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streptococcus pyogenes

Elizabeth A Neuner, Andrea M Pallotta, Simon W Lam, David Stowe, Steven M Gordon, Gary W Procop, Sandra S Richter
OBJECTIVE To describe the impact of rapid diagnostic microarray technology and antimicrobial stewardship for patients with Gram-positive blood cultures. DESIGN Retrospective pre-intervention/post-intervention study. SETTING A 1,200-bed academic medical center. PATIENTS Inpatients with blood cultures positive for Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. anginosus, Streptococcus spp., and Listeria monocytogenes during the 6 months before and after implementation of Verigene Gram-positive blood culture microarray (BC-GP) with an antimicrobial stewardship intervention...
November 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Jia-Yun C Tsai, Jacelyn M S Loh, Fiona Clow, Natalie Lorenz, Thomas Proft
Group A Streptococcus (GAS), or Streptococcus pyogenes, is a human pathogen that causes diseases ranging from skin and soft tissue infections to severe invasive diseases, such as toxic shock syndrome. Each GAS strain carries a particular pilus type encoded in the variable fibronectin-binding, collagen-binding, T antigen (FCT) genomic region. Here we describe the functional analysis of the serotype M2 pilus encoded in the FCT-6 region. We found that, in contrast to other investigated GAS pili, the ancillary pilin 1 lacks adhesive properties...
October 14, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Nobuhiro Akuzawa, Masahiko Kurabayashi
A 78-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital because of fever lasting for 4 days. His white blood cell count and C-reactive protein level were elevated and computed tomography of the chest showed bronchopneumonia in the right upper lobe of the lung. Streptococcus pyogenes was detected from sputum and blood culture samples on admission and administration of ampicillin/sulbactam was effective. Although our patient's clinical course was good, S. pyogenes pneumonia commonly shows a high rate of fatality and septicemia, and may affect a previously healthy population...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Chance M Nowak, Seth Lawson, Megan Zerez, Leonidas Bleris
The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats system allows a single guide RNA (sgRNA) to direct a protein with combined helicase and nuclease activity to the DNA. Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9), a CRISPR-associated protein, has revolutionized our ability to probe and edit the human genome in vitro and in vivo Arguably, the true modularity of the Cas9 platform is conferred through the ease of sgRNA programmability as well as the degree of modifications the sgRNA can tolerate without compromising its association with SpCas9 and function...
October 12, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Deborah A Williamson, Pierre R Smeesters, Andrew C Steer, Julie Morgan, Mark Davies, Philip Carter, Arlo Upton, Stephen Y C Tong, John Fraser, Nicole J Moreland
BACKGROUND: Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are responsible for a significant disease burden amongst Māori and Pacific populations in New Zealand (NZ). However, contemporary data are lacking regarding circulating group A Streptococcal (GAS) strains in NZ. Such information is important in guiding vaccine development. METHODS: GAS isolates from April to June 2015 were recovered from skin and pharyngeal samples from children living in areas of high social deprivation in Auckland, NZ, a significant proportion of which are Māori or Pacific...
October 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Tejaswini Kulkarni, Chihiro Aikawa, Takashi Nozawa, Kazunori Murase, Fumito Maruyama, Ichiro Nakagawa
BACKGROUND: Group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) causes a range of mild to severe infections in humans. It can also colonize healthy persons asymptomatically. Therefore, it is important to study GAS carriage in healthy populations, as carriage of it might lead to subsequent disease manifestation, clonal spread in the community, and/or diversification of the organism. Throat swab culture is the gold standard method for GAS detection. Advanced culture-independent methods provide rapid and efficient detection of microorganisms directly from clinical samples...
October 11, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Samantha D M Arras, Sheena M H Chua, Maha S I Wizrah, Joshua A Faint, Amy S Yap, James A Fraser
Low rates of homologous integration have hindered molecular genetic studies in Cryptococcus neoformans over the past 20 years, and new tools that facilitate genome manipulation in this important pathogen are greatly needed. To this end, we have investigated the use of a Class 2 CRISPR system in C. neoformans (formerly C. neoformans var. grubii). We first expressed a derivative of the Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 nuclease in C. neoformans, and showed that it has no effect on growth, production of virulence factors in vitro, or virulence in a murine inhalation model...
2016: PloS One
Bang Shen, Kevin Brown, Shaojun Long, L David Sibley
Efficient and site-specific alteration of the genome is key to decoding and altering the genomic information of an organism. Over the last couple of years, the RNA-guided Cas9 nucleases derived from the prokaryotic type 2 CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) systems have drastically improved our ability to engineer the genomes of a variety of organisms including Toxoplasma gondii. In this chapter, we describe detailed protocols for using the CRISPR/Cas9 system adapted from Streptococcus pyogenes to perform efficient genetic manipulations in T...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
F Cardoso-Toset, I Luque, A Morales-Partera, A Galán-Relaño, B Barrero-Domínguez, M Hernández, J Gómez-Laguna
Dry-cured hams, shoulders and loins of Iberian pigs are highly appreciated in national and international markets. Salting, additive addition and dehydration are the main strategies to produce these ready-to-eat products. Although the dry curing process is known to reduce the load of well-known food borne pathogens, studies evaluating the viability of other microorganisms in contaminated pork have not been performed. In this work, the efficacy of the dry curing process to eliminate three swine pathogens associated with pork carcass condemnation, Streptococcus suis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Trueperella pyogenes, was evaluated...
February 2017: Food Microbiology
Nobuaki Mori, Sakiko Hosoo, Yoshitaka Oyamada, Yasushi Sera, Yasuhiro Yamada, Momoko Sugawara, Akiko Higuchi, Yasuko Aoki, Takashi Takahashi
Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS) infections can develop into life-threatening disorders. However, the occurrence of some GAS pneumonia cases is relatively rare in a local community. We report here characteristics of mucoid GAS isolates obtained from the sputum of two patients with pneumonia in a local community. Although case-patients did not have contact with each other, case-patient 1's child and case-patient 2's grandchild attended the same kindergarten where a GAS pharyngitis epidemic had occurred...
2016: IDCases
Karin Holm, Steffen Bank, Hanne Nielsen, Lena Hagelskjær Kristensen, Jørgen Prag, Anders Jensen
Fusobacterium necrophorum is a gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that is the causative agent of the invasive disease Lemierre's syndrome. In addition, it is also associated with peritonsillar abscess formation and otitis media in small children. Recent research has shown that F. necrophorum may be involved in pharyngotonsillitis especially in adolescent and young adults and that it may be the second most common bacterial cause of pharyngotonsillitis after Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A streptococci). Peritonsillar abscesses and Lemierre's syndrome due to F...
September 28, 2016: Anaerobe
Yasuko Kamiya, Tadao Hasegawa, Yasuhiko Takegami, Kazuhiro Horiba, Shotaro Ando, Yuka Torii, Hiroyuki Kidokoro, Taichi Kato, Jun Natsume, Jun-Ich Kawada, Yoshinori Ito
Primary abscess of the iliopsoas muscle in children is uncommon, especially due to Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus: GAS), which causes a variety of diseases ranging from pharyngitis to invasive life-threatening infection. We present primary iliopsoas abscess in a nine-year-old boy presenting with fever, mild disturbance of consciousness, limp, and pain in the right loin. Magnetic resonance imaging and isolation of GAS from both blood and abscess samples led us to the confirmative diagnosis. The patient recovered after treatment comprising drainage and intravenous antibiotics...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Julia Uhlmann, Nikolai Siemens, Ylva Kai-Larsen, Tomas Fiedler, Peter Bergman, Linda Johansson, Anna Norrby-Teglund
BACKGROUND:  Neutrophils have been proposed as important contributors to the hyper-inflammatory responses that are associated with severe invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections. In particular streptococcal surface proteins have been implicated as potent neutrophil activators. Here we explore the impact of streptococcal secreted factors on neutrophil activation and degranulation. METHODS:  Primary human neutrophils were exposed to supernatants prepared from stationary phase cultures of invasive S...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Maliha Rahman, Scott V Nguyen, Kimberly A McCullor, Catherine J King, James H Jorgensen, W Michael McShan
Streptococcus anginosus is a member of the normal oral flora that can become a pathogen causing pyogenic infections in humans. The genome of daptomycin-resistant strain J4206, originally isolated from a patient suffering from breakthrough bacteremia and septic shock at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, was determined. The circular genome is 2,001,352 bp long with a GC content of 38.62% and contains multiple mobile genetic elements, including the phage-like chromosomal island SanCI that mediates a mutator phenotype, transposons, and integrative conjugative elements...
September 27, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Ameneh Khatami, Braden Rl Rivers, Alexander C Outhred, Alison M Kesson
AIM: A prospective observational study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of oropharyngeal carriage of Kingella kingae in healthy Australian pre-school children. METHODS: Screening for carriage of K. kingae as well as Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, and K. kingae was undertaken using a single bacterial throat swab taken from well children aged 6 months to 4 years. Standard laboratory procedures were used for culture and identification of organisms...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Leslie Brown, Jeong-Ho Kim, Kyu Hong Cho
A hyaluronic acid capsule is a major virulence factor in the pathogenesis of Streptococcus pyogenes. It acts as an anti-phagocytic agent and adhesin to keratinocytes. The expression of the capsule is primarily regulated at the transcriptional level by the two-component regulatory system CovRS, in which CovR acts as a transcriptional repressor. The covRS genes are frequently mutated in many invasive strains, and a subset of the invasive CovRS mutants does not produce a detectable level of the capsule at 37 °C, but produces a significant amount of the capsule at sub-body temperatures...
2016: Genes
Wooseok Im, Jangsup Moon, Manho Kim
Gene therapy is a potential therapeutic strategy for treating hereditary movement disorders, including hereditary ataxia, dystonia, Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Genome editing is a type of genetic engineering in which DNA is inserted, deleted or replaced in the genome using modified nucleases. Recently, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/CRISPR associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) has been used as an essential tool in biotechnology. Cas9 is an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease enzyme that was originally associated with the adaptive immune system of Streptococcus pyogenes and is now being utilized as a genome editing tool to induce double strand breaks in DNA...
September 2016: Journal of Movement Disorders
G Ralph Corey, Francis F Arhin, Matthew A Wikler, Daniel F Sahm, Barry N Kreiswirth, José R Mediavilla, Samantha Good, Claude Fiset, Hai Jiang, Greg Moeck, Heidi Kabler, Sinikka Green, William O'Riordan
Oritavancin is a lipoglycopeptide antibiotic with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The phase 3 studies SOLO I and SOLO II demonstrated comparable efficacy and safety of a single dose of oritavancin compared with 7-10 days of twice-daily vancomycin in adults with acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (ABSSSIs). The present analysis assessed clinical responses by pathogen at 48-72 h and at study days 14-24 in SOLO patients within the pooled data set...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Yuhei Tanaka, Kenji Gotoh, Mariko Teramachi, Kazuhisa Ishimoto, Naoki Tsumura, Shizuo Shindou, Yushiro Yamashita
Here we report the molecular epidemiology of macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci, GAS) isolated from children with pharyngotonsillitis between 2011 and 2013 in Japan. In 299 isolates, 124 (41.5%) isolates were macrolide-resistant. We characterized the isolates by emm typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Of 299 isolates, 124 (41.5%) were macrolide-resistant isolates, 76 (61.3%) possessed mefA and 46 (37.1%) possessed ermB. All 76 isolates with mefA possessed msrD...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Gordana Randjelovic, Suzana Otasevic, Snezana Mladenovic-Antic, Vesna Mladenovic, Radmila Radovanovic-Velickovic, Marina Randjelovic, Dragan Bogdanovic
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes - group A Streptococcus [GAS]) is the etiological agent causing perineal infections in children: perianal infections, vulvovaginitis and balanitis. If it is not properly diagnosed and treated, it can persist for many months and can cause severe complications. Furthermore, the treatment with penicillin can be followed by failures and recurrences. METHODS: We report here the prevalence of S. pyogenes isolates from the genital tract specimens taken from girls (1692) with symptoms of vulvovaginitis and boys (52) with balanitis in the municipality of Nis, Southeast-Serbia (the Western Balkans) in a ten years period, and the analysis of isolates by seasonal distribution, patient age and sensitivity to bacitracin and antimicrobial drugs used in the treatment of streptococcal infections...
September 16, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
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