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Epileptic foci

Sharon K Michelhaugh, Otto Muzik, Anthony R Guastella, Neil V Klinger, Lisa A Polin, Hancheng Cai, Yanchun Xin, Thomas J Mangner, Shaohui Zhang, Csaba Juhasz, Sandeep Mittal
: Abnormal tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway (KP) is involved in the pathophysiology of a variety of human diseases including cancers. α-[(11)C]-methyl-L-tryptophan ((11)C-AMT) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging demonstrated increased tryptophan uptake and trapping in epileptic foci and brain tumors, but the short half-life of (11)C limits its widespread clinical application. Recent in vitro studies suggested that the novel radiotracer 1-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl)-L-tryptophan ((18)F-FETrp) may be useful to assess tryptophan metabolism via the KP...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Luis E Bruno-Blanch, Luis Enrique
Despite the introduction of more than 15 third generation antiepileptic drugs to the market from 1990 to the moment, about one third of the epileptic patients still suffer from refractory of intractable epilepsy. Several hypotheses seek to explain the failure of drug treatments to control epilepsy symptoms in such patients. The most studied one proposes that drug resistance might be related with regional overactivity of efflux transporters from the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) superfamily at the blood-brain barrier and/or the epileptic foci in the brain...
October 13, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Kailiang Wang, Tinghong Liu, Xiaobin Zhao, XiaoTong Xia, Kai Zhang, Hui Qiao, Jianguo Zhang, Fangang Meng
INTRODUCTION: Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET) is widely used to help localize the hypometabolic epileptogenic focus for presurgical evaluation of drug-refractory epilepsy patients. Two voxel-based brain mapping methods to interpret (18)F-FDG-PET, statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP), improve the detection rate of seizure foci. This study aimed to compare the consistency of epileptic focus detection between SPM and 3D-SSP for (18)F-FDG-PET brain mapping analysis...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Sven Gottschalk, Thomas Felix Fehm, Xose Luís Deán-Ben, Vassiliy Tsytsarev, Daniel Razansky
Visualization of whole brain activity during epileptic seizures is essential for both fundamental research into the disease mechanisms and the development of efficient treatment strategies. It has been previously discussed that pathological synchronization originating from cortical areas may reinforce backpropagating signaling from the thalamic neurons, leading to massive seizures through enhancement of high frequency neural activity in the thalamocortical loop. However, the study of deep brain neural activity is challenging with the existing functional neuroimaging methods due to lack of adequate spatiotemporal resolution or otherwise insufficient penetration into subcortical areas...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
Emilio Russo, Rita Citraro, Andrew Constanti, Antonio Leo, Annika Lüttjohann, Gilles van Luijtelaar, Giovambattista De Sarro
The WAG/Rij rat model has recently gathered attention as a suitable animal model of absence epileptogenesis. This latter term has a broad definition encompassing any possible cause that determines the development of spontaneous seizures; however, most of, if not all, preclinical knowledge on epileptogenesis is confined to the study of post-brain insult models such as traumatic brain injury or post-status epilepticus models. WAG/Rij rats, but also synapsin 2 knockout, Kv7 current-deficient mice represent the first examples of genetic models where an efficacious antiepileptogenic treatment (ethosuximide) was started before seizure onset...
September 26, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Yang Yuan, Wang Xiang, Liu Yanhui, Liang Ruofei, Luo Jiewen, Jiang Shu, Mao Qing
Epileptic seizures, the most common symptom accompanying glioma, are closely associated with tumor growth and patient quality of life. However, the association between glioma and glioma-related epilepsy is poorly understood. In fact, findings related to the location of epileptogenicity have been inconsistent in previous studies. We investigated seizure foci in patients with glioma and the corresponding association between glioma-related epilepsy and the tumoral and peritumoral microenvironment. Clinical characteristics, extracellular electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, and western blots were conducted on 12 patients with glioma; nine patients had histories of preoperative seizures while three did not...
September 19, 2016: Neurological Sciences
Jiong Yue, Wei Li, Chao Liang, Bing Chen, Xin Chen, Lukang Wang, Zhenle Zang, Sixun Yu, Shiyong Liu, Song Li, Hui Yang
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a frequent form of focal intractable epilepsy in adults, but the specific mechanism underlying the epileptogenesis of TLE is still unknown. Human leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B2 (LILRB2) (the murine homolog gene called paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B, or PirB), participates in the process of synaptic plasticity and neurite growth in the central nervous system (CNS), suggesting a potential role of LILRB2 in epilepsy. However, the expression pattern of LILRB2 and the downstream molecular signal in intractable TLE remains poorly understood...
November 2016: Experimental Neurology
Elhum A Shamshiri, Tim M Tierney, Maria Centeno, Kelly St Pier, Ronit M Pressler, David J Sharp, Suejen Perani, J Helen Cross, David W Carmichael
Patients with focal epilepsy have been shown to have reduced functional connectivity in intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs), which has been related to neurocognitive development and outcome. However, the relationship between interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) and changes in ICNs remains unclear, with evidence both for and against their influence. EEG-fMRI data was obtained in 27 children with focal epilepsy (mixed localisation and aetiologies) and 17 controls. A natural stimulus task (cartoon blocks verses blocks where the subject was told "please wait") was used to enhance the connectivity within networks corresponding to ICNs while reducing potential confounds of vigilance and motion...
August 20, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Klajdi Puka, Mary Lou Smith
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate language skills in a heterogeneous cohort of patients who underwent or were considered for epilepsy surgery in childhood 4-11years earlier. The few existing studies that have evaluated cognitive function in the long term after surgery have examined intelligence and memory. METHOD: Participants were 97 patients, of whom 61 underwent surgery. They completed standardized tests of picture naming, vocabulary, letter fluency, semantic fluency and intelligence at baseline and, on average, 7years later...
October 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Feng Yang, Xiaolong Sun, Yinxiu Ding, Hui Ma, Tangpeng Ou Yang, Yue Ma, Dong Wei, Wen Li, Tianle Xu, Wen Jiang
Unraveling mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis after brain injury is an unmet medical challenge. Although histopathological studies have revealed that reactive astrogliosis and tissue acidosis are prominent features in epileptogenic foci, their roles in epileptogenesis remain unclear. Here, we explored whether astrocytic acid-sensing ion channel-1a (ASIC1a) contributes to the development of chronic epilepsy. High levels of ASIC1a were measured in reactive astrocytes in the hippocampi of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and epileptic mice...
2016: Scientific Reports
David Brang, Zhongtian Dai, Weili Zheng, Vernon L Towle
BACKGROUND: The accurate localization of implanted ECoG electrodes over the brain is of critical importance to invasive diagnostic work-up for the surgical treatment of intractable epileptic seizures. The implantation of subdural electrodes is an invasive procedure which typically introduces non-uniform deformations of a subject's brain, increasing the difficulty of determining the precise location of the electrodes vis-à-vis cortex. Formalization of this problem is used to define a novel solution for the optimal localization of subdural electrodes...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Lakshminarayanan Kannan, Simon Vogrin, Catherine Bailey, Wirginia Maixner, A Simon Harvey
Multiple seizure foci, seizure propagation and epileptic spasms complicate presurgical seizure localization in tuberous sclerosis. Furthermore, controversy exists about the contribution of tubers, perituberal cortex and the underlying genetic abnormality to epileptogenesis. We aimed to determine the epileptogenic substrate in tuberous sclerosis by studying spatio-temporal patterns of seizure onset and propagation on intracranial EEG recordings in which multiple depth and surface electrodes sampled multiple tubers and perituberal cortex...
August 6, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Cenglin Xu, Shuang Wang, Yi Wang, Kang Lin, Gang Pan, Zhenghao Xu, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez, Feng Gao, Xiaohua Wu, Shihong Zhang, Juan C Bulacio, Imad M Najm, Jianhong Luo, Weiwei Hu, Zhaohui Wu, Norman K So, Zhong Chen
High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) are promising biomarkers for epileptic foci; however, their characteristic changes during the preictal period remain unclear. Here, the preictal HFOs were recorded and detected by an automated HFOs detection method in the mouse pilocarpine model as well as in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) and neocortical epilepsy. A total of sixteen low-voltage fast (LVF) and fifty-three hypersynchronous-onset (HYP) seizures were recorded in ten mice. The rate of ripples (80-250Hz) decreased during 1min before the onset of LVF and HYP seizures, which was primarily due to the reduction of type II (independent of epileptiform discharges) rather than type I ripples (superimposed on epileptiform activities)...
July 22, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Nasir Mirza, Olga Vasieva, Richard Appleton, Sasha Burn, Daniel Carr, Daniel Crooks, Daniel du Plessis, Roderick Duncan, Jibril Osman Farah, Vivek Josan, Fabio Miyajima, Rajiv Mohanraj, Arif Shukralla, Graeme J Sills, Anthony G Marson, Munir Pirmohamed
OBJECTIVE: Many different gene families are currently being investigated for their potential role in epilepsy and in the response to antiepileptic drugs. A common research challenge is identifying the members of a gene family that are most significantly dysregulated within the human epileptic focus, before taking them forward for resource-intensive functional studies. Published data about transcriptomic changes within the human epileptic focus remains incomplete. A need exists for an accurate in silico system for the prediction of dysregulated genes within the epileptic focus...
September 2016: Epilepsia
Rosario Rossi, Maria Valeria Saddi, Alessandro Mela, Anna Ticca
We report the case of a 56-year-old woman who developed status epilepticus (SE) related to independent occipital foci as clinical manifestation of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in the background of Guillain-Barrè syndrome (GBS). SE resulted from a series of focal seizures clinically characterized by left- and rightward deviations of the head and consequent oculoclonic movements. Electroencephalography recorded independent seizure activity in both occipital regions with alternate involvement of the two cerebral hemispheres...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Philip Lee, Ahmad Alhourani, Robert Mark Richardson
INTRODUCTION: Changes in connectivity have been found surrounding epileptic foci during resting state magnetoencephalography (MEG). One manifestation of these changes is disorganization manifested by increased interconnectivity within a region. This abnormal interconnectivity indicates a decrease in efficiency, because efficient function within a system requires communication across brain regions. Surgical resection of seizure foci may attenuate these aberrant patterns of connectivity...
August 2016: Neurosurgery
Keiko Hirano, Tokiko Fukuda
The ability to visualize brain perfusion is important for identifying epileptic foci. We present three pediatric cases showing asymmetrical cerebral blood flow (CBF) distributions during the post-ictal phase of febrile status epilepticus measured by arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI. During the acute phase, regional CBF measurements in the areas considered including epileptic foci were higher than in the corresponding area of the contralateral hemisphere, though the exact quantitative value varied between cases...
May 2016: No to Hattatsu. Brain and Development
Matilda Ahl, Una Avdic, Cecilia Skoug, Idrish Ali, Deepti Chugh, Ulrica Englund Johansson, Christine T Ekdahl
BACKGROUND: Epileptic seizures are associated with an immune response in the brain. However, it is not known whether it can extend to remote areas of the brain, such as the eyes. Hence, we investigated whether epileptic seizures induce inflammation in the retina. METHODS: Adult rats underwent electrically induced temporal status epilepticus, and the eyes were studied 6 h, 1, and 7 weeks later with biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses. An additional group of animals received CX3CR1 antibody intracerebroventricularly for 6 weeks after status epilepticus...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Ryuta Koyama
Epileptogenesis, which can be initiated by brain insults or gene mutations in the normal brain, is defined as the gradual (months to years) process of epilepsy development that begins before the first epileptic seizure. Epileptogenic changes include induction of immediate early genes, post-translational modification of ion-channel functions, neuronal death, gliosis, and reorganization of neural circuits. Each of these changes alone or in combination can contribute to an epileptogenic focus, which is defined by the minimal cortical region that is necessary and sufficient to induce synchronized epileptic bursting activity in neurons...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Stefan Fuertinger, Kristina Simonyan, Michael R Sperling, Ashwini D Sharan, Farid Hamzei-Sichani
OBJECTIVE: Cortical high-frequency oscillations (HFOs; 100-500 Hz) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy; however, whether they represent a true epileptogenic process remains largely unknown. HFOs have been recorded in the human cortex but their network dynamics during the transitional period from interictal to ictal phase remain largely unknown. We sought to determine the high-frequency network dynamics of these oscillations in patients with epilepsy who were undergoing intracranial electroencephalographic recording for seizure localization...
July 2016: Epilepsia
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