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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344107/managing-hyponatremia-in-lung-cancer-latest-evidence-and-clinical-implications
#1
REVIEW
Ilaria Fiordoliva, Tania Meletani, Maria Giuditta Baleani, Silvia Rinaldi, Agnese Savini, Marzia Di Pietro Paolo, Rossana Berardi
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in lung cancer patients. This condition may be related to many causes including incidental medications, concurrent diseases and side effects of antineoplastic treatments or the disease itself. Although not frequently life-threatening, it is usually associated with prolonged hospitalization, delays in scheduled chemotherapy, worsening of patient performance status and quality of life and may also negatively affect treatment response and survival. Most of the available data focus on thoracic tumors, especially small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), where hyponatremia is frequently related to the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH)...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341965/osmotic-shifts-cerebral-edema-and-neurologic-deterioration-in-severe-hepatic-encephalopathy
#2
Eric Michael Liotta, Anna L Romanova, Bryan D Lizza, Laura J Rasmussen-Torvik, Minjee Kim, Brandon Francis, Rajbeer Singh Sangha, Timothy J Carroll, Daniel Ganger, Daniela P Ladner, Andrew M Naidech, James J Paparello, Shyam Prabhakaran, Farzaneh A Sorond, Matthew B Maas
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the effect of acute electrolyte and osmolar shifts on brain volume and neurologic function in patients with liver failure and severe hepatic encephalopathy. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of brain CT scans and clinical data. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital ICUs. PATIENTS: Patients with acute or acute-on-chronic liver failure and severe hepatic encephalopathy. INTERVENTIONS: Clinically indicated CT scans and serum laboratory studies...
February 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340311/hyponatremia-and-the-brain
#3
REVIEW
Fabrice Gankam Kengne, Guy Decaux
Hyponatremia is defined by low serum sodium concentration and is the most common electrolyte disorder encountered in clinical practice. Serum sodium is the main determinant of plasma osmolality, which, in turn, affects cell volume. In the presence of low extracellular osmolality, cells will swell if the adaptation mechanisms involved in the cell volume maintenance are inadequate. The most dramatic effects of hyponatremia on the brain are seen when serum sodium concentration decreases in a short period, allowing little or no adaptation...
January 2018: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339230/balanced-crystalloids-vs-0-9-saline-for-adult-patients-undergoing-non-renal-surgery-a-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Lili Huang, Xiaoshuang Zhou, Hai Yu
BACKGROUND: Fluid maintenance and resuscitation is an important strategy during major surgeries. There has been a debate on the choice of crystalloids over the past decades. 0.9% saline (normal saline) is more likely to cause hyperchloremic acidosis when compared to balanced crystalloids with low chloride content. Meta-analyses comparing these two kinds of crystalloids have been performed in renal transplantations. We aim to compare the safety of balanced crystalloids to normal saline among adult patients undergoing non-renal surgery...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331425/low-picomolar-label-free-procalcitonin-analytical-detection-with-an-electrolyte-gated-organic-field-effect-transistor-based-electronic-immunosensor
#5
Preethi Seshadri, Kyriaki Manoli, Nicole Schneiderhan-Marra, Uwe Anthes, Piotr Wierzchowiec, Klaus Bonrad, Cinzia Di Franco, Luisa Torsi
Herein a label-free immunosensor based on electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor (EGOFET) was developed for the detection of procalcitonin (PCT), a sepsis marker. Antibodies specific to PCT were immobilized on the poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) organic semiconductor surface through direct physical adsorption followed by a post-treatment with bovine serum albumin (BSA) which served as the blocking agent to prevent non-specific adsorption. Antibodies together with BSA (forming the whole biorecognition layer) served to selectively capture the procalcitonin target analyte...
December 26, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331086/current-management-of-small-bowel-obstruction-in-the-uk-results-from-the-national-audit-of-small-bowel-obstruction-clinical-practice-survey
#6
Matthew J Lee, Adele E Sayers, Timothy R Wilson, Austin G Acheson, Iain D Anderson, Nicola S Fearnhead
AIM: Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The National Audit of Small Bowel Obstruction (NASBO) is a collaboration between trainees and specialty associations to improve the care of patients with SBO through national clinical audit. The aim of this study was to define current Consultant practice preferences in the management of small bowel obstruction in the UK. METHOD: A survey was designed to assess practice preferences of consultant surgeons...
January 13, 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326859/severe-hyponatremia-presenting-with-minimal-symptoms
#7
Anita Lwanga, Amira Mohamed, Mayank Patel, Andres Serrano
Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte abnormality, however, encountering a patient with serum sodium level below 100 mEq/L and minimal symptoms is unusual. We present the case of an 86-year-old woman who was found to have serum sodium levels of 99 mEq/L. Her only complaint was difficulty in walking. On admission, and throughout her hospital stay, she did not have altered mental status, focal neurological deficits, or adverse outcomes. Her history, blood work, and urine studies pointed towards a diagnosis of thiazide-associated hyponatremia...
November 8, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324683/pentoxifylline-and-methylprednisolone-additively-alleviate-kidney-failure-and-prolong-survival-of-rats-after-renal-warm-ischemia-reperfusion
#8
Grzegorz Wystrychowski, Wojciech Wystrychowski, Władysław Grzeszczak, Andrzej Więcek, Robert Król, Antoni Wystrychowski
Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) induces local inflammation leading to kidney damage. Since pentoxifylline (PTX) and steroids have distinct immunomodulatory properties, we aimed to evaluate for the first time their combined use in IRI-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in rats. In two experiments, PTX (100 mg/kg body weight subcutaneously) was administered 90 min prior to renal IRI or/and methylprednisolone (MP; 100 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly) was infused 60 min after reperfusion of a solitary kidney (AKI model: 45 min ischemia, 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats) or one kidney with excision of contralateral kidney 2 weeks later (CKD model: 90 min ischemia, 38 rats)...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321950/manifestations-of-renal-impairment-in-fructose-induced-metabolic-syndrome
#9
Kameliya Bratoeva, George S Stoyanov, Albena Merdzhanova, Mariya Radanova
Introduction International studies show an increased incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). It is assumed that the major components of MS - obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension - are linked to renal damage through the systemic release of several pro-inflammatory mediators, such as uric acid (UA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and generalized oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent of kidney impairment and manifestations of dysfunction in rats with fructose-induced MS...
November 7, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318728/diagnosis-and-management-of-hyponatraemia-in-the-older-patient
#10
REVIEW
Michael Woodward, Peter Gonski, Mathis Grossmann, John Obeid, Ron Scholes, Duncan J Topliss
Hyponatraemia (serum sodium concentration below 135 mmol/L) is the most common electrolyte disturbance and occurs commonly in older people. The causes can be complex to diagnose and treat and many published guidelines do not focus on the issues in an older patient group. Here, we are principally concerned with diagnosis and management of euvolaemic and hypervolaemic hyponatraemia in hospitalised patients over 70 years old. We also aim to increase awareness of hyponatraemia in residential aged care facilities and the community...
January 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318003/incident-adverse-drug-reactions-in-geriatric-inpatients-a-multicentred-observational-study
#11
Amanda Lavan, Joseph Eustace, Darren Dahly, Evelyn Flanagan, Paul Gallagher, Shane Cullinane, Mirko Petrovic, Katrina Perehudoff, Adalsteinn Gudmondsson, Ólafur Samuelsson, Ástrós Sverrisdóttir, Antonio Cherubin, Frederica Dimitri, Joe Rimland, Alfonso Cruz-Jentoft, Manuel Vélez-Díaz-Pallarés, Isabel Lozano Montoya, Roy L Soiza, Selvarani Subbarayan, Denis O'Mahony
Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are common in older adults and frequently have serious clinical and economic consequences. This study was conducted as a feasibility study for a randomized control trial (RCT) that will investigate the efficacy of a software engine to optimize medications and reduce incident (in-hospital) ADRs. This study's objectives were to (i) establish current incident ADR rates across the six sites participating in the forthcoming RCT and (ii) assess whether incident ADRs are predictable...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316533/albumin-adsorption-at-solid-substrates-a-quest-for-a-unified-approach
#12
Zbigniew Adamczyk, Małgorzata Nattich-Rak, Maria Dąbkowska, Marta Kujda-Kruk
Adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA), recombinant HSA (rHSA) and the albumin dimer (dHSA) at solid/electrolyte interfaces is reviewed with the emphasis put on quantitative analysis of this process. Initially, various physicochemical data characterizing bulk properties of albumin molecules are discussed such as electrophoretic mobility, electrokinetic charge, zeta potential and diffusion coefficient. Adsorption kinetics of HSA, rHSA and dHSA at mica derived from AFM, streaming potential and XPS measurements is analyzed...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310400/clinical-analysis-of-hyperkalemia-after-esophagectomy-a-case-report
#13
Qiang Chen, Wei-Guo Zhang, Shu-Chang Chen
RATIONALE: The occurrence of hyperkalemia after esophagectomy is clinically rare. Patients who underwent esophagectomy often have a serum potassium level due to perioperative reduced intake, fluids loss, consumption and other reasons. These patients often require the artificial administration of potassium. Rapid fluid loss and physiological consumption lead to the deficiency of potassium, even hypokalemia. Patients often require the addition of a large amount of potassium after operation...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307961/clinical-profile-of-patients-admitted-with-hyponatremia-in-the-medical-intensive-care-unit
#14
Prakash Babaliche, Siddharth Madnani, Sajal Kamat
Background and Aims: Hyponatremia is the predominant electrolyte abnormality with an incidence rate of approximately 22%. It is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality with scarce data in Indian intensive care settings. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical features and etiology of hyponatremia in patients admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: A 1-year prospective cross-sectional observational study was conducted, including 100 adult patients with moderate-to-severe hyponatremia admitted to the Medical ICU...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306405/chloride-imbalance-between-serum-and-csf-in-the-acute-phase-of-neuromyelitis-optica
#15
Tetsuya Akaishi, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Ichiro Nakashima
We collected serum-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-paired samples during the acute phase of clinical episodes in MS and NMO patients, together with paired samples from non-MS/NMO patients, to compare the quotients of proteins and electrolytes among them. In NMO, the quotient of chloride was significantly higher in the acute phase of optic neuritis and brain lesions, but it was significantly lower in the acute phase of myelitis. Such findings were not observed in MS or in non-MS/NMO cases. With the coexistence of serum anti-AQP4-Ab, chloride imbalance between serum and CSF could be associated with the clinical episodes in NMO...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304463/management-of-qt-prolongation-induced-by-anti-cancer-drugs-target-therapy-and-old-agents-different-algorithms-for-different-drugs
#16
REVIEW
Carmela Coppola, Anna Rienzo, Giovanna Piscopo, Antonio Barbieri, Claudio Arra, Nicola Maurea
The side effects of anticancer drugs still play a critical role in survival and quality of life. Although the recent progresses of cancer therapies have significantly improved the prognosis of oncologic patients, side effects of antineoplastic treatments are still responsible for the increased mortality of cancer survivors. Cardiovascular toxicity is the most dangerous adverse effect induced by anticancer therapies. A survey conducted by the National Health and Nutrition Examination, showed that 1807 cancer survivors followed up for seven years: 51% died of cancer and 33% of heart disease (Vejpongsa and Yeh, 2014)...
December 6, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299386/serum-sodium-and-chloride-are-inversely-associated-with-dyskinesia-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#17
Cheng-Jie Mao, Chong-Ke Zhong, Yong Yang, Ya-Ping Yang, Fen Wang, Jing Chen, Jin-Ru Zhang, Hui-Jun Zhang, Hong Jin, Ling-Li Xu, Juan-Ying Huang, Chun-Feng Liu
Objective: We aim to report and evaluate the associations between serum sodium and chloride and dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease. One hundred and two patients with Parkinson's disease were enrolled in this study. Methods: Patients' serum electrolytes including sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and chloride were measured. Other demographic information was collected, and Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale and Hoehn and Yahr stage scale were also performed...
December 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295830/treatment-of-severe-hyponatremia
#18
Richard H Sterns
Patients with severe (serum sodium ≤120 mEq/L), symptomatic hyponatremia can develop life-threatening or fatal complications from cerebral edema if treatment is inadequate and permanent neurologic disability from osmotic demyelination if treatment is excessive. Unfortunately, as is true of all electrolyte disturbances, there are no randomized trials to guide the treatment of this challenging disorder. Rather, therapeutic decisions rest on physiologic principles, animal models, observational studies, and single-patient reports...
January 2, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258604/water-t2-as-an-early-global-and-practical-biomarker-for-metabolic-syndrome-an-observational-cross-sectional-study
#19
Michelle D Robinson, Ina Mishra, Sneha Deodhar, Vipulkumar Patel, Katrina V Gordon, Raul Vintimilla, Kim Brown, Leigh Johnson, Sid O'Bryant, David P Cistola
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a highly prevalent condition that identifies individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Prevention of these diseases relies on early detection and intervention in order to preserve pancreatic β-cells and arterial wall integrity. Yet, the clinical criteria for MetS are insensitive to the early-stage insulin resistance, inflammation, cholesterol and clotting factor abnormalities that characterize the progression toward type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250236/post-ictal-transient-atrial-fibrillation-as-a-rare-manifestation-of-grand-mal-seizure
#20
Gulshan Man Singh Dangol, David A Hoffman
Atrial fibrillation (AF) most frequently occurs as a consequence of multiple etiologies including valvular disease, coronary artery disease, hyperthyroidism, alcohol ingestion, and pulmonary embolism. However, on rare occasion transient AF may be a result of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS). A 33-year-old-man presented to the emergency department following GTCS in AF with rapid ventricular response. He had no previous documented history. Diagnostic evaluation including electrolytes, thyroid function, cardiac enzymes, serum and urine drug screen, and two-dimensional echocardiogram were unremarkable...
August 2017: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
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