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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340053/does-the-regulatory-environment-for-e-cigarettes-influence-the-effectiveness-of-e-cigarettes-for-smoking-cessation-longitudinal-findings-from-the-itc-four-country-survey
#1
Hua-Hie Yong, Sara C Hitchman, K Michael Cummings, Ron Borland, Shannon M L Gravely, Ann McNeill, Geoffrey T Fong
Introduction: To date, no studies have explored how different regulatory environments may influence the effectiveness of ECs as a smoking cessation aid. Objective: This study compares the real-world effectiveness of adult smokers using ECs for quitting compared with quitting unassisted or quitting with NRT and/or prescription medications in two countries with restrictive policies towards ECs (i.e., Canada and Australia) versus two countries with less restrictive policies (i...
March 4, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339916/antenatal-tobacco-use-and-secondhand-smoke-exposure-in-the-home-in-india
#2
Ritesh Mistry, Anjuli Dasika
Introduction: Antenatal tobacco use and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure can have grave health consequences. We estimated the prevalence of tobacco use and SHS exposure in the home among pregnant and reproductive age women in India, and identified sociodemographic risk factors. Methods: Data were from the National Family Health Survey-3 (2005-2006), a population-based cross-sectional survey. We measured current tobacco use and SHS exposure in the home, and used logistic regression analysis to identify sociodemographic risk factors...
March 2, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339377/stability-of-clindamycin-hydrochloride-in-pcca-base-suspendit
#3
Yashoda V Pramar, Richard A Graves, Grace A Ledet, Kelly V Phan, Levon A Bostanian, Tarun K Mandal
Clindamycin is an effective antibiotic in the treatment of infections caused by certain gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobic microorganisms. While manufactured forms of the drug for pediatric use are available, there are instances when a compounded liquid dosage form is essential to meet unique patient needs. The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical stability of clindamycin hydrochloride in the PCCA base SuspendIt, a sugar-free, paraben- free, dye-free, and gluten-free thixotropic vehicle containing a natural sweetener obtained from the monk fruit...
September 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338515/surgeon-participation-in-early-accountable-care-organizations
#4
Matthew J Resnick, Amy J Graves, Melinda B Buntin, Michael R Richards, David F Penson
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize the landscape of surgeon participation in early accountable care organizations (ACOs) and to identify specialty-, organization-, and market-specific factors associated with ACO participation. BACKGROUND: Despite rapid deployment of alternative payment models (APMs), little is known about the prevalence of surgeon participation, and key drivers behind surgeon participation in APMs. METHODS: Using data from SK&A, a research firm, we evaluated the near universe of US practices to characterize ACO participation among 125,425 US surgeons in 2015...
March 23, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337193/baicalin-protects-mice-from-lethal-infection-by-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli
#5
Yong Zhang, Zhimin Qi, Yan Liu, Wenqi He, Cheng Yang, Quan Wang, Jing Dong, Xuming Deng
Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 poses grave challenges to public health by its ability to cause severe colonic diseases and renal failure in both human and animals. Shiga-like toxins are the major pathogenic factor for some highly virulent E. coli expecially Shiga-like toxin 2. Conventional treatments such as antibiotics can facilitate the release of the toxin thus potentially exacerbate the diseases. Small molecule inhibitors and antibodies capable of neutralizing the toxins are the two major venues for the development of therapeutics against enterohemorrhagic serotype E...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336734/time-to-publication-for-publicly-funded-clinical-trials-in-australia-an-observational-study
#6
Linn Beate Strand, Philip Clarke, Nicholas Graves, Adrian G Barnett
OBJECTIVE: To examine the length of time between receiving funding and publishing the protocol and main paper for randomised controlled trials. DESIGN: An observational study using survival analysis. SETTING: Publicly funded health and medical research in Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Randomised controlled trials funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia between 2008 and 2010. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Time from funding to the protocol paper and main results paper...
March 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335844/heart-failure-induced-brain-injury
#7
REVIEW
Ofer Havakuk, Kevin S King, Luanda Grazette, Andrew J Yoon, Michael Fong, Noa Bregman, Uri Elkayam, Robert A Kloner
Heart failure (HF) is a systemic illness with grave implications for bodily functions. The brain, among other vital organs, often suffers insults as a result of HF, and both anatomic and functional brain abnormalities were found in the HF population. This injury was demonstrated across a wide range of clinical conditions and cardiac functions and was shown to affect patients' outcomes. Although reduced cardiac output and high burden of cardiovascular risk factors are the prevailing explanations for these findings, there are data showing the involvement of neurohormonal, nutritional, and inflammatory mechanisms in this complex process...
March 28, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334345/effects-of-age-and-gender-on-recall-and-recognition-discriminability
#8
Lisa V Graves, Charles C Moreno, Michelle Seewald, Heather M Holden, Emily J Van Etten, Vedang Uttarwar, Carrie R McDonald, Lisa Delano-Wood, Mark W Bondi, Steven Paul Woods, Dean C Delis, Paul E Gilbert
Objective: Recall and recognition memory abilities are known to decline with increasing age, yet much of the evidence stems from studies that used simple measures of total target recall or recognition. The California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) includes a new measure of recall discriminability that is analogous to recognition discriminability. These discriminability measures yield more thorough assessments of recall and recognition by accounting for intrusion and false positive errors, respectively...
March 17, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333653/association-of-transient-hyperthyroidism-and-severity-of-hyperemesis-gravidarum
#9
Nor Zila Hassan Malek, Aida Kalok, Zainal Abidin Hanafiah, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Nor Azlin Mohamed Ismail
Background Transient non-immune hyperthyroidism in early pregnancy is hyperthyroidism diagnosed for the first time in early pregnancy, without evidence of thyroid autoimmunity or clinical findings of Grave's disease and resolved spontaneously as the pregnancy progressed. Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is the commonest cause with 66%-73% of women with severe HG were found to have elevated thyroid function. Materials and methods We conducted a cross sectional study to determine the prevalence of transient hyperthyroidism in patients with hyperemesis gravidarum and its relation to the severity of nausea and vomiting...
March 23, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333576/epstein-barr-virus-lytic-reactivation-activates-b-cells-polyclonally-and-induces-activation-induced-cytidine-deaminase-expression-a-mechanism-underlying-autoimmunity-and-its-contribution-to-graves-disease
#10
Keiko Nagata, Keisuke Kumata, Yuji Nakayama, Yukio Satoh, Hirotsugu Sugihara, Sayuri Hara, Michiko Matsushita, Satoshi Kuwamoto, Masako Kato, Ichiro Murakami, Kazuhiko Hayashi
Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease that results in and is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism, and the reactivation of persisting Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in B lymphocytes induces the differentiation of host B cells into plasma cells. We previously reported that some EBV-infected B cells had thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs) as surface immunoglobulins (Igs), and EBV reactivation induced these TRAb+EBV+ cells to produce TRAbs. EBV reactivation induces Ig production from host B cells. The purpose of the present study was to examine total Ig productions from B cell culture fluids and to detect activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and EBV latent membrane protein (LMP) 1 in culture B cells during EBV reactivation induction and then we discussed the mechanisms of EBV reactivation-induced Ig production in relation to autoimmunity...
March 23, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329893/graves-ophthalmopathy-in-a-paediatric-population
#11
Y Sadeghi, A Obéric, G Theintz, M Hamédani
Background Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder leading to hyperthyroidism. It is often associated with ophthalmic manifestations. Graves' disease is reported to be rare in the paediatric population. Patients and Methods We performed a retrospective analysis on all patients diagnosed with ophthalmopathy related to Graves' disease at a paediatric age (less than 18 years old) in our institution between 2004 and 2015. Results Eight patients were identified: 6 females and 2 males. The median age at diagnosis was 11...
March 22, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329518/anetoderma-before-development-of-antiphospholipid-antibodies-delayed-development-and-monitoring-of-antiphospholipid-antibodies-in-an-sle-patient-presenting-with-anetoderma
#12
Fan Di Xia, Mai P Hoang, Gideon P Smith
INTRODUCTION: Anetoderma is an elastolytic skindisorder that has been associated with the presenceof antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Patients withantiphospholipid antibody-positive anetoderma havebeen reported to develop symptoms of Graves disease,antiphospholipid syndrome, and other autoimmuneconditions. The temporal relationship, however,between anetoderma onset and the emergence ofaPL remains unclear, a clarification of which may haveimplications for the screening and monitoring ofpatients with anetoderma...
March 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328216/natural-attenuation-in-streambed-sediment-receiving-chlorinated-solvents-from-underlying-fracture-networks
#13
Burcu Simsir, Jun Yan, Jeongdae Im, Duane Graves, Frank E Löffler
Contaminant discharge from fractured bedrock formations remains a remediation challenge. We applied an integrated approach to assess the natural attenuation potential of sediment that forms the transition zone between upwelling groundwater from a chlorinated solvent-contaminated fractured bedrock aquifer and the receiving surface water. In situ measurements demonstrated that reductive dechlorination in the sediment attenuated chlorinated compounds before reaching the water column. Microcosms established with creek sediment or in situ incubated Bio-Sep beads degraded C1-C3 chlorinated solvents to less chlorinated or innocuous products...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327475/free-breathing-black-blood-cine-fast-spin-echo-imaging-for-measuring-abdominal-aortic-wall-distensibility-a-feasibility-study
#14
Jyh-Miin Lin, Andrew Patterson, Tzu-Cheng Chao, Chengcheng Zhu, Hing-Chiu Chang, Jason Mendes, Hsiao-Wen Chung, Jonathan Gillard, Martin Graves
The paper reports a free-breathing black-blood CINE fast-spin echo (FSE) technique for measuring abdominal aortic wall motion. The free-breathing CINE FSE includes the following MR techniques: 1) variable-density sampling with fast iterative reconstruction; 2) inner-volume imaging; and 3) a blood-suppression preparation pulse. The proposed technique was evaluated in eight healthy subjects. The inner-volume imaging significantly reduced the intraluminal artifacts of respiratory motion (p = 0.015). The quantitative measurements were a diameter of 16...
March 22, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327462/neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-hiv-infected-youth-investigating-the-relationship-with-immune-activation
#15
Allison Ross Eckard, Julia C Rosebush, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Chanda C Graves, Ashley Alexander, Anita K Grover, S Thera Lee, Jakob G Habib, Joshua H Ruff, Ann Chahroudi, Grace A McComsey
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk of neurocognitive impairment compared to the general population. Studies suggest that, despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV infection causes immune activation which results in neural damage; however, few data exist in HIV-infected youth. METHODS: HIV-infected youth 8-26 years old on cART with virologic suppression were prospectively enrolled along with healthy controls. Neurocognitive performance was assessed by age-appropriate Wechsler Intelligence Scales...
March 22, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325883/opinion-why-we-need-a-centralized-repository-for-isotopic-data
#16
Jonathan N Pauli, Seth D Newsome, Joseph A Cook, Chris Harrod, Shawn A Steffan, Christopher J O Baker, Merav Ben-David, David Bloom, Gabriel J Bowen, Thure E Cerling, Carla Cicero, Craig Cook, Michelle Dohm, Prarthana S Dharampal, Gary Graves, Robert Gropp, Keith A Hobson, Chris Jordan, Bruce MacFadden, Suzanne Pilaar Birch, Jorrit Poelen, Sujeevan Ratnasingham, Laura Russell, Craig A Stricker, Mark D Uhen, Christopher T Yarnes, Brian Hayden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325781/hete-signals-through-g-protein-coupled-receptor-gpr75-gq-to-affect-vascular-function-and-trigger-hypertension
#17
Victor Garcia, Ankit Gilani, Brian Shkolnik, Varunkumar Pandey, Frank F Zhang, Rambabu Dakarapu, Shyam K Gandham, N R Reddy, Joan P Graves, Artiom Gruzdev, Darryl C Zeldin, Jorge H Capdevila, John R Falck, Michal L Schwartzman
Rationale: 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), one of the principle cytochrome P450 (CYP) eicosanoids, is a potent vasoactive lipid whose vascular effects include stimulation of smooth muscle contractility, migration and proliferation, as well as endothelial cell dysfunction and inflammation. Increased levels of 20-HETE in experimental animals and in humans are associated with hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction and vascular diseases. Objective: To date, a receptor/binding site for 20-HETE has been implicated based on the use of specific agonists and antagonists...
March 21, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325735/rescue-preoperative-treatment-with-lugol-s-solution-in-uncontrolled-graves-disease
#18
Jan Calissendorff, Henrik Falhammar
BACKGROUND: Graves' disease is a common cause of hyperthyroidism. Three therapies have been used for decades: pharmacologic therapy, surgery and radioiodine. In case of adverse events, especially agranulocytosis or hepatotoxicity, pre-treatment with Lugol's solution containing iodine/potassium-iodide to induce euthyroidism before surgery could be advocated but has rarely been reported. METHOD: All patients hospitalised due to uncontrolled hyperthyroidism at the Karolinska University Hospital 2005-2015 and treated with Lugol's solution were included...
March 21, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323113/longitudinal-analysis-of-discussion-topics-in-an-online-breast-cancer-community-using-convolutional-neural-networks
#19
Shaodian Zhang, Edouard Grave, Elizabeth Sklar, Noémie Elhadad
Identifying topics of discussions in online health communities (OHC) is critical to various information extraction applications, but can be difficult because topics of OHC content are usually heterogeneous and domain-dependent. In this paper, we provide a multi-class schema, an annotated dataset, and supervised classifiers based on convolutional neural network (CNN) and other models for the task of classifying discussion topics. We apply the CNN classifier to the most popular breast cancer online community, and carry out cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses to show topic distributions and topic dynamics throughout members' participation...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320953/species-richness-alone-does-not-predict-cultural-ecosystem-service-value
#20
Rose A Graves, Scott M Pearson, Monica G Turner
Many biodiversity-ecosystem services studies omit cultural ecosystem services (CES) or use species richness as a proxy and assume that more species confer greater CES value. We studied wildflower viewing, a key biodiversity-based CES in amenity-based landscapes, in Southern Appalachian Mountain forests and asked (i) How do aesthetic preferences for wildflower communities vary with components of biodiversity, including species richness?; (ii) How do aesthetic preferences for wildflower communities vary across psychographic groups?; and (iii) How well does species richness perform as an indicator of CES value compared with revealed social preferences for wildflower communities? Public forest visitors (n = 293) were surveyed during the summer of 2015 and asked to choose among images of wildflower communities in which flower species richness, flower abundance, species evenness, color diversity, and presence of charismatic species had been digitally manipulated...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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