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Diffusion tract imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101804/white-matter-hyperintensities-correlate-to-cognition-and-fiber-tract-integrity-in-older-adults-with-hiv
#1
Christa Watson, Edgar Busovaca, Jessica M Foley, I Elaine Allen, Christopher G Schwarz, Neda Jahanshad, Talia M Nir, Pardis Esmaeili-Firidouni, Benedetta Milanini, Howard Rosen, Owen T Carmichael, Paul M Thompson, Victor G Valcour
Our aim was to examine the clinical relevance of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in HIV. We used an automated approach to quantify WMH volume in HIV seropositive (HIV+; n = 65) and HIV seronegative (HIV-; n = 29) adults over age 60. We compared WMH volumes between HIV+ and HIV- groups in cross-sectional and multiple time-point analyses. We also assessed correlations between WMH volumes and cardiovascular, HIV severity, cognitive scores, and diffusion tensor imaging variables. Serostatus groups did not differ in WMH volume, but HIV+ participants had less cerebral white matter (mean: 470...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095379/diffusion-tensor-imaging-detects-occult-cerebellar-injury-in-severe-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#2
Monica E Lemmon, Matthias W Wagner, Thangamadhan Bosemani, Kathryn A Carson, Frances J Northington, Thierry A G M Huisman, Andrea Poretti
BACKGROUND: Despite the benefits of whole-body hypothermia therapy, many infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) die or have significant long-term neurodevelopmental impairment. Prospectively identifying neonates at risk of poor outcome is essential but not straightforward. The cerebellum is not classically considered to be a brain region vulnerable to hypoxic-ischemic insults; recent literature suggests, however, that the cerebellum may be involved in neonatal HIE. In this study, we aimed to assess the microstructural integrity of cerebellar and linked supratentorial structures in neonates with HIE compared to neurologically healthy neonatal controls...
January 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094680/changes-in-the-corticospinal-tract-after-wearing-prosthesis-in-bilateral-transtibial-amputation
#3
Sang Yoon Lee, Si Hyun Kang, Don-Kyu Kim, Kyung Mook Seo, Hee Joon Ro, Jae Kyun Kim
BACKGROUND: After amputation, the brain is known to be reorganized especially in the primary motor cortex. We report a case to show changes in the corticospinal tract in a patient with serial bilateral transtibial amputations using diffusion tensor imaging. Case Description and Methods: A 78-year-old man had a transtibial amputation on his left side in 2008 and he underwent a right transtibial amputation in 2011. An initial brain magnetic resonance imaging with a diffusion tensor imaging was performed before starting rehabilitation on his right transtibial prosthesis, and a follow-up magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion tensor imaging was performed 2 years after this...
January 1, 2017: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092023/white-matter-alterations-in-college-football-players-a-longitudinal-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#4
Michael Christian Mayinger, Kian Merchant-Borna, Jakob Hufschmidt, Marc Muehlmann, Isabelle Ruth Weir, Boris-Stephan Rauchmann, Martha Elizabeth Shenton, Inga Katharina Koerte, Jeffrey John Bazarian
The aim of this study was to evaluate longitudinal changes in the diffusion characteristics of brain white matter (WM) in collegiate athletes at three time points: prior to the start of the football season (T1), after one season of football (T2), followed by six months of no-contact rest (T3). Fifteen male collegiate football players and 5 male non-athlete student controls underwent diffusion MR imaging and computerized cognitive testing at all three timepoints. Whole-brain tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were used to compare fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), axial diffusivity (AD), and trace between all timepoints...
January 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092022/relevance-of-neuroimaging-for-neurocognitive-and-behavioral-outcome-after-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Marsh Königs, Petra Jw Pouwels, L W Ernest van Heurn, Roel Bakx, R Jeroen Vermeulen, J Carel Goslings, Bwee Tien Poll-The, Marleen van der Wees, Coriene E Catsman-Berrevoets, Jaap Oosterlaan
This study aims to (1) investigate the neuropathology of mild to severe pediatric TBI and (2) elucidate the predictive value of conventional and innovative neuroimaging for functional outcome. Children aged 8-14 years with trauma control (TC) injury (n = 27) were compared to children with mild TBI and risk factors for complicated TBI (mild(RF+), n = 20) or moderate/severe TBI (n = 17) at 2.8 years post-injury. Neuroimaging measures included: acute computed tomography (CT), volumetric analysis on post-acute conventional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and post-acute diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics and voxel-wise regression)...
January 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089563/diagnostic-and-prognostic-relevance-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-electrophysiological-findings-in-acute-spinal-ischemia
#6
Dimitrios Artemis, Marc Wolf, Christian Blahak, Kristina Szabo, Michael G Hennerici, Marc Fatar
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to classify the rare entity of spontaneous spinal ischemia with clinical, magnetic resonance-tomographic, and electrophysiological parameters to determine criteria for outcome prediction. METHODS: We analyzed the stroke registry database of the University Hospital Mannheim, Germany, from 2004 to 2010 for patients with a diagnosis of vascular spinal cord ischemia. RESULTS: Ten patients were identified (mean age 65 years [range 50-83], 5 women)...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087489/neurite-density-index-is-sensitive-to-age-related-differences-in-the-developing-brain
#7
Sila Genc, Charles B Malpas, Scott K Holland, Richard Beare, Timothy J Silk
PURPOSE: White matter development during childhood and adolescence is characterised by increasing white matter coherence and organisation. Commonly used scalar metrics, such as fractional anisotropy (FA), are sensitive to multiple mechanisms of white matter change and therefore unable to distinguish between mechanisms that change during development. We investigate the relationship between age and neurite density index (NDI) from neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI), and the age-classification accuracy of NDI compared with FA, in a developmental cohort...
January 10, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086899/evaluations-of-diffusion-tensor-image-registration-based-on-fiber-tractography
#8
Yi Wang, Yu Shen, Dongyang Liu, Guoqin Li, Zhe Guo, Yangyu Fan, Yilong Niu
BACKGROUND: Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DT-MRI, also known as DTI) measures the diffusion properties of water molecules in tissues and to date is one of the main techniques that can effectively study the microstructures of the brain in vivo. Presently, evaluation of DTI registration techniques is still in an initial stage of development. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this paper, six well-known open source DTI registration algorithms: Elastic, Rigid, Affine, DTI-TK, FSL and SyN were applied on 11 subjects from an open-access dataset, among which one was randomly chosen as the template...
January 10, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076020/structure-of-the-medullary-veins-of-the-cerebral-hemisphere-and-related-disorders
#9
Toshiaki Taoka, Akio Fukusumi, Toshiteru Miyasaka, Hisashi Kawai, Toshiki Nakane, Kimihiko Kichikawa, Shinji Naganawa
Deep medullary veins drain into subependymal veins with four convergence zones and show parallel distribution patterns adjacent to the body or inferior horn and a radial pattern in the frontal horn or trigon of the lateral ventricle. As white matter imaging develops such as diffusion tensor imaging or susceptibility-weighted imaging, requirements for understanding of white matter structures are increasing, not only for understanding of neuronal tracts but also for that of other structures including the fine anatomy of white matter vessels...
January 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073935/brain-structure-and-function-associated-with-younger-adults-in-growth-hormone-receptor-deficient-humans
#10
Kaoru Nashiro, Jaime Guevara-Aguirre, Meredith N Braskie, George W Hafzalla, Rico Velasco, Priya Balasubramian, Min Wei, Paul M Thompson, Mara Mather, Marvin D Nelson, Alexandra Guevara, Enrique Teran, Valter D Longo
: Growth hormone receptor deficiency (GHRD) results in short stature, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and low circulating levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Previous studies in mice and humans suggested that GHRD has protective effects against age-related diseases, including cancer and diabetes. Whereas GHRD mice show improved age-dependent cognitive performance, the effect of GHRD on human cognition remains unknown. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we compared brain structure, function, and connectivity between 13 people with GHRD and 12 unaffected relatives...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072502/wallerian-degeneration-beyond-the-corticospinal-tracts-conventional-and-advanced-mri-findings
#11
REVIEW
Yin Jie Chen, Seyed Ali Nabavizadeh, Arastoo Vossough, Sunil Kumar, Laurie A Loevner, Suyash Mohan
Wallerian degeneration (WD) is defined as progressive anterograde disintegration of axons and accompanying demyelination after an injury to the proximal axon or cell body. Since the 1980s and 1990s, conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences have been shown to be sensitive to changes of WD in the subacute to chronic phases. More recently, advanced MRI techniques, such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), have demonstrated some of earliest changes attributed to acute WD, typically on the order of days...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072383/reconstructing-contralateral-fiber-tracts-methodological-aspects-of-cerebello-thalamocortical-pathway-reconstruction
#12
Fulvia Palesi, Jacques-Donald Tournier, F Calamante, Nils Muhlert, Gloria Castellazzi, Declan Chard, E D'Angelo, Claudia Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott
The identification of pathways connecting the cerebral cortex with subcortical structures is critical to understanding how large-scale brain networks operate. The cerebellum, for example, is known to project numerous axonal bundles to thecerebral cortex passing through the thalamus. This paper focuses on the technical details of cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathway reconstruction using advanced diffusion MRI techniques in humans in vivo. Pathways reconstructed using seed/target placement on super-resolution maps, created with track density imaging (TDI), were compared with those reconstructed by defining regions of interest (ROIs) on non-diffusion weighted images (b0)...
October 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070912/role-of-testosterone-and-y-chromosome-genes-for-the-masculinization-of-the-human-brain
#13
Ivanka Savic, Louise Frisen, Amirhossein Manzouri, Anna Nordenstrom, Angelica Lindén Hirschberg
: Women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) have a male (46,XY) karyotype but no functional androgen receptors. Their condition, therefore, offers a unique model for studying testosterone effects on cerebral sex dimorphism. We present MRI data from 16 women with CAIS and 32 male (46,XY) and 32 female (46,XX) controls. METHODS: FreeSurfer software was employed to measure cortical thickness and subcortical structural volumes. Axonal connections, indexed by fractional anisotropy, (FA) were measured with diffusion tensor imaging, and functional connectivity with resting state fMRI...
January 10, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069530/structural-changes-in-functionally-illiterate-adults-after-intensive-training
#14
Melanie Boltzmann, Bahram Mohammadi, Amir Samii, Thomas F Münte, Jascha Rüsseler
About 7.5million adults in Germany cannot read and write properly despite attending school for several years. They are considered to be functional illiterates. Since the ability to read and write is crucial for being employed and socially accepted, we developed a literacy training to overcome these deficits. In this study, we investigate the structural changes induced by the training. A group of 20 functional illiterates and 20 adult normal readers participated in the study. Group differences as well as intervention-related changes in gray (voxel-based morphometry, VBM) and white matter (Tract-Based Spatial Statistics, TBSS, applied to fractional anisotropy, FA, obtained with diffusion tensor imaging, DTI) were assessed in functional illiterates and normal reading controls...
January 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068522/motor-evoked-potential-gain-is-a-helpful-test-for-the-detection-of-corticospinal-tract-dysfunction-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#15
Y Duclos, A M Grapperon, E Jouve, R Truillet, C Zemmour, A Verschueren, J Pouget, S Attarian
OBJECTIVE: The detection of upper motor neuron (UMN) dysfunction is necessary for the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, signs of UMN dysfunction may be difficult to establish. This study aimed to determine whether motor-evoked potential (MEP) gain (MEP area/background electromyographic activity) represents an efficient alternative to assess UMN dysfunction. METHODS: MEP area, MEP/compound muscle action potential (CMAP) area ratio, and MEP gain were tested at different force levels in healthy control subjects and ALS patients...
December 23, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067973/simultaneous-multislice-readout-segmented-echo-planar-imaging-for-accelerated-diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-the-mandibular-nerve-a-feasibility-study
#16
Andrei Manoliu, Michael Ho, Marco Piccirelli, Daniel Nanz, Lukas Filli, Evelyn Dappa, Wei Liu, Dominik A Ettlin, Andreas Boss, Gustav Andreisek, Felix P Kuhn
PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) using simultaneous multislice (SMS) acquisition with blipped controlled aliasing in parallel imaging (CAIPI) for accelerated readout-segmented echo planar imaging (rs-EPI) of the mandibular nerves. DTI of the mandibular nerves using EPI is challenging due to susceptibility artifacts. Rs-EPI is less prone to artifacts but associated with longer scan durations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight asymptomatic volunteers were imaged at 3T using a 64-channel head/neck coil...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066707/longitudinal-changes-in-microstructural-white-matter-metrics-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Chantel D Mayo, Erin L Mazerolle, Lesley Ritchie, John D Fisk, Jodie R Gawryluk
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Current avenues of AD research focus on pre-symptomatic biomarkers that will assist with early diagnosis of AD. The majority of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based biomarker research to date has focused on neuronal loss in grey matter and there is a paucity of research on white matter. METHODS: Longitudinal DTI data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 2 database were used to examine 1) the within-group microstructural white matter changes in individuals with AD and healthy controls at baseline and year one; and 2) the between-group microstructural differences in individuals with AD and healthy controls at both time points...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063366/white-matter-lesions-relate-to-tract-specific-reductions-in-functional-connectivity
#18
Carolyn D Langen, Hazel I Zonneveld, Tonya White, Wyke Huizinga, Lotte G M Cremers, Marius de Groot, Mohammad Arfan Ikram, Wiro J Niessen, Meike W Vernooij
White matter lesions play a role in cognitive decline and dementia. One presumed pathway is through disconnection of functional networks. Little is known about location-specific effects of lesions on functional connectivity. This study examined location-specific effects within anatomically-defined white matter tracts in 1584 participants of the Rotterdam Study, aged 50-95. Tracts were delineated from diffusion magnetic resonance images using probabilistic tractography. Lesions were segmented on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images...
December 14, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059782/differential-hemispheric-predilection-of%C3%A2-microstructural-white-matter-and%C3%A2-functional-connectivity-abnormalities-between-respectively-semantic-and%C3%A2-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#19
Rozanna Meijboom, Rebecca M E Steketee, Leontine S Ham, Aad van der Lugt, John C van Swieten, Marion Smits
Semantic dementia (SD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), subtypes of frontotemporal dementia, are characterized by distinct clinical symptoms and neuroimaging features, with predominant left temporal grey matter (GM) atrophy in SD and bilateral or right frontal GM atrophy in bvFTD. Such differential hemispheric predilection may also be reflected by other neuroimaging features, such as brain connectivity. This study investigated white matter (WM) microstructure and functional connectivity differences between SD and bvFTD, focusing on the hemispheric predilection of these differences...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059709/microstructure-of-the-default-mode-network-in-preterm-infants
#20
J Cui, O Tymofiyeva, R Desikan, T Flynn, H Kim, D Gano, C P Hess, D M Ferriero, A J Barkovich, D Xu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diffusion and fMRI has been providing insights to brain development in addition to anatomic imaging. This study aimed to evaluate the microstructure of white matter tracts underlying the default mode network in premature infants by using resting-state functional MR imaging in conjunction with diffusion tensor imaging-based tractography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 44 preterm infants underwent structural T1-weighted imaging, resting-state fMRI, and DTI at 3T, including 21 infants with brain injuries and 23 infants with normal-appearing structural imaging as controls...
November 10, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
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