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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149022/pyogenic-brain-abscess-caused-by-peptostreptococcus-in-a-patient-with-hiv-1-infection
#1
Jose Armando Gonzales Zamora, Luis Alberto Espinoza
In the setting of HIV, cerebral lesions are usually secondary to lymphoma and opportunistic infections; however, in patients with CD4 counts above 200 cells/uL, other pathologies such as pyogenic brain abscess could gain importance. The microbiology of pyogenic brain abscess has Staphylococcus and Streptococcus as the leading etiologic pathogens in immunocompetent individuals. Peptostreptococcus is also recognized as a common cause of brain abscess in this patient population. In HIV-infected individuals, there have been sporadic reports of Peptostreptococcus infections but none of brain abscess...
November 17, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148920/the-unexpected-impact-of-vaccines-on-secondary-bacterial-infections-following-influenza
#2
Amber M Smith, Victor C Huber
Influenza virus infections remain a significant health burden worldwide, despite available vaccines. Factors that contribute to this include a lack of broad coverage by current vaccines and continual emergence of novel virus strains. Further complicating matters, when influenza viruses infect a host, severe infections can develop when bacterial pathogens invade. Secondary bacterial infections (SBIs) contribute to a significant proportion of influenza-related mortality, with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Haemophilus influenzae as major coinfecting pathogens...
November 17, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148379/characterization-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-from-animal-clinical-specimens-spain
#3
Ana Isabel Vela, Pilar Villalón, Juan Antonio Sáez-Nieto, Gema Chacón, Lucas Domínguez, José Francisco Fernández-Garayzábal
Streptococcus pyogenes appears to be almost exclusively restricted to humans, with few reports on isolation from animals. We provide a detailed characterization (emm typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE], and multilocus sequence typing [MLST]) of 15 S. pyogenes isolates from animals associated with different clinical backgrounds. We also investigated erythromycin resistance mechanisms and phenotypes and virulence genes. We observed 2 emm types: emm12 (11 isolates) and emm77 (4 isolates). Similarly, we observed 2 genetic linages, sequence type (ST) 26 and ST63...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145633/the-initiation-propagation-and-dynamics-of-crispr-spycas9-r-loop-complex
#4
Yan Zeng, Yang Cui, Yong Zhang, Yanruo Zhang, Meng Liang, Hui Chen, Jie Lan, Guangtao Song, Jizhong Lou
CRISPR-Cas9 system has been widely used for efficient genome editing. Although the structures of Cas9 protein in complex with single-guided RNA (sgRNA) and target DNA have been resolved, the molecular details about the formation of Cas9 endonuclease R-loop structure remain elusive. Here we examine the DNA cleavage activities of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpyCas9) and its mutants using various target sequences and study the conformational dynamics of R-loop structure during target binding using single-molecule fluorescence energy transfer (smFRET) technique...
November 14, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142400/chemical-composition-of-moringa-oleifera-ethyl-acetate-fraction-and-its-biological-activity-in-diabetic-human-dermal-fibroblasts
#5
Sivapragasam Gothai, Katyakyini Muniandy, Mazni Abu Zarin, Tan Woan Sean, S Suresh Kumar, Murugan A Munusamy, Sharida Fakurazi, Palanisamy Arulselvan
Background: Moringa oleifera (MO), commonly known as the drumstick tree, is used in folklore medicine for the treatment of skin disease. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of MO leaves for in vitro antibacterial, antioxidant, and wound healing activities and conduct gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Materials and Methods: Antibacterial activity was evaluated against six Gram-positive bacteria and 10 Gram-negative bacteria by disc diffusion method...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127284/a-thermostable-cas9-with-increased-lifetime-in-human-plasma
#6
Lucas B Harrington, David Paez-Espino, Brett T Staahl, Janice S Chen, Enbo Ma, Nikos C Kyrpides, Jennifer A Doudna
CRISPR-Cas9 is a powerful technology that has enabled genome editing in a wide range of species. However, the currently developed Cas9 homologs all originate from mesophilic bacteria, making them susceptible to degradation and unsuitable for applications requiring cleavage at elevated temperatures. Here, we show that the Cas9 protein from the thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus (GeoCas9) catalyzes RNA-guided DNA cleavage at elevated temperatures. GeoCas9 is active at temperatures up to 70 °C, compared to 45 °C for Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpyCas9), which expands the temperature range for CRISPR-Cas9 applications...
November 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122881/whole-genome-sequencing-of-a-human-clinical-isolate-of-emm28-streptococcus-pyogenes-causing-necrotizing-fasciitis-acquired-contemporaneously-with-hurricane-harvey
#7
S Wesley Long, Priyanka Kachroo, James M Musser, Randall J Olsen
We discovered an emm28 Streptococcus pyogenes isolate causing necrotizing fasciitis in a patient exposed to the floodwaters of Hurricane Harvey in the Houston, TX, metropolitan area in August 2017. The Oxford Nanopore MinION instrument provided sufficient genome sequence data within 1 h of beginning sequencing to close the genome.
November 9, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115289/synthesis-and-antibacterial-activity-of-novel-lincomycin-derivatives-iv-optimization-of-an-n-6-substituent
#8
Ko Kumura, Yoshinari Wakiyama, Kazutaka Ueda, Eijiro Umemura, Yoko Hirai, Keiko Yamada, Keiichi Ajito
The design and synthesis of lincomycin derivatives modified at the C-6 and C-7 positions are described. A substituent at the C-7 position is a 5-aryl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl-thio group that generates antibacterial activities against macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes carrying an erm gene. An additional modification at the C-6 position was explored in application of information regarding pirlimycin and other related compounds. These dual modifications were accomplished by using methyl α-thiolincosaminide as a starting material...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114245/the-selective-interaction-of-pistacia-lentiscus-oil-vs-human-streptococci-an-old-functional-food-revisited-with-new-tools
#9
Germano Orrù, Cristina Demontis, Antonello Mameli, Enrica Tuveri, Pierpaolo Coni, Giuseppina Pichiri, Ferdinando Coghe, Antonella Rosa, Paola Rossi, Guy D'hallewin
Pistacia lentiscus berry oil (LBO) represents a typical vegetal product of the Mediterranean basin that has been formally used in traditional cuisine for 100s of years. In addition to its interesting alimentary properties, this product could represent an interesting candidate in the field of research on the study of new anti-infective agents. In fact, in Mediterranean countries, lentisk oil still continues to be widely used in folk medicine for oral and skin affections, in particular, acute gingivitis, pediatric skin infections such as impetigo and foot plaques, and biofilm related infections often associated with Streptococcus spp...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114029/rapid-selection-free-high-efficiency-genome-editing-in-protozoan-parasites-using-crispr-cas9-ribonucleoproteins
#10
Lia Carolina Soares Medeiros, Lilith South, Duo Peng, Juan M Bustamante, Wei Wang, Molly Bunkofske, Natasha Perumal, Fernando Sanchez-Valdez, Rick L Tarleton
Trypanosomatids (order Kinetoplastida), including the human pathogens Trypanosoma cruzi (agent of Chagas disease), Trypanosoma brucei, (African sleeping sickness), and Leishmania (leishmaniasis), affect millions of people and animals globally. T. cruzi is considered one of the least studied and most poorly understood tropical disease-causing parasites, in part because of the relative lack of facile genetic engineering tools. This situation has improved recently through the application of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) technology, but a number of limitations remain, including the toxicity of continuous Cas9 expression and the long drug marker selection times...
November 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109702/genomic-comparison-among-lethal-invasive-strains-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-serotype-m1
#11
Gabriel R Fernandes, Aulus E A D Barbosa, Renan N Almeida, Fabíola F Dos S Castro, Marina de C P da Ponte, Celio Faria-Junior, Fernanda M P Müller, Antônio A B Viana, Dario Grattapaglia, Octavio L Franco, Sérgio A Alencar, Simoni C Dias
Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS), is a human pathogen that causes diverse human diseases including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). A GAS outbreak occurred in Brasilia, Brazil, during the second half of the year 2011, causing 26 deaths. Whole genome sequencing was performed using Illumina platform. The sequences were assembled and genes were predicted for comparative analysis with emm type 1 strains: MGAS5005 and M1 GAS. Genomics comparison revealed one of the invasive strains that differ from others isolates and from emm 1 reference genomes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107650/molecular-characterization-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-subspecies-equisimilis-isolated-from-patients-with-streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome
#12
T Ikebe, R Okuno, M Sasaki, Y Kanda, H Otsuka, R Kawahara, H Ohya, M Suzuki, K Uchida, H Nihonmatsu, M Ohnishi
Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is a severe invasive infection characterized by the sudden onset of shock, multiorgan failure, and high mortality. Although STSS is mainly caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, group G streptococcus identified as S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) causing STSS has also been reported; however, no study has analyzed >100 isolates of SDSE causing STSS. Therefore, we characterized the emm genotype of 173 SDSE isolates obtained from STSS patients in Japan during 2014-2016 and performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the broth microdilution method and emm gene typing...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104937/novel-genes-required-for-the-fitness-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-in-human-saliva
#13
Luchang Zhu, Amelia R L Charbonneau, Andrew S Waller, Randall J Olsen, Stephen B Beres, James M Musser
Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]) causes 600 million cases of pharyngitis each year. Despite this considerable disease burden, the molecular mechanisms used by GAS to infect, cause clinical pharyngitis, and persist in the human oropharynx are poorly understood. Saliva is ubiquitous in the human oropharynx and is the first material GAS encounters in the upper respiratory tract. Thus, a fuller understanding of how GAS survives and proliferates in saliva may provide valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms at work in the human oropharynx...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099690/genome-sequence-analysis-of-emm89-streptococcus-pyogenes-strains-causing-infections-in-scotland-2010-2016
#14
Stephen B Beres, Randall J Olsen, Matthew Ojeda Saavedra, Roisin Ure, Arlene Reynolds, Diane S J Lindsay, Andrew J Smith, James M Musser
PURPOSE: Strains of type emm89 Streptococcus pyogenes have recently increased in frequency as a cause of human infections in several countries in Europe and North America. This increase has been molecular epidemiologically linked with the emergence of a new genetically distinct clone, designated clade 3. We sought to extend our understanding of this epidemic behavior by the genetic characterization of type emm89 strains responsible in recent years for an increased frequency of infections in Scotland...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099353/streptococcus-bovimastitidis-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-dairy-cow-with-mastitis
#15
Stefan P W de Vries, Nazreen F Hadjirin, Elizabeth M Lay, Ruth N Zadoks, Sharon J Peacock, Julian Parkhill, Andrew J Grant, Scott McDougall, Mark A Holmes
Here we describe a new species of the genus Streptococcus that was isolated from a dairy cow with mastitis in New Zealand. Strain NZ1587(T) was Gram-positive, coccus-shaped and arranged as chains, catalase and coagulase negative, γ-haemolytic and negative for Lancefield carbohydrates (A-D, F and G). The 16S rRNA sequence did not match sequences in the NCBI 16S rRNA or GreenGenes databases. Taxonomic classification of strain NZ1587(T) was investigated using 16S rRNA and core genome phylogeny, genome-wide average nucleotide identity (ANI) and predicted DNA-DNA hybridisation (DDH) analyses...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089594/synthesis-and-sars-of-novel-lincomycin-derivatives-part-5-optimization-of-lincomycin-analogs-exhibiting-potent-antibacterial-activities-by-chemical-modification-at-the-6-and-7-positions
#16
Yoshinari Wakiyama, Ko Kumura, Eijiro Umemura, Satomi Masaki, Kazutaka Ueda, Yasuo Sato, Yoko Hirai, Yoshio Hayashi, Keiichi Ajito
In order to modify lincomycin at the C-6 and C-7 positions, we prepared target molecules, which have substituted pipecolinic acid at the 6-amino group and a para-substituted phenylthio group at the C-7 position, in application of palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling as a key reaction. As the result of structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies at the 6-position, analogs possessing 4'-cis-(cyclopropylmethyl)piperidine showed significantly strong antibacterial activities against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes with an erm gene...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081854/toxic-shock-in-children-with-bone-and-joint-infections-a-review-of-seven-years-of-patients-admitted-to-one-intensive-care-unit
#17
D L Kerr, E K Loraas, A C Links, T V Brogan, G A Schmale
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to compare the frequency of severe systemic, multi-organ involvement and toxic shock syndrome (TSS) in patients with Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Group A β-haemolytic Streptococcus pyogenes (GABS) bone and joint infections. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients treated for septic arthritis or osteomyelitis at one children's hospital between 2002 and 2009. The rates of intensive care unit (ICU) admission for methicillin-sensitive SA (MSSA), methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA) and GABS infections were compared, as were the lengths of stay, number of surgeries, operative procedures and cases of TSS...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071076/burden-of-bacterial-upper-respiratory-tract-pathogens-in-school-children-of-nepal
#18
Sangita Thapa, Shishir Gokhale, Annavarapu Laxminarasimha Sharma, Lokendra Bahadur Sapkota, Shamshul Ansari, Rajendra Gautam, Sony Shrestha, Puja Neopane
INTRODUCTION: Respiratory tract infections are one of the most common human infections in all age group and important cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Most bacterial upper respiratory tract infections are vaccine preventable. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of carrier state of bacterial upper respiratory tract pathogens among school children. It also aimed to study their antibiograms. METHODS: The specimen from posterior pharyngeal wall and tonsils were collected from 204 participants on calcium alginate coated swabs (HiMedia)...
2017: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054600/microbe-dependent-induction-of-il-9-by-cla-t-cells-in-psoriasis-and-relationship-with-il-17a
#19
Ester Ruiz-Romeu, Marta Ferran, Carmen de Jesús-Gil, Pablo García, Marc Sagristà, J M Casanova, J M Fernández, Anca Chiriac, Péter Hóllo, Antonio Celada, Ramon M Pujol, Luis F Santamaria-Babí
IL-9 is present in psoriatic lesions and produced by lymphocytes. However, it is not known whether this cytokine is induced by relevant pathogenic triggers of psoriasis, such as Streptococcus pyogenes. Here we addressed the production of IL-9 in response to various pathogens in a psoriatic ex vivo model. Extracts of S. pyogenes and C. albicans triggered the production of IL-9 and also IL-17A and IFN-γ. This induction was dependent on the interaction between CLA(+) T-cells and epidermal cells. Neutralization of IL-9 reduced S...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053067/the-proteome-of-pus-from-human-brain-abscesses-host-derived-neurotoxic-proteins-and-the-cell-type-diversity-of-cns-pus
#20
Bjørnar Hassel, Gustavo Antonio De Souza, Maria Ekman Stensland, Jugoslav Ivanovic, Øyvind Voie, Daniel Dahlberg
OBJECTIVE What determines the extent of tissue destruction during brain abscess formation is not known. Pyogenic brain infections cause destruction of brain tissue that greatly exceeds the area occupied by microbes, as seen in experimental studies, pointing to cytotoxic factors other than microbes in pus. This study examined whether brain abscess pus contains cytotoxic proteins that might explain the extent of tissue destruction. METHODS Pus proteins from 20 human brain abscesses and, for comparison, 7 subdural empyemas were analyzed by proteomics mass spectrometry...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
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