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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351456/guidelines-for-measuring-cardiac-physiology-in-mice
#1
Merry L Lindsey, Zamaneh Kassiri, Jitka Amira Ismail Virag, Lisandra E de Castro Bras, Marielle Scherrer-Crosbie
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death, and translational research is needed to better understand mechanisms whereby the left ventricle responds to injury. Mouse models of heart disease have provided valuable insights into mechanisms that occur during cardiac aging and in response to a variety of pathologies. Assessing cardiovascular physiological responses to injury or insult is an important and necessary component of this research. With increasing consideration for rigor and reproducibility, the goal of this guidelines review is to provide best practice information regarding how to accurately measure cardiac physiology in animal models...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351440/jq1-is-a-potential-therapeutic-option-for-copd-patients-with-agrin-overexpression
#2
Zhen Xiao, Jing Shu, Feng Zhou, Yong Han
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is one of the leading cause of morbidity and death worldwide. It is characterized by chronic pulmonary inflammation and obstructed airflow from the lungs. To date, there is no effective treatments for COPD. The activation of Agrin (AGRN) - YAP pathway can promote heart regeneration. Since Agrin can only induce mild cardiomyocyte (CM) proliferation compare to ERBB2 pathway activation, it might exert pleiotropic effects, such as mitigation of innate inflammation, immune response and fibrosis...
December 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350098/commentary-to-18f-gp1-a-novel-pet-tracer-designed-for-high-sensitivity-low-background-detection-of-thrombi-imaging-activated-platelets-in-clots-are-we-getting-there
#3
Andrew W Stephens, Norman Koglin, Ludger M Dinkelborg
Thrombus formation can lead to heart attacks, stroke and pulmonary embolism, which are major causes of mortality. Current standard diagnostic imaging methods detect anatomic abnormalities such as vascular flow impairment but have limitations. By using a targeted molecular imaging approach critical components of a pathology can be selectively visualized and exploited for an improved diagnosis and patient management. The GPIIb/IIIa receptor is abundantly and specifically exposed on activated platelets and is the key receptor in thrombus formation...
January 2018: Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346115/mitochondrial-dysfunction-a-key-player-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases-linked-to-air-pollution
#4
REVIEW
Sri Rahavi Boovarahan, Gino A Kurian
Air pollution has become an environmental burden with regard to non-communicable diseases, particularly heart disease. It has been reported that air pollution can accelerate the development of heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Air pollutants encompass various particulate matters (PMs), which change the blood composition and heart rate and eventually leads to cardiac failure by triggering atherosclerotic plaque ruptures or by developing irreversible ischemia. A series of major epidemiological and observational studies have established the noxious effect of air pollutants on cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the underlying molecular mechanisms of its susceptibility and the pathological disease events remain largely elusive and are predicted to be initiated in the cell organelle...
January 18, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345361/immunotherapy-for-cardiovascular-disease
#5
REVIEW
Elisa Martini, Giuliano Giuseppe Stirparo, Marinos Kallikourdis
Heart failure (HF), the final stage of pathological cardiac hypertrophy, is a major cause of hospitalization and mortality. The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of HF has been extensively studied, with great emphasis on proinflammatory cytokines. Yet, clinical trials targeting these cytokines failed to become a credible therapeutic strategy for HF. More recent studies are increasingly highlighting an active role for T cells in the progression of HF pathology. As a result, a number of novel immunotherapy strategies are emerging for the treatment of HF and other cardiovascular diseases, via the targeting of adaptive immunity...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345195/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-pulmonary-hypertension-cause-effect-or-both
#6
Jeffrey D Marshall, Isabel Bazan, Yi Zhang, Wassim H Fares, Patty J Lee
Pulmonary hypertension describes a heterogeneous disease defined by increased pulmonary artery pressures, and progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance due to pathologic remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature involving pulmonary endothelial cells, pericytes, and smooth muscle cells.  This process occurs under various conditions, and though these populations vary, the clinical manifestations are the same: progressive dyspnea, increases in right ventricular (RV) afterload and dysfunction, RV-pulmonary artery uncoupling, and right-sided heart failure with systemic circulatory collapse...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344737/the-125th-anniversary-of-the-his-bundle-discovery
#7
REVIEW
Georg H von Knorre
In 1893, Wilhelm His Jr. was the first to describe the AV (atrioventricular) bundle of the vertebrate heart, which now bears his name. Moreover, prior to the turn of the century, W. His Jr. had proved the function of the AV bundle by transection experiments in animals, and had interpreted Adams Stokes disease as heart block due to pathological changes within the bundle. In this way, he was ahead of his time. While clinical interest was limited to the bundle as the location of an AV block in the first half of the 125 years, it has gained attractiveness since then as a target of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures...
January 17, 2018: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344721/post-mortem-mr-angiography-quantitative-investigation-and-intravascular-retention-of-perfusates-in-ex-situ-porcine-hearts
#8
Bridgette Webb, Thomas Widek, Sylvia Scheicher, Thorsten Schwark, Rudolf Stollberger
As the implementation of minimally invasive imaging techniques in both forensic and pathological practice increases, research in this area focuses on addressing recognised diagnostic weaknesses of current approaches. Assessment of sudden cardiac death (SCD) can be considered one such area in which post-mortem imaging still shows diagnostic weaknesses. We hypothesise that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with an angiographic adjunct may improve the visualisation and interpretation of cardiac pathologies in a post-mortem setting...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344379/changes-in-contractile-protein-expression-are-linked-to-ventricular-stiffness-in-infants-with-pulmonary-hypertension-or-right-ventricular-hypertrophy-due-to-congenital-heart-disease
#9
Andrew R Bond, Dominga Iacobazzi, Safa Abdul-Ghani, Mohammed Ghorbel, Kate Heesom, Mariangela Wilson, Christopher Gillett, Sarah J George, Massimo Caputo, Saadeh Suleiman, Robert M R Tulloh
Background: The right ventricle (RV) is not designed to sustain high pressure leading to failure. There are no current medications to help RV contraction, so further information is required on adaption of the RV to such hypertension. Methods: The Right Ventricle in Children (RVENCH) study assessed infants with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac surgery with hypertensive RV. Clinical and echocardiographic data were recorded, and samples of RV were taken from matched infants, analysed for proteomics and compared between pathologies and with clinical and echocardiographic outcome data...
2018: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344374/cardioprotection-by-an-anti-masp-2-antibody-in-a-murine-model-of-myocardial-infarction
#10
James E Clark, Thomas Dudler, Michael S Marber, Wilhelm Schwaeble
Background: Myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the developed world. Many approaches have been investigated to counteract the pathological consequences associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and cardiac remodelling. It is accepted that inflammation, and therefore activation of the complement pathway, is a crucial step in the pathogenesis of this injury, and many attempts have been made to ameliorate the infarction and consequent dysfunction using anticomplement therapy, with mixed success...
2018: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343782/protein-phosphatase-5-regulates-titin-phosphorylation-and-function-at-a-sarcomere-associated-mechanosensor-complex-in-cardiomyocytes
#11
Judith Krysiak, Andreas Unger, Lisa Beckendorf, Nazha Hamdani, Marion von Frieling-Salewsky, Margaret M Redfield, Cris G Dos Remedios, Farah Sheikh, Ulrich Gergs, Peter Boknik, Wolfgang A Linke
Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) is ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotic cells; however, its function in cardiomyocytes is unknown. Under basal conditions, PP5 is autoinhibited, but enzymatic activity rises upon binding of specific factors, such as the chaperone Hsp90. Here we show that PP5 binds and dephosphorylates the elastic N2B-unique sequence (N2Bus) of titin in cardiomyocytes. Using various binding and phosphorylation tests, cell-culture manipulation, and transgenic mouse hearts, we demonstrate that PP5 associates with N2Bus in vitro and in sarcomeres and is antagonistic to several protein kinases, which phosphorylate N2Bus and lower titin-based passive tension...
January 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342222/mechano-electric-feedback-effects-in-a-three-dimensional-3d-model-of-the-contracting-cardiac-ventricle
#12
Ani Amar, Sharon Zlochiver, Ofer Barnea
Mechano-electric feedback affects the electrophysiological and mechanical function of the heart and the cellular, tissue, and organ properties. To determine the main factors that contribute to this effect, this study investigated the changes in the action potential characteristics of the ventricle during contraction. A model of stretch-activated channels was incorporated into a three-dimensional multiscale model of the contracting ventricle to assess the effect of different preload lengths on the electrophysiological behavior...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340538/autonomic-nervous-system-monitoring-in-intensive-care-as-a-prognostic-tool-systematic-review
#13
Luis Bento, Rui Fonseca-Pinto, Pedro Póvoa
OBJECTIVE: To present a systematic review of the use of autonomic nervous system monitoring as a prognostic tool in intensive care units by assessing heart rate variability. METHODS: Literature review of studies published until July 2016 listed in PubMed/Medline and conducted in intensive care units, on autonomic nervous system monitoring, via analysis of heart rate variability as a prognostic tool (mortality study). The following English terms were entered in the search field: ("autonomic nervous system" OR "heart rate variability") AND ("intensive care" OR "critical care" OR "emergency care" OR "ICU") AND ("prognosis" OR "prognoses" OR "mortality")...
October 2017: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340110/curcumin-attenuates-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#14
Kun Liu, Honglin Chen, Qing-Sheng You, Qing Ye, Fei Wang, Shuo Wang, Shuang-Long Zhang, Kang-Jun Yu, Qi Lu
Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are at a badly high-risk of morbidity and mortality in the world. Methods: Our study was attempted to investigate the cardioprotective role of curcumin. Hearts injury was assessed in isolated hearts and the rats of coronary artery ligated. Results and Conclusions: The inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines was observed by curcumin in coronary artery ligated rats. ST segment was also reduced by curcumin...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339690/the-rationale-and-design-of-the-national-peripartum-cardiomyopathy-registries-in-turkey-the-artemis-i-and-artemis-ii-studies
#15
Meral Kayıkçıoğlu, Lale Tokgözoğlu, Ferit Onur Mutluer, Dilek Ural, Murat Biteker
OBJECTIVE: Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction with an ejection fraction of ≤45% occurring in the later stages of pregnancy or soon after delivery. Although various risk factors have been identified, the exact cause of the disease is unknown. Unlike most countries in the European region, Turkey has yet to determine the current PPCM burden. A registry for this purpose does not exist. To close this gap, the A RegisTry of pEripartuM cardIomyopathy in Turkish patientS (ARTEMIS-I and ARTEMIS-II), was planned and endorsed by the Turkish Society of Cardiology...
January 2018: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339192/tissue-specific-differences-in-mitochondrial-dna-maintenance-and-expression
#16
Elena Herbers, Nina J Kekäläinen, Anu Hangas, Jaakko L Pohjoismäki, Steffi Goffart
The different cell types of multicellular organisms have specialized physiological requirements, affecting also their mitochondrial energy production and metabolism. The genome of mitochondria is essential for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXHPOS) and thus plays a central role in many human mitochondrial pathologies. Disorders affecting mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance are typically resulting in a tissue-specific pattern of mtDNA deletions and rearrangements. Despite this role in disease as well as a biomarker of mitochondrial biogenesis, the tissue-specific parameters of mitochondrial DNA maintenance have been virtually unexplored...
January 12, 2018: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338669/successful-operative-treatment-of-uterine-leiomyoma-with-extensive-intravenous-extension-to-the-ivc-right-heart-and-pulmonary-arteries
#17
Ranjeet Brar, Alicia Skervin, Karim El-Sakka, Andrew Fish, Michael Lewis
INTRODUCTION: Intravenous extension of benign uterine leiomyomata ('fibroids'), in the absence of discrete metastatic disease has rarely been reported. 'Fibroids' remain one of the most common premenopausal uterine pathologies. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report the diagnosis and multidisciplinary led operative management of a 52-year-old woman with a histologically benign, but biologically aggressive, uterine leiomyoma with intravenous extension to the inferior vena cava (IVC), right heart and pulmonary arteries...
January 17, 2018: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337988/l-arginine-supplementation-reduces-mortality-and-improves-disease-outcome-in-mice-infected-with-trypanosoma-cruzi
#18
Sofía Carbajosa, Héctor O Rodríguez-Angulo, Susana Gea, Carlos Chillón-Marinas, Cristina Poveda, María C Maza, Diana Colombet, Manuel Fresno, Núria Gironès
Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is a neglected disease that affects about 7 million people in Latin America, recently emerging on other continents due to migration. As infection in mice is characterized by depletion of plasma L-arginine, the effect on infection outcome was tested in mice with or without L-arginine supplementation and treatment with 1400W, a specific inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We found that levels of L-arginine and citrulline were reduced in the heart and plasma of infected mice, whereas levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine, an endogenous iNOS inhibitor, were higher...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336470/tnf-%C3%AE-induces-drp1-mediated-mitochondrial-fragmentation-during-inflammatory-cardiomyocyte-injury
#19
Yue-Liang Shen, Ying-Zhou Shi, Gai-Ge Chen, Lin-Lin Wang, Ming-Zhi Zheng, Hong-Feng Jin, Ying-Ying Chen
Dynamin-related peptide 1 (Drpl)-mediated mitochondrial fission is an important process associated with cardiac dysfunction under different pathological conditions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of Drpl during inflammatory myocardial injury. Sprague‑Dawley rats were treated intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Furthermore, cultured H9C2 cardiomyocytes were treated with LPS, interleukin‑6 (IL‑6) and tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α). Total and mitochondrial proteins were isolated from the heart tissue of rats and from the H9C2 cardiomyocytes...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336405/looking-inside-the-third-generation-left-ventricular-assist-device-using-color-doppler-transesophageal-echocardiography
#20
Ankit Jain, Frederick C Cobey
HeartWare is a third-generation continuous flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) and generates centrifugal pattern of blood flow. In the perioperative setting, interrogating the HeartWare devices is very difficult due to the interference of the Doppler by the impeller frequency and generation of the waterfall artifact. We present a case where using color Doppler a view "inside" the impeller can be seen which corresponds to the centrifugal flow of blood. With time, these images can be looked into in pathological states such as pump thrombosis, to come to a more meaningful conclusion regarding the flow of blood within the centrifugal chamber...
January 2018: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
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