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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930984/high-fat-diet-feeding-and-high-throughput-triacylglyceride-assay-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
Soda Balla Diop, Ryan T Birse, Rolf Bodmer
Heart disease is the number one cause of human death worldwide. Numerous studies have shown strong connections between obesity and cardiac malfunction in humans, but more tools and research efforts are needed to better elucidate the mechanisms involved. For over a century, the genetically highly tractable model of Drosophila has been instrumental in the discovery of key genes and molecular pathways that proved to be highly conserved across species. Many biological processes and disease mechanisms are functionally conserved in the fly, such as development (e...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929246/a-numerical-study-of-the-hemodynamic-effect-of-the-aortic-valve-on-coronary-flow
#2
Shaily Wald, Alex Liberzon, Idit Avrahami
During diastole, coronary perfusion depends on the pressure drop between the myocardial tissue and the coronary origin located at the aortic root. This pressure difference is influenced by the flow field near the closing valve leaflets. Clinical evidence is conclusive that patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) suffer from diastolic dysfunction during hyperemia, but show increased coronary blood flow (CBF) during rest. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was shown to decrease rest CBF along with its main purpose of improving the aortic flow and reducing the risk of heart failure...
September 19, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927226/female-clock%C3%AE-19-%C3%AE-19-mice-are-protected-from-the-development-of-age-dependent-cardiomyopathy
#3
Faisal J Alibhai, Cristine J Reitz, Willem T Peppler, Poulami Basu, Paul Sheppard, Elena Choleris, Marica Bakovic, Tami A Martino
Aims: Circadian rhythms are important for healthy cardiovascular physiology and they are regulated by the molecular circadian mechanism. Previously, we showed that disruption of the circadian mechanism factor CLOCK in male Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice led to development of age-dependent cardiomyopathy. Here, we investigate the role of biological sex in protecting against heart disease in aging female Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice. Methods and results: Female Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice are protected from the development of cardiomyopathy with age, as heart structure and function are similar to 18 months of age versus female WT mice...
September 12, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925476/late-onset-pompe-disease-in-a-54-year-old-sportsman-with-an-episode-of-syncope-a-case-report
#4
M Walczak-Galezewska, D Skrypnik, M Szulinska, K Musialik, K Skrypnik, P Bogdanski
Pompe disease is an extra-rare metabolic storage disease with deficiency of acid-alpha-glucosidase (GAA) enzyme activity, which leads to the pathologic accumulation of glycogen in target tissues (skeletal muscles, heart, brain). Clinical features and severity vary by the age of onset, rate of extent of organ involvement. In the late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) form, essential cardiomyopathy seems to be uncommon. Muscles weakness and respiratory failure are the main symptoms of adult patient with Pompe disease...
August 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925471/research-on-the-function-and-mechanism-of-survivin-in-heart-failure-mice-model
#5
L Bo, X-S Zhu, Z Zheng, X-P Hu, P-Y Chen
OBJECTIVE: To observe the role of survivin in the heart failure mice model and to study its mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 20 male C57BL/ 6J mice were selected and randomly divided into two groups: normal group (n=10) and heart failure group (n=10). After continuous modeling, the cardiac functions of mice in the two groups were detected via ultrasonic cardiogram equipment. The pathological conditions of hearts in the two groups were detected via hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining...
August 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924605/pai-1-is-a-critical-regulator-of-fgf23-homeostasis
#6
Mesut Eren, Aaron T Place, Paul M Thomas, Panagiotis Flevaris, Toshio Miyata, Douglas E Vaughan
Elevated levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a bone-derived phosphaturic hormone, are associated with a number of pathologic conditions including chronic kidney disease, cardiac hypertrophy, and congestive heart failure. Currently, there are no specific treatments available to lower plasma FGF23 levels. We have recently reported that genetic plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) deficiency provided a significant reduction in circulating FGF23 levels while simultaneously prolonging the life span of Klotho-deficient mice...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924163/large-scale-metabolomic-analysis-reveals-potential-biomarkers-for-early-stage-coronary-atherosclerosis
#7
Xueqin Gao, Chaofu Ke, Haixia Liu, Wei Liu, Kang Li, Bo Yu, Meng Sun
Coronary atherosclerosis (CAS) is the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, which is a prevalent and chronic life-threatening disease. Initially, this disease is not always detected until a patient presents with seriously vascular occlusion. Therefore, new biomarkers for appropriate and timely diagnosis of early CAS is needed for screening to initiate therapy on time. In this study, we used an untargeted metabolomics approach to identify potential biomarkers that could enable highly sensitive and specific CAS detection...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923001/a-molecular-view-of-the-normal-human-thyroid-structure-and-function-reconstructed-from-its-reference-transcriptome-map
#8
Lorenza Vitale, Allison Piovesan, Francesca Antonaros, Pierluigi Strippoli, Maria Chiara Pelleri, Maria Caracausi
BACKGROUND: The thyroid is the earliest endocrine structure to appear during human development, and thyroid hormones are necessary for proper organism development, in particular for the nervous system and heart, normal growth and skeletal maturation. To date a quantitative, validated transcriptional atlas of the whole normal human thyroid does not exist and the availability of a detailed expression map might be an excellent occasion to investigate the many features of the thyroid transcriptome...
September 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922609/serum-proteomic-variability-associated-with-clinical-phenotype-in-familial-transthyretin-amyloidosis-attrm
#9
Gloria G Chan, Clarissa M Koch, Lawreen H Connors
Transthyretin (TTR), normally a plasma circulating protein, can become misfolded and aggregated, ultimately leading to extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils usually targeted to heart or nerve tissues. Referred to as TTR-associated amyloidoses (ATTR), this group of diseases is frequently life threatening and fatal if untreated. ATTR, caused by amyloid-forming variant TTR proteins (ATTRm) which arise from point mutations in the TTR gene, were classically referred to as familial amyloid cardiomyopathy (FAC) or familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) reflecting the clinical phenotype...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920815/preliminary-characterization-of-dilated-cardiomyopathy-in-a-captive-population-of-banded-mongooses-mungos-mungo
#10
Javier López, Joanna Dukes-McEwan, Gabby Drake, Julian Chantrey
Between 2006 and 2015, a high incidence of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) was diagnosed in a captive population of banded mongooses (Mungos mungo) at Chester Zoo, United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to characterize DCM in these mongooses in order to raise awareness of this condition and help inform management and clinical decisions. Prospective clinical assessments, including echocardiography, radiography, and cardiac biomarkers, were carried out in four mongooses remaining in the collection. Radiographs from 15 mature mongooses were reviewed and cardiac size and metrics assessed...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920060/midkine-s-role-in-cardiac-pathology
#11
Kathleen C Woulfe, Carmen C Sucharov
Midkine (MDK) is a heparin-binding growth factor that is normally expressed in mid-gestational development mediating mesenchymal and epithelial interactions. As organisms age, expression of MDK diminishes; however, in adults, MDK expression is associated with acute and chronic pathologic conditions such as myocardial infarction and heart failure (HF). The role of MDK is not clear in cardiovascular disease and currently there is no consensus if it plays a beneficial or detrimental role in HF. The lack of clarity in the literature is exacerbated by differing roles that circulating and myocardial MDK play in signaling pathways in cardiomyocytes (some of which have yet to be elucidated)...
September 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919046/fgf23-activates-injury-primed-renal-fibroblasts-via-fgfr4-dependent-signalling-and-enhancement-of-tgf-%C3%AE-autoinduction
#12
Edward R Smith, Stephen G Holt, Tim D Hewitson
Bone-derived fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is an important endocrine regulator of mineral homeostasis with effects transduced by cognate FGF receptor (FGFR)1-α-Klotho complexes. Circulating FGF23 levels rise precipitously in patients with kidney disease and portend to worse renal and cardiovascular outcomes. De novo expression of FGF23 has been found in the heart and kidney following injury but its significance remains unclear. Studies showing that exposure to chronically high FGF23 concentrations activates hypertrophic gene programmes in the cardiomyocyte, has spawned intense interest in other pathological off-target effects of FGF23 excess...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918029/activation-of-ampk-attenuated-cardiac-fibrosis-by-inhibiting-cdk2-via-p21-p27-and-mir-29-family-pathways-in-rats
#13
Hanping Qi, Yan Liu, Shuzhi Li, Yunping Chen, Lei Li, Yonggang Cao, Mingyao E, Pilong Shi, Chao Song, Baiyan Li, Hongli Sun
Cardiac fibrosis is pathological damage associated with nearly all forms of heart disease. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionary conserved energy-sensing enzyme. Emerging evidences indicate that AMPK plays an important role in cardiac fibrosis and cell proliferation. However, less is known about the detailed mechanism of AMPK activation on cardiac fibrosis. In this study, we found the AMPK activation improved the impaired cardiac function of cardiac fibrosis rats and decreased interstitial fibrosis...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916246/pre-clinical-toxicology-considerations-for-vaccine-development
#14
REVIEW
Nabil Al-Humadi
Vaccine development requires pre-clinical toxicology studies, following good laboratory practice (GLP), before first in human (phase I) use. Many factors are critical in the final outcome of any pre-clinical toxicology study. The study design is one of these critical factors and should be carefully planned to avoid any false negative and/or false positive results. Preparation is another most critical factor in a successful study. Major changes in any procedure during the course of study should be avoided by all means...
September 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915332/obesity-and-cardiometabolic-defects-in-heart-failure-pathology
#15
Ganesh V Halade, Vasundhara Kain
Obesity is a major global epidemic that sets the stage for diverse multiple pathologies, including cardiovascular disease. The obesity-related low-grade chronic inflamed milieu is more pronounced in aging and responsive to cardiac dysfunction in heart failure pathology. Metabolic dysregulation of obesity integrates with immune reservoir in spleen and kidney network. Therefore, an integrative systems biology approach is necessary to delay progressive cardiac alternations. The purpose of this comprehensive review is to largely discuss the impact of obesity on the cardiovascular pathobiology in the context of problems and challenges, with major emphasis on the diversified models, and to study cardiac remodeling in obesity...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914849/-analysis-of-the-clinical-efficiency-of-eradication-therapy-in-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease-associated-with-gastroduodenal-pathology
#16
Zh G Simonova, A K Martusevich, E I Tarlovskaya
AIM: To comparatively analyze the clinical efficiency of eradiation therapy (ET) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) concurrent with gastroduodenal pathology (GDP). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in three steps. In Step 1, 1588 patients with chronic CHD were examined. In Step 2, the characteristics of the course of CHD concurrent with Helicobacter pylori-associated GDP in 147 patients with these conditions compared to the same number of CHD patients without GDP...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913586/evolving-indications-for-transcatheter-aortic-valve-interventions
#17
REVIEW
Anna Franzone, Thomas Pilgrim, Stefan Stortecky, Stephan Windecker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to summarize recent progress in the field of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), discuss expansion of indications, and identify areas of future clinical applications. RECENT FINDINGS: Favorable clinical outcomes as well as continued refinement of transcatheter heart valve technology have prompted the continuous expansion of indications for TAVR. The results of randomized clinical trials comparing the safety and efficacy of TAVR relative to conventional surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in lower- than high-risk patients have recently been published, and trials among lower-risk categories are ongoing...
September 14, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912851/molecular-mechanism-of-mir-181b-in-heart-disease-due-to-pregnancy-induced-hypertension-syndrome
#18
Zheng Gao, Li Wang, Jinyun Wang, Fengyong Yang, Jin Qu
The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of microRNA (miR)-181b in heart disease due to hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy (HDCP) through regulating the expression of metallopeptidase inhibitor 3 (TIMP3). miR-181b expression was detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood samples from patients with HDCP. These samples were analyzed for clinical pathological characteristics. The primary cardiomyocytes of rats were cultured in hypoxic conditions for 24 h, in which miR-181b expression was detected at different time points...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912844/triptolide-inhibits-cd4-memory-t-cell-mediated-acute-rejection-and-prolongs-cardiac-allograft-survival-in-mice
#19
Shuiwei Qiu, Dingliang Lv
There have been numerous investigations into the immunosuppressive effects of triptolide; however, its inhibitory effects on memory T cells remain to be elucidated. Using a cluster of differentiation (CD)4(+) memory T-cell transfer model, the aim of the present study was to determine the inhibitory effects of triptolide on CD4(+) memory T cell-mediated acute rejection and to determine the potential underlying mechanisms. At 4 weeks after skin transplantation, mouse cervical heart transplantation was performed following the transfer of CD4(+) memory T cells...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912183/arrhythmogenic-cardiomyopathy
#20
REVIEW
Domenico Corrado, Cristina Basso, Daniel P Judge
Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy is an inherited heart muscle disorder, predisposing to sudden cardiac death, particularly in young patients and athletes. Pathological features include loss of myocytes and fibrofatty replacement of right ventricular myocardium; biventricular involvement is often observed. It is a cell-to-cell junction cardiomyopathy, typically caused by genetically determined abnormalities of cardiac desmosomes, which leads to detachment of myocytes and alteration of intracellular signal transduction...
September 15, 2017: Circulation Research
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