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Neuro prosthetics

Matteo Filippini, Rossella Breveglieri, M Ali Akhras, Annalisa Bosco, Eris Chinellato, Patrizia Fattori
Neurodecoders have been developed by researchers mostly to control neuroprosthetic devices, but also to shed new light on neural functions. In this study, we show that signals representing grip configurations can be reliably decoded from neural data acquired from area V6A of the monkey medial posterior parietal cortex. Two Macaca fascicularis monkeys were trained to perform an instructed-delay reach-to-grasp task in the dark and in the light toward objects of different shapes. Population neural activity was extracted at various time intervals on vision of the objects, the delay before movement, and grasp execution...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Mostafa Allami, Batool Mousavi, Mehdi Masoumi, Ehsan Modirian, Hadi Shojaei, Fatemeh Mirsalimi, Maryam Hosseini, Pirouz Pirouzi
BACKGROUND: Upper limb amputations are one of the unpleasant war injuries that armed forces are exposed to frequently. The present study aimed to assess the musculoskeletal and peripheral nervous systems in Iraq-Iran war veterans with bilateral upper extremity amputation. METHODS: The study consisted of taking a history and clinical examinations including demographic data, presence and location of pain, level of amputation, passive and active ranges of movement of the joints across the upper and lower extremities and spine, manual palpation, neurological examination, blood circulation pulses and issues related to a prosthetic limb...
2016: Military Medical Research
Valerie E Kelly, Sara J Morgan, Dagmar Amtmann, Rana Salem, Brian J Hafner
PURPOSE: This study tested the hypothesis that greater perceived cognitive concerns are associated with worse mobility in a cohort of prosthesis users with lower limb loss (LLL). METHOD: We performed a secondary analysis of cross-sectional self-report data from a volunteer sample of people with LLL due to dysvascular and non-dysvacular causes. Perceived cognitive difficulties were assessed using the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders Applied Cognition - General Concerns (Neuro-QoL ACGC)...
October 19, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Oskar C Aszmann, Ivan Vujaklija, Aidan D Roche, Stefan Salminger, Malvina Herceg, Agnes Sturma, Laura A Hruby, Anna Pittermann, Christian Hofer, Sebastian Amsuess, Dario Farina
Critical soft tissue injuries may lead to a non-functional and insensate limb. In these cases standard reconstructive techniques will not suffice to provide a useful outcome, and solutions outside the biological arena must be considered and offered to these patients. We propose a concept which, after all reconstructive options have been exhausted, involves an elective amputation along with a bionic substitution, implementing an actuated prosthetic hand via a structured tech-neuro-rehabilitation program. Here, three patients are presented in whom this concept has been successfully applied after mutilating hand injuries...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Neha Mathur, Ivan Glesk, Arjan Buis
Monitoring of the interface temperature at skin level in lower-limb prosthesis is notoriously complicated. This is due to the flexible nature of the interface liners used impeding the required consistent positioning of the temperature sensors during donning and doffing. Predicting the in-socket residual limb temperature by monitoring the temperature between socket and liner rather than skin and liner could be an important step in alleviating complaints on increased temperature and perspiration in prosthetic sockets...
October 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
Rodolphe J Gentili, Hyuk Oh, Alissa V Kregling, James A Reggia
The human hand's versatility allows for robust and flexible grasping. To obtain such efficiency, many robotic hands include human biomechanical features such as fingers having their two last joints mechanically coupled. Although such coupling enables human-like grasping, controlling the inverse kinematics of such mechanical systems is challenging. Here we propose a cortical model for fine motor control of a humanoid finger, having its two last joints coupled, that learns the inverse kinematics of the effector...
May 19, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Dagmara Otto-Ślusarczyk, Wojciech Graboń, Magdalena Mielczarek-Puta
Aspartate aminotransferase is an organ-nonspecific enzyme located in many tissues of the human body where it catalyzes reversible reaction of transamination. There are two aspartate aminotransferase isoforms--cytoplasmic (AST1) and mitochondrial (AST2), that usually occur together and interact with each other metabolically. Both isoforms are homodimers containing highly conservative regions responsible for catalytic properties of enzyme. The common feature of all aspartate aminotransfeses is Lys - 259 residue covalent binding with prosthetic group - pyridoxal phosphate...
March 16, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Calogero Maria Oddo, Stanisa Raspopovic, Fiorenzo Artoni, Alberto Mazzoni, Giacomo Spigler, Francesco Petrini, Federica Giambattistelli, Fabrizio Vecchio, Francesca Miraglia, Loredana Zollo, Giovanni Di Pino, Domenico Camboni, Maria Chiara Carrozza, Eugenio Guglielmelli, Paolo Maria Rossini, Ugo Faraguna, Silvestro Micera
Restoration of touch after hand amputation is a desirable feature of ideal prostheses. Here, we show that texture discrimination can be artificially provided in human subjects by implementing a neuromorphic real-time mechano-neuro-transduction (MNT), which emulates to some extent the firing dynamics of SA1 cutaneous afferents. The MNT process was used to modulate the temporal pattern of electrical spikes delivered to the human median nerve via percutaneous microstimulation in four intact subjects and via implanted intrafascicular stimulation in one transradial amputee...
March 8, 2016: ELife
Philip C Hessburg, Joseph Rizzo, Edward R O'Malley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Sara J Morgan, Valerie E Kelly, Dagmar Amtmann, Rana Salem, Brian J Hafner
OBJECTIVES: To investigate differences between self-reported cognitive concerns in people with lower limb loss (LLL) and normative data derived from the U.S. general population, and secondarily to determine whether there were cognitive differences based on amputation etiology or age. DESIGN: Survey. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: A volunteer sample of persons with LLL (N=1086) resulting from trauma or dysvascular complications who regularly use a prosthetic limb...
June 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Alessandra Fabbro, Denis Scaini, Verónica León, Ester Vázquez, Giada Cellot, Giulia Privitera, Lucia Lombardi, Felice Torrisi, Flavia Tomarchio, Francesco Bonaccorso, Susanna Bosi, Andrea C Ferrari, Laura Ballerini, Maurizio Prato
Neural-interfaces rely on the ability of electrodes to transduce stimuli into electrical patterns delivered to the brain. In addition to sensitivity to the stimuli, stability in the operating conditions and efficient charge transfer to neurons, the electrodes should not alter the physiological properties of the target tissue. Graphene is emerging as a promising material for neuro-interfacing applications, given its outstanding physico-chemical properties. Here, we use graphene-based substrates (GBSs) to interface neuronal growth...
January 26, 2016: ACS Nano
Yiwen Wang, Xiwei She, Yuxi Liao, Hongbao Li, Qiaosheng Zhang, Shaomin Zhang, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Jose Principe
Classic brain-machine interface (BMI) approaches decode neural signals from the brain responsible for achieving specific motor movements, which subsequently command prosthetic devices. Brain activities adaptively change during the control of the neuroprosthesis in BMIs, where the alteration of the preferred direction and the modulation of the gain depth are observed. The static neural tuning models have been limited by fixed codes, resulting in a decay of decoding performance over the course of the movement and subsequent instability in motor performance...
August 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
M Grazia Cotticelli, Fabio Acquaviva, Shujuan Xia, Avinash Kaur, Yongping Wang, Robert B Wilson
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neuro- and cardio-degenerative disorder for which there are no proven effective treatments. FRDA is caused by decreased expression and/or function of the protein frataxin. Frataxin chaperones iron in the mitochondrial matrix and regulates the iron-sulfur cluster (ISC) assembly complex. ISCs are prosthetic groups critical for the function of the Krebs cycle and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Decreased expression of frataxin is associated with decreased ISC assembly, mitochondrial iron accumulation, and increased oxidative stress, all of which contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction...
October 2015: Journal of Biomolecular Screening
Claire Monge, Jorge Almodóvar, Thomas Boudou, Catherine Picart
Introduced in the '90s by Prof. Moehwald, Lvov, and Decher, the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of polyelectrolytes has become a popular technique to engineer various types of objects such as films, capsules and free standing membranes, with an unprecedented control at the nanometer and micrometer scales. The LbL technique allows to engineer biofunctional surface coatings, which may be dedicated to biomedical applications in vivo but also to fundamental studies and diagnosis in vitro. Initially mostly developed as 2D coatings and hollow capsules, the range of complex objects created by the LbL technique has greatly expanded in the past 10 years...
April 22, 2015: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Alison Gibson, Panagiotis Artemiadis
As the field of brain-machine interfaces and neuro-prosthetics continues to grow, there is a high need for sensor and actuation mechanisms that can provide haptic feedback to the user. Current technologies employ expensive, invasive and often inefficient force feedback methods, resulting in an unrealistic solution for individuals who rely on these devices. This paper responds through the development, integration and analysis of a novel feedback architecture where haptic information during the neural control of a prosthetic hand is perceived through multi-frequency auditory signals...
2014: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Butrus T Khuri-Yakub
Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUT) are being made in practically any size (microns to mms), shape (flat or curved), and type (single element, 1-D array, 2-D array, rings, and annular arrays), and at frequencies from 10s of kHz to almost 100 MHz. Along with the transducers themselves, front-end electronics are being integrated as well to provide better performance and enable the use of arrays with a very large number of elements. One important aspect of these integrated arrays is that they can be used for imaging (anatomic and photo-acoustic functional), therapy (high intensity focused ultrasound), and more recently neuro-modulation...
April 2014: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Antonio J Del-Ama, Angel Gil-Agudo, José L Pons, Juan C Moreno
Locomotor training has proved to provide beneficial effect in terms of mobility in incomplete paraplegic patients. Neuroprosthetic technology can contribute to increase the efficacy of a training paradigm in the promotion of a locomotor pattern. Robotic exoskeletons can be used to manage the unavoidable loss of performance of artificially driven muscles. Hybrid exoskeletons blend complementary robotic and neuro-prosthetic technologies. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the effects of hybrid gait training in three case studies with persons with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) in terms of locomotion performance during assisted gait, patient-robot adaptations, impact on ambulation and assessment of lower limb muscle strength and spasticity...
2014: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Amel Bendali, Sihem Bouguelia, Yoann Roupioz, Valérie Forster, Pascal Mailley, Ryad Benosman, Thierry Livache, José-Alain Sahel, Serge Picaud
Direct interfacing of neurons with electronic devices has been investigated for both prosthetic and neuro-computing applications. In vitro neuronal networks provide great tools not only for improving neuroprostheses but also to take advantage of their computing abilities. However, it is often difficult to organize neuronal networks according to specific cell distributions. Our aim was to develop a cell-type specific immobilization of neurons on individual electrodes to produce organized in vitro neuronal networks on multi-electrode arrays (MEAs)...
July 7, 2014: Analyst
M He, Y Lu, S Xu, L Mao, L Zhang, W Duan, C Liu, H Pi, Y Zhang, M Zhong, Z Yu, Z Zhou
The cellular energy metabolism shift, characterized by the inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and enhancement of glycolysis, is involved in nickel-induced neurotoxicity. MicroRNA-210 (miR-210) is regulated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α (HIF-1α) under hypoxic conditions and controls mitochondrial energy metabolism by repressing the iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein (ISCU1/2). ISCU1/2 facilitates the assembly of iron-sulfur clusters (ISCs), the prosthetic groups that are critical for mitochondrial oxidation-reduction reactions...
2014: Cell Death & Disease
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