Read by QxMD icon Read

Epileptic foci

Jovana Kovacevic, Gregoire Maroteaux, Desiree Schut, Maarten Loos, Mohit Dubey, Julika Pitsch, Esther Remmelink, Bastijn Koopmans, James Crowley, L Niels Cornelisse, Patrick F Sullivan, Susanne Schoch, Ruud F Toonen, Oliver Stiedl, Matthijs Verhage
De novo heterozygous mutations in STXBP1/Munc18-1 cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathies (EIEE4, OMIM #612164) characterized by infantile epilepsy, developmental delay, intellectual disability, and can include autistic features. We characterized the cellular deficits for an allelic series of seven STXBP1 mutations and developed four mouse models that recapitulate the abnormal EEG activity and cognitive aspects of human STXBP1-encephalopathy. Disease-causing STXBP1 variants supported synaptic transmission to a variable extent on a null background, but had no effect when overexpressed on a heterozygous background...
March 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Luis Garcia-Larrea, François Mauguière
Pain was considered to be integrated subcortically during most of the 20th century, and it was not until 1956 that focal injury to the parietal opercular-insular cortex was shown to produce selective loss of pain senses. The parietal operculum and adjacent posterior insula are the main recipients of spinothalamic afferents in primates. The innermost operculum appears functionally associated with the posterior insula and can be segregated histologically, somatotopically and neurochemically from the more lateral S2 areas...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Richárd Fiáth, Katharina T Hofer, Vivien Csikós, Domonkos Horváth, Tibor Nánási, Kinga Tóth, Frederick Pothof, Christian Böhler, Maria Asplund, Patrick Ruther, István Ulbert
Stereo-electroencephalography depth electrodes, regularly implanted into drug-resistant patients with focal epilepsy to localize the epileptic focus, have a low channel count (6-12 macro- or microelectrodes), limited spatial resolution (0.5-1 cm) and large contact area of the recording sites (~mm2). Thus, they are not suited for high-density local field potential and multiunit recordings. In this paper, we evaluated the long-term electrophysiological recording performance and histocompatibility of a neural interface consisting of 32 microelectrodes providing a physical shape similar to clinical devices...
February 26, 2018: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
Vivek Tandon, Michael Lang, Poodipedi Sarat Chandra, Ashwini Sharan, Ajay Garg, Manjari Tripathi
BACKGROUND: A stereotactically placed laser fiber can deliver thermal energy to an epileptogenic focus in brain. This procedure is done under intraoperative (thermography) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. Thermoablation can lead to edema in surrounding area and can cause secondary insult. In this case report of three cases, we have quantified the edema produced after laser ablation, with sequential MRI in immediate post-operative period. CASE DESCRIPTION(S): Three patients of intractable epilepsy underwent proper neurological and neuro-radiological workup to localize the site of epileptogenic foci...
February 6, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Iva Speck, Matthias Echternach, Daniela Sammler, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage
The objective of our study was to assess alterations in speech as a possible localizing sign in frontal lobe epilepsy. Ictal speech was analyzed in 18 patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) during seizures and in the interictal period. Matched identical words were analyzed regarding alterations in fundamental frequency (ƒo) as an approximation of pitch. In patients with FLE, ƒo of ictal utterances was significantly higher than ƒo in interictal recordings (p = 0.016). Ictal ƒo increases occurred in both FLE of right and left seizure origin...
January 31, 2018: Epilepsia
Yan-En Lyu, Xiao-Fei Xu, Shuang Dai, Xiao-Bo Dong, Shao-Ping Shen, Yao Wang, Chong Liu
BACKGROUND: Anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) is the standard surgical treatment for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but patients may suffer from recurrent seizures post-surgery. Invasive electrical monitoring plays a critical role in precisely identifying the epileptic foci. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the benefits of long-term invasive electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring and two-stage surgery with the classical approach to examine their effect on post-surgical brain function and complications...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
Hélène Catenoix, Pierre Bourdillon, Marc Guénot, Jean Isnard
SEEG-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation (SEEG-guided RFTC), a combination of Stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) and radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RFTC), has been performed since 2001 in drug resistant epilepsy. The interest of this procedure is to aim at total or partial destruction of the epileptogenic zone, as tailored in each individual patient by the SEEG exploration. These multiple SEEG-guided RFTC lesions of epileptic foci are produced by using a radiofrequency generator connected to the electrode contacts...
January 9, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Tim J von Oertzen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Functional neuroimaging with PET and SPECT is a commonly used tool in presurgical evaluation. The following article reviews the literature of PET and SPECT in presurgical assessment of epilepsies published in the last year. RECENT FINDINGS: FDG-PET adds concomitant information in temporal and extratemporal lobe epilepsy in adults and children. The pattern of hypometabolism in FDG-PET is a good additional predictor or seizure outcome in TLE with mesial temporal sclerosis or negative MRI...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Epifanio Bagarinao, Satoshi Maesawa, Yuji Ito, Naotaka Usui, Jun Natsume, Hirohisa Watanabe, Minoru Hoshiyama, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Gen Sobue, Shinji Naganawa, Haruo Isoda
OBJECTIVE: Epileptic spikes are associated with rapidly changing brain activation involving the epileptic foci and other brain regions in the "epileptic network". We aim to resolve these activation changes using simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings. METHODS: Simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings from 9 patients with epilepsy were used in the analysis. Our method employed the whole scalp EEG data to generate regressors for the analysis of fMRI data using the general linear model...
November 27, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Michael C Dewan, Robert Shults, Andrew T Hale, Vishad Sukul, Dario J Englot, Peter Konrad, Hong Yu, Joseph S Neimat, William Rodriguez, Benoit M Dawant, Srivatsan Pallavaram, Robert P Naftel
OBJECTIVE Stereotactic electroencephalography (SEEG) is being used with increasing frequency to interrogate subcortical, cortical, and multifocal epileptic foci. The authors describe a novel technique for SEEG in patients with suspected epileptic foci refractory to medical management. METHODS In the authors' technique, standard epilepsy evaluation and neuroimaging are used to create a hypothesis-driven SEEG plan, which informs the 3D printing of a novel single-path, multiple-trajectory, omnidirectional platform...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
Antje Hartmann, Steffen Sager, Klaus Failing, Marion Sparenberg, Martin J Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs. Unfortunately, up to 30% of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy show no improvement under antiepileptic drug treatment. Diffusion-weighted imaging is used in human medicine to identify epileptogenic foci in the brain to allow for more invasive treatments such as deep brain stimulation or surgical removal. The aim of this study was to ass the feasibility of interictal diffusion-weighted MRI in dogs and to evaluate the distribution of diffusion in the brains of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) and to compare these values to previously published values from healthy beagle dogs...
November 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
Harvey B Sarnat, Morris H Scantlebury
Though the term "inflammation" is traditionally defined as proliferation or infiltration of lymphatic cells of the lymphatic immune system and macrophages or as immunoreactive proteins including cytokines, interleukins and major histocompatibility complexes, recently recognized reactions to tissue injury also are inflammation, often occurring in the central nervous system in conditions where they previously were not anticipated and where they may play a role in both pathogenesis and repair. We highlight 4 such novel inflammatory conditions revealed by neuropathologic studies: (1) inflammatory markers and cells in the brain of human fetuses with tuberous sclerosis complex and perhaps other disorders of the mechanistic target of rapamycin genetic or metabolic pathway, (2) inflammatory markers in the brain related to febrile seizures of infancy and early childhood, (3) heat-shock protein upregulation in glial cells and neurons at sites of chronic epileptic foci, and (4) the emerging role of astrocytes in the presence of and participation in inflammation...
August 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
Carlo Cianchetti, Filippo Dainese, Maria Giuseppina Ledda, Giuliano Avanzini
PURPOSE: To describe the concept, features and mechanisms of epileptic headache (EH). METHODS: Analysis of all published articles concerning EH and related subjects. RESULTS: There are more than 30 published case studies of patients with headache as the only manifestation of a seizure, a condition that has been variously called "EH", "ictal epileptic headache", "hemicrania epileptica", "cephalic pain seizure". It is necessary to differentiate EH from "migralepsy" and "ictal non-epileptic headache"...
October 13, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Teresa Ravizza, Gaetano Terrone, Alessia Salamone, Federica Frigerio, Silvia Balosso, Daniel J Antoine, Annamaria Vezzani
Approximately 30% of epilepsy patients experience seizures that are not controlled by the available drugs. Moreover, these drugs provide mainly a symptomatic treatment since they do not interfere with the disease's mechanisms. A mechanistic approach to the discovery of key pathogenic brain modifications causing seizure onset, recurrence and progression is instrumental for designing novel and rationale therapeutic interventions that could modify the disease course or prevent its development. In this regard, increasing evidence shows that neuroinflammation is a pathogenic factor in drug-resistant epilepsies...
October 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Giovanni Pellegrino, Tanguy Hedrich, Rasheda Arman Chowdhury, Jeffery A Hall, Francois Dubeau, Jean-Marc Lina, Eliane Kobayashi, Christophe Grova
OBJECTIVE: Source localization of interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) is clinically useful in the presurgical workup of epilepsy patients. It is usually obtained by equivalent current dipole (ECD) which localizes a point source and is the only inverse solution approved by clinical guidelines. In contrast, magnetic source imaging using distributed methods (dMSI) provides maps of the location and the extent of the generators, but its yield has not been clinically validated. We systematically compared ECD versus dMSI performed using coherent Maximum Entropy on the Mean (cMEM), a method sensitive to the spatial extent of the generators...
January 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Daichi Sone, Naoki Ikegaya, Akio Takahashi, Kaoru Sumida, Miho Ota, Takashi Saito, Yukio Kimura, Hiroshi Matsuda, Noriko Sato
Recent studies using rat models suggested that epileptic discharges (EDs) can induce focal brain hyperthermia, but such ED-related hyperthermia has not been confirmed in humans. We examined hyperthermia of the focus of epilepsy using noninvasive proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) thermometry. We recruited six pediatric patients with refractory daily seizures, continuous interictal epileptic discharges, and concordant focus lesions on MRI who had undergone comprehensive presurgical exams. (1)H-MRS thermometry calculated the temperatures of the presumed epileptogenic lesions, and we examined the contralateral counterparts in each patient as controls...
October 6, 2017: Epilepsy Research
Alexander Barnett, Samantha Audrain, Mary Pat McAndrews
We discuss the value of resting-state functional MR imaging (rsfMR imaging) as an emerging technique to address questions about memory and language that are central in surgery for temporal-lobe epilepsy, namely the identification and characterization of eloquent cortex to avoid surgical morbidity. The emergence of a robust set of data using rsfMR imaging has opened new avenues for exploring more direct relationships between neural networks and current cognitive function and prediction of postoperative change...
November 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
Mya Z Tun, Wee Kheng Soo, Kevin Wu, Richard Kane
We discuss the case of an 83-year-old man admitted to the hospital after losing control of his vehicle due to an unexplained episode of altered consciousness. This occurred on a background of multiple similar episodes associated with acute confusion, superimposed on a gradual cognitive decline spanning 6 years. Organic aetiologies for delirium were excluded and CT and MRI of the brain were negative for cerebrovascular accidents or other epileptogenic foci. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was negative for epileptiform activity...
September 27, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
Yue-Loong Hsin, Tomor Harnod, Cheng-Siu Chang, Syu-Jyun Peng
PURPOSE: Convulsive motor activity is a clinical manifestation of secondarily generalized seizures evolving from different focal regions. The way in which the motor seizures present themselves is not very different from most of the generalized seizures in and between epilepsy patients. This might point towards the involvement of motor-related cortices and corticospinal pathway for wide spread propagation of epileptic activity. Our aim was to identify changes in the cerebral structures and to correlate clinical variables with structural changes particularly in the motor-related cortices and pathway of patients with generalized convulsions from different seizure foci...
September 20, 2017: Epilepsy Research
(no author information available yet)
Gene identification in epilepsy has mainly been limited to large families segregating genes of major effect and de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathies. Many families that present with common non-acquired focal epilepsies and genetic generalized epilepsies remain unexplained. We assembled a cohort of 'genetically enriched' common epilepsies by collecting and phenotyping families containing multiple individuals with unprovoked seizures. We aimed to determine if specific clinical epilepsy features aggregate within families, and whether this segregation of phenotypes may constitute distinct 'familial syndromes' that could inform genomic analyses...
August 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"