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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778182/evidence-for-involvement-of-the-fas-bcax-regulon-in-capsule-synthesis-by-streptococcus-equi
#1
Sridhar Velineni, John F Timoney
The constitutively expressed hyaluronic acid capsule is an important virulence factor of Streptococcus equi, the cause of equine strangles. Study of the genomic sequence of CF22caps-, a non-encapsulated mutant of S. equi CF22 generated by gamma (Co60 ) irradiation revealed a non-sense mutation in fasC (SEQ_0302), a sensor kinase gene in FasBCAX an operon with an important regulatory role in expression of streptococcal secreted virulence and matrix binding proteins. The mutation was associated with a significant (p < ...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776751/development-of-an-opsonophagocytic-killing-assay-for-group-a-streptococcus
#2
Scott Jones, Nicole J Moreland, Marta Zancolli, Jeremy Raynes, Jacelyn M S Loh, Pierre R Smeesters, Shiranee Sriskandan, Jonathan R Carapetis, John D Fraser, David Goldblatt
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) or Streptococcus pyogenes is responsible for an estimated 500,000 deaths worldwide each year. Protection against GAS infection is thought to be mediated by phagocytosis, enhanced by bacteria-specific antibody. There are no licenced GAS vaccines, despite many promising candidates in preclinical and early stage clinical development, the most advanced of which are based on the GAS M-protein. Vaccine progress has been hindered, in part, by the lack of a standardised functional assay suitable for vaccine evaluation...
May 15, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776398/primary-bacterial-ventriculitis-in-adults-an-emergent-diagnosis-challenge-report-of-a-meningoccal-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Anaïs Lesourd, Nicolas Magne, Anaïs Soares, Caroline Lemaitre, Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Isabelle Gueit, Michel Wolff, François Caron
BACKGROUND: Defined by an infection of the ventricular system of the brain, ventriculitis is usually known as a health-care associated infection. In contrast, primary pyogenic ventriculitis complicating community-acquired meningitis is uncommon, and mainly described in infants. Only seven cases that have occured in adults have been found in the international literature. CASE PRESENTATION: We report here a new case due to Neisseria meningitidis occurring in an 85 year-old-man...
May 18, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768222/green-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-using-flower-extract-of-malva-sylvestris-and-investigation-of-their-antibacterial-activity
#4
Hassan Mahmoodi Esfanddarani, Abolghasem Abbasi Kajani, Abdol-Khalegh Bordbar
High-quality colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were synthesised via a green approach by using hydroalcoholic extracts of Malva sylvestris . Silver nitrate was used as a substrate ion while the plant extract successfully played the role of reducing and stabilising agents. The synthesised nanoparticles were carefully characterised by using transmission electron microscopy, atomic-force microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. The maximum absorption wavelengths of the colloidal solutions synthesised using 70 and 96% ethanol and 100% methanol, as extraction solvents, were 430, 485 and 504 nm, respectively...
June 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764210/curative-ex-vivo-hepatocyte-directed-gene-editing-in-a-mouse-model-of-hereditary-tyrosinemia-type-1
#5
Caitlin VanLith, Rebekah Guthman, Clara T Nicolas, Kari Allen, Zeji Du, Dong Jin Joo, Scott L Nyberg, Joseph B Lillegard, Raymond Daniel Hickey
Hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH). It has been previously shown that ex vivo hepatocyte-directed gene therapy using an integrating lentiviral vector to replace the defective Fah gene can cure liver disease in small and large animal models of HT1. In this study, we hypothesized that ex vivo hepatocyte-directed gene editing using CRISPR-Cas9 could be used to correct a mouse model of HT1, in which a single point mutation results in loss of FAH function...
May 15, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759798/an-acute-nocardia-infection-in-a-pediatric-hand
#6
Garrett Steinmetz, Kenton Panas, William Puffinbarger
Nocardia species are aerobic gram-positive filamentous organisms that may cause cutaneous or pulmonary disease in humans. Primary cutaneous nocardiosis may manifest as an acute superficial pyogenic infection that can mimic more common organisms such as Staphylococcus or Streptococcus. Acute pyogenic Nocardia infection of the pediatric hand is a rare manifestation of this condition. We present a 17-month-old boy who presented with an acute abscess formation on his left fourth and fifth digits that was found to be secondary to Nocardia brasiliensis...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754819/blocking-neuronal-signaling-to-immune-cells-treats-streptococcal-invasive-infection
#7
Felipe A Pinho-Ribeiro, Buket Baddal, Rianne Haarsma, Maghnus O'Seaghdha, Nicole J Yang, Kimbria J Blake, Makayla Portley, Waldiceu A Verri, James B Dale, Michael R Wessels, Isaac M Chiu
The nervous system, the immune system, and microbial pathogens interact closely at barrier tissues. Here, we find that a bacterial pathogen, Streptococcus pyogenes, hijacks pain and neuronal regulation of the immune response to promote bacterial survival. Necrotizing fasciitis is a life-threatening soft tissue infection in which "pain is out of proportion" to early physical manifestations. We find that S. pyogenes, the leading cause of necrotizing fasciitis, secretes streptolysin S (SLS) to directly activate nociceptor neurons and produce pain during infection...
May 7, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754237/crispr-cas9-mediated-genome-editing-and-transcriptional-control-in-yarrowia-lipolytica
#8
Cory Schwartz, Ian Wheeldon
The discovery and adaptation of RNA-guided nucleases has resulted in the rapid development of efficient, scalable, and easily accessible synthetic biology tools for targeted genome editing and transcriptional control. In these systems, for example CRISPR-Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes, a protein with nuclease activity is targeted to a specific nucleotide sequence by a short RNA molecule, whereupon binding it cleaves the targeted nucleotide strand. To extend this genome-editing ability to the industrially important oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, we developed a set of easily usable and effective CRISPR-Cas9 episomal vectors...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754236/bacterial-genome-editing-with-crispr-cas9-taking-clostridium-beijerinckii-as-an-example
#9
Zhong-Tian Zhang, Pablo Jiménez-Bonilla, Seung-Oh Seo, Ting Lu, Yong-Su Jin, Hans P Blaschek, Yi Wang
CRISPR-Cas9 has been explored as a transformative genome engineering tool for many eukaryotic organisms. However, its utilization in bacteria remains limited and ineffective. This chapter, taking Clostridium beijerinckii as an example, describes the use of Streptococcus pyogenes CRISPR-Cas9 system guided by the single chimeric guide RNA (gRNA) for diverse genome-editing purposes, including chromosomal gene deletion, integration, single nucleotide modification, as well as "clean" mutant selection. The general principle is to use CRISPR-Cas9 as an efficient selection tool for the edited mutant (whose CRISPR-Cas9 target site has been disrupted through a homologous recombination event and thus can survive selection) against? the wild type background cells...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745242/comparative-in-vitro-antibacterial-activity-of-ozenoxacin-against-gram-positive-clinical-isolates
#10
Rafael Canton, Ian Morrissey, Jordi Vila, Marta Tato, María García-Castillo, Yuly López, Domingo Gargallo-Viola, Ilonka Zsolt
AIM: To compare the in vitro activity of the anti-impetigo agent, ozenoxacin, and other antimicrobial agents against Gram-positive clinical isolates from skin and soft tissue infections. MATERIALS & METHODS: Isolates were collected in two studies: 1097 isolates from 49 centers during 2009-2010 and 1031 isolates from ten centers during 2014. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for 18 and 11 antimicrobials in these studies, respectively, using standard broth microdilution methods...
May 1, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742700/characteristics-and-management-of-pyogenic-liver-abscess-a-european-experience
#11
Cristina Serraino, Chiara Elia, Christian Bracco, Gianluca Rinaldi, Fulvio Pomero, Alberto Silvestri, Remo Melchio, Luigi Maria Fenoglio
Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) are space-occupying lesions in the liver associated with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to review an Italian hospital experience in epidemiological, clinical patterns, and management of PLA.We performed a retrospective, descriptive case series at a single center assessing demographic characteristics, presentation patterns, etiological factors, microbiological etiology, and management for patients treated for PLA between 2000 and 2016.Around 109 patients were identified...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741523/fulminant-streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome
#12
S Zavala, M Arias, P Legua
We present a case of a previously healthy 37-year-old male who developed fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, and hypovolaemia. Within 5.5 h he presented with tachycardia, tachypnoea, became hypotensive and displayed a diffuse erythematous rash. In the following hours he developed persistent hypotension, acute respiratory distress syndrome, liver failure, kidney failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. A diagnosis of toxic shock syndrome was made, but despite antibiotic therapy, immunoglobulin administration, and supportive measures, the patient died 50 h after presentation...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739475/an-outbreak-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-in-a-mental-health-facility-advantage-of-well-timed-whole-genome-sequencing-over-emm-typing
#13
Sarah M Bergin, Balamurugan Periaswamy, Timothy Barkham, Hong Choon Chua, Yee Ming Mok, Daniel Shuen Sheng Fung, Alex Hsin Chuan Su, Yen Ling Lee, Ming Lai Ivan Chua, Poh Yong Ng, Wei Jia Wendy Soon, Collins Wenhan Chu, Siyun Lucinda Tan, Mary Meehan, Brenda Sze Peng Ang, Yee Sin Leo, Matthew T G Holden, Partha De, Li Yang Hsu, Swaine L Chen, Paola Florez de Sessions, Kalisvar Marimuthu
OBJECTIVEWe report the utility of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) conducted in a clinically relevant time frame (ie, sufficient for guiding management decision), in managing a Streptococcus pyogenes outbreak, and present a comparison of its performance with emm typing.SETTINGA 2,000-bed tertiary-care psychiatric hospital.METHODSActive surveillance was conducted to identify new cases of S. pyogenes. WGS guided targeted epidemiological investigations, and infection control measures were implemented. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genome phylogeny, emm typing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed...
May 9, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735829/nonspecific-amplification-of-human-dna-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-lyta-primer
#14
Helen Hencida Thangamony, Ravindran Kumar, Chinnappan Palaniappan Thangavelu, Mani Mariappa, Berlin Grace Viswanathan Mariammal, Kootallur Narayanan Brahmadathan
Background: Determination of various analytical parameters is essential for the validation of primers used for in-house nucleic acid amplification tests. While standardising a high-resolution melt analysis (HRMA) for detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae in acute pyogenic meningitis, we encountered non-specific amplification of certain base pair sequences of human DNA by Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, USA recommended S. pneumoniae LytA primer. Materials and Methods: HRMA was standardised using DNA extracted from an ATCC strain of S...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728840/evaluation-of-the-current-use-of-imaging-modalities-and-pathogen-detection-in-children-with-acute-osteomyelitis-and-septic-arthritis
#15
Nora Manz, Andreas H Krieg, Ulrich Heininger, Nicole Ritz
Diagnostic tools for the management of acute osteomyelitis (OM) and septic arthritis (SA) have improved over the last decade. To investigate the influence and availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nucleic acid testing (NAT), a retrospective cohort study was done. Patients admitted with acute OM or SA between 2005 and 2014 were identified using ICD-10 discharge codes. Ninety-six children were identified: OM, n = 45; SA, n = 42; and OM + SA, n = 9. Diagnostic imaging was performed in 100% of OM or OM + SA and 95% of SA patients...
May 4, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725958/prevalence-and-molecular-diversity-of-invasive-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-and-streptococcus-pyogenes-in-a-german-tertiary-care-medical-centre
#16
S Rößler, R Berner, E Jacobs, N Toepfner
Prevalence of invasive ß-haemolytic streptococci (BHS) at a tertiary care hospital and molecular diversity of S. pyogenes and S. dysgalactiae was studied. Between 2012 and 2016, all blood culture sets (n = 55,839), CSF (n = 8413) and soft tissue (n = 20,926) samples were analysed for BHS positivity using HYBASE software. Molecular profiles of 99 S. pyogenes and S. dysgalactiae were identified by sequencing of M protein genes (emm types) and multiplex PCR typing of 20 other virulence determinants. Streptococci contributed to 6...
May 3, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724853/complete-genome-sequence-of-a-streptococcus-pyogenes-serotype-m12-scarlet-fever-outbreak-isolate-from-china-compiled-using-oxford-nanopore-and-illumina-sequencing
#17
Yuanhai You, Yongjun Kou, Longfei Niu, Qiong Jia, Yahui Liu, Mark R Davies, Mark J Walker, Jiaqiang Zhu, Jianzhong Zhang
The incidence of scarlet fever cases remains high in China. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a Streptococcus pyogenes isolate of serotype M12, which has been confirmed as the predominant serotype in recent outbreaks. Genome sequencing was achieved by a combination of Oxford Nanopore MinION and Illumina methodologies.
May 3, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707522/early-lymphocyte-loss-and-increased-granulocyte-lymphocyte-ratio-predict-systemic-spread-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-in-a-mouse-model-of-acute-skin-infection
#18
Torsten G Loof, Aaqib Sohail, Mahmoud M Bahgat, Aravind Tallam, Haroon Arshad, Manas K Akmatov, Marina C Pils, Ulrike Heise, Andreas Beineke, Frank Pessler
Background: Group A streptococci may induce lymphopenia, but the value of lymphocyte loss as early biomarkers for systemic spread and severe infection has not been examined systematically. Methods: We evaluated peripheral blood cell indices as biomarkers for severity and spread of infection in a mouse model of Streptococcus pyogenes skin infection, using two isolates of greatly differing virulence. Internal organs were examined histologically. Results: After subcutaneous inoculation, strain AP1 disseminated rapidly to peripheral blood and internal organs, causing frank sepsis...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706315/recurrent-streptococcus-pneumoniae-meningitis-and-mondini-dysplasia-association-or-causation
#19
Indar K Sharawat, Ananthanarayanan Kasinathan, Guru P Peruri, Arushi G Saini, Naveen Sankhyan, Akshay K Saxena, Paramjeet Singh
Mondini dysplasia is a developmental disorder of the inner ear structures and it is a rare cause of recurrent bacterial meningitis in children. A 10-year-old boy presented with acute febrile encephalopathy and right ear pain. In the past, he had suffered from two distinct episodes of pyogenic meningitis. On examination, he had signs of meningeal irritation and right ear sensorineural deafness. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and computerized tomography of the temporal bone was suggestive of Mondini dysplasia in the right ear...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704396/protective-immunity-induced-by-an-intranasal-multivalent-vaccine-comprising-10-lactococcus-lactis-strains-expressing-highly-prevalent-m-protein-antigens-derived-from-group-a-streptococcus
#20
Aniela Wozniak, Natalia Scioscia, Patricia C García, James B Dale, Braulio A Paillavil, Paulette Legarraga, Francisco J Salazar-Echegarai, Susan M Bueno, Alexis M Kalergis
Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus) causes diseases ranging from mild pharyngitis to severe invasive infections. The N-terminal fragment of Streptococcal M protein elicits protective antibodies and is an attractive vaccine target. However, this N- terminal fragment is hypervariable and there are more than 200 different M types. We are developing an intranasal live bacterial vaccine comprised of 10 strains of Lactococcus lactis, each expressing one N-terminal fagment of M protein. Live bacterial-vectored vaccines have lower associated costs because of its less complex manufacturing processes compared to protein subunit vaccines...
April 28, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
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