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Cortical thickness

Dennis Chan, Laura Marie Gallaher, Kuven Moodley, Ludovico Minati, Neil Burgess, Tom Hartley
This protocol describes the administration of the 4 Mountains Test (4MT), a short test of spatial memory, in which memory for the topographical layout of four mountains within a computer-generated landscape is tested using a delayed match-to-sample paradigm. Allocentric spatial memory is assessed by altering the viewpoint, colors and textures between the initially presented and target images. Allocentric spatial memory is a key function of the hippocampus, one of the earliest brain regions to be affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and impairment of hippocampal function predates the onset of dementia...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yaling Yang, Shantanu H Joshi, Neda Jahanshad, Paul M Thompson, Laura A Baker
Verbal and physical aggression begin early in life and steadily decline thereafter in normal development. As a result, elevated aggressive behavior in adolescence may signal atypical development and greater vulnerability for negative mental and health outcomes. Converging evidence suggests that brain disturbances in regions involved in impulse control, emotional regulation, and sensation seeking may contribute to heightened aggression. However, little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying subtypes of aggression (i...
October 21, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
O Laporta-Hoyos, J Ballester-Plané, P Póo, A Macaya, M Meléndez-Plumed, E Vázquez, I Delgado, L Zubiaurre-Elorza, V L Botellero, A Narberhaus, E Toro-Tamargo, D Segarra, R Pueyo
PURPOSE: Quality of life (QOL) is a key outcome for people with cerebral palsy (CP), and executive functioning is an important predictor of QOL in other health-related conditions. Little is known about this association in CP or about its neural substrate. We aim to analyze the influence of executive functioning (including cognitive flexibility) as well as that of other psychological, motor, communication and socioeconomic variables on QOL and to identify neuroanatomical areas related to QOL in adolescents and adults with CP...
October 20, 2016: Quality of Life Research
Julia Vakhrusheva, Brielle Marino, T Scott Stroup, David Kimhy
Schizophrenia is characterized by extensive neurocognitive deficits, which are linked to greater disability, poorer functional outcome, and have been suggested to impact daily functioning more than clinical symptoms. Aerobic exercise (AE) has emerged as a potential intervention. This review examines the impact of AE on brain structure and function along with neurocognitive performance in individuals with schizophrenia. Preliminary evidence indicates that AE can increase hippocampal volume and cortical thickness, in addition to exerting a neuroprotective effect against hippocampal volume decrease and cortical thinning...
June 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
Catherine S Hubbard, Lino Becerra, Jonathan H Smith, Justin M DeLange, Ryan M Smith, David F Black, Kirk M Welker, Rami Burstein, Fred M Cutrer, David Borsook
The aim of this study was to identify structural and functional brain changes that accompanied the transition from chronic (CM; ≥15 headache days/month) to episodic (EM; <15 headache days/month) migraine following prophylactic treatment with onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A). Specifically, we examined whether CM patients responsive to prophylaxis (responders; n = 11), as evidenced by a reversal in disease status (defined by at least a 50% reduction in migraine frequency and <15 headache days/month), compared to CM patients whose migraine frequency remained unchanged (non-responders; n = 12), showed differences in cortical thickness using surface-based morphometry...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Emily C Edmonds, Joel Eppig, Mark W Bondi, Kelly M Leyden, Bailey Goodwin, Lisa Delano-Wood, Carrie R McDonald
OBJECTIVE: We investigated differences in regional cortical thickness between previously identified empirically derived mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtypes (amnestic MCI, dysnomic MCI, dysexecutive/mixed MCI, and cluster-derived normal) in order to determine whether these cognitive subtypes would show different patterns of cortical atrophy. METHODS: Participants were 485 individuals diagnosed with MCI and 178 cognitively normal individuals from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative...
October 19, 2016: Neurology
Samuel A Neymotin, Benjamin A Suter, Salvador Dura-Bernal, Gordon M G Shepherd, Michele Migliore, William W Lytton
Corticospinal neurons (SPI), thick-tufted pyramidal neurons in motor cortex layer 5B that project caudally via the medullary pyramids, display distinct class-specific electrophysiological properties in vitro: strong sag with hyperpolarization, lack of adaptation, and a nearly linear frequency-current (FI) relationship. We used our electrophysiological data to produce a pair of large archives of SPI neuron computer models in two model classes: 1. Detailed models with full reconstruction; 2. Simplified models with 6 compartments...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Giuseppe Pastura, Tadeu Takao Almodovar Kubo, Maria Angélica Regalla, Cíntia Machado Mesquita, Gabriel Coutinho, Emerson Leandro Gasparetto, Otávio Figueiredo, Paulo Mattos, Alexandra Prüfer de Queiroz Campos Araújo
Objective: To perform a pilot study to investigate the association between working memory and cortical thickness in a sample of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Methods: Seventeen children aged 7-10 years diagnosed with ADHD and 16 healthy children underwent a magnetic resonance scan for cortical thickness measurements. Data was correlated with working memory performance using the Backwards Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children...
October 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
G Kerckhofs, M Durand, R Vangoitsenhoven, C Marin, B Van der Schueren, G Carmeliet, F P Luyten, L Geris, K Vandamme
High resolution microfocus X-ray computed tomography (HR-microCT) was employed to characterize the structural alterations of the cortical and trabecular bone in a mouse model of obesity-driven type 2 diabetes (T2DM). C57Bl/6J mice were randomly assigned for 14 weeks to either a control diet-fed (CTRL) or a high fat diet (HFD)-fed group developing obesity, hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance. The HFD group showed an increased trabecular thickness and a decreased trabecular number compared to CTRL animals. Midshaft tibia intracortical porosity was assessed at two spatial image resolutions...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Annerine Roos, Jean-Paul Fouche, Dan J Stein
Evidence suggests that women who suffer from intimate partner violence (IPV) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have structural and functional alterations in specific brain regions. Yet, little is known about how brain connectivity may be altered in individuals with IPV, but without PTSD. Women exposed to IPV (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 18) underwent structural brain imaging using a Siemens 3T MRI. Global and regional brain network connectivity measures were determined, using graph theory analyses...
October 18, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Sungjin Im, Sang-Gu Lee, Jeonghwan Lee, Siekyeong Kim, Chul-Jin Shin, Jeong-Woo Son, Gawon Ju, Sang-Ick Lee
OBJECTIVE: The structural alteration of brain shown in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) can originate from both alcohol effects and genetic or developmental processes. We compared surface-based parameters of patients with AUD with healthy controls to prove the applicability of surface-based morphometry with head size correction and to determine the areas that were sensitive to brain alteration related to AUD. METHODS: Twenty-six abstinent male patients with AUD (alcohol group, mean abstinence=13...
September 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
Henk-Jan Westeneng, Renée Walhout, Milou Straathof, Ruben Schmidt, Jeroen Hendrikse, Jan H Veldink, Martijn P van den Heuvel, Leonard H van den Berg
BACKGROUND: In patients with a C9orf72 repeat expansion (C9+), a neuroimaging phenotype with widespread structural cerebral changes has been found. We aimed to investigate the specificity of this neuroimaging phenotype in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: 156 C9- and 14 C9+ patients with ALS underwent high-resolution T1-weighted MRI; a subset (n=126) underwent diffusion-weighted imaging. Cortical thickness, subcortical volumes and white matter integrity were compared between C9+ and C9- patients...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Caleb M Adler, Melissa P DelBello, Wade Weber, Miranda Williams, Luis Rodrigo Patino Duran, David Fleck, Erin Boespflug, James Eliassen, Stephen M Strakowski, Jon Divine
OBJECTIVE: To examine effects of participating in collegiate football on neural health several years after retirement. We hypothesized that relative cortical thinning and loss of white matter integrity would be observed in former players. DESIGN: Former NCAA Division I football players were compared with demographically similar track-and-field athletes with regard to cortical thickness and white matter integrity. SETTING: Participants participated in MRI scans at the Center for Imaging Research at the University of Cincinnati...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Eunsoo Won, Sunyoung Choi, June Kang, Min-Soo Lee, Byung-Joo Ham
BACKGROUND: Orbitofrontal cortex alterations have been suggested to underlie the impaired mood regulation in depression. MAOA-uVNTR (monoamine oxidase A-upstream variable number of tandem repeats) polymorphism has been reported to be associated with major depressive disorder by various studies. The influence of MAOA-uVNTR genotype on function and structure of the orbitofrontal cortex has previously been reported. In this study, we investigated the difference in orbitofrontal cortex thickness between medication-naïve female patients with major depressive disorder and healthy controls, and the influence of MAOA-uVNTR genotype on orbitofrontal cortex thickness in depression...
2016: Annals of General Psychiatry
Zewei Wang, Qing Yang, Li Min Chen
The goals of this study are to characterize the temporal dynamics of inter-regional connectivity of the brain in chronic headache (CH) patients versus their age/gender matched controls (CONCH, n=28 pairs), and to determine whether dynamic measures reveal additional features to static functional connectivity and correlate with psychometric scores. Cortical thickness and inter-regional resting state fMRI connectivity were quantified and compared between CH and CONCH groups. Six cortical regions of interest (ROI) pairs that exhibited correlated cortical thickness and static functional connectivity abnormalities were selected for temporal dynamic analysis...
October 14, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Masahiro Wada, Yasutane Tsuiki, Tohru Suganami, Kazunori Ikebe, Motofumi Sogo, Ikuhisa Okuno, Yoshinobu Maeda
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the thickness of the cortical bone or the voxel values that are obtained by cone beam CT (CBCT) and the insertion torque values (ITVs) or the implant stability quotient (ISQ) values. METHODS: A pig's ilium was used as the implant placement site. The implants used in this study were two kinds of diameters (3.8 mm, 5.0 mm) and two kinds of lengths (7.0 mm, 12.0 mm) having a general threadlike shape with a mechanically polished surface...
December 2015: Int J Implant Dent
Cao Xiao, Jesse Bledsoe, Shouyi Wang, Wanpracha Art Chaovalitwongse, Sonya Mehta, Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Thomas Grabowski
Today, diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) still primarily relies on a series of subjective evaluations that highly rely on a doctor's experiences and intuitions from diagnostic interviews and observed behavior measures. An accurate and objective diagnosis of ADHD is still a challenge and leaves much to be desired. Many children and adults are inappropriately labeled with ADHD conditions, whereas many are left undiagnosed and untreated. Recent advances in neuroimaging studies have enabled us to search for both structural (e...
September 2016: Brain Informatics
Joe Bathelt, Duncan Astle, Jessica Barnes, F Lucy Raymond, Kate Baker
Childhood speech and language deficits are highly prevalent and are a common feature of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, it is difficult to investigate the underlying causal pathways because many diagnostic groups have a heterogeneous aetiology. Studying disorders with a shared genetic cause and shared cognitive deficits can provide crucial insight into the cellular mechanisms and neural systems that give rise to those impairments. The current study investigated structural brain differences of individuals with mutations in ZDHHC9, which is associated with a specific neurodevelopmental phenotype including prominent speech and language impairments and intellectual disability...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
T Y Brumback, Matthew Worley, Tam T Nguyen-Louie, Lindsay M Squeglia, Joanna Jacobus, Susan F Tapert
Adolescence is a period marked by increases in risk taking, sensation seeking, and emotion dysregulation. Neurobiological models of adolescent development propose that lagging development in brain regions associated with affect and behavior control compared to regions associated with reward and emotion processing may underlie these behavioral manifestations. Cross-sectional studies have identified several functional brain networks that may contribute to risk for substance use and psychopathology in adolescents...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Yuli Fradkin, Sabin Khadka, Katie L Bessette, Michael C Stevens
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is recognized to be heterogeneous in terms of brain structure abnormality findings across studies, which might reflect previously unstudied traits that confer variability to neuroimaging measurements. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between different types of trait impulsivity and MDD diagnosis on adolescent brain structure. We predicted that adolescents with depression who were high on trait impulsivity would have more abnormal cortical structure than depressed patients or non-MDD who were low on impulsivity...
October 13, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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