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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930751/dementia-predicting-cognitive-risk-score-and-its-correlation-with-cortical-thickness-in-parkinson-disease
#1
Byoung Seok Ye, Seun Jeon, Jee Hyun Ham, Jae Jung Lee, Jong Min Lee, Hye Sun Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H Sohn
BACKGROUND: We developed a risk score system to predict risks of developing dementia in individual Parkinson disease (PD) patients using baseline neuropsychological tests. METHODS: A total of 216 nondemented PD patients underwent a baseline neuropsychological evaluation and were followed up for a mean of 2.7 (±1.1) years. Univariate Cox regression models controlled for age, gender, and education selected neuropsychological tests individually predicting dementia risk...
September 21, 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929525/diabetes-and-deficits-in-cortical-bone-density-microarchitecture-and-bone-size-framingham-hr-pqct-study
#2
Elizabeth J Samelson, Serkalem Demissie, L Adrienne Cupples, Xiaochun Zhang, Hanfei Xu, Ching-Ti Liu, Steven K Boyd, Robert R McLean, Kerry E Broe, Douglas P Kiel, Mary L Bouxsein
Older adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) tend to have normal or greater areal bone mineral density (aBMD), as measured by DXA, than those who do not have diabetes (non-T2D). Yet risk of fracture is higher in T2D, including 40% to 50% increased hip fracture risk. We used HR-pQCT to investigate structural mechanisms underlying skeletal fragility in T2D. We compared cortical and trabecular bone microarchitecture, density, bone area, and strength in T2D and non-T2D. In secondary analyses we evaluated whether associations between T2D and bone measures differed according to prior fracture, sex, and obesity...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928491/freezing-of-gait-is-associated-with-cortical-thinning-in-mesial-frontal-cortex
#3
Miroslav Vastik, Pavel Hok, Jan Valosek, Petr Hlustik, Katerina Mensikova, Petr Kanovsky
AIMS: The relationship between freezing of gait (FOG) and regional brain atrophy has been intensively investigated, but it is still not clearly understood. The study objective was to test whether grey matter (GM) atrophy contributes to FOG in Parkinson´s disease (PD) using a surface-based algorithm. METHODS: We investigated 21 patients with PD, 11 with FOG and 10 without FOG. Both groups were assessed using a FOG questionnaire and Hoehn and Yahr staging. High resolution T1-weighted brain images were acquired for each subject using a 1...
September 13, 2017: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922857/what-can-cortical-development-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-teach-us-about-the-early-developmental-mechanisms-involved
#4
Sara Ambrosino, Patrick de Zeeuw, Lara Marise Wierenga, Sarai van Dijk, Sarah Durston
Studies of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown developmental changes in the cortical mantle. Different dimensions of cortical morphology, such as surface area and thickness, relate to different neurodevelopmental mechanisms. As such, studying multiple dimensions may inform us about the developmental origins of ADHD. Furthermore, results from existing longitudinal samples await replication. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study of multiple cortical dimensions in a sizable, independent ADHD sample...
September 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921167/brain-structural-concomitants-of-resting-state-heart-rate-variability-in-the-young-and-old-evidence-from-two-independent-samples
#5
Hyun Joo Yoo, Julian F Thayer, Steven Greening, Tae-Ho Lee, Allison Ponzio, Jungwon Min, Michiko Sakaki, Lin Nga, Mara Mather, Julian Koenig
Previous research has shown associations between brain structure and resting state high-frequency heart rate variability (HF HRV). Age affects both brain structure and HF HRV. Therefore, we sought to examine the relationship between brain structure and HF HRV as a function of age. Data from two independent studies were used for the present analysis. Study 1 included 19 older adults (10 males, age range 62-78 years) and 19 younger adults (12 males, age range 19-37). Study 2 included 23 older adults (12 males; age range 55-75) and 27 younger adults (17 males; age range 18-34)...
September 18, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918268/a-structural-mri-study-of-excoriation-skin-picking-disorder-and-its-relationship-to-clinical-severity
#6
Michael D Harries, Samuel R Chamberlain, Sarah A Redden, Brian L Odlaug, Austin W Blum, Jon E Grant
Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (SPD) shares symptomology with other obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Few studies, however, have examined the neurological profile of patients with SPD. This study examined differences in cortical thickness and basal ganglia structural volumes between 20 individuals with SPD and 16 healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There were no significant differences in demographic variables (age, gender, education and race) between groups. All subjects completed a structural MRI scan and completed a battery of clinical assessments focusing on SPD symptom severity, depression and anxiety symptoms, and quality of life...
September 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916544/muscle-deficits-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-contribute-to-inferior-cortical-bone-structure-and-trabecular-bone-mineral-density
#7
Joshua F Baker, Jin Long, Sogol Mostoufi-Moab, Michele Denburg, Erik Jorgenson, Prerna Sharma, Babette S Zemel, Elena Taratuta, Said Ibrahim, Mary B Leonard
OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with muscle loss, osteoporosis, and fracture. We examined associations between skeletal muscle mass, strength, and quality and trabecular and cortical bone deficits in patients with RA and healthy controls. METHODS: Participants, ages 18-75 years, completed whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) of the tibia to quantify appendicular lean mass and fat mass indices (ALMI, FMI), muscle density at the lower leg, trabecular bone density, and cortical bone thickness...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913906/semiautomatic-extraction-of-cortical-thickness-and-diaphyseal-curvature-from-ct-scans
#8
Ján Dupej, Alizé Lacoste Jeanson, Josef Pelikán, Jaroslav Brůžek
The understanding of locomotor patterns, activity schemes, and biological variations has been enhanced by the study of the geometrical properties and cortical bone thickness of the long bones measured using CT scan cross-sections. With the development of scanning procedures, the internal architecture of the long bones can be explored along the entire diaphysis. Recently, several methods that map cortical thickness along the whole femoral diaphysis have been developed. Precise homology is vital for statistical examination of the data; however, the repeatability of these methods is unknown and some do not account for the curvature of the bones...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913599/the-mediating-role-of-cortical-thickness-and-gray-matter-volume-on-sleep-slow-wave-activity-during-adolescence
#9
Aimée Goldstone, Adrian R Willoughby, Massimiliano de Zambotti, Peter L Franzen, Dongjin Kwon, Kilian M Pohl, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Edith V Sullivan, Eva M Müller-Oehring, Devin E Prouty, Brant P Hasler, Duncan B Clark, Ian M Colrain, Fiona C Baker
During the course of adolescence, reductions occur in cortical thickness and gray matter (GM) volume, along with a 65% reduction in slow-wave (delta) activity during sleep (SWA) but empirical data linking these structural brain and functional sleep differences, is lacking. Here, we investigated specifically whether age-related differences in cortical thickness and GM volume and cortical thickness accounted for the typical age-related difference in slow-wave (delta) activity (SWA) during sleep. 132 healthy participants (age 12-21 years) from the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence study were included in this cross-sectional analysis of baseline polysomnographic, electroencephalographic, and magnetic resonance imaging data...
September 14, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912749/functional-connectivity-of-the-corpus-callosum-in-epilepsy-patients-with-secondarily-generalized-seizures
#10
Syu-Jyun Peng, Yue-Loong Hsin
The corpus callosum (CC) plays an important role in generalization of seizure activity. We used resting-state function magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to investigate the regional and interregional functional connectivity of CC in patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-negative and secondarily generalized seizures. We measured the multi-regional coherences of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals via rs-fMRI, cortical thickness via high-resolution T1-weighted MRI, and white matter (WM) integrity via diffusion-tensor imaging in 16 epilepsy patients as well as in 16 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912514/retinal-changes-following-rapid-ascent-to-a-high-altitude-environment
#11
X Tian, B Zhang, Y Jia, C Wang, Q Li
PurposeTo determine what impact rapid ascension to a high-altitude environment has on the retina with the aim of preventing and treating high-altitude oculopathy.Patients and methodsParticipants in the study were members of the Chinese military assigned to the high-altitude environment of the Tibetan plateau. Ninety-one participants were enrolled in the study. Optical coherence tomography was used to measure the thickness of retina-related indicators. Measurements were taken before and after exposure to the high-altitude environment and upon return to the baseline altitude...
September 15, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911901/structural-brain-abnormalities-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-with-oppositional-defiant-disorder
#12
Siri D S Noordermeer, Marjolein Luman, Corina U Greven, Kim Veroude, Stephen V Faraone, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Jaap Oosterlaan
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with structural abnormalities in total gray matter, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Findings of structural abnormalities in frontal and temporal lobes, amygdala, and insula are less consistent. Remarkably, the impact of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (comorbidity rates up to 60%) on these neuroanatomical differences is scarcely studied, while ODD (in combination with conduct disorder) has been associated with structural abnormalities of the frontal lobe, amygdala, and insula...
July 21, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911171/sirtuin-3-promotes-adipogenesis-osteoclastogenesis-and-bone-loss-in-aging-male-mice
#13
Linh Ho, Liping Wang, Theresa M Roth, Yong Pan, Eric M Verdin, Edward C Hsiao, Robert A Nissenson
Sirtuin-3 (Sirt3) is an essential metabolic regulatory enzyme that plays an important role in mitochondrial metabolism, but its role in bone marrow and skeletal homeostasis remains largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesize that increased expression of Sirt3 plays a role in skeletal aging. Using mice that overexpress Sirt3 [i.e., Sirt3 transgenic (Sirt3Tg)], we show that Sirt3 is a positive regulator of adipogenesis and osteoclastogenesis and a negative regulator of skeletal homeostasis. Sirt3Tg mice exhibited more adipocytes in the tibia compared with control mice...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910775/classification-of-schizophrenia-based-on-individual-hierarchical-brain-networks-constructed-from-structural-mri-images
#14
Jin Liu, Min Li, Yi Pan, Fang-Xiang Wu, Xiaogang Chen, Jianxin Wang
With structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images, conventional methods for the classification of schizophrenia (SCZ) and healthy control (HC) extract cortical thickness independently at different regions of interest (ROIs) without considering the correlation between these regions. In this study we proposed an improved method for the classification of SCZ and HC based on individual hierarchical brain networks constructed from structural MRI images. Our method involves constructing individual hierarchical networks where each node and each edge in these networks represents a ROI and the correlation between a pair of ROIs, respectively...
September 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910363/impaired-bone-formation-in-ovariectomized-mice-reduces-implant-integration-as-indicated-by-longitudinal-in-vivo-micro-computed-tomography
#15
Zihui Li, Gisela Kuhn, Michael Schirmer, Ralph Müller, Davide Ruffoni
Although osteoporotic bone, with low bone mass and deteriorated bone architecture, provides a less favorable mechanical environment than healthy bone for implant fixation, there is no general agreement on the impact of osteoporosis on peri-implant bone (re)modeling, which is ultimately responsible for the long term stability of the bone-implant system. Here, we inserted an implant in a mouse model mimicking estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss and we monitored with longitudinal in vivo micro-computed tomography the spatio-temporal changes in bone (re)modeling and architecture, considering the separate contributions of trabecular, endocortical and periosteal surfaces...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902435/longitudinal-effects-of-single-hindlimb-radiation-therapy-on-bone-strength-and-morphology-at-local-and-contralateral-sites
#16
Megan E Oest, Connor G Policastro, Kenneth A Mann, Nicholas D Zimmerman, Timothy A Damron
Radiation therapy (RTx) is associated with increased risk for late-onset fragility fractures in bone tissue underlying the radiation field. Bone tissue outside the RTx field is often selected as a "normal" comparator tissue in clinical assessment of fragility fracture risk, but the robustness of this comparison is limited by an incomplete understanding of the systemic effects of local radiotherapy. In this study, a mouse model of limited field irradiation was used to quantify longitudinal changes in local (irradiated) and systemic (non-irradiated) femurs with respect to bone density, morphology, and strength...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900721/effects-of-per3-clock-gene-polymorphisms-on-aging-related-changes-of-the-cerebral-cortex
#17
Delphine Dewandre, Mercedes Atienza, Mayely P Sanchez-Espinosa, Jose L Cantero
Considerable evidence suggests that circadian rhythmicity is progressively disrupted in senescence. Among clock genes, Period3 (PER3) has been associated with circadian phenotypes, homeostatic regulation of sleep, and cognitive performance in young adults. However, the effects of PER3 genotype on aging-related changes in both cognitive function and cortical integrity remain largely unknown. To shed light into this issue, we have investigated differences in cognitive performance, patterns of cortical thickness, and cortical glucose consumption in normal elderly subjects homozygous carriers of the short (PER3(4/4), n = 32) and long repeat alleles (PER3(5/5), n = 32)...
September 12, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898671/preterm-newborn-pain-research-review
#18
Tiffany Field
This narrative review is based on a literature search of PubMed and PsycINFO for research on preterm newborn pain published during the last ten years. The high prevalence of painful procedures being performed with preterm newborns without analgesia (79%), with a median of 75 painful procedures being received during hospitalization and as many as 51 painful procedures per day highlights the importance of this problem. This review covers the pain assessments that have been developed, the short-term effects of the painful procedures, the longer-term developmental outcomes and the pharmacological and alternative therapies that have been researched...
September 9, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898497/a-pediatric-structural-mri-analysis-of-healthy-brain-development-from-newborns-to-young-adults
#19
Jacob Levman, Patrick MacDonald, Ashley Ruyan Lim, Cynthia Forgeron, Emi Takahashi
Assessment of healthy brain maturation can be useful toward better understanding natural patterns of brain growth and toward the characterization of a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders as deviations from normal growth trajectories. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides excellent soft-tissue contrast, which allows for the assessment of gray and white matter in the developing brain. We performed a large-scale retrospective analysis of 993 pediatric structural brain MRI examinations of healthy subjects (n = 988, aged 0-32 years) imaged clinically at 3 T, and extracted a wide variety of measurements such as white matter volumes, cortical thickness, and gyral curvature localized to subregions of the brain...
September 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894300/striatal-dopamine-d1-type-receptor-availability-no-difference-from-control-but-association-with-cortical-thickness-in-methamphetamine-users
#20
K Okita, A M Morales, A C Dean, M C Johnson, V Lu, J Farahi, M A Mandelkern, E D London
Chronic methamphetamine use poses potentially devastating consequences for directly affected individuals and for society. Lower dopamine D2-type receptor availability has been observed in striata of methamphetamine users as compared with controls, but an analogous comparison of D1-type receptors has been conducted only on post-mortem material, with no differences in methamphetamine users from controls in the caudate nucleus and putamen and higher D1-receptor density in the nucleus accumbens. Released from neurons when methamphetamine is self-administered, dopamine binds to both D1- and D2-type receptors in the striatum, with downstream effects on cortical activity...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
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