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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475198/willingness-to-use-drug-checking-within-future-supervised-injection-services-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-a-mid-sized-canadian-city
#1
Mary Clare Kennedy, Ayden Scheim, Beth Rachlis, Sanjana Mitra, Geoff Bardwell, Sean Rourke, Thomas Kerr
BACKGROUND: Esclating epidemics of fatal overdose are affecting communities across Canada. In many instances, the unanticipated presence of powerful opioids, such as fentanyl, in street drugs is a contributing factor. Drug checking offered within supervised injection services (SIS) is being considered as a potential measure for reducing overdose and related harms. We therefore sought to characterize the willingness of people who inject drugs (PWID) to use drug checking within SIS. METHODS: Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey examining the feasibility of SIS in London, Canada, a mid-sized city...
February 15, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475120/infant-fatality-case-with-excessive-chylous-ascites
#2
Nozomi Idota, Mami Nakamura, Misa Tojo, Hiroaki Ichioka, Kaori Shintani-Ishida, Hiroshi Ikegaya
An 11-month-old boy with marked abdominal distension was found dead in the prone position at home. Since there were many bruises in the non-protruding regions of the head, face, and abdomen, a medicolegal autopsy was performed the following day. The boy was smaller than average (height: 68.5 cm; weight: 7.8 kg); his extremities were thin; and his abdomen was remarkably bulging. Chylous ascites (1600 mL) was observed in the peritoneal cavity and chylous pleural effusion (left: 5 mL; right: 10 mL) in the thoracic cavity...
February 16, 2018: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475026/results-of-interdisciplinary-management-of-693-patients-with-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-clinical-outcome-and-relevant-prognostic-factors
#3
Muhammad AlMatter, Marta Aguilar Péreza, Pervinder Bhogal, Victoria Hellstern, Oliver Ganslandt, Hans Henkes
OBJECTIVES: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is associated with high rates of morbidities and fatalities. The continuous evolution of neurosurgical, endovascular and neuro-intensive cares has improved the overall mortality. In this study we sought to evaluate the clinical outcome after aSAH from a single tertiary center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified and reviewed all consecutive patients with aSAH treated at our center between 2007 and 2016...
February 13, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474989/proportion-of-adult-community-acquired-pneumonia-cases-attributable-to-streptococcus-pneumoniae-among-hajj-pilgrims-in-2016
#4
Ali AlBarrak, Badriah Alotaibi, Yara Yassin, Abdulaziz Mushi, Fuad Maashi, Yassein Seedahmed, Mohamed Alshaer, Abdulaziz Altaweel, Husameddin Elshiekh, Abdulhafiz Turkistani, Tanaz Petigara, John Grabenstein, Saber Yezli
BACKGROUND: The Hajj mass gathering is a risk for pneumococcal disease. We evaluated the proportion of adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) cases attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae among Hajj pilgrims in 2016. To add sensitivity to etiologic attribution, we used a urine-antigen test, in addition to culture-based methods METHODS: Adults hospitalized with x-ray confirmed CAP were prospectively enrolled from all general hospitals designated to treat Hajj pilgrims in the holy cities of Mecca and Medina...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474315/antibodies-and-the-brain-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-antibody-and-the-clinical-effects-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#5
Yoshiyuki Arinuma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuropsychiatric manifestations are one of the fatal complications in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the diagnosis and monitoring of that aspect of SLE is still challenging, as there are no reliable biomarkers linked to central nervous system (CNS) damage. This review emphasizes potential candidate autoantibodies that appear to be associated with development of behavioral and psychiatric manifestations in SLE patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Developments in the pathogenesis in SLE, not surprising for this immune disorder, point to specific, autoantibody toxicity...
February 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473539/-myositis-more-than-a-muscle-disease
#6
J Lim, A van Royen-Kerkhof, R E Jonkers, M V Starink, A E Voskuyl, A J van der Kooi
Idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM), commonly referred to as "myositis", is a rare but treatable auto-immune disease that is often misdiagnosed or diagnosed after significant delay. Using three clinical case reports as introductory examples, an overview is given - and pitfalls are discussed - of the diagnosis and treatment of myositis. Disease features are often extra-muscular in nature, may vary considerably between patients, and are frequently non-specific. Myositis-related morbidity is high and myositis can be fatal, mainly due to cancer and interstitial lung disease...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473516/the-essential-role-of-primary-caregiver-in-early-detection-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia-and-cardiovascular-prevention
#7
Julie St-Pierre, Isabelle Ruel, Jacques Genest
Familial hyterolemipercholesa (FH) is a worldwide common autosomal inherited condition associated with premature cardiovascular diseases, both in men and in women (World frequency has been recently estimated to be as high as 1:250). Identifying FH cases early in life could represent a cornerstone to prevent adult's life fatal events. Pediatricians are well positioned to evaluate the familial cardiovascular risk factors among their young patients, to make a diagnosis and to perform familial screening. The goal of this paper is therefore to emphasize the recognition of this genetic condition at a younger age and to initiate both familial screening and a safe treatment...
February 21, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473512/the-role-of-inflammatory-response-in-stroke-associated-programmed-cell-death
#8
K Duris, Z Splichal, M Jurajda
Stroke represents devastating pathology which is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Initial damage caused directly by the onset of stroke, primary injury, may be eclipsed by secondary injury which may have a much more devastating effect on the brain. Primary injury is predominantly associated with necrotic cell death due to fatal insufficiency of oxygen and glucose. Secondary injury may on the contrary, lead apoptotic cell death due to structural damage which is not compatible with cellular functions or which may even represent the danger of malign transformation...
February 22, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473327/epidemiological-investigation-of-pseudorabies-in-shandong-province-from-2013-to-2016
#9
J Gu, D Hu, T Peng, Y Wang, Z Ma, Z Liu, F Meng, Y Shang, S Liu, Y Xiao
In late 2011, a variant pseudorabies virus (vPRV) emerged in Bartha-K61-vaccinated pig herds, resulting in high morbidity and mortality of piglets in China. Since 2013, the autopsy lesions, histological examinations, virus isolation, phylogenetic analysis and selection pressure analysis of the gE gene of vPRV were recorded for 395 clinical cases, and 5,033 pig serum samples were detected by PRV gE-coated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The major clinical symptoms were abortion in pregnant sows, fatal neurological signs in piglets and respiratory disease in growing pigs...
February 22, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473318/first-report-on-characterization-and-pathogenicity-study-of-emerging-lactococcus-garvieae-infection-in-farmed-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-walbaum-from-india
#10
N Shahi, S K Mallik, M Sahoo, S Chandra, A K Singh
"Warm water lactococcosis" in farm-reared rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) in the northern Himalayan region of India, caused by bacterium Lactococcus garvieae is described in this study. Nine bacterial isolates were recovered from the organs of haemorrhagic septicaemia rainbow trout and were subjected to biochemical and molecular identification. Cell surface characteristics and virulence of the bacterial isolates are also described. All the nine bacterial isolates had homogenous biochemical characteristics and were Gram-positive, short chains forming (two to eight cells long), α-haemolytic, non-motile ovoid cocci...
February 23, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473172/ceftriaxone-induced-drug-reaction-mimicking-acute-splenic-sequestration-crisis-in-a-child-with-hemoglobin-sc-disease
#11
Nancy L Van Buren, Jed B Gorlin, Robyn C Reed, Jerome L Gottschall, Stephen C Nelson
BACKGROUND: Acute splenic sequestration crisis is a complication of sickle cell disease (SCD) occurring when intrasplenic red blood cell (RBC) sickling prevents blood from leaving the spleen, causing acute splenic enlargement. Although typically seen in young children, it has been reported in older children with hemoglobin (Hb)SC disease, eventually resulting in functional asplenia. Ceftriaxone is a frequently used antibiotic of choice for children with SCD, because of its efficacy against invasive pneumococcal disease...
February 22, 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472776/tanshinone-iia-suppress-the-proliferation-of-hne-1-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-an-in-vitro-study
#12
Mingguang Zhou, Guojin Zhou, SunHong Hu, Lei Zhang
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) at present is considered to be one of the fatal diseases detected commonly in the people belonging to Southeast Asia and southern China. According to the WHO reports among the detected cases of NPC worldwide, 80% are from China. The present study investigates the effect of tanshinone IIA on the migration and invasion potential of HNE-1NPC cells and studied the detailed mechanism involved. Effect of the tanshinone IIA on viability of the HNE-1NPC cells was analyzed by MTS assay...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472767/anti-hypertensive-and-cardioprotective-effects-of-a-novel-apitherapy-formulation-via-upregulation-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-in-spontaneous-hypertensive-rats
#13
Yanru Sun, Mingfeng Han, Zhenhuang Shen, Haibo Huang, Xiaoqing Miao
Ventricular remodeling is associated with many heart diseases, and ventricular remodeling induced by hypertension can be fatal independent of hypertension. In this study, we prepared a novel apitherapy formulation, designated Bao-Yuan-Ling (BYL), which contained propolis, royal jelly, and bee venom, to treat spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs). We then evaluated the pharmacology of BYL and the potential mechanisms through which BYL affects hypertension and ventricular remodeling. We found that BYL treatment could reduce blood pressure in SHRs...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472632/african-swine-fever-virus-encodes-for-an-e2-ubiquitin-conjugating-enzyme-that-is-mono-and-di-ubiquitinated-and-required-for-viral-replication-cycle
#14
Ferdinando B Freitas, Gonçalo Frouco, Carlos Martins, Fernando Ferreira
African swine fever virus is the etiological agent of a contagious and fatal acute haemorrhagic viral disease for which there are no vaccines or therapeutic options. The ASFV encodes for a putative E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (ORF I215L) that shows sequence homology with eukaryotic counterparts. In the present study, we showed that pI215L acts as an E2-ubiquitin like enzyme in a large range of pH values and temperatures, after short incubation times. Further experiments revealed that pI215L is polyubiquitinated instead of multi-mono-ubiquitinated and Cys85 residue plays an essential role in the transthioesterification reaction...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472361/a-second-generation-15-pgdh-inhibitor-promotes-bone-marrow-transplant-recovery-independent-of-age-transplant-dose-and-g-csf-support
#15
Amar Desai, Yongyou Zhang, Youngsoo Park, Dawn M Dawson, Gretchen A Larusch, Lakshmi Kasturi, David Wald, Joseph M Ready, Stanton L Gerson, Sanford D Markowitz
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation following myeloablative chemotherapy is a curative treatment for many hematopoietic malignancies. However, profound granulocytopenia during the interval between transplant and marrow recovery exposes recipients to risks of fatal infection, a significant source of transplant associated morbidity and mortality. We have previously described the discovery of a small molecule, SW033291, that potently inhibits the prostaglandin degrading enzyme 15-PGDH, increases bone marrow PGE2, and accelerates hematopoietic recovery following murine transplant...
February 22, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471776/t-cell-immunotherapies-and-the-role-of-nonclinical-assessment-the-balance-between-efficacy-and-pathology
#16
Michaela E Sharpe
Gene-engineered T-cell therapies have the potential to revolutionize the treatment of cancer. These therapies have shown exceptional clinical efficacy specifically in the field of B-cell malignancies and the first products (Kymriah™ and Yescarta™) have recently been approved in the United States for specific indications. The power of these treatments is also linked with a distinct set of toxicities both predicted and unpredicted, including off-tumor activity, cytokine release syndromes, and neurotoxicity, occasionally with fatal consequences...
February 2018: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471607/mushroom-poisoning-by-macrolepiota-neomastoidea
#17
So Yeon Kim, Yang Hyun Baek, Sang Young Han, Sung Wook Lee, Young Hoon Roh, Kwan Woo Kim, Sung Hwa Kang, Jin Sook Jeong
There are currently over 5,000-known species of mushrooms worldwide. Only 20-25% of mushrooms have been named, and 3% of these are poisonous. More than 95% of mushroom poisoning cases occur due to difficulties associated with the identification of mushroom species. Most of the fatal mushroom poisoning cases recorded to date have been related to the Amanita species. Until now, a case of fatal poisoning caused by Macrolepiota neomastoidea ( M. neomastoidea ) has not been reported in Asia. A 57-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain...
February 25, 2018: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471408/thiazole-derivatives-act-on-virulence-factors-of-cryptococcus-spp
#18
Nívea Pereira de Sá, Patrícia Pimentel de Barros, Juliana Campos Junqueira, Jéssica Aparecida Vaz, Renata Barbosa de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Rosa, Daniel Assis Santos, Susana Johann
Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic or primary fungal infection considered to be the most prevalent fatal fungal disease worldwide. Owing to the limited number of available drugs, it is necessary to search for novel antifungal compounds. In the present work, we assessed the antifungal efficacy of three thiazole derivatives (1, 2, and 3). We conducted in vitro and in vivo assays to investigate their effects on important virulence factors, such as capsule and biofilm formation. In addition, the phagocytosis index of murine macrophages exposed to compounds 1, 2, and 3 and the in vivo efficacy of 1, 2, and 3 in Galleria mellonella infected with Cryptococcus spp...
February 19, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471250/duret-haemorrhage-an-unusual-finding-in-compression-of-neck-structures
#19
Tanuj Kanchan, Alok Atreya
Hanging is one of the most lethal methods of suicide, where survival is an obvious rarity. Those who survive the initial act of hanging mostly suffer from hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, and show some form of neurological damage. Intracranial haemorrhages are rarely associated with hanging. We report the first case of Duret haemorrhages in a 58 years old victim who survived for 8 days after the attempted hanging. Duret haemorrhage is mostly associated with fatal outcome. It is thus implied that cerebral edema should be brought under control at the earliest to prevent transtentorial herniation and subsequent Duret haemorrhages...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471249/post-mortem-biochemistry-of-nse-and-s100b-a-supplemental-tool-for-detecting-a-lethal-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Monique Sieber, Jan Dreßler, Heike Franke, Dirk Pohlers, Benjamin Ondruschka
PURPOSE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a very common entity that leads to numerous fatalities all over the world. Therefore, forensic pathologists are in desperate need of supplemental methodological tools for the diagnosis of TBI in everyday practice besides the standard autopsy. The present study determined post-mortem neuron specific enolase (NSE) and S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) levels as biological markers of an underlying TBI in autopsy cases. METHODS: Paired serum and CSF samples of 92 fatalities were collected throughout routine autopsies...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
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