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Epileptic foci

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141638/diffusion-weighted-imaging-of-the-brains-of-dogs-with-idiopathic-epilepsy
#1
Antje Hartmann, Steffen Sager, Klaus Failing, Marion Sparenberg, Martin J Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs. Unfortunately, up to 30% of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy show no improvement under antiepileptic drug treatment. Diffusion-weighted imaging is used in human medicine to identify epileptogenic foci in the brain to allow for more invasive treatments such as deep brain stimulation or surgical removal. The aim of this study was to ass the feasibility of interictal diffusion-weighted MRI in dogs and to evaluate the distribution of diffusion in the brains of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) and to compare these values to previously published values from healthy beagle dogs...
November 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103422/novel-inflammatory-neuropathology-in-immature-brain-1-fetal-tuberous-sclerosis-2-febrile-seizures-3-%C3%AE-b-crystallin-and-4-role-of-astrocytes
#2
Harvey B Sarnat, Morris H Scantlebury
Though the term "inflammation" is traditionally defined as proliferation or infiltration of lymphatic cells of the lymphatic immune system and macrophages or as immunoreactive proteins including cytokines, interleukins and major histocompatibility complexes, recently recognized reactions to tissue injury also are inflammation, often occurring in the central nervous system in conditions where they previously were not anticipated and where they may play a role in both pathogenesis and repair. We highlight 4 such novel inflammatory conditions revealed by neuropathologic studies: (1) inflammatory markers and cells in the brain of human fetuses with tuberous sclerosis complex and perhaps other disorders of the mechanistic target of rapamycin genetic or metabolic pathway, (2) inflammatory markers in the brain related to febrile seizures of infancy and early childhood, (3) heat-shock protein upregulation in glial cells and neurons at sites of chronic epileptic foci, and (4) the emerging role of astrocytes in the presence of and participation in inflammation...
August 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054038/epileptic-headache-a-rare-form-of-painful-seizure
#3
REVIEW
Carlo Cianchetti, Filippo Dainese, Maria Giuseppina Ledda, Giuliano Avanzini
PURPOSE: To describe the concept, features and mechanisms of epileptic headache (EH). METHODS: Analysis of all published articles concerning EH and related subjects. RESULTS: There are more than 30 published case studies of patients with headache as the only manifestation of a seizure, a condition that has been variously called "EH", "ictal epileptic headache", "hemicrania epileptica", "cephalic pain seizure". It is necessary to differentiate EH from "migralepsy" and "ictal non-epileptic headache"...
October 13, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031614/high-mobility-group-box-1-is-a-novel-pathogenic-factor-and-a-mechanistic-biomarker-for-epilepsy
#4
Teresa Ravizza, Gaetano Terrone, Alessia Salamone, Federica Frigerio, Silvia Balosso, Daniel J Antoine, Annamaria Vezzani
Approximately 30% of epilepsy patients experience seizures that are not controlled by the available drugs. Moreover, these drugs provide mainly a symptomatic treatment since they do not interfere with the disease's mechanisms. A mechanistic approach to the discovery of key pathogenic brain modifications causing seizure onset, recurrence and progression is instrumental for designing novel and rationale therapeutic interventions that could modify the disease course or prevent its development. In this regard, increasing evidence shows that neuroinflammation is a pathogenic factor in drug-resistant epilepsies...
October 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024165/clinical-yield-of-magnetoencephalography-distributed-source-imaging-in-epilepsy-a-comparison-with-equivalent-current-dipole-method
#5
Giovanni Pellegrino, Tanguy Hedrich, Rasheda Arman Chowdhury, Jeffery A Hall, Francois Dubeau, Jean-Marc Lina, Eliane Kobayashi, Christophe Grova
OBJECTIVE: Source localization of interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) is clinically useful in the presurgical workup of epilepsy patients. It is usually obtained by equivalent current dipole (ECD) which localizes a point source and is the only inverse solution approved by clinical guidelines. In contrast, magnetic source imaging using distributed methods (dMSI) provides maps of the location and the extent of the generators, but its yield has not been clinically validated. We systematically compared ECD versus dMSI performed using coherent Maximum Entropy on the Mean (cMEM), a method sensitive to the spatial extent of the generators...
October 11, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017073/noninvasive-detection-of-focal-brain-hyperthermia-related-to-continuous-epileptic-activities-using-proton-mr-spectroscopy
#6
Daichi Sone, Naoki Ikegaya, Akio Takahashi, Kaoru Sumida, Miho Ota, Takashi Saito, Yukio Kimura, Hiroshi Matsuda, Noriko Sato
Recent studies using rat models suggested that epileptic discharges (EDs) can induce focal brain hyperthermia, but such ED-related hyperthermia has not been confirmed in humans. We examined hyperthermia of the focus of epilepsy using noninvasive proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) thermometry. We recruited six pediatric patients with refractory daily seizures, continuous interictal epileptic discharges, and concordant focus lesions on MRI who had undergone comprehensive presurgical exams. (1)H-MRS thermometry calculated the temperatures of the presumed epileptogenic lesions, and we examined the contralateral counterparts in each patient as controls...
October 6, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985938/applications-of-resting-state-functional-mr-imaging-to-epilepsy
#7
REVIEW
Alexander Barnett, Samantha Audrain, Mary Pat McAndrews
We discuss the value of resting-state functional MR imaging (rsfMR imaging) as an emerging technique to address questions about memory and language that are central in surgery for temporal-lobe epilepsy, namely the identification and characterization of eloquent cortex to avoid surgical morbidity. The emergence of a robust set of data using rsfMR imaging has opened new avenues for exploring more direct relationships between neural networks and current cognitive function and prediction of postoperative change...
November 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954753/dementia-with-lewy-bodies-presenting-as-probable-epileptic-seizure
#8
Mya Z Tun, Wee Kheng Soo, Kevin Wu, Richard Kane
We discuss the case of an 83-year-old man admitted to the hospital after losing control of his vehicle due to an unexplained episode of altered consciousness. This occurred on a background of multiple similar episodes associated with acute confusion, superimposed on a gradual cognitive decline spanning 6 years. Organic aetiologies for delirium were excluded and CT and MRI of the brain were negative for cerebrovascular accidents or other epileptogenic foci. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was negative for epileptiform activity...
September 27, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950219/increase-in-gray-matter-volume-and-white-matter-fractional-anisotropy-in-the-motor-pathways-of-patients-with-secondarily-generalized-neocortical-seizures
#9
Yue-Loong Hsin, Tomor Harnod, Cheng-Siu Chang, Syu-Jyun Peng
PURPOSE: Convulsive motor activity is a clinical manifestation of secondarily generalized seizures evolving from different focal regions. The way in which the motor seizures present themselves is not very different from most of the generalized seizures in and between epilepsy patients. This might point towards the involvement of motor-related cortices and corticospinal pathway for wide spread propagation of epileptic activity. Our aim was to identify changes in the cerebral structures and to correlate clinical variables with structural changes particularly in the motor-related cortices and pathway of patients with generalized convulsions from different seizure foci...
September 20, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899008/phenotypic-analysis-of-303-multiplex-families-with-common-epilepsies
#10
MULTICENTER STUDY
(no author information available yet)
Gene identification in epilepsy has mainly been limited to large families segregating genes of major effect and de novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathies. Many families that present with common non-acquired focal epilepsies and genetic generalized epilepsies remain unexplained. We assembled a cohort of 'genetically enriched' common epilepsies by collecting and phenotyping families containing multiple individuals with unprovoked seizures. We aimed to determine if specific clinical epilepsy features aggregate within families, and whether this segregation of phenotypes may constitute distinct 'familial syndromes' that could inform genomic analyses...
August 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778100/erratum-age-dependency-of-location-of-epileptic-foci-in-continuous-spike-and-waves-during-sleep-a-parallel-to-the-posterior-anterior-trajectory-of-slow-wave-activity
#11
Bigna Katrin Bölsterli Heinzle, Thomas Bast, Hanne Critelli, Reto Huber, Bernhard Schmitt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701945/magnetoencephalography-in-preoperative-epileptic-foci-localization-enlightenment-from-cognitive-studies
#12
REVIEW
Qian Wang, Pengfei Teng, Guoming Luan
Over 30% epileptic patients are refractory to medication, who are amenable to neurosurgical treatment. Non-invasive brain imaging technologies including video-electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are widely used in presurgical assessment of epileptic patients. This review mainly discussed the current development of clinical MEG imaging as a diagnose approach, and its correlations with the golden standard intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG). More importantly, this review discussed the possible applications of functional networks in preoperative epileptic foci localization in future studies...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628556/real-time-imaging-of-epileptic-seizures-in-rats-using-electrical-impedance-tomography
#13
Lei Wang, Yang Sun, Xinmin Xu, Xiuzhen Dong, Feng Gao
The presence of multiple or diffuse lesions on imaging is a contraindication to surgery for patients with intractable epilepsy. Theoretically, as a functional imaging technique, electrical impedance tomography (EIT) can accurately image epileptic foci. However, most current studies are limited to examining epileptic spikes and few studies use EIT for real-time imaging of seizure activity. Moreover, little is known about changes in electrical impedance during seizures. In this study, we used EIT to monitor seizure progression in real time and analyzed changes in electrical impedance during seizures...
August 2, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502693/prolonged-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-following-laser-interstitial-ablation-in-epilepsy-a-case-series-with-a-case-report-of-postablation-optic-neuritis
#14
Saint-Aaron Morris, Matthew Rollo, Patrick Rollo, Jessica Johnson, Gerald A Grant, Elliott Friedman, Giridhar Kalamangalam, Nitin Tandon
OBJECTIVE: Laser interstitial thermal therapy has become increasingly popular for targeting epileptic foci in a minimally invasive fashion. Despite its use in >1000 patients, the long-term effects of photothermal injury on brain physiology remain poorly understood. METHODS: We prospectively followed clinical and radiographic courses of 13 patients undergoing laser ablation for focal epilepsy by the senior author (N.T.). Only patients with nonenhancing lesions and patients who had a delayed postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan with gadolinium administration approximately 6 months after ablation were considered...
August 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386924/subdural-grid-and-depth-electrode-monitoring-in-pediatric-patients
#15
REVIEW
Jesse Skoch, P David Adelson, Sanjiv Bhatia, Hansel M Greiner, Bertil Rydenhag, Didier Scavarda, Francesco T Mangano
Invasive electroencephalographic monitoring with implantable subdural electrodes and intraparenchymal depth electrodes has become a basic tenet of epilepsy surgery. Improved localization of epileptic foci justifies the secondary procedure and monitoring period in many patients. Informed use of invasive monitoring in conjunction with imaging and functional studies makes epilepsy surgery a smaller, safer, and more effective endeavor. Herein we review the history, indications, implementation, and foreseeable future of grid, strip, and depth electrode use...
April 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334998/spatiotemporal-mapping-of-epileptic-spikes-using-simultaneous-eeg-functional-mri
#16
Jennifer M Walz, Mangor Pedersen, Amir Omidvarnia, Mira Semmelroch, Graeme D Jackson
Epileptic spikes occur on the sub-second timescale and are known to involve not only epileptic foci but also large-scale distributed brain networks. There is likely to be a sequence of neural activity in multiple brain regions that occurs within the duration of a single spike, but standard electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging analyses, which use only the timing of the spikes to model the functional magnetic resonance imaging data, cannot determine the sequence of these activations. Our aim in this study is to temporally resolve these spatial activations to observe the spatiotemporal dynamics of the spike-related neural activity at a sub-second timescale...
April 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277256/-anesthetic-considerations-for-awake-craniotomy-case-report
#17
Cassiano Hamacek de Freitas, Celso Homero Santos Oliveira, Daniel Câmara de Rezende, Joyce Romano, Henrique Rodrigues Lemos Silva, Ivana Mares Trivellato
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The conscious patient cooperation during neurological procedures has become necessary for the delimitation of areas to be managed by a neurosurgeon, with better results in the treatment of tumor lesions, vascular or epileptic foci, and lesser sequelae. The need for perioperative awareness (responsiveness to commands) challenges anesthesiologists to further ensure patient safety during the procedure. Several techniques have been described for this purpose. CASE REPORT: In this case, interaction with the patient during brain tumor resection enabled a broad approach of the tumor lesion, limited by deficits in speech and naming observed during surgical manipulation, avoiding major consequences...
October 27, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254512/electrocorticographic-delineation-of-human-auditory-cortical-fields-based-on-effects-of-propofol-anesthesia
#18
Kirill V Nourski, Matthew I Banks, Mitchell Steinschneider, Ariane E Rhone, Hiroto Kawasaki, Rashmi N Mueller, Michael M Todd, Matthew A Howard
The functional organization of human auditory cortex remains incompletely characterized. While the posteromedial two thirds of Heschl's gyrus (HG) is generally considered to be part of core auditory cortex, additional subdivisions of HG remain speculative. To further delineate the hierarchical organization of human auditory cortex, we investigated regional heterogeneity in the modulation of auditory cortical responses under varying depths of anesthesia induced by propofol. Non-invasive studies have shown that propofol differentially affects auditory cortical activity, with a greater impact on non-core areas...
May 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211120/the-effect-of-sevoflurane-on-electrocorticographic-spike-activity-in-pediatric-patients-with-epilepsy
#19
Shigekazu Tanaka, Yutaka Oda, Masayoshi Ryokai, Takehiro Uda, Noritsugu Kunihiro, Ichiro Kuki, Ryu Okutani
BACKGROUND: Electrocorticogram (ECoG) spike activity is enhanced under general anesthesia with 1.5 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) sevoflurane compared with lower concentrations in adult patients with epilepsy. However, the effect of concentration of sevoflurane on ECoG in children with epilepsy is less known. AIMS: The primary endpoint was to investigate the effects of sevoflurane on ECoG spike activity in pediatric patients undergoing epilepsy surgery. The secondary endpoint was to examine its effects on baseline ECoG including burst suppression...
April 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211105/joint-reconstruction-of-ictal-inter-ictal-spect-data-for-improved-epileptic-foci-localization
#20
Yothin Rakvongthai, Frederic Fahey, Korn Borvorntanajanya, Supatporn Tepmongkol, Usanee Vutrapongwatana, Katherine Zukotynski, Georges El Fakhri, Jinsong Ouyang
PURPOSE: To improve the performance for localizing epileptic foci, we have developed a joint ictal/inter-ictal SPECT reconstruction method in which ictal and inter-ictal SPECT projections are simultaneously reconstructed to obtain the differential image. METHODS: We have developed a SPECT reconstruction method that jointly reconstructs ictal and inter-ictal SPECT projection data. We performed both phantom and patient studies to evaluate the performance of our joint method for epileptic foci localization as compared with the conventional subtraction method in which the differential image is obtained by subtracting the inter-ictal image from the co-registered ictal image...
April 2017: Medical Physics
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