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Neuro prosthetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093659/closed-loop-experiment-manager-clem-an-open-and-inexpensive-solution-for-multichannel-electrophysiological-recordings-and-closed-loop-experiments
#1
Hananel Hazan, Noam E Ziv
There is growing need for multichannel electrophysiological systems that record from and interact with neuronal systems in near real-time. Such systems are needed, for example, for closed loop, multichannel electrophysiological/optogenetic experimentation in vivo and in a variety of other neuronal preparations, or for developing and testing neuro-prosthetic devices, to name a few. Furthermore, there is a need for such systems to be inexpensive, reliable, user friendly, easy to set-up, open and expandable, and possess long life cycles in face of rapidly changing computing environments...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979183/nanowire-fet-based-neural-element-for-robotic-tactile-sensing-skin
#2
William Taube Navaraj, Carlos García Núñez, Dhayalan Shakthivel, Vincenzo Vinciguerra, Fabrice Labeau, Duncan H Gregory, Ravinder Dahiya
This paper presents novel Neural Nanowire Field Effect Transistors (υ-NWFETs) based hardware-implementable neural network (HNN) approach for tactile data processing in electronic skin (e-skin). The viability of Si nanowires (NWs) as the active material for υ-NWFETs in HNN is explored through modeling and demonstrated by fabricating the first device. Using υ-NWFETs to realize HNNs is an interesting approach as by printing NWs on large area flexible substrates it will be possible to develop a bendable tactile skin with distributed neural elements (for local data processing, as in biological skin) in the backplane...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875947/improved-prediction-of-bimanual-movements-by-a-two-staged-effector-then-trajectory-decoder-with-epidural-ecog-in-nonhuman-primates
#3
Hoseok Choi, Jeyeon Lee, Jinsick Park, Seho Lee, Kyoung-Ha Ahn, In Young Kim, Kyoung-Min Lee, Dong Pyo Jang
OBJECTIVE: In arm movement BCIs (brain-computer interfaces), unimanual research has been much more extensively studied than its bimanual counterpart. However, it is well known that the bimanual brain state is different from the unimanual one. Conventional methodology used in unimanual studies does not take the brain stage into consideration, and therefore appears to be insufficient for decoding bimanual movements. In this paper, we propose the use of a two-staged (effector-then-trajectory) decoder, which combines the classification of movement conditions and uses a hand trajectory predicting algorithm for unimanual and bimanual movements, for application to in real-world BCIs...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814058/towards-an-ankle-neuroprosthesis-for-hybrid-robotics-concepts-and-current-sources-for-functional-electrical-stimulation
#4
S Casco, I Fuster, R Galeano, J C Moreno, J L Pons, F Brunetti
Hybrid rehabilitation robotics combine neuro-prosthetic devices (close-loop functional electrical stimulation systems) and traditional robotic structures and actuators to explore better therapies and promote a more efficient motor function recovery or compensation. Although hybrid robotics and ankle neuroprostheses (NPs) have been widely developed over the last years, there are just few studies on the use of NPs to electrically control both ankle flexion and extension to promote ankle recovery and improved gait patterns in paretic limbs...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813846/closed-loop-emg-informed-model-based-analysis-of-human-musculoskeletal-mechanics-on-rough-terrains
#5
C Varotto, Z Sawacha, L Gizzi, D Farina, M Sartori
This work aims at estimating the musculoskeletal forces acting in the human lower extremity during locomotion on rough terrains. We employ computational models of the human neuro-musculoskeletal system that are informed by multi-modal movement data including foot-ground reaction forces, 3D marker trajectories and lower extremity electromyograms (EMG). Data were recorded from one healthy subject locomoting on rough grounds realized using foam rubber blocks of different heights. Blocks arrangement was randomized across all locomotion trials to prevent adaptation to specific ground morphology...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642168/the-posterior-parietal-cortex-as-integrative-hub-for-whisker-sensorimotor-information
#6
REVIEW
Hemanth Mohan, Roel de Haan, Huibert D Mansvelder, Christiaan P J de Kock
Our daily life consists of a continuous interplay between incoming sensory information and outgoing motor plans. Particularly during goal-directed behavior and active exploration of the sensory environment, brain circuits are merging sensory and motor signals. This is referred to as sensorimotor integration and is relevant for locomotion, vision or tactile exploration. The somatosensory (tactile) system is an attractive modality to study sensorimotor integration in health and disease, motivated by the need for revolutionary technology that builds upon conceptual understanding of sensorimotor integration, such as brain-machine-interfaces and neuro-prosthetics...
June 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320845/decoding-information-for-grasping-from-the-macaque-dorsomedial-visual-stream
#7
Matteo Filippini, Rossella Breveglieri, M Ali Akhras, Annalisa Bosco, Eris Chinellato, Patrizia Fattori
Neurodecoders have been developed by researchers mostly to control neuroprosthetic devices, but also to shed new light on neural functions. In this study, we show that signals representing grip configurations can be reliably decoded from neural data acquired from area V6A of the monkey medial posterior parietal cortex. Two Macaca fascicularis monkeys were trained to perform an instructed-delay reach-to-grasp task in the dark and in the light toward objects of different shapes. Population neural activity was extracted at various time intervals on vision of the objects, the delay before movement, and grasp execution...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891243/a-comprehensive-musculoskeletal-and-peripheral-nervous-system-assessment-of-war-related-bilateral-upper-extremity-amputees
#8
Mostafa Allami, Batool Mousavi, Mehdi Masoumi, Ehsan Modirian, Hadi Shojaei, Fatemeh Mirsalimi, Maryam Hosseini, Pirouz Pirouzi
BACKGROUND: Upper limb amputations are one of the unpleasant war injuries that armed forces are exposed to frequently. The present study aimed to assess the musculoskeletal and peripheral nervous systems in Iraq-Iran war veterans with bilateral upper extremity amputation. METHODS: The study consisted of taking a history and clinical examinations including demographic data, presence and location of pain, level of amputation, passive and active ranges of movement of the joints across the upper and lower extremities and spine, manual palpation, neurological examination, blood circulation pulses and issues related to a prosthetic limb...
2016: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756174/association-of-self-reported-cognitive-concerns-with-mobility-in-people-with-lower-limb-loss
#9
Valerie E Kelly, Sara J Morgan, Dagmar Amtmann, Rana Salem, Brian J Hafner
PURPOSE: This study tested the hypothesis that greater perceived cognitive concerns are associated with worse mobility in a cohort of prosthesis users with lower limb loss (LLL). METHOD: We performed a secondary analysis of cross-sectional self-report data from a volunteer sample of people with LLL due to dysvascular and non-dysvacular causes. Perceived cognitive difficulties were assessed using the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders Applied Cognition - General Concerns (Neuro-QoL ACGC)...
January 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721419/elective-amputation-and-bionic-substitution-restore-functional-hand-use-after-critical-soft-tissue-injuries
#10
Oskar C Aszmann, Ivan Vujaklija, Aidan D Roche, Stefan Salminger, Malvina Herceg, Agnes Sturma, Laura A Hruby, Anna Pittermann, Christian Hofer, Sebastian Amsuess, Dario Farina
Critical soft tissue injuries may lead to a non-functional and insensate limb. In these cases standard reconstructive techniques will not suffice to provide a useful outcome, and solutions outside the biological arena must be considered and offered to these patients. We propose a concept which, after all reconstructive options have been exhausted, involves an elective amputation along with a bionic substitution, implementing an actuated prosthetic hand via a structured tech-neuro-rehabilitation program. Here, three patients are presented in whom this concept has been successfully applied after mutilating hand injuries...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452775/comparison-of-adaptive-neuro-fuzzy-inference-system-anfis-and-gaussian-processes-for-machine-learning-gpml-algorithms-for-the-prediction-of-skin-temperature-in-lower-limb-prostheses
#11
Neha Mathur, Ivan Glesk, Arjan Buis
Monitoring of the interface temperature at skin level in lower-limb prosthesis is notoriously complicated. This is due to the flexible nature of the interface liners used impeding the required consistent positioning of the temperature sensors during donning and doffing. Predicting the in-socket residual limb temperature by monitoring the temperature between socket and liner rather than skin and liner could be an important step in alleviating complaints on increased temperature and perspiration in prosthetic sockets...
October 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27194213/a-cortically-inspired-model-for-inverse-kinematics-computation-of-a-humanoid-finger-with-mechanically-coupled-joints
#12
Rodolphe J Gentili, Hyuk Oh, Alissa V Kregling, James A Reggia
The human hand's versatility allows for robust and flexible grasping. To obtain such efficiency, many robotic hands include human biomechanical features such as fingers having their two last joints mechanically coupled. Although such coupling enables human-like grasping, controlling the inverse kinematics of such mechanical systems is challenging. Here we propose a cortical model for fine motor control of a humanoid finger, having its two last joints coupled, that learns the inverse kinematics of the effector...
May 19, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27117097/-aspartate-aminotransferase-key-enzyme-in-the-human-systemic-metabolism
#13
REVIEW
Dagmara Otto-Ślusarczyk, Wojciech Graboń, Magdalena Mielczarek-Puta
Aspartate aminotransferase is an organ-nonspecific enzyme located in many tissues of the human body where it catalyzes reversible reaction of transamination. There are two aspartate aminotransferase isoforms--cytoplasmic (AST1) and mitochondrial (AST2), that usually occur together and interact with each other metabolically. Both isoforms are homodimers containing highly conservative regions responsible for catalytic properties of enzyme. The common feature of all aspartate aminotransfeses is Lys - 259 residue covalent binding with prosthetic group - pyridoxal phosphate...
March 16, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27105944/neuro-prosthetic-interplay-comment-on-hand-synergies-integration-of-robotics-and-neuroscience-for-understanding-the-control-of-biological-and-artificial-hands-by-m-santello-et-al
#14
COMMENT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26952132/intraneural-stimulation-elicits-discrimination-of-textural-features-by-artificial-fingertip-in-intact-and-amputee-humans
#15
Calogero Maria Oddo, Stanisa Raspopovic, Fiorenzo Artoni, Alberto Mazzoni, Giacomo Spigler, Francesco Petrini, Federica Giambattistelli, Fabrizio Vecchio, Francesca Miraglia, Loredana Zollo, Giovanni Di Pino, Domenico Camboni, Maria Chiara Carrozza, Eugenio Guglielmelli, Paolo Maria Rossini, Ugo Faraguna, Silvestro Micera
Restoration of touch after hand amputation is a desirable feature of ideal prostheses. Here, we show that texture discrimination can be artificially provided in human subjects by implementing a neuromorphic real-time mechano-neuro-transduction (MNT), which emulates to some extent the firing dynamics of SA1 cutaneous afferents. The MNT process was used to modulate the temporal pattern of electrical spikes delivered to the human median nerve via percutaneous microstimulation in four intact subjects and via implanted intrafascicular stimulation in one transradial amputee...
March 8, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26904980/preface-the-eye-and-the-chip-world-research-congress-on-visual-neuro-prosthetics
#16
Philip C Hessburg, Joseph Rizzo, Edward R O'Malley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26836953/self-reported-cognitive-concerns-in-people-with-lower-limb-loss
#17
Sara J Morgan, Valerie E Kelly, Dagmar Amtmann, Rana Salem, Brian J Hafner
OBJECTIVES: To investigate differences between self-reported cognitive concerns in people with lower limb loss (LLL) and normative data derived from the U.S. general population, and secondarily to determine whether there were cognitive differences based on amputation etiology or age. DESIGN: Survey. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: A volunteer sample of persons with LLL (N=1086) resulting from trauma or dysvascular complications who regularly use a prosthetic limb...
June 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26700626/graphene-based-interfaces-do-not-alter-target-nerve-cells
#18
Alessandra Fabbro, Denis Scaini, Verónica León, Ester Vázquez, Giada Cellot, Giulia Privitera, Lucia Lombardi, Felice Torrisi, Flavia Tomarchio, Francesco Bonaccorso, Susanna Bosi, Andrea C Ferrari, Laura Ballerini, Maurizio Prato
Neural-interfaces rely on the ability of electrodes to transduce stimuli into electrical patterns delivered to the brain. In addition to sensitivity to the stimuli, stability in the operating conditions and efficient charge transfer to neurons, the electrodes should not alter the physiological properties of the target tissue. Graphene is emerging as a promising material for neuro-interfacing applications, given its outstanding physico-chemical properties. Here, we use graphene-based substrates (GBSs) to interface neuronal growth...
January 26, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26584486/tracking-neural-modulation-depth-by-dual-sequential-monte-carlo-estimation-on-point-processes-for-brain-machine-interfaces
#19
Yiwen Wang, Xiwei She, Yuxi Liao, Hongbao Li, Qiaosheng Zhang, Shaomin Zhang, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Jose Principe
Classic brain-machine interface (BMI) approaches decode neural signals from the brain responsible for achieving specific motor movements, which subsequently command prosthetic devices. Brain activities adaptively change during the control of the neuroprosthesis in BMIs, where the alteration of the preferred direction and the modulation of the gain depth are observed. The static neural tuning models have been limited by fixed codes, resulting in a decay of decoding performance over the course of the movement and subsequent instability in motor performance...
August 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26286937/phenotypic-screening-for-friedreich-ataxia-using-random-shrna-selection
#20
M Grazia Cotticelli, Fabio Acquaviva, Shujuan Xia, Avinash Kaur, Yongping Wang, Robert B Wilson
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neuro- and cardio-degenerative disorder for which there are no proven effective treatments. FRDA is caused by decreased expression and/or function of the protein frataxin. Frataxin chaperones iron in the mitochondrial matrix and regulates the iron-sulfur cluster (ISC) assembly complex. ISCs are prosthetic groups critical for the function of the Krebs cycle and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Decreased expression of frataxin is associated with decreased ISC assembly, mitochondrial iron accumulation, and increased oxidative stress, all of which contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction...
October 2015: Journal of Biomolecular Screening
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