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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331877/cerebral-changes-and-disrupted-gray-matter-cortical-networks-in-asymptomatic-older-adults-at-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Jose L Cantero, Mercedes Atienza, Pascual Sanchez-Juan, Eloy Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Jose Luis Vazquez-Higuera, Ana Pozueta, Andrea Gonzalez-Suarez, Eduard Vilaplana, Jordi Pegueroles, Victor Montal, Rafael Blesa, Daniel Alcolea, Alberto Lleo, Juan Fortea
The diagnostic value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers is well established in Alzheimer's disease, but our current knowledge about how abnormal CSF levels affect cerebral integrity, at local and network levels, is incomplete in asymptomatic older adults. Here, we have collected CSF samples and performed structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in cognitively normal elderly as part of a cross-sectional multicenter study (SIGNAL project). To identify group differences in cortical thickness, white matter volume, and properties of structural networks, participants were split into controls (N = 20), positive amyloid-β (Aβ1-42+) (N = 19), and positive phosphorylated tau (N = 18)...
December 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328963/the-effect-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-on-cognition-is-mediated-by-cortical-atrophy
#2
Batool Rizvi, Atul Narkhede, Briana S Last, Mariana Budge, Giuseppe Tosto, Jennifer J Manly, Nicole Schupf, Richard Mayeux, Adam M Brickman
White matter hyperintensities (WMH) have been linked to cognitive dysfunction and dementia, although the reasons are unclear. One possibility is that WMH promote neurodegeneration, which, in turn, affects cognition. We examined whether cortical thickness, a marker of neurodegeneration, mediates the relationship between WMH and cognition among 519 older adults. Using conditional process analysis modeling techniques, we examined the association between WMH volume and global cognition and tested whether cortical thickness mediates this relationship statistically...
December 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327392/differences-in-white-matter-structure-and-cortical-thickness-between-patients-with-traumatic-and-idiopathic-chronic-neck-pain-associations-with-cognition-and-pain-modulation
#3
I Coppieters, R De Pauw, K Caeyenberghs, D Lenoir, K DeBlaere, E Genbrugge, M Meeus, B Cagnie
Brain alterations are hypothesized to be present in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (CWAD). The aim of this case-control study was to examine alterations in cortical thickness and white matter (WM) structure, and the presence of brain microhemorrhages in a patient group encountering chronic neck pain of traumatic origin (i.e., CWAD) when compared with a patient group characterized by nontraumatic chronic neck pain [i.e., chronic idiopathic neck pain (CINP)], and healthy controls. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate associations between brain structure on one hand and cognitive performance and central sensitization (CS) on the other hand...
January 11, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325997/reduced-cortical-oxygenation-predicts-a-progressive-decline-of-renal-function-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
Menno Pruijm, Bastien Milani, Edward Pivin, Agata Podhajska, Bruno Vogt, Matthias Stuber, Michel Burnier
Renal tissue hypoxia is a final pathway in the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but whether renal oxygenation predicts renal function decline in humans has not been proven. Therefore, we performed a prospective study and measured renal tissue oxygenation by blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI) in 112 patients with CKD, 47 with hypertension without CKD, and 24 healthy control individuals. Images were analyzed with the twelve-layer concentric objects method that divided the renal parenchyma in 12 layers of equal thickness and reports the mean R2* value of each layer (a high R2* corresponds to low oxygenation), along with the change in R2* between layers called the R2* slope...
January 9, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325759/snps-in-the-vicinity-of-p2x7r-rank-rankl-opg-and-wnt-signalling-pathways-and-their-association-with-bone-phenotypes-in-academy-footballers
#5
Ian Varley, David C Hughes, Julie P Greeves, William D Fraser, Craig Sale
CONTEXT: Genotype plays an important role in influencing bone phenotypes, such as bone mineral density, but the role of genotype in determining responses of bone to exercise has yet to be elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether 10 SNPs associated with genes in the vicinity of P2X7R, RANK/RANKL/OPG and Wnt Signalling Pathways are associated with bone phenotypes in elite academy footballers (Soccer players) and to determine whether these genotypes are associated with training induced changes in bone...
January 8, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323797/relations-between-cortical-thickness-serotonin-1a-receptor-binding-and-structural-connectivity-a-multimodal-imaging-study
#6
Rajapillai L I Pillai, Ashwin Malhotra, Deborah D Rupert, Bennett Weschler, John C Williams, Mengru Zhang, Jie Yang, J John Mann, Maria A Oquendo, Ramin V Parsey, Christine DeLorenzo
Serotonin 1A (5-HT1A ) receptors play a direct role in neuronal development, cell proliferation, and dendritic branching. We hypothesized that variability in 5-HT1A binding can affect cortical thickness, and may account for a subtype of major depressive disorder (MDD) in which both are altered. To evaluate this, we measured cortical thickness from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 5-HT1A binding by positron emission tomography (PET) in an exploratory study. To examine a range of 5-HT1A binding and cortical thickness values, we recruited 25 healthy controls and 19 patients with MDD...
February 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322596/subclinical-depressive-symptoms-during-late-midlife-and-structural-brain-alterations-a-longitudinal-study-of-danish-men-born-in-1953
#7
Merete Osler, Lauge Sørensen, Maarten Rozing, Oriol Puig Calvo, Mads Nielsen, Egill Rostrup
We explored whether depressive symptoms measured three times during midlife were associated with structural brain alterations quantified using magnetic resonance imaging measurements of volume, cortical thickness, and intensity texture. In 192 men born in 1953 with depressive symptoms measured at age 51, 56, and 59 years, magnetic resonance imaging was performed at age 59. All data processing was performed using the Freesurfer software package except for the texture-scores that were computed using in-house software...
January 10, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321235/comparing-18f-av-1451-with-csf-t-tau-and-p-tau-for-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-disease
#8
Niklas Mattsson, Ruben Smith, Olof Strandberg, Sebastian Palmqvist, Michael Schöll, Philip S Insel, Douglas Hägerström, Tomas Ohlsson, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Jonas Jögi, Oskar Hansson
OBJECTIVE: To compare PET imaging of tau pathology with CSF measurements (total tau [t-tau] and phosphorylated tau [p-tau]) in terms of diagnostic performance for Alzheimer disease (AD). METHODS: We compared t-tau and p-tau and 18F-AV-1451 in 30 controls, 14 patients with prodromal AD, and 39 patients with Alzheimer dementia, recruited from the Swedish BioFINDER study. All patients with AD (prodromal and dementia) were screened for amyloid positivity using CSF β-amyloid 42...
January 10, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321232/hypermyelination-of-the-left-auditory-cortex-in-developmental-dyslexia
#9
Michael A Skeide, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Robert Trampel, Andreas Schäfer, Claudia Männel, Katharina von Kriegstein, Angela D Friederici
OBJECTIVE: Cortical malformations are documented postmortem in speech processing areas of the dyslexic human brain. The goal of this pilot study was to find out if such anatomic anomalies can be detected noninvasively and in vivo. METHODS: We developed a reconstruction of left perisylvian cortex profiles at a resolution of 400 μm using T1 data acquired with ultra-high-field MRI at 7T. Cortical thickness, myelinated cortical thickness, and layer-wise myelination were then compared in 6 men with developmental dyslexia and 6 healthy controls matched for age, sex, handedness, education level, and nonverbal IQ...
January 10, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320924/a-model-to-evaluate-pauwels-type-iii-femoral-neck-fractures
#10
Kevin M Magone, Jonas K Owen, Bernard P Kemker, Oliver Bloom, Sidney Martin, Patrick Atkinson
While many femoral neck fractures can be reliably treated with surgical intervention, Pauwels III femoral neck fractures in the young adult population continue to be a challenging injury, and there is no consensus on optimal treatment. As such, there are past and ongoing biomechanical studies to evaluate the fixation provided by different constructs for this inherently unstable fracture. While many investigations rely on cadavers to evaluate the biomechanical performance of a construct, significant inter-subject variability can confound the analysis...
January 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316528/altered-structural-network-organization-in-cognitively-normal-individuals-with-amyloid-pathology
#11
Olga Voevodskaya, Joana B Pereira, Giovanni Volpe, Olof Lindberg, Erik Stomrud, Danielle van Westen, Eric Westman, Oskar Hansson
Recent findings show that structural network topology is disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD), with changes occurring already at the prodromal disease stages. Amyloid accumulation, a hallmark of AD, begins several decades before symptom onset, and its effects on brain connectivity at the earliest disease stages are not fully known. We studied global and local network changes in a large cohort of cognitively healthy individuals (N = 299, Swedish BioFINDER study) with and without amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology (based on cerebrospinal fluid Aβ42/Aβ40 levels)...
December 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313947/personality-traits-are-associated-with-cortical-development-across-adolescence-a-longitudinal-structural-mri-study
#12
Lia Ferschmann, Anders M Fjell, Margarete E Vollrath, Håkon Grydeland, Kristine B Walhovd, Christian K Tamnes
How personality traits relate to structural brain changes in development is an important but understudied question. In this study, cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA), estimated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), were investigated in 99 participants aged 8-19 years. Follow-up MRI data were collected after on average 2.6 years for 74 individuals. The Big Five personality traits were related to longitudinal regional CT or SA development, but limited cross-sectional relations were observed. Conscientiousness, emotional stability, and imagination were associated with more age-expected cortical thinning over time...
January 4, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309669/cortical-autonomic-network-grey-matter-and-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#13
Keri S Taylor, Philip J Millar, Hisayoshi Murai, Nobuhiko Haruki, Derek S Kimmerly, T Douglas Bradley, John S Floras
The sympathetic excitation elicited acutely by obstructive apnea during sleep (OSA) carries over into wakefulness. We hypothesized that OSA induces structural changes in the insula and cingulate, key central autonomic network (CAN) elements with projections to brainstem sympathetic premotor regions. The aims of this study were to: 1) apply two distinct but complementary methods (cortical thickness analysis [CTA] and voxel based morphometry [VBM]) to compare insula and cingulate grey matter thickness in subjects without and with OSA; 2) determine if oxygen desaturation index (ODI) relates to cortical thickness; and 3) determine if cortical thickness or volume in these regions predicts muscle sympathetic nerve (MSNA) burst incidence (BI)...
December 23, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306697/current-sleep-disturbance-in-older-people-with-a-lifetime-history-of-depression-is-associated-with-increased-connectivity-in-the-default-mode-network
#14
Andrew C McKinnon, Ian B Hickie, Jan Scott, Shantel L Duffy, Louisa Norrie, Zoe Terpening, Ron R Grunstein, Jim Lagopoulos, Jennifer Batchelor, Simon J G Lewis, James M Shine, Sharon L Naismith
BACKGROUND: The present study investigated Default Mode Network (DMN) functional connectivity in subjects with a lifetime history of major depression, comparing those with and without current sleep disturbance. Controls were included to assess DMN abnormalities specific to depression. METHODS: A total of 93 adults aged 50 years and over were recruited from the Healthy Brain Ageing Clinic at the Brain and Mind Centre, Sydney, Australia. The sample comprised two groups, including 22 controls and 71 participants with a lifetime history of DSM-IV major depression (with depressive episode current or remitted)...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306053/cd38-is-required-for-dendritic-organisation-in-visual-cortex-and-hippocampus
#15
Thom P Nelissen, Rosemary A Bamford, Shiro Tochitani, Kamuran Akkus, Aurimas Kudzinskas, Kenichiro Yokoi, Hiroshi Okamoto, Yasuhiko Yamamoto, J Peter H Burbach, Hideo Matsuzaki, Asami Oguro-Ando
Morphological screening of mouse brains with known behavioural deficits can give great insight into the relationship between brain regions and their behaviour. Oxytocin- and CD38-deficient mice have previously been shown to have behavioural phenotypes, such as restrictions in social memory, social interactions, and maternal behaviour. CD38 is reported as an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) candidate gene and these behavioural phenotypes may be linked to ASD. To address whether these behavioural phenotypes relate to brain pathology and neuronal morphology, here we investigate the morphological changes in the CD38-deficient mice brains, with focus on the pathology and neuronal morphology of the cortex and hippocampus, using Nissl staining, immunohistochemistry, and Golgi staining...
January 3, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301597/surface-based-morphometry-of-human-brain-intra-individual-comparison-between-3t-and-7t-high-resolution-structural-mr-imaging
#16
Zhiye Chen, Meng-Qi Liu, Lin Ma
ObjectiveHigh resolution structural MR imaging can reveal structural characteristics of cerebral cortex and provide an insight into normal brain development and neuropsychological diseases. The aim of this study was to compare cortical structural characteristics of normal human brain between 3T and 7T MRI systems using surface-based morphometry based on high resolution structural MR imaging. Methods Twelve healthy volunteers were scanned by both 3T with 3D T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled echo (3D T1-FSPGR) sequence and 7T with 3D T1-weighted magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo (3D T1-MPRAGE) sequence...
December 30, 2017: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299390/cortical-morphology-in-patients-with-transient-global-amnesia
#17
Hyung Chan Kim, Byung In Lee, Sung Eun Kim, Kang Min Park
Objective: This study evaluated alterations in cortical morphology in patients with transient global amnesia (TGA). Materials and Methods: Diagnoses of TGA occurred at our hospital. Evaluation involved a structured interview to obtain clinical information and a brain magnetic resonance imaging scan. We analyzed whole-brain T1-weighted MRI data using FreeSurfer 5.1. Measures of cortical morphology, such as thickness, surface area, volume, and curvature were compared between patients with TGA and healthy controls...
December 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298566/osteochondral-interface-stiffening-in-mandibular-condylar-osteoarthritis
#18
J Zhang, L Liao, J Zhu, X Wan, M Xie, H Zhang, M Zhang, L Lu, H Yang, D Jing, X Liu, S Yu, X L Lu, C Chen, Z Shan, M Wang
Osteoarthritis (OA) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is associated with dental biomechanics. A major change during OA progression is the ossification of the osteochondral interface. This study investigated the formation, radiological detectability, and mechanical property of the osteochondral interface at an early stage, the pathogenesis significance of which in OA progression is of clinical interest and remains elusive for the TMJ. Unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) was performed on 6-wk-old rats as we previously reported...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288952/effects-of-the-brain-derived-neurotropic-factor-variant-val66met-on-cortical-structure-in-late-childhood-and-early-adolescence
#19
Celia Maria de Araujo, Andre Zugman, Walter Swardfager, Sintia Iole Nogueira Belangero, Vanessa Kiyomi Ota, Leticia Maria Spindola, Hakon Hakonarson, Renata Pellegrino, Ary Gadelha, Giovanni Abrahão Salum, Pedro Mario Pan, Luciana Monteiro de Moura, Marco Del Aquilla, Felipe Almeida Picon, Edson Amaro, João Ricardo Sato, Elisa Brietzke, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira, Luis Augusto P Rohde, Euripedes Constantino Miguel, Rodrigo A Bressan, Andrea Parolin Jackowski
BACKGROUND: The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) has been associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders and regional structural brain changes in adults, but little is known about Val66Met's effect on brain morphology during typical or atypical neurodevelopment. Windows of vulnerability to psychopathology may be associated with the different alleles of the Val66Met polymorphism during childhood and adolescence. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the effect of Val66Met on cortical thickness in MRI scans of 718 children and adolescents (6-12 years old) with typical development, and in those meeting DSM criteria for a psychiatric disorder...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288131/false-positive-rates-in-surface-based-anatomical-analysis
#20
Douglas N Greve, Bruce Fischl
The false positive rates (FPR) for surface-based group analysis of cortical thickness, surface area, and volume were evaluated for parametric and non-parametric clusterwise correction for multiple comparisons for a range of smoothing levels and cluster-forming thresholds (CFT) using real data under group assignments that should not yield significant results. For whole cortical surface analysis, thickness showed modest inflation in parametric FPRs above the nominal level (10% versus 5%). Surface area and volume FPRs were much higher (20-30%)...
December 26, 2017: NeuroImage
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