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Diffusion tract imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054037/director-field-analysis-dfa-exploring-local-white-matter-geometric-structure-in-diffusion-mri
#1
Jian Cheng, Peter J Basser
In Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) or High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging (HARDI), a tensor field or a spherical function field (e.g., an orientation distribution function field), can be estimated from measured diffusion weighted images. In this paper, inspired by the microscopic theoretical treatment of phases in liquid crystals, we introduce a novel mathematical framework, called Director Field Analysis (DFA), to study local geometric structural information of white matter based on the reconstructed tensor field or spherical function field: (1) We propose a set of mathematical tools to process general director data, which consists of dyadic tensors that have orientations but no direction...
October 11, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053074/clinical-improvement-associated-with-targeted-interruption-of-the-cerebellothalamic-tract-following-mr-guided-focused-ultrasound-for-essential-tremor
#2
J Levi Chazen, Harini Sarva, Philip E Stieg, Robert J Min, Douglas J Ballon, Kane O Pryor, Paul M Riegelhaupt, Michael G Kaplitt
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography-based targeting of the dentatorubrothalamic tract (DRT) for magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thalamotomy in patients with essential tremor (ET) and correlate postprocedural tract disruption with clinical outcomes. METHODS Four patients received preprocedural and immediate postprocedural DTI in addition to traditional anatomical MRI sequences for MRgFUS thalamotomy. Optimal ablation sites were selected based on the patient-specific location of the DRT as demonstrated by DTI (direct targeting) and correlated with traditional atlas-based measurements for thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim) lesioning (indirect targeting)...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034720/investigating-the-neuroanatomical-substrate-of-pathological-laughing-and-crying-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-with-multimodal-neuroimaging-techniques
#3
Foteini Christidi, Efstratios Karavasilis, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Sophia Xirou, Georgios Velonakis, Michalis Rentzos, Vasiliki Zouvelou, Ioannis Zalonis, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Nikolaos Kelekis, Ioannis Evdokimidis
OBJECTIVE: Pathological laughing and crying (PLC) is common in several neurological and psychiatric diseases and is associated with a distributed network involving the frontal cortex, the brainstem and cortico-pontine-cerebellar circuits. By applying multimodal neuroimaging approach, we examined the neuroanatomical substrate of PLC in a sample of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: We studied 56 non-demented ALS patients and 25 healthy controls (HC)...
October 15, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034483/effect-of-sensory-and-motor-connectivity-on-hand-function-in-pediatric-hemiplegia
#4
Disha Gupta, Alexandre Barachant, Andrew M Gordon, Claudio Ferre, Hsing-Ching Kuo, Jason B Carmel, Kathleen M Friel
OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that somatosensory system injury would more strongly affect movement than motor system injury in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (USCP). This hypothesis was based on how somatosensory and corticospinal circuits adapt to injury during development: while the motor system can maintain connections to the impaired hand from the uninjured hemisphere, this doesn't occur in the somatosensory system. As a corollary, cortical injury strongly impairs sensory function, so we hypothesized that cortical lesions would impair hand function more than subcortical lesions...
October 16, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034243/improving-surgical-outcome-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging-techniques-in-deep-brain-stimulation
#5
REVIEW
Angela An Qi See, Nicolas Kon Kam King
INTRODUCTION: Recent advances in surgical imaging include the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in deep brain stimulation (DBS) and provide a detailed view of the white matter tracts and their connections which are not seen with conventional magnetic resonance imaging. Given that the efficacy of DBS depends on the precise and accurate targeting of these circuits, better surgical planning using information obtained from DTI may lead to improved surgical outcome. We aim to review the available literature to evaluate the efficacy of such a strategy...
2017: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033797/white-matter-abnormalities-in-children-with-hiv-infection-and-exposure
#6
Marcin Jankiewicz, Martha J Holmes, Paul A Taylor, Mark F Cotton, Barbara Laughton, André J W van der Kouwe, Ernesta M Meintjes
Background: Due to changes in guidelines and access to treatment, more children start combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in infancy. With few studies examining the long-term effects of perinatal HIV infection and early ART on neurodevelopment, much is still unknown about brain maturation in the presence of HIV and ART. Follow-up studies of HIV infected (HIV+) children are important for monitoring brain development in the presence of HIV infection and ART. Methods: We use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine white matter (WM) in 65 HIV+ and 46 control (HIV exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV unexposed uninfected (HU)) 7-year-old children...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031764/combined-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study-in-patients-with-idiopathic-restless-legs-syndrome
#7
Yaoyao Zhuo, Yuncheng Wu, Yanhong Xu, Lunbo Lu, Ting Li, Xifu Wang, Kangan Li
OBJECTIVE: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder characterized by an urge to move the legs along with paraesthesia deep within them. In this study, we aimed to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) to investigate the changes in regional spontaneous brain activity change for RLS patients against age- and gender-matched normal control (NC) subjects. METHODS: A total of 35 RLS patients and 27 age- and gender-matched NC subjects were recruited for group comparison research that used DTI and ReHo techniques...
October 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030921/development-of-short-range-white-matter-in-healthy-children-and-adolescents
#8
Adeoye A Oyefiade, Stephanie Ameis, Jason P Lerch, Conrad Rockel, Kamila U Szulc, Nadia Scantlebury, Alexandra Decker, Jaleel Jefferson, Simon Spichak, Donald J Mabbott
Neural communication is facilitated by intricate networks of white matter (WM) comprised of both long and short range connections. The maturation of long range WM connections has been extensively characterized, with projection, commissural, and association tracts showing unique trajectories with age. There, however, remains a limited understanding of age-related changes occurring within short range WM connections, or U-fibers. These connections are important for local connectivity within lobes and facilitate regional cortical function and greater network economy...
October 14, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027841/diffusion-tensor-tractography-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-correlation-with-cognitive-function
#9
Maria M D'Souza, S P Gorthi, Kunal Vadwala, Richa Trivedi, C Vijayakumar, Prabhjot Kaur, Subash Khushu
Background Patients with cerebral small vessel disease may suffer from varying levels of cognitive deficit and may progress on to vascular dementia. The extent of involvement, as seen on conventional magnetic resonance (MR) measures, correlates poorly with the level of cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as a marker for white matter damage in small vessel disease and to assess its correlation with cognitive function. Methods Thirty consecutive patients with cerebral small vessel disease underwent conventional MR imaging, DTI, and neuropsychological assessment...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027066/white-matter-microstructure-of-the-human-mirror-neuron-system-is-related-to-symptom-severity-in-adults-with-autism
#10
Odette Fründt, Robert Schulz, Daniel Schöttle, Bastian Cheng, Götz Thomalla, Hanna Braaß, Christos Ganos, Nicole David, Ina Peiker, Andreas K Engel, Tobias Bäumer, Alexander Münchau
Mirror neuron system (MNS) dysfunctions might underlie deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Diffusion tensor imaging based probabilistic tractography was conducted in 15 adult ASD patients and 13 matched, healthy controls. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was quantified to assess group differences in tract-related white matter microstructure of both the classical MNS route (mediating "emulation") and the alternative temporo-frontal route (mediating "mimicry"). Multiple linear regression was used to investigate structure-function relationships between MNS connections and ASD symptom severity...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021839/diffusion-tensor-imaging-for-multilevel-assessment-of-the-visual-pathway-possibilities-for-personalized-outcome-prediction-in-autoimmune-disorders-of-the-central-nervous-system
#11
REVIEW
Joseph Kuchling, Alexander U Brandt, Friedemann Paul, Michael Scheel
The afferent visual pathway represents the most frequently affected white matter pathway in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can reveal microstructural or non-overt brain tissue damage and quantify pathological processes. DTI facilitates the reconstruction of major white matter fiber tracts allowing for the assessment of structure-function and damage-dysfunction relationships. In this review, we outline DTI studies investigating the afferent visual pathway in idiopathic optic neuritis (ON), NMOSD, and MS...
September 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992395/changes-in-white-matter-microstructure-predict-lithium-response-in-adolescents-with-bipolar-disorder
#12
Vivian Kafantaris, Linda Spritzer, Vishal Doshi, Ema Saito, Philip R Szeszko
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether response to lithium treatment in pediatric bipolar disorder can be predicted by changes in white matter microstructure in key cortico-limbic tracts involved in emotion regulation. METHODS: Eighteen clinically referred lithium-naive patients (mean age 15.5 years) were administered clinical rating scales and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) examinations at baseline and following 4 weeks of lithium treatment. Clinical ratings were repeated following 8 weeks of treatment...
October 9, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992269/white-matter-correlates-of-psychopathic-traits-in-a-female-community-sample
#13
Philip Lindner, Meenal Budhiraja, Johan Westerman, Ivanka Savic, Jussi Jokinen, Jari Tiihonen, Sheilagh Hodgins
Psychopathy comprises interpersonal, affective, lifestyle and antisocial facets that vary dimensionally in the population and are associated with criminal offending and adverse psychosocial outcomes. Evidence associating these facets with white matter microstructure of the uncinate fasciculus and the cingulum tracts is inconsistent and derives principally from studies of male offenders. In a sample of 99 young women presenting a range of scores on the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version, we used Diffusion Tensor Imaging, tractography and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics to investigate microstructure across the brain and of the uncinate fasciculus and cingulum...
September 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991695/monozygotic-twins-with-a-new-compound-heterozygous-spg11-mutation-and-different-disease-expression
#14
Christiane Schneider-Gold, Gabriele Dekomien, Martin Regensburger, Ruth Schneider, Nadine Trampe, Christos Krogias, Carsten Lukas, Barbara Bellenberg
BACKGROUND: A pair of monozygotic 22-year-old twins with complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia caused by a novel SPG11 mutation is described. METHODS: Genetic testing and thorough clinical examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR-spectroscopy were performed. RESULTS: The twins were compound heterozygous for a known frameshift as well as a novel splice site mutation in the SPG11 gene. Clinically the patients showed a similar spectrum of symptoms but different disease presentation...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988022/white-matter-and-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-of-voxel-based-morphometry-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-studies
#15
Enrico Vitolo, Mona Karina Tatu, Claudia Pignolo, Franco Cauda, Tommaso Costa, Agata Ando', Alessandro Zennaro
Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are the most implemented methodologies to detect alterations of both gray and white matter (WM). However, the role of WM in mental disorders is still not well defined. We aimed at clarifying the role of WM disruption in schizophrenia and at identifying the most frequently involved brain networks. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify VBM and DTI studies focusing on WM alterations in patients with schizophrenia compared to control subjects...
September 23, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988018/corpus-callosum-diffusion-abnormalities-in-refractory-epilepsy-associated-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#16
Katarina P Lyra, Khallil T Chaim, Claudia C Leite, Eun J Park, Celi S Andrade, Valmir Passarelli, Rosa M F Valério, Carmen L Jorge, Luiz H M Castro, Maria C G Otaduy
OBJECTIVES: To detect by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) the extent of microstructural integrity changes of the corpus callosum (CC) in patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and to evaluate possible association with clinical characteristics. METHODS: Fourty-two patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and HS and 30 control subjects were studied with DTI. We grouped patients according to lesion side (left or right) HS. Mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), radial (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD) were extracted from five segments in CC midsagittal section obtained by automatic segmentation...
September 20, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987509/white-matter-microstructural-properties-are-related-to-inter-individual-differences-in-cognitive-instability-after-sleep-deprivation
#17
Yuanqiang Zhu, Liuxian Wang, Yibin Xi, Tian Dai, Ningbo Fei, Lin Liu, Ziliang Xu, Xuejuan Yang, Chang Fu, Jinbo Sun, Junling Xu, Dapeng Shi, Jie Tian, Hong Yin, Wei Qin
Several diseases are characterized by cognitive instability, which is amplified in the conditions of sleep deprivation (SD). Cognitive instability in SD can be examined by the number of lapses on the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT), which is considered to be a gold standard in the field. However, the number of PVT lapses widely range according to inter-individual differences, from apparent cognitive resistance to severe cognitive impairment. In this study, tract-based spatial statistical analyses with multiple diffusion tensor imaging-derived characteristics (i...
October 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986751/total-mesenteric-peritonectomy-for-peritoneal-metastases-with-video
#18
Jean-Baptiste Cazauran, Antoinette Lasseur, Arnaud Pasquer, Pascal Rousset, Jeremy Guedj, Guillaume Passot, Olivier Glehen
BACKGROUND: Complete cytoreductive surgery (CRS), combining organ resection and peritonectomy, is the only potentially curative treatment for patients with peritoneal metastases (PM).1 (,) 2 Diffuse mesenteric PM usually represents a contraindication for CRS.3 This report presents a standardized total mesenteric peritonectomy, which provides a therapeutic option of complete CRS for patients with diffuse mesenteric PM. PATIENT: A 73-year-old man had a diagnosis of PM caused by an urachal adenocarcinoma (signet cell type)...
October 6, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985720/effects-of-homocysteine-on-white-matter-diffusion-parameters-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Chen-Chang Lee, Shih-Wei Hsu, Chi-Wei Huang, Wen-Neng Chang, Sz-Fan Chen, Ming-Kung Wu, Chiung-Chih Chang, Lain-Chyr Hwang, Po-Chou Chen
BACKGROUND: The clinical features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are related to brain network degeneration, and hyperhomocysteinemia is related to greater white matter hyperintensities. We investigated the changes in four diffusion tensor imaging parameters in the white matter of patients with early stage AD, examined their associations with homocysteine level, and tested the clinical significance of the diffusion tensor imaging parameters and homocysteine level in correlation analysis with cognitive test scores...
October 6, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984377/age-and-sex-related-effects-in-children-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-on-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-properties-a-comparison-of-voxelwise-and-tractography-methods
#20
Naomi J Goodrich-Hunsaker, Tracy J Abildskov, Garrett Black, Erin D Bigler, Daniel M Cohen, Leslie K Mihalov, Barbara A Bangert, H Gerry Taylor, Keith O Yeates
Although there are several techniques to analyze diffusion-weighted imaging, any technique must be sufficiently sensitive to detect clinical abnormalities. This is especially critical in disorders like mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), where pathology is likely to be subtle. mTBI represents a major public health concern, especially for youth under 15 years of age. However, the developmental period from birth to 18 years is also a time of tremendous brain changes. Therefore, it is important to establish the degree of age- and sex-related differences...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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