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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792913/comparison-of-cerebral-ventricular-volumes-and-cortical-thicknesses-in-normal-rats-and-genetic-absence-epilepsy-gaers-a-developmental-study
#1
Özlem Kirazlı, Hüsniye Hacıoğlu Bay, Yusuf Özgür Çakmak, Filiz Onat, Safiye Çavdar
Ventricular enlargement and cortical atrophy have been associated with various central nervous system diseases. The aim of the present study was to measure the volumes of the lateral (LV) and third (3V) ventricles and to determine the cortical thickness for the motor (MCx), somatosensory (SSCx), visual (VCx) and auditory (AuCx) cortex and the striatum of Wistar rats, in a developmental series at 10, 20, 30, and 60 days postnatal, and to compare them with similar data from genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS)...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792905/together-means-more-happiness-relationship-status-moderates-the-association-between-brain-structure-and-life-satisfaction
#2
Xingxing Zhu, Kangcheng Wang, Li Chen, Aihua Cao, Qunlin Chen, Junchao Li, Jiang Qiu
Life satisfaction reflects an individual's general evaluation of their overall quality of life. It has been hypothesized that relationship status (i.e. state of intimate relationship such as marriage, unmarried cohabiting, dating with others, single or divorce) may influence individual life satisfaction. However, there is little accessible empirical evidence that allows us to explore this proposition. Using a large sample of young adults (n = 1031) from the Human Connectome Project (HCP), we showed that compared to other relationship statuses (e...
May 21, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791896/deterioration-of-cortical-bone-microarchitecture-critical-component-of-renal-osteodystrophy-evaluation
#3
Ashish K Sharma, Nigel D Toussaint, Rosemary Masterson, Stephen G Holt, Chamith S Rajapakse, Peter R Ebeling, Sindhu T Mohanty, Paul Baldock, Grahame J Elder
BACKGROUND: Cortical bone is a significant determinant of bone strength and its deterioration contributes to bone fragility. Thin cortices and increased cortical porosity have been noted in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the "Turnover Mineralization Volume" classification of renal osteodystrophy does not emphasize cortical bone as a key parameter. We aimed to assess trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture by histomorphometry and micro-CT in patients with CKD G5 and 5D (dialysis)...
May 23, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791198/updates-on-ultrasound-research-in-implant-dentistry-a-systematic-review-of-potential-clinical-indications
#4
Vaishnavi Bhaskar, Hsun-Liang Chan, Mark MacEachern, Oliver D Kripfgans
OBJECTIVES: Ultrasonography has shown promising diagnostic value in dental implant imaging research; however, exactly how ultrasound was used and at what stage of implant therapy it can be applied has not been systematically evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this review is to investigate potential indications of ultrasound use in the three implant treatment phases, namely planning, intraoperative and postoperative phase. METHODS: Eligible manuscripts were searched in major databases with a combination of key words related to the use of ultrasound imaging in implant therapy...
May 23, 2018: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790041/volumetric-bone-mineral-density-vbmd-bone-structure-and-structural-geometry-among-rural-south-indian-us-caucasian-and-afro-caribbean-older-men
#5
Guru Rajesh Jammy, Robert M Boudreau, Tushar Singh, Pawan Kumar Sharma, Kristine Ensrud, Joseph M Zmuda, P S Reddy, Anne B Newman, Jane A Cauley
Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) provides biomechanical estimates of bone strength. Rural South Indian men have reduced biomechanical indices of bone strength compared to US Caucasian and Afro-Caribbean men. This suggests an underlying higher risk of osteoporotic fractures and greater future fracture burden among the rural South Indian men. INTRODUCTION: Geographical and racial comparisons of bone mineral density (BMD) have largely focused on DXA measures of areal BMD...
May 22, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787468/cortical-thickness-alterations-in-chronic-pain-disorder-an-exploratory-mri-study
#6
Stefano Magon, Till Sprenger, Alexander Otti, Athina Papadopoulou, Harald Gündel, Michael Noll-Hussong
OBJECTIVE: Chronic pain disorder (CPD) has been associated with brain changes, especially in limbic circuits. However, in the majority of patients with chronic pain, depression or anxiety are common comorbidities. In this exploratory and naturalistic study, we investigated brain cortical thickness differences between patients with CPD and healthy controls, with consideration of concurrent psychiatric symptoms. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with CPD and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were included in this study...
May 21, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785932/cortical-thickness-correlates-of-minor-neurological-signs-in-patients-with-first-episode-psychosis
#7
Simone Ciufolini, Maria Francesca Ponteduro, Tiago Reis-Marques, Heather Taylor, Valeria Mondelli, Carmine M Pariante, Stefania Bonaccorso, Raymond Chan, Andy Simmons, Anthony David, Marta Di Forti, Robin M Murray, Paola Dazzan
Neurological soft signs (NSS) are subtle abnormalities of motor and sensory function that are present in the absence of localized brain pathological lesions. In psychoses they have been consistently associated with a distinct pattern of cortical and subcortical brain structural alterations at the level of the heteromodal cortex and basal ganglia. However, a more specific and accurate evaluation of the cytoarchitecture of the cortical mantle could further advance our understanding of the neurobiological substrate of psychosis...
May 18, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785222/proximal-femoral-bone-regeneration-after-an-uncemented-hydroxyapatite-coated-long-stem-in-revision-hip-surgery
#8
José Cordero-Ampuero, Eduardo Garcia-Rey, Eduardo Garcia-Cimbrelo
Background: Bone remodelling with lateral femoral cortex thinning is a major concern after extensively porous-coated long-stem in revision surgery. Extensive hydroxyapatite coated long-stems were introduced to improve osseointegration, but bone remodelling changes have not been quantified. Objective: The question of whether bone remodelling changes from extensive hydroxyapatite-coated long stems influence the durability of femoral revision, clinical outcome is assessed in follow-up radiographs...
2018: Open Orthopaedics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784557/case-series-investigating-the-cortical-silent-period-after-burns-using-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#9
Tessa Garside, Fiona M Wood, Ann-Maree Vallence
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate intracortical inhibition following a burn injury, and to establish transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as a useful and sensitive tool to investigate the cortical response to a burn injury. METHODS: Thirteen burn injured patients and 12 uninjured subjects underwent TMS to measure the cortical silent period (cSP), a marker of intracortical inhibition. RESULTS: In burn injury patients, cSP was similar in the burn-injured and less-injured arm (133 and 132ms respectively; p=0...
May 18, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782994/structural-covariance-of-brain-region-volumes-is-associated-with-both-structural-connectivity-and-transcriptomic-similarity
#10
Yohan Yee, Darren J Fernandes, Leon French, Jacob Ellegood, Lindsay S Cahill, Dulcie A Vousden, Leigh Spencer Noakes, Jan Scholz, Matthijs C van Eede, Brian J Nieman, John G Sled, Jason P Lerch
An organizational pattern seen in the brain, termed structural covariance, is the statistical association of pairs of brain regions in their anatomical properties. These associations, measured across a population as covariances or correlations usually in cortical thickness or volume, are thought to reflect genetic and environmental underpinnings. Here, we examine the biological basis of structural volume covariance in the mouse brain. We first examined large scale associations between brain region volumes using an atlas-based approach that parcellated the entire mouse brain into 318 regions over which correlations in volume were assessed, for volumes obtained from 153 mouse brain images via high-resolution MRI...
May 18, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782037/multiloculated-solitary-unicameral-bone-cyst-in-a-young-dog
#11
Sarah C Roode, Heather R Shive, Willemijn Hoorntje, Jennifer Bernard, Devorah M Stowe, Roy R Pool, Carol B Grindem
A 20-month-old female spayed Staffordshire Terrier (22.3 kg) presented to the Orthopedic Surgery Service at North Carolina State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation of a 6-week history of toe-touching to nonweight-bearing lameness in the right hind limb. Radiographs of the right stifle revealed a multiloculated lytic lesion of the distal femur, with a large open lytic zone centrally, numerous osseous septations peripherally, and focal areas of cortical thinning and loss. An aspirate of the right distal femoral lesion yielded mildly cloudy serosanguineous fluid...
May 21, 2018: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781675/axial-sesamoiditis-in-the-horse-a-review
#12
Christelle Le Roux, Ann Carstens
Axial sesamoiditis or osteitis of the proximal sesamoid bones (PSBs) in the horse is described as a rare condition. The cause remains unknown and speculative, with vascular, infectious, and traumatic aetiologies implicated. It is specifically associated with injury of the palmar or plantar ligament (PL), also known as the intersesamoidean ligament. Imaging findings are generally rewarding and radiological changes are typical, if not pathognomonic, for the condition. Lesions consist of bone lysis at the apical to mid-body axial margins of the PSBs, with variable degrees of joint effusion...
March 29, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780874/the-personalized-alzheimer-s-disease-cortical-thickness-index-predicts-likely-pathology-and-clinical-progression-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#13
Annie M Racine, Michael Brickhouse, David A Wolk, Bradford C Dickerson
Introduction: An Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker adjusted for age-related brain changes should improve specificity for AD-related pathological burden. Methods: We calculated a brain-age-adjusted "personalized AD cortical thickness index" (pADi) in mild cognitive impairment patients from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We performed receiver operating characteristic analysis for discrimination between patients with and without cerebrospinal fluid evidence of AD and logistic regression in an independent sample to determine if a dichotomized pADi predicted conversion to AD dementia...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780869/cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-atrophy-is-preferentially-associated-with-tau-rather-than-amyloid-%C3%AE-positron-emission-tomography-pathology
#14
Brian A Gordon, Austin McCullough, Shruti Mishra, Tyler M Blazey, Yi Su, John Christensen, Aylin Dincer, Kelley Jackson, Russ C Hornbeck, John C Morris, Beau M Ances, Tammie L S Benzinger
Introduction: Structural magnetic resonance imaging is a marker of gray matter health and decline that is sensitive to impaired cognition and Alzheimer's disease pathology. Prior work has shown that both amyloid β (Aβ) and tau biomarkers are related to cortical thinning, but it is unclear what unique influences they have on the brain. Methods: Aβ pathology was measured with [18 F] AV-45 (florbetapir) positron emission tomography (PET) and tau was assessed with [18 F] AV-1451 (flortaucipir) PET in a population of 178 older adults, of which 123 had longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging assessments (average of 5...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777918/sex-differences-in-the-spatial-distribution-of-bone-in-relation-to-incident-hip-fracture-findings-from-the-ages-reykjavik-study
#15
Elisa A Marques, Julio Carballido-Gamio, Vilmundur Gudnason, Gunnar Sigurdsson, Sigurdur Sigurdsson, Thor Aspelund, Kristin Siggeirsdottir, Lenore Launer, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Thomas Lang, Tamara B Harris
In this case-cohort study, we used data-driven computational anatomy approaches to assess within and between sex spatial differences in proximal femoral bone characteristics in relation to incident hip fracture. One hundred male and 234 female incident hip fracture cases, and 1047 randomly selected noncase subcohort participants (562 female) were chosen from the population-based AGES-Reykjavik study (mean age of 77 years). The baseline -i.e. before hip fracture- hip quantitative computed tomography scans of these subjects were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry, tensor-based morphometry, and surface-based statistical parametric mapping to assess the spatial distribution of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), internal structure, and cortical bone properties (thickness, vBMD and trabecular vBMD adjacent to the endosteal surface) of the proximal femur, respectively, in relation to incident hip fracture...
May 16, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777819/7-tesla-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-caudal-anterior-cingulate-and-posterior-cingulate-cortex-atrophy-in-patients-with-trigeminal-neuralgia
#16
Hyeong Cheol Moon, Chan-A Park, Yeong-Jae Jeon, Soon Tae You, Hyun Man Baek, Youn Joo Lee, Chul Beom Cho, Chae Joon Cheong, Young Seok Park
The cingulate cortex (CC) is a brain region that plays a key role in pain processing, but CC abnormalities are not unclear in patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN). The purpose of this study was to determine the central causal mechanisms of TN and the surrounding brain structure in healthy controls and patients with TN using 7 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Whole-brain parcellation in gray matter volume and thickness was assessed in 15 patients with TN and 16 healthy controls matched for sex, age, and regional variability using T1-weighted imaging...
May 16, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777322/sensitivity-analysis-of-ultrasonic-guided-waves-propagating-in-trilayered-bone-models-a-numerical-study
#17
Tho N H T Tran, Lawrence H Le, Mauricio D Sacchi, Vu-Hieu Nguyen
The fundamental ultrasonic guided modes are consistently observed in long bones ex vivo and in vivo. However, the responses of ultrasonic guided waves to the changes of cortical thickness, cortical elastic parameters, and thickness of the overlying soft tissues are not comprehensively understood. This paper systematically presents a sensitivity analysis of leaky Lamb modes to the geometry and material characteristics of layered bone model by means of semi-analytical finite element modeling. The stratified bone model is consisted of a transversely isotropic cortex with an overlying soft tissue and underlying marrow...
May 18, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772378/a-task-invariant-cognitive-reserve-network
#18
Yaakov Stern, Yunglin Gazes, Qolomreza Razlighi, Jason Steffener, Christian Habeck
The concept of cognitive reserve (CR) can explain individual differences in susceptibility to cognitive or functional impairment in the presence of age or disease-related brain changes. Epidemiologic evidence indicates that CR helps maintain performance in the face of pathology across multiple cognitive domains. We therefore tried to identify a single, "task-invariant" CR network that is active during the performance of many disparate tasks. In imaging data acquired from 255 individuals age 20-80 while performing 12 different cognitive tasks, we used an iterative approach to derive a multivariate network that was expressed during the performance of all tasks, and whose degree of expression correlated with IQ, a proxy for CR...
May 14, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771288/sex-differences-in-the-adult-human-brain-evidence-from-5216-uk-biobank-participants
#19
Stuart J Ritchie, Simon R Cox, Xueyi Shen, Michael V Lombardo, Lianne M Reus, Clara Alloza, Mathew A Harris, Helen L Alderson, Stuart Hunter, Emma Neilson, David C M Liewald, Bonnie Auyeung, Heather C Whalley, Stephen M Lawrie, Catharine R Gale, Mark E Bastin, Andrew M McIntosh, Ian J Deary
Sex differences in the human brain are of interest for many reasons: for example, there are sex differences in the observed prevalence of psychiatric disorders and in some psychological traits that brain differences might help to explain. We report the largest single-sample study of structural and functional sex differences in the human brain (2750 female, 2466 male participants; mean age 61.7 years, range 44-77 years). Males had higher raw volumes, raw surface areas, and white matter fractional anisotropy; females had higher raw cortical thickness and higher white matter tract complexity...
May 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771286/local-cortical-gyrification-is-increased-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-but-decreases-rapidly-in-adolescents
#20
Jiwandeep S Kohli, Mikaela K Kinnear, Christopher H Fong, Inna Fishman, Ruth A Carper, Ralph-Axel Müller
Extensive MRI evidence indicates early brain overgrowth in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Local gyrification may reflect the distribution and timing of aberrant cortical expansion in ASDs. We examined MRI data from (Study 1) 64 individuals with ASD and 64 typically developing (TD) controls (7-19 years), and from (Study 2) an independent sample from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (n = 31/group). Local Gyrification Index (lGI), cortical thickness (CT), and surface area (SA) were measured. In Study 1, differences in lGI (ASD > TD) were found in left parietal and temporal and right frontal and temporal regions...
May 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
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