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Child abuse

Ramona Danielson, Gregory F Sanders
Childhood adversity (CA) has life-long effects that we are just beginning to understand. The Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) data is a rich resource that could contribute to the knowledge of the impact of CA in the later years but, while a number of CA items are included in MIDUS, a cumulative CA scale based on those items has not been created. Development of a CA scale would create numerous research opportunities within MIDUS and overcome some of the challenges of using a secondary dataset. The present study aimed to demonstrate that a cumulative measure of CA that is valid with older adults could be created using retrospective MIDUS Refresher study data (Ryff et al...
June 12, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Lauren C Nigro, Michael J Feldman, Robin L Foster, Andrea L Pozez
Context: Pediatric burn patients warrant thorough evaluation because a sizeable proportion of pediatric burns are nonaccidental. Design: A multidisciplinary method involving an internal child protection team (CPT) was developed and used to identify suspected nonaccidental pediatric burns in all pediatric burn patients 5 years of age or younger who were evaluated by the CPT and social workers at our institution over a 55-month period. Results: We identified 343 cases for review that fit our age criteria, 6 of which we identified as cases of suspected abuse or neglect...
June 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Kirsten Bechtel
Simulation is a technique that creates a situation or environment to allow persons to experience a representation of a real event for the purpose of practice, learning, evaluation, testing, or to gain understanding of systems or human actions. We will first provide an introduction to simulation in healthcare and describe the two types of simulation-based research (SBR) in the pediatric population. We will then provide an overview of the use of SBR to improve health outcomes for infants in health care settings and to improve parent-child interactions using the infant simulator...
June 11, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Qiong Wu, Natasha Slesnick, Aaron Murnan
This article tested a model of parenting stress as a mediator between maternal depressive symptoms, emotion regulation, and child behavior problems using a sample of homeless, substance-abusing mothers. Participants were 119 homeless mothers (ages 18-24 years) and their young children (ages 0-6 years). Mothers responded to questions about their depressive symptoms, emotion regulation, parenting stress, and child behavior problems. A path analysis showed that maternal depressive symptoms were positively associated with child behavior problems through increased parenting stress whereas maternal cognitive reappraisal was negatively associated with child behavior problems through decreased parenting stress...
June 14, 2018: Infant Mental Health Journal
Lisa J M van den Berg, Marieke S Tollenaar, Katharina Pittner, Laura H C G Compier-de Block, Renate S M Buisman, M H van IJzendoorn, Bernet M Elzinga
Rejection by parents is an important aspect of child maltreatment. Altered neural responses to social rejection have been observed in maltreated individuals. The current study is the first to examine the impact of experienced and perpetrated abuse and neglect on neural responses to social exclusion by strangers versus family using a multi-generational family design, including 144 participants. The role of neural reactivity to social exclusion in the intergenerational transmission of maltreatment was also examined...
June 7, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Cher J McGillivray, Aileen M Pidgeon, Carol Ronken, Catherine A Credland-Ballantyne
Growing evidence shows that non-offending mothers experience significant loss and trauma following their child reporting experiencing sexual abuse. Maternal support offered to sexually abused children following disclosure can be a crucial factor in children's recovery. Although mothers are often seen as playing a central role in facilitating the recovery of their sexually abused child, there has been little focus on their own needs and profiles. This present study aimed to increase our understanding of the diversity of profiles of non-offending mothers of sexually abused children by exploring the differences in psychosocial traits of non-offending mothers (N = 68; age range 28-67 years) reporting higher and lower resilience...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Fidelia A A Dake, Kamil Fuseini
BACKGROUND: The birth of a child is a vital event that needs to be registered but this is not always the case as an estimated 40 million births go unregistered annually. Birth registration safeguards the basic rights of children and gives them an identity, citizenship/nationality and legal protection against violence, abuse and human rights violations. It is therefore necessary that all births are registered and even more critical that the registration of a birth is followed by the issuance of a birth certificate...
June 13, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Maria Clark, Alison Lewis, Sally Bradshaw, Caroline Bradbury-Jones
BACKGROUND: Globally, the potentially harmful effects of using cell phone technology for 'sexting' among young people, is a public health concern. The background literature indicates that sexting might have adverse psychosocial consequences for some young people who share partially nude images ('selfies'). Public health nurses (PHNs) could offer guidance to children and young people on digital safety, yet little is known about their role in this regard. This study explored PHNs' knowledge and confidence in addressing the issue among young people...
June 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Peace Mamle Tetteh, Ummu Markwei
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a prevalent problem in many societies across the globe. There have been several discussions of the subject and attempts have been made to explain its incidence and find ways to prevent and/or control it. However, despite these efforts, the problem seems to persist in developing countries like Ghana with dire consequences for the children and society at large. This paper sought to glean insights about the persistence of the problem by focusing on the discourse surrounding the subject...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Melissa Moynihan, Claire Pitcher, Elizabeth Saewyc
Sexual exploitation of children and adolescents is a pressing, yet largely under-recognized form of child abuse. The goals of this review were to identify interventions that have been implemented with sexually exploited children and adolescents and to better understand their effectiveness for fostering healing with this population. Our systematic search generated 4,358 publications of which 21 met our inclusion criteria. Based on their objectives and delivery, we organized the interventions into five categories: (a) focused health and/or social services, (b) intensive case management models, (c) psychoeducational therapy groups, (d) residential programs, and (e) other...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Sarah B Epstein, Beth R Crisp
It has been claimed that effective responses to child sexual abuse (CSA) must engage with the specific cultural, social, and religious contexts of the target communities. For Jewish communities in Australia, the program J-Safe was established to raise awareness, create cultural change, and empower the Jewish community to be able to prevent, recognize, and address child sexual assault within the school setting. This paper reports on the experiences of teachers in two Jewish-day schools who had participated in the J-Safe Project's protective behaviors teacher training program...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
(no author information available yet)
Studies surrounding the sexual abuse of children by school personnel in Canadian contexts are infrequent and often limited in their scope. The present study addresses this drawback with a contribution of data gathered from disciplinary decisions of educator misconduct, media reports, and published case law concerning child/student sexual abuse cases (between 1997 and 2017) that involved any individual employed (or formerly employed) in a Canadian K-12 school. The study revealed a number of interesting points about the larger student victim and offender demographic patterns and characteristics across Canada...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Libo Li, Thomas K Greenfield
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol's harms to others (AHTO) may cause substantial distress, particularly when harms are perpetrated by close others. One challenge to identifying causal impacts is that people harmed by drinkers differ in many ways from those not so harmed, so our aim was to assess mental health in relation to two serious types of AHTO, financial harm and assault by someone who had been drinking, using propensity score (PS) weighting to adjust for potentially confounding differences...
June 12, 2018: Addiction
A Vania Apkarian
This focus article addresses the issue of the proper use of terminology in pain research. A review and some revisions on the definitions of pain and nociception, in relation to consciousness is presented. From a behavioral viewpoint, it is argued that pain is a conscious assessment of the failure of the organism to protect the body from injury (actual or potential); while continuously-ongoing sub/pre-conscious nociceptive processes protect the body from injuries. Thus, pain perception/behavior requires a subjective ability to evaluate the environment and form coordinated responses...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Thekla F Vrolijk-Bosschaart, Eva Verlinden, Miranda W Langendam, Vivienne De Smet, Arianne H Teeuw, Sonja N Brilleslijper-Kater, Marc A Benninga, Ramón J L Lindauer
Children with alleged child sexual abuse (CSA) need to be assessed systematically. The use of validated instruments during the assessment, like the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI), could add diagnostic value. We aim to assess the diagnostic utility of the CSBI to differentiate between sexually abused and non-abused children. We conducted a systematic review. We searched the electronic databases MEDLINE and PsychInfo for studies comparing CSBI scores in sexually abused children and non-abused children (2-12 years old)...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Matthew W Carlson, Assaf Oshri
Researchers found that sexual abuse in childhood leads to increased adolescent depressive symptomatology, though this link may vary due to the relationship between the victim and the perpetrator as well as the age of the child when the abuse began. A sample of 444 sexually abused youth provided data for the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being I. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify trajectories of depressive symptoms and test the effects of parental perpetration and age of abuse onset...
January 1, 2018: Child Maltreatment
Niels Lynøe, Anders Eriksson
Since its publication in 2016, the report by the Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services on the diagnostic accuracy of the triad for determining traumatic shaking (1) has been criticised, mainly by paediatricians. One repeated criticism has been that the report focused on the triad of symptoms, namely subdural haematoma, retinal haemorrhages and encephalopathy, in cases without signs of impact. This focus has been described by some critics as one that has been created by lawyers to use in court cases and the triad itself has been dismissed as irrelevant and of no practical or clinical use (2-3) This article is protected by copyright...
June 11, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Li Yan, Qianqian Zhu, Xiaowen Tu, Xiayun Zuo, Chunyan Yu, Chaohua Lou, Qiguo Lian
Background: Bullying is one of the most important factors associated with child abuse. However, robust tests supporting the assumption that being bullied can contribute to child sexual abuse (CSA) among left-behind children (LBC) remain sparse. This study aims to investigate the association of bullying victimization with CSA among LBC in China. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in six middle schools of Sichuan and Anhui province in 2015. The bullying victimization was assessed by seven items from the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire...
2018: PeerJ
Carmit Katz, Zion Barnetz
Confrontations and cross-examination are considered to be a vital stage in forensic investigations; however, laboratory and field studies have systematically shown their adverse effects on children`s testimonies. The current field study aimed to assess the strategies utilized, and the frequency with which they are used, in confrontations within forensic investigations involving children following suspected abuse, and to assess their effects on the children's testimonies. The forensic investigations were conducted using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Protocol...
June 6, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Rebecca C Brown, Stefanie Heines, Andreas Witt, Elmar Braehler, Joerg M Fegert, Daniela Harsch, Paul L Plener
BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment is an identified risk factor for Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI). The aim of the current study was to investigate effects of different types of maltreatment, and mediating effects of depression and anxiety on NSSI in the general population. METHODS: A representative sample of the German population, comprising N = 2498 participants (mean age = 48.4 years (SD = 18.2), 53.3% female) participated in this study. Child maltreatment was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ),NSSI was assessed with a question on lifetime engagement in NSSI, depressive symptoms were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2) and anxiety symptoms by the General Anxiety Disorder questionnaire (GAD-2)...
June 8, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
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