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Autopsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149218/carbonaceous-particulate-matter-on-the-lung-surface-from-adults-living-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#1
Michele Galhardoni Padovan, Abigail Whitehouse, Nelson Gouveia, Mateus Habermann, Jonathan Grigg
OBJECTIVES: We therefore sought to identify the exposures associated with lung surface in long-term residents of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Lung surface carbon were analyzed in 72 autopsy specimens by image analysis. Smoking history, measured PM10 nearest to the home, distance to main road, and distance-weighted traffic density were used as exposure variables. Data are summarized as median (IQR), and compared by Mann Whitney Test, with correlations done by Spearman's correlation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148119/the-anatomy-of-the-pediatric-airway-has-our-knowledge-changed-in-120-years-a-review-of-historic-and-recent-investigations-of-the-anatomy-of-the-pediatric-larynx
#2
REVIEW
Josef Holzki, Karen A Brown, Robert G Carroll, Charles J Coté
BACKGROUND: There is disagreement regarding the anatomy of the pediatric airway, particularly regarding the shape of the cricoid cartilage and the location of the narrowest portion of the larynx. AIMS: The aim of this review is to clarify the origin and the science behind these differing views. METHODS: We undertook a review of published literature, University Libraries, and authoritative textbooks with key search words and phrases. RESULTS: In vivo observations suggest that the narrowest portion of the airway is more proximal than the cricoid cartilage...
November 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147638/a-sensitive-and-rapid-method-for-detecting-formaldehyde-in-brain-tissues
#3
Xiangpei Yue, Yaoyue Zhang, Wen Xing, Yutong Chen, Chenyang Mu, Zhan Miao, Peichun Ge, Tingting Li, Rongqiao He, Zhiqian Tong
The existing methods for detecting formaldehyde (FA) in brain samples are expensive and require sophisticated experimental procedures. Here, we established a highly sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method, which is based on a reaction in which FA reacts with colorless reagent 4-amino-3-penten-2-one (Fluoral-P) to produce a yellow compound, 3,5-diacetyl-1,4-dihydrolutidine (DDL), which can be detected by a spectrophotometer at 420 nm at room temperature. The sensitive response time point was found to be at the first hour, and the optimal pH of derivative reaction was pH 6...
2017: Analytical Cellular Pathology (Amsterdam)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146190/newly-developed-selective-immunoinactivation-assay-revealed-reduction-in-adipose-triglyceride-lipase-activity-in-peripheral-leucocytes-from-patients-with-idiopathic-triglyceride-deposit-cardiomyovasculopathy
#4
Atsuko Takagi, Yasuyuki Ikeda, Kunihisa Kobayashi, Kazuhiro Kobayashi, Yoshihiko Ikeda, Junji Kozawa, Hideyuki Miyauchi, Ming Li, Chikako Hashimoto, Yasuhiro Hara, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Akira Suzuki, Tatsushi Toda, Hironori Nagasaka, Ken-Ichi Hirano
Triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV) is a rare and newly identified disease among patients requiring cardiac transplantation. TGCV is characterized by cardiomyocyte steatosis and triglyceride (TG)-deposit atherosclerosis, resulting from the abnormal intracellular metabolism of TG. TGCV is classified into primary and idiopathic types. Primary TGCV carries ultra-rare genetic mutations in the adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), a rate-liming enzyme that hydrolyzes intracellular TG in adipose and non-adipose tissues...
November 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146111/microrna-expression-patterns-in-human-anterior-cingulate-and-motor-cortex-a-study-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-cases-and-controls
#5
Peter T Nelson, Wang-Xia Wang, Sarah A Janse, Katherine L Thompson
OVERVIEW: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we evaluated the expression of miRNAs in anterior cingulate (AC; Brodmann area [BA] 24) and primary motor (MO; BA 4) cortical tissue from aged human brains in the University of Kentucky AD Center autopsy cohort, with a focus on dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). METHODS: RNA was isolated from gray matter of brain samples with pathology-defined DLB, AD, AD+DLB, and low-pathology controls, with n=52 cases initially included (n=23 with DLB), all with low (<4hrs) postmortem intervals...
November 13, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145881/multiple-small-hemorrhagic-infarcts-in-cerebral-air-embolism-a-case-report
#6
Masaya Togo, Taku Hoshi, Ryosuke Matsuoka, Yukihiro Imai, Nobuo Kohara
BACKGROUND: Cerebral air embolism is a rare cause of cerebral infarction. In cerebral air embolism, T2 star-weighted imaging shows numerous spotty hypointense signals. Previous reports have suggested that these signals represent air in the brain and are gradually diminished and absorbed. We experienced two cases of cerebral air embolism, and in one of them, we conducted an autopsy. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1 was a 76-year-old Japanese man with lung cancer and emphysema...
November 16, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145787/pneumocystosis-in-dogs-meta-analysis-of-43-published-cases-including-clinical-signs-diagnostic-procedures-and-treatment
#7
Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang, Andrea Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Abigail Guija-De-Arespacochaga, Andrea Klang, Herbert Weissenböck, Frank Künzel
We evaluated 43 published cases of dogs with confirmed Pneumocystis infection regarding the value of clinical parameters indicating the presence of the disease as well as tools for the detection of the pathogen. The assessed parameters included clinical signs, laboratory findings, results of thoracic radiography, autopsy, histopathology, methods for the detection of Pneumocystis, as well as medical therapy. Pneumocystosis was diagnosed most often in certain breeds (Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, Miniature Dachshund) with a predisposition for impaired immunity...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145778/an-apparent-case-of-brodifacoum-toxicosis-in-a-whelping-dog
#8
Scott D Fitzgerald, Jennifer Martinez, John P Buchweitz
A 7-y-old Weimaraner bitch was presented to emergency service after 3 h of active labor with no puppies produced. Hemoabdomen and hemothorax were present at the time of surgery; prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were both found to be within normal ranges. Surgical cesarean section was performed; 4 dead puppies and 5 live puppies were delivered. Because hemostasis was difficult to achieve, a hysterectomy was performed; however, the dog died as the operation was being completed...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145709/defining-a-unified-vascular-phenotype-in-systemic-sclerosis
#9
REVIEW
Yannick Allanore, Oliver Distler, Marco Matucci-Cerinic, Christopher P Denton
Microcirculation impairment and related vasculopathy is a hallmark of systemic sclerosis. Digital ulcers are second only to Raynaud's phenomenon as a vascular complication occurring in scleroderma patients. Digital ulcers are painful and generate disability. Furthermore, patients may develop recurrent digital ulcers and one may ask whether the outcomes of such patients might be different to those of unaffected ones. Recently several registries have provided relevant information about digital ulcers. Male sex and severe skin disease seem to be the main associated factors observed in several registries...
November 16, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143209/the-medial-vestibular-nuclei-a-vulnerable-target-in-thiamine-deficiency
#10
Jorge C Kattah, Cindy Guede, Bahareh Hassanzadeh
BACKGROUND: Bilateral medial vestibular nuclei (MVN) is a common target in thiamine depletion and results in acute vestibular failure. Involvement of the MVN was present in 27 out of 38 brainstem sections reported in the largest thiamine deficiency autopsy cohort with Wernicke's encephalopathy. METHOD: Serial clinical, imaging and vestibulo-ocular reflex gain measured with the video head impulse (vHIT) in one patient with acute thiamine deficiency. RESULTS: Low horizontal VOR gain correlated with an abnormal manual head impulse and with MRI evidence of MVN in an alcohol-dependent patient with low thiamine levels...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143074/-additional-emergency-medical-measures-in-trauma-associated-cardiac-arrest
#11
B Ondruschka, C Baier, J Dreßler, A Höch, M Bernhard, C Kleber, C Buschmann
INTRODUCTION: More than half of all traumatic deaths happen in prehospital settings. Until now, there have been no long-term studies examining the actual additive treatment during trauma-associated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (tCPR), including pleural decompression, pericardiocentesis, tourniquets and external stabilization of the pelvis. The present cohort study evaluated forensic autopsy reports of trauma deaths occurring at the scene with respect to additive actions in preclinical tCPR as well as the potentially preventable nature of the individual death cases...
November 15, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141756/incidence-of-acute-diarrhea-associated-death-among-children-5-years-of-age-in-bangladesh-2010-12
#12
Makhdum Ahmed, Jaynal Abedin, Kazi Faisal Alam, Abdullah Al Mamun, Repon C Paul, Mahmudur Rahman, A Danielle Iuliano, Katharine Sturm-Ramirez, Umesh Parashar, Stephen P Luby, Emily S Gurley
Although acute diarrheal deaths have declined globally among children < 5 years, it may still contribute to childhood mortality as an underlying or contributing cause. The aim of this project was to estimate the incidence of acute diarrhea-associated deaths, regardless of primary cause, among children < 5 years in Bangladesh during 2010-12. We conducted a survey in 20 unions (administrative units) within the catchment areas of 10 tertiary hospitals in Bangladesh. Through social networks, our field team identified households where children < 5 years were reported to have died during 2010-12...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141499/gastrointestinal-causes-of-sudden-unexpected-death-a-review
#13
Ritesh G Menezes, Saba Ahmed, Syed Bilal Pasha, Syed Ather Hussain, Huda Fatima, Magdy A Kharoshah, Mohammed Madadin
Gastrointestinal conditions are a less common cause of sudden unexpected death when compared to other conditions such as cardiovascular conditions, but they are equally important. Various congenital and acquired gastrointestinal conditions that have resulted in sudden unexpected death are discussed. The possible lethal mechanisms behind each condition, along with any associated risk factors or secondary diseases, have been described. Through this article, we aim to highlight the need for physicians to prevent death in such conditions by ensuring that subclinical cases are diagnosed correctly before it is too late and by providing timely and efficacious treatment to the patient concerned...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141175/sudden-cardiac-arrest-during-participation-in-competitive-sports
#14
Cameron H Landry, Katherine S Allan, Kim A Connelly, Kris Cunningham, Laurie J Morrison, Paul Dorian
BACKGROUND: The incidence of sudden cardiac arrest during participation in sports activities remains unknown. Preparticipation screening programs aimed at preventing sudden cardiac arrest during sports activities are thought to be able to identify at-risk athletes; however, the efficacy of these programs remains controversial. We sought to identify all sudden cardiac arrests that occurred during participation in sports activities within a specific region of Canada and to determine their causes...
November 16, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140964/whole-body-computed-tomography-in-severely-injured-patients
#15
Stefan Huber-Wagner, Karl-Georg Kanz, Marc Hanschen, Martijn van Griensven, Peter Biberthaler, Rolf Lefering
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on the relevant and recent studies on whole-body computed tomography (WBCT) imaging of severely injured patients. RECENT FINDINGS: The advantages of WBCT in time saving, diagnostic accuracy and even in survival have been proven in numerous studies. WBCT can also be beneficial in haemodynamically unstable major trauma patients. The CT scanner should be located close to the emergency department or even in the trauma room. The issue of radiation is still quite important, however, iterative as well as split-bolus protocols can nowadays reduce radiation significantly...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140804/exploration-of-predictive-biomarkers-for-sudden-unexplained-cardiac-death-in-nonelderly-people-a-case-control-study-with-biochemical-parameters-related-to-heart-failure
#16
Sakai Kentaro, Iwadate Kimiharu, Matsumoto Sari, Takasu Shojiro, Kanto Yuko
Sudden unexplained cardiac death (SUCD) can occasionally occur in nonelderly patients with epilepsy, psychiatric disorders, or no medical history. This study was conducted to aim to analyze whether values of the biomarkers for heart failure are associated with the SUCD. Serum concentrations of N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and tumor necrosis factor α were analyzed in 57 nonelderly patients with SUCD who was diagnosed at medicolegal autopsy. The subjects were divided into 3 subgroups according to the medical history: (1) epilepsy, (2) psychiatric disorders, and (3) no specific medical history...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140803/use-of-postmortem-computed-tomography-to-detect-bowel-obstruction-and-its-relationship-to-the-cause-of-death
#17
Dominic Gascho, Sarah Schaerli, Lucile Tuchtan-Torrents, Michael J Thali, Guillaume Gorincour
Bowel distension frequently indicates bowel obstruction, which is a common diagnosis in clinical radiology. Typically, symptoms and complaints lead to radiological examinations and the detection of the etiology. Untreated intestinal obstructions can lead to a fatal outcome through cardiac failure due to septic shock. Certain of these cases undergo medicolegal investigations depending on the case history, the condition of the decedent, the location of the finding, or recent visits to medical professionals. Computed tomography (CT) is a recommended method in clinical radiology for the detection of bowel obstruction, which is indicated by bowel distension and further radiological signs (eg, the whirl sign, which indicates a volvulus)...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140511/two-fatal-cases-involving-cardiovascular-drugs-diltiazem-and-amlodipine
#18
Luca Morini, Matteo Moretti, Francesca Brandolini, Antonio Marco Maria Osculati, Angelo Groppi, Claudia Vignali
A liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric method for the identification and quantification of 18 cardiovascular drugs was developed in order to evaluate two cases of fatal intoxication involving diltiazem and amlodipine respectively. Samples were simply diluted and centrifuged using a three-steps procedure with methanol, acetonitrile and mobile phase. The method proved to be selective and all the validation parameters fulfilled the acceptance criteria. In particular, linearity was studied in the range limits of quantitation (LOQ)-1,000 ng/mL (LOQ ranging from 0...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139152/giant-intracranial-arteriovenous-malformation-as-the-focus-of-epileptic-seizures
#19
Mio Takayama, Kenji Hara, Aya Matsusue, Brian Waters, Natsuki Ikematsu, Masayuki Kashiwagi, Shin-Ichi Kubo
A man in his late thirties was found in a supine position in the hallway of his house. He had been diagnosed with epilepsy at approximately 20 years old. Since stopping treatment, epileptic events occurred more frequently and his condition deteriorated in the past 2 years. Autopsy revealed that head injuries were found on the left side of his head. A fracture from the left parietal bone to the anterior cranial fossa was also detected. A subdural hemorrhage (hematoma) spanned a wide range. A subarachnoid hemorrhage was also identified in the left parietal region...
November 14, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138603/fatal-collapse-due-to-autonomic-dysreflexia-during-manual-self-evacuation-of-bowel-in-a-tetraplegic-patient-living-alone-lessons-to-learn
#20
Subramanian Vaidyanathan, Bakul M Soni, Paul Mansour, Tun Oo
Background: To identify areas for improvement, the National Health Service in England mandates the review of case reports of patients who have died, which should be translated into improved care for other patients. Case report: A 49-year-old Caucasian man sustained C-7 tetraplegia in a motorcycle accident in 1992. In 2009, he developed seizures and collapsed in the lavatory on a number of occasions during manual self-evacuation of his bowel. A 24-hour electrocardiogram recording at that time showed sinus rhythm with a maximum heart rate of 97 and a minimum of 39 beats per minute; there were no significant arrhythmias that could have contributed to his episodes of collapse...
2017: International Medical Case Reports Journal
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