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Yuri Quintana, Eduardo A Gonzalez Martorell, Darren Fahy, Charles Safran
OBJECTIVE:  Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is paramount to successful long-term suppression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). For poorly adherent patients with HIV, barriers to remaining adherent may be overcome by the implementation of targeted interventions delivered via mobile devices. This systematic review is focused specifically on mobile phone technologies to deliver adherence interventions in HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) populations. METHODS:  This review (PROSPERO #CRD42017065131) systematically extracted data from published literature from five databases on mobile phone interventions to improve adherence to ART for HIV...
April 2018: Applied Clinical Informatics
Jonathan H Hsu, Benoit H Mulsant, Eric J Lenze, Marcos Sanches, Jordan F Karp, Charles F Reynolds, Daniel M Blumberger
OBJECTIVE: Augmentation with aripiprazole is an effective pharmacotherapy for treatment-resistant late-life depression (LLD). However, aripiprazole can cause extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) such as akathisia and parkinsonism; these symptoms are distressing and can contribute to treatment discontinuation. We investigated the clinical trajectories and predictors of akathisia and parkinsonism in older patients receiving aripiprazole augmentation for treatment-resistant LLD. METHODS: Between 2009 and 2013, depressed older adults who did not remit with venlafaxine were randomized to aripiprazole or placebo in a 12-week trial...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Tracey Bushnik, Deirdre A Hennessy, Finlay A McAlister, Douglas G Manuel
BACKGROUND: In Canada, hypertension control is significantly less likely in older women taking antihypertensive medication than in older men. This study examines factors that may explain some of the differences in hypertension control between women and men. DATA AND METHODS: The analysis is based on data collected for 2,111 adults aged 60 to 79 who were treated for hypertension in the first four cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey. Hypertension, treatment and control were estimated based on measured systolic and diastolic blood pressure and on the Drug Identification Numbers of antihypertensive medications...
June 20, 2018: Health Reports
Ryan Terence Pereira, Carmel M Malone, Gerard T Flaherty
Background: Medical tourism has witnessed significant growth in recent years. The emerging trend towards international travel for cosmetic surgical interventions has not previously been reviewed. The current review aims to critically address the scale and impact of cosmetic surgical tourism and to delineate the complication profile of this form of medical tourism. Methods: Articles published in the English language on the PubMed database that were relevant to surgical tourism and the complications of elective surgical procedures abroad were examined...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
Paul Faulkner, Dara G Ghahremani, Rachel F Tyndale, Gerhard Hellemann, Edythe D London
Background: Although nicotine alters serotonergic neurochemistry, clinical trials of serotonergic medications for smoking cessation have provided mixed results. Understanding the role of serotonergic dysfunction in tobacco use disorder may advance development of novel pharmacotherapies. Methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure resting-state functional connectivity of the raphe nuclei as an indicator of serotonergic function. Connectivity of the dorsal and median raphe nuclei was compared between 18 young smokers (briefly-abstinent, ~40 minutes post-smoking) and 19 young non-smokers (16-21 years old); connectivity was also examined in a separate sample of overnight-abstinent smokers (18-25 years old), before and after smoking the first cigarette of the day...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Louise Wood, Michael Smith, Christopher B Miller, Ronan E O'Carroll
Background: Vaccinations are important preventative health behaviors. The recently developed Vaccination Attitudes Examination (VAX) Scale aims to measure the reasons behind refusal/hesitancy regarding vaccinations. Purpose: The aim of this replication study is to conduct an independent test of the newly developed VAX Scale in the UK. We tested (a) internal consistency (Cronbach's α); (b) convergent validity by assessing its relationships with beliefs about medication, medical mistrust, and perceived sensitivity to medicines; and (c) construct validity by testing how well the VAX Scale discriminated between vaccinators and nonvaccinators...
June 19, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Arianne Teherani, Karen E Hauer, Alicia Fernandez, Talmadge E King, Catherine Lucey
While students entering medical schools are becoming more diverse, trainees in residency programs in competitive specialties and academic medicine faculty have not increased in diversity. As part of an educational continuous quality improvement (ECQI) process at the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, the authors examined data for the classes of 2013-2016 to determine whether differences existed between underrepresented in medicine (UIM) and not-UIM students' clinical performance (clerkship director ratings and number of clerkship honors grades awarded) and honor society membership--all of which influence residency selection and academic career choices...
June 19, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Keith R Cole, Shauna Dudley-Javoroski, Richard K Shields
Objective After spinal cord injury (SCI), hybrid stimulation patterns that interpose paired-pulse doublets over a constant-frequency background may enhance the metabolic "work" (muscle torque) performed by paralyzed muscle. This study examined the effect of background stimulation frequency on the torque contribution of the doublet before and after fatigue. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Research laboratory in an academic medical center. Participants Five men with chronic sensory and motor-complete SCI and ten non-SCI controls (6 males, 4 females)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Sivanath Reddy Gajjala, Narendra Hulikal, Silpa Kadiyala, Radhika Kottu, Tekchand Kalawat
Background & objectives: Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) is associated with substantial risk of occult metastases. The patients with LABC have high rate of systemic relapse, suggesting inadequacy of the current conventional staging in detecting the occult metastatic spread. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) is a new modality in the staging of breast cancer patients. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the role of 18 F-FDG PET/CT in initial staging of LABC and to compare it with conventional methods...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Justin J Elhoff, Kimberly E McHugh, Jason R Buckley, Shaine A Morris, Kit N Simpson, Mark A Scheurer
IntroductionFamilies of children born with CHD face added stress owing to uncertainty about the magnitude of the financial burden for medical costs they will face. This study seeks to assess the family responsibility for healthcare bills during the first 12 months of life for commercially insured children undergoing surgery for severe CHD. METHODS: The MarketScan ® database from Truven was used to identify commercially insured infants in 39 states from 2010 to 2012 with an ICD-9 diagnosis code for transposition of the great arteries, tetralogy of Fallot, or truncus arteriosus, as well as the corresponding procedure code for complete repair...
June 20, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Z W Zhang, Z Y Zheng, R Li, S Y Zhou, W Tang, J P Zhou, B Wang
OBJECTIVES: To analyse 73 medical malpractice cases of pediatrics for discussing the importance of forensic pathology in solving the issues such as medical malpractice of pediatrics. METHODS: From January 2002 to August 2016, 73 medical malpractice cases of pediatrics with age of death between 28 days old and 10 years old were collected from Institute of Judical Expertise of Nanjing Medical University. The relationship between causes of death and related medical institutions was retrospectively analysed...
April 2018: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
Chew R Ming, Andrea Ban Yu-Lin, Mohammad F Abdul Hamid, Mohd T Latiff, Nurashikin Mohammad, Tidi Hassan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The Southeast Asia (SEA) haze is an annual problem and at its worst could produce respirable particles of concentrations up to 500 μg/m3 which is five times the level considered as 'unhealthy'. However, there are limited reports examining the direct clinical impact of the annual haze. This study examines the effects of the SEA haze on respiratory admissions. METHODS: Data from all respiratory admissions in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) from 1st January 2014 to 31st December 2015 were collected retrospectively from chart and electronic database...
June 19, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Joakim Alfredsson, Jennifer B Green, Susanna R Stevens, Shelby D Reed, Paul W Armstrong, M Angelyn Bethel, Samuel S Engel, Darren K McGuire, Frans Van de Werf, Irene Hramiak, Harvey D White, Eric D Peterson, Rury R Holman
AIM: To examine sex differences in baseline characteristics and outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic vascular disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cox models were used to analyse the association between sex and outcomes in the Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes with Sitagliptin (TECOS), a randomized, placebo-controlled trial assessing the impact of sitagliptin on cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic vascular disease...
June 19, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Anders Kindberg Boysen, Karen-Lise Spindler, Morten Høyer, Frank Viborg Mortensen, Thomas Decker Christensen, Dóra Kormendine Farkas, Anne Gulbech Ording
About 10-20% of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) are candidates for metastasis directed therapies such as surgical resection, ablation and stereotactic radiotherapy. We examined the temporal changes in use of metastasis directed therapies and established prognostic factors for survival in a nationwide cohort study. The Danish nationwide medical registries were used to retrieve data on treatment for liver and/or lung metastasis in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer in the period 2000-2013...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Eliana R Migowski, Nery Oliveira Júnior, Fernando Riegel, Sérgio A Migowski
AIM: To examine the association between interpersonal relationships, nursing leadership and patient safety culture and the impact on the efficiency of hospitals. BACKGROUND: Hospitals are still affected by the increased complexity of the treatments offered and by the diverse knowledge of professionals involved, which has made this assistance model ineffective, expensive and unsustainable over time. METHOD: A qualitative study of 32 professionals from three large hospitals in Southern Brazil was made...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Nursing Management
Aikaterini Fitsiori, Luc-Matthieu Fornecker, Laurence Simon, Alexandros Karentzos, Damien Galanaud, Olivier Outteryck, Patrick Vermersch, Jean-Pierre Pruvo, Emmanuel Gerardin, Christine Lebrun-Frenay, Francois Lafitte, Jean-Philippe Cottier, Christine Clerc, Jerome de Seze, Jean-Louis Dietemann, Stephane Kremer
OBJECTIVES: Bing-Neel syndrome (BNS) is a rare neurological complication of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia. The aim of this study is to describe the spectrum of radiological manifestations of this syndrome and their prevalence in order to facilitate its early diagnosis. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with BNS were diagnosed between 1994 and 2016 in eight centres in France. We retrospectively examined the medical records of these patients as well as the corresponding literature, focusing on imaging studies...
June 19, 2018: European Radiology
Daryoush Samim, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Lorenzo Alberio, Gérard Waeber, Marie Méan
The predictive value of factor V Leiden and the G20210A prothrombin mutation regarding recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) is limited and does not influence subsequent patient management. Systematic testing for such genetic thrombophilia should be avoided, but to which extent such testing is practiced in a Swiss Hospital is unknown. To examine the current practice of factor V Leiden and/or G20210A prothrombin mutation testing in a University Hospital, and to assess the clinical consequences of testing on patients...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Alessandra Guarini, Francesca De Marinis, Cesare Hassan, Raffaele Manta, Vicenzo De Francesco, Bruno Annibale, Angelo Zullo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: . The video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is an accurate and validated tool to investigate the entire small bowel mucosa, but VCE recordings interpretation by the gastroenterologist is time-consuming. A pre-reading of VCE recordings by an expert nurse could be accurate and cost saving. We assessed the concordance between nurses and gastroenterologists in detecting lesions on VCE examinations. METHODS: This was a prospective study enrolling consecutive patients who had undergone VCE in clinical practice...
June 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Soleiman Ahmady, Shahram Yazdani, Fakhrolsadat Hosseini, Mohammad Mehdi Forouzanfar, Ali Tabibi, Fatemeh Ahmadinia, Hoda Ahmari Tehran, Noushin Kohan, Heidar Mohammadi
PURPOSE: It is essential to adjust the responsibilities and function of medical education offices (MEOs) in regard to the current societal requirements. Therefore, it is a good idea to learn lessons from the experiences about the establishment and function of these offices around the world. The aim of the present study was to carry out a comparative study to investigate the function and structure of MEOs at some of the medical universities from America, Europe, and Asia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This is a comparative, descriptive study that was conducted in 2015...
2018: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
Mette S Herskin, Bodil H Nielsen
Across the international dairy industry, the vast majority of dairy herds have dehorned cows. Farmers choose to dehorn calves for different reasons such as easier handling of non-horned cattle and reduced risk of injuries in animals and staff. This review focuses on disbudding by use of hot-iron cautery as is practiced by dairy farmers in calves <3 months of age. We examine welfare effects of the use of NSAIDs in combination with a local anesthetic including indicators relevant for the three major welfare concerns-affective states, basic health, and functioning as well as the possibility to behave naturally...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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