dolores Ruiz-Berdún, Gonzalo Leiva Rojas, Elena Skoko, Patricia Gillen, Jette A Clausen
During recent decades, a growing and preoccupying excess of medical interventions during childbirth, even in physiological and uncomplicated births, together with a concerning spread of abusive and disrespectful practices towards women during childbirth across the world, have been reported. Despite research and policy-making to address these problems, changing childbirth practices has proved to be difficult. We argue that the excessive rates of medical interventions and disrespect towards women during childbirth should be analysed as a consequence of structural violence, and that the concept of obstetric violence, as it is being used in Latin American childbirth activism and legal documents, might prove to be a useful tool for addressing structural violence in maternity care such as high intervention rates, non-consented care, disrespect and other abusive practices...
May 2016: Reproductive Health Matters
Rola Yasmine, Catherine Moughalian
Since the uprising in Syria in March 2011, over 4.3 million Syrians have fled to neighboring countries. Over a million have sought refuge in Lebanon, constituting almost a quarter of the Lebanese population and becoming the largest refugee population per capita in the world. With inequitable health coverage being a longstanding problem in Lebanon, Syrian refugee women's health, and specifically their sexual and reproductive health, is disproportionately affected. An increase in gender-based violence and early marriage, a lack of access to emergency obstetric care, limited access to contraception, forced cesarean sections, and high cost of healthcare services, all contribute to poor sexual and reproductive health...
May 2016: Reproductive Health Matters
Å Wahlberg, M Andreen Sachs, K Johannesson, G Hallberg, M Jonsson, A Skoog Svanberg, U Högberg
OBJECTIVE: To examine post-traumatic stress reactions among obstetricians and midwives, experiences of support and professional consequences after severe events in the labour ward. DESIGN: Cross-sectional online survey from January 7 to March 10, 2014. POPULATION: Members of the Swedish Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and the Swedish Association of Midwives. METHODS: Potentially traumatic events were defined as: the child died or was severely injured during delivery; maternal near-miss; maternal mortality; and other events such as violence or threat...
August 26, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Abigail R Koch, Deborah Rosenberg, Stacie E Geller
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether being pregnant or postpartum was associated with excess risk for homicide among females in Illinois and to describe the association between pregnancy status and homicide by race, ethnicity, and age group. METHODS: This is a retrospective, multicohort, ecologic study of females of reproductive age in Illinois between 2002 and 2011 using Illinois Department of Public Health maternal mortality data and vital records data. We compared pregnancy-associated homicides with live births using χ tests...
September 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Mikaela A Ming, Molly G Stewart, Rose E Tiller, Rebecca G Rice, Louise E Crowley, Nicola J Williams
The Solomon Islands has one of the highest rates of family and sexual violence (FSV) in the world with 64% of women aged 15-49 have reported physical and/or sexual abuse by a partner. The National Referral Hospital (NRH) in the capital, Honiara, is the only tertiary hospital for the country. Our 4-week medical elective at the NRH was spent reflecting on healthcare challenges including FSV, with the aim of identifying cases of FSV and assessing on the current strategies to improve care for victims. Throughout our placement, we encountered many cases of probable FSV, particularly in the Emergency Department and Obstetrics and Gynecology...
January 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Dominika L Seidman, Shannon Weber, Maria Teresa Timoney, Karishma K Oza, Elizabeth Mullins, Deborah L Cohan, Rodney L Wright
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy may increase a woman's susceptibility to HIV. Maternal HIV acquisition during pregnancy and lactation is associated with increased perinatal and lactational HIV transmission. There are no published reports of preexposure prophylaxis use after the first trimester of pregnancy or during lactation. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to report the use of preexposure prophylaxis and to identify gaps in HIV prevention services for women who were at substantial risk of HIV preconception and during pregnancy and lactation at 2 United States medical centers...
July 19, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Wai Sze Paulin Ma, Ting Chung Pun
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of domestic violence and its risk factors in women presenting with urinary symptoms. METHODS: The study was carried out in the urogynecology clinic and general gynecology clinic, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong from 1st May 2013 till 31st October 2014. Two hundred and twenty-five women presenting to the urogynecology clinic with urinary symptoms were categorized according to their symptoms and were asked to complete the Modified Abuse Assessment Screen...
2016: PloS One
Eleomar Vilela de Moraes, Rodolfo Nunes Campos, Mariza Martins Avelino
Purpose To assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms and their association with social, psychological, behavioral and obstetric characteristics in pregnant women. Methods This is a cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 375 pregnant women who attended prenatal clinics in two public maternity hospitals located in the city of Goiania, Brazil. To testify the depressive symptoms, we used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). A descriptive statistical analysis was performed using programs such as CDC EPI-INFO™, version 7...
June 2016: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
Rajlaxmi Mundhra, Nilanchali Singh, Somya Kaushik, Anita Mendiratta
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of various types of domestic violence and to find out the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) on adoption of contraceptive measures among the women who are victim to this. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in the department of obstetrics and gynecology of a tertiary care hospital in Delhi. Four hundred and one postpartum females were randomly selected over a period of 5 months and were questioned about their age, parity, educational status, occupation, husband's education, monthly family income, and, if present, IPV in detail...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
Lucia Helena Mello de Lima, Rosiane Mattar, Anelise Riedel Abrahão
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of domestic violence in adolescent and adult mothers who were admitted to obstetrics services centers in Brazil and to identify risk factors of domestic violence and any adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes. Researchers used standardized interviews, the questionnaire Abuse Assessment Screen, and a review of patients' medical records. Descriptive statistical analyses were also used. The prevalence of domestic violence among all participants totaled 40...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
A Noel Rodriguez, Peter DeWitt, Jennifer Fisher, Kirsten Broadfoot, K Joseph Hurt
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the psychometric properties of a novel Obstetric Communication Assessment Tool (OCAT) in a pilot study of standardized difficult OB communication scenarios appropriate for undergraduate medical evaluation. METHODS: We developed and piloted four challenging OB Standardized Patient (SP) scenarios in a sample of twenty-one third year OB/GYN clerkship students: Religious Beliefs (RB), Angry Father (AF), Maternal Smoking (MS), and Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)...
2016: International Journal of Medical Education
Michael Nnachebe Onah, Sally Field, Thandi van Heyningen, Simone Honikman
BACKGROUND: Alcohol and other drugs (AOD) use among pregnant women have been associated with adverse health outcomes for mother and child, during and after pregnancy. Factors associated with AOD use among women include age, poverty, unemployment, and interpersonal conflict. Few studies have looked at demographic, economic, and psychosocial factors as predictors of AOD use among pregnant women in low-income, peri-urban settings. The study aimed to determine the association between these risk factors and alcohol and drug use among pregnant women in Hanover Park, Cape Town...
2016: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
Rachelle Joy Chadwick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Mathieu Maheu-Giroux, Véronique Filippi, Nathalie Maulet, Sékou Samadoulougou, Marcia C Castro, Nicolas Meda, Mariève Pouliot, Fati Kirakoya-Samadoulougou
BACKGROUND: Vaginal fistula (VF) is one of the most severe maternal morbidities with the immediate consequence of chronic urinary and/or fecal incontinence. The epidemiological evidence regarding risk factors for VF is dominated by facility-based studies. Our aim is to estimate the effect size of selected risk factors for VF using population-based survey data. METHODS: We pooled all available Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicators Cluster Surveys carried out in sub-Saharan Africa that collected information on VF symptoms...
2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Jessica R Williams, Valerie Halstead, Deborah Salani, Natasha Koermer
PURPOSE: This study examines policies and procedures for identifying and responding to intimate partner violence (IPV) among different types of health care settings. METHODS: This epidemiologic, cross-sectional, observational study design collected data from June 2014 to January 2015 through a telephone questionnaire from a stratified random sample of 288 health care facilities in Miami-Dade County, Florida. An overall response rate of 76.2% was achieved from 72 primary care clinics, 93 obstetrics/gynecology clinics, 106 pediatric clinics, and 17 emergency departments (EDs)...
July 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Agnes Gisladottir, Miguel Angel Luque-Fernandez, Bernard L Harlow, Berglind Gudmundsdottir, Eyrun Jonsdottir, Ragnheidur I Bjarnadottir, Arna Hauksdottir, Thor Aspelund, Sven Cnattingius, Unnur A Valdimarsdottir
BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of data on the association of sexual violence and women's subsequent obstetric outcomes. Our aim was to investigate whether women exposed to sexual violence as teenagers (12-19 years of age) or adults present with different obstetric outcomes than women with no record of such violence. METHODS: We linked detailed prospectively collected information on women attending a Rape Trauma Service (RTS) to the Icelandic Medical Birth Registry (IBR)...
2016: PloS One
Gordon Lee Gillespie, Bunnany Pekar, Terri L Byczkowski, Bonnie S Fisher
Workplace violence (WPV) committed by patients and visitors has a high propensity to occur against emergency department (ED) employees. (1-7) WPV includes any act of verbal or physical abuse, threatening words or actions, and physical assaults against ED employees committed by patients or patients' visitors. (8) The odds of ED employees compared to the odds of obstetrical/gynecological employees were 1.31 times higher for experiencing non-physical violence and 9.14 times higher for being physically assaulted...
March 15, 2016: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
Laura Marie LaPlante, Priya Gopalan, Jody Glance
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess residents' attitudes, knowledge, practices, and barriers in addressing intimate partner violence and create a curriculum targeting self-identified deficits. METHODS: The authors developed and distributed a survey to residents across multiple specialties at a large academic institution. A workshop was developed using obstetrics/gynecology residents' data, with post-intervention data collected to assess for changes. RESULTS: One hundred forty-seven residents (41 %) completed the survey...
October 2016: Academic Psychiatry
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