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Cortical thickness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091721/influence-of-tooth-dimension-on-the-initial-mobility-based-on-plaster-casts-and-x-ray-images-a-numerical-study
#1
Martin Hartmann, Cornelius Dirk, Susanne Reimann, Ludger Keilig, Anna Konermann, Andreas Jäger, Christoph Bourauel
AIMS: The goal was to determine the influence of different geometric parameters of the tooth on the initial tooth mobility and the position of the center of resistance employing numerical models based on scaled X-ray images and plaster casts. METHODS: The dimensions of tooth 21 were measured in 21 patients, using radiographs and dental casts. Length and mesiodistal width of the tooth were obtained from the X-ray image and the orovestibular diameter from the plaster cast...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089388/cortical-bone-thickness-of-the-mandibular-canal-and-implications-for-bilateral-sagittal-split-osteotomy-a-cadaveric-study
#2
L Promma, N Sakulsak, P Putiwat, P Amarttayakong, S Iamsaard, H Trakulsuk, K Hirunyakorn, S Suarbua, Y Wattanaraeungchai
Preoperative delineation of the mandibular canal and surrounding cortical bone thickness is mandatory prior to bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO). The cortical bone thickness of 101 cadaveric mandibles was measured to define the mandibular canal. The mandibles were cut at the anterior ramus, at the third, second, and first molar, and at the premolar. The cortical bone thickness was measured between the mandibular canal and inferior border, buccal cortex, and lingual cortex at each cutting point. No difference was found between the right and left sides of the mandible, or between males and females, with one exception: males were found to have thicker inferior cortical bone at the premolar site than females...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088684/changes-in-electroencephalographic-characteristics-and-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-in-wag-rij-rats-with-cortical-dysplasia
#3
Deniz Sahin, Canan Ugur Yilmaz, Nurcan Orhan, Nadir Arican, Mehmet Kaya, Candan Gürses, Nurbay Ates, Bulent Ahishali
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of cortical dysplasia (CD) on electrophysiology and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in WAG/Rij rats with genetic absence epilepsy. METHODS: Pregnant WAG/Rij rats were exposed to 145cGy of gamma-irradiation on embryonic day 17 to induce CD. An electroencephalogram was recorded from cortices subdurally in the offspring of the pregnant animals. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as determinant of BBB permeability...
January 12, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088646/bone-microarchitecture-in-adolescent-boys-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Ann M Neumeyer, Natalia Cano Sokoloff, Erin McDonnell, Eric A Macklin, Christopher J McDougle, Madhusmita Misra
BACKGROUND: Boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have lower areal bone mineral density (aBMD) than typically developing controls (TDC). Studies of volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone microarchitecture provide information about fracture risk beyond that provided by aBMD but are currently lacking in ASD. OBJECTIVES: To assess ultradistal radius and distal tibia vBMD, bone microarchitecture and strength estimates in adolescent boys with ASD compared to TDC. DESIGN/METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 34 boys (16 ASD, 18 TDC) that assessed (i) aBMD at the whole body (WB), WB less head (WBLH), hip and spine using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), (ii) vBMD and bone microarchitecture at the ultradistal radius and distal tibia using high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HRpQCT), and (iii) bone strength estimates (stiffness and failure load) using micro-finite element analysis (FEA)...
January 11, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077713/reversible-disruption-of-neuronal-mitochondria-by-ischemic-and-traumatic-injury-revealed-by-quantitative-two-photon-imaging-in-the-neocortex-of-anesthetized-mice
#5
Mikhail Kislin, Jeremy Sword, Ioulia V Fomitcheva, Deborah Croom, Evgeny Pryazhnikov, Eero Lihavainen, Dmytro Toptunov, Heikki Rauvala, Andre S Ribeiro, Leonard Khiroug, Sergei A Kirov
: Mitochondria play a variety of functional roles in cortical neurons, from metabolic support and neuroprotection to the release of cytokines that trigger apoptosis. In dendrites, mitochondrial structure is closely linked to their function, and fragmentation (fission) of the normally elongated mitochondria indicates loss of their function under pathological conditions, such as stroke and brain trauma. Using in vivo two-photon microscopy in mouse brain, we quantified mitochondrial fragmentation in a full spectrum of cortical injuries, ranging from severe to mild...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077398/mild-traumatic-brain-injury-is-associated-with-reduced-cortical-thickness-in-those-at-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Jasmeet P Hayes, Mark W Logue, Naomi Sadeh, Jeffrey M Spielberg, Mieke Verfaellie, Scott M Hayes, Andrew Reagan, David H Salat, Erika J Wolf, Regina E McGlinchey, William P Milberg, Annjanette Stone, Steven A Schichman, Mark W Miller
Moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury is one of the strongest environmental risk factors for the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as late-onset Alzheimer's disease, although it is unclear whether mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, also confers risk. This study examined mild traumatic brain injury and genetic risk as predictors of reduced cortical thickness in brain regions previously associated with early Alzheimer's disease, and their relationship with episodic memory. Participants were 160 Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans between the ages of 19 and 58, many of whom carried mild traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder diagnoses...
January 11, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077394/metal-backed-versus-all-polyethylene-unicompartmental-knee-arthroplasty-proximal-tibial-strain-in-an-experimentally-validated-finite-element-model
#7
C E H Scott, M J Eaton, R W Nutton, F A Wade, S L Evans, P Pankaj
OBJECTIVES: Up to 40% of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) revisions are performed for unexplained pain which may be caused by elevated proximal tibial bone strain. This study investigates the effect of tibial component metal backing and polyethylene thickness on bone strain in a cemented fixed-bearing medial UKA using a finite element model (FEM) validated experimentally by digital image correlation (DIC) and acoustic emission (AE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of ten composite tibias implanted with all-polyethylene (AP) and metal-backed (MB) tibial components were loaded to 2500 N...
January 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077311/cortical-thickness-increases-after-simultaneous-interpretation-training
#8
Alexis Hervais-Adelman, Barbara Moser-Mercer, Micah M Murray, Narly Golestani
Simultaneous interpretation is a complex cognitive task that not only demands multilingual language processing, but also requires application of extreme levels of domain-general cognitive control. We used MRI to longitudinally measure cortical thickness in simultaneous interpretation trainees before and after a Master's program in conference interpreting. We compared them to multilingual control participants scanned at the same interval of time. Increases in cortical thickness were specific to trainee interpreters...
January 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077175/structural-correlates-of-trait-impulsivity-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-and-healthy-controls-a-surface-based-morphometry-study
#9
P C Tu, Y H Kuan, C T Li, T P Su
BACKGROUND: Patients with bipolar disorder (BD) frequently exhibit impulsive behaviors independent of their mood state, and trait impulsivity is increasingly recognized as a crucial BD biomarker. This study aimed to investigate structural correlates of trait impulsivity measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) in healthy controls (HCs) and patients with BD. METHOD: We recruited 59 patients diagnosed with BD I or BD II (35.3 ± 8.5 years) and 56 age- and sex-matched HCs (33...
January 12, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076363/effects-of-loading-duration-and-short-rest-insertion-on-cancellous-and-cortical-bone-adaptation-in-the-mouse-tibia
#10
Haisheng Yang, Rachel E Embry, Russell P Main
The skeleton's osteogenic response to mechanical loading can be affected by loading duration and rest insertion during a series of loading events. Prior animal loading studies have shown that the cortical bone response saturates quickly and short rest insertions between load cycles can enhance cortical bone formation. However, it remains unknown how loading duration and short rest insertion affect load-induced osteogenesis in the mouse tibial compressive loading model, and particularly in cancellous bone. To address this issue, we applied cyclic loading (-9 N peak load; 4 Hz) to the tibiae of three groups of 16 week-old female C57BL/6 mice for two weeks, with a different number of continuous load cycles applied daily to each group (36, 216 and 1200)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075029/does-cortical-bone-thickness-in-the-last-sacral-vertebra-differ-among-tail-types-in-primates
#11
Abigail C Nishimura, Gabrielle A Russo
OBJECTIVES: The external morphology of the sacrum is demonstrably informative regarding tail type (i.e., tail presence/absence, length, and prehensility) in living and extinct primates. However, little research has focused on the relationship between tail type and internal sacral morphology, a potentially important source of functional information when fossil sacra are incomplete. Here, we determine if cortical bone cross-sectional thickness of the last sacral vertebral body differs among tail types in extant primates and can be used to reconstruct tail types in extinct primates...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074591/variations-in-crestal-cortical-bone-thickness-at-dental-implant-sites-in-different-regions-of-the-jawbone
#12
Yi-Chun Ko, Heng-Li Huang, Yen-Wen Shen, Jyun-Yi Cai, Lih-Jyh Fuh, Jui-Ting Hsu
BACKGROUND: Dental implants have become reliable and predictable tools for treating missing teeth. The survival rate of dental implants is markedly influenced by the host bone quality and quantity of the jawbone. A better host bone provides higher initial stability of the dental implant, resulting in better osseointegration and a higher success rate. Host bone quality and quantity are determined by the crestal cortical bone thickness and inner cancellous bone density. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the crestal cortical bone thickness at dental implant sites in different regions of the jawbone through the use of dental cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073935/brain-structure-and-function-associated-with-younger-adults-in-growth-hormone-receptor-deficient-humans
#13
Kaoru Nashiro, Jaime Guevara-Aguirre, Meredith N Braskie, George W Hafzalla, Rico Velasco, Priya Balasubramian, Min Wei, Paul M Thompson, Mara Mather, Marvin D Nelson, Alexandra Guevara, Enrique Teran, Valter D Longo
: Growth hormone receptor deficiency (GHRD) results in short stature, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and low circulating levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Previous studies in mice and humans suggested that GHRD has protective effects against age-related diseases, including cancer and diabetes. Whereas GHRD mice show improved age-dependent cognitive performance, the effect of GHRD on human cognition remains unknown. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we compared brain structure, function, and connectivity between 13 people with GHRD and 12 unaffected relatives...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073491/gray-matter-neuritic-microstructure-deficits-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#14
Arash Nazeri, Benoit H Mulsant, Tarek K Rajji, Melissa L Levesque, Jon Pipitone, Laura Stefanik, Saba Shahab, Tina Roostaei, Anne L Wheeler, Sofia Chavez, Aristotle N Voineskos
BACKGROUND: Postmortem studies have demonstrated considerable dendritic pathologies among persons with schizophrenia and to some extent among those with bipolar I disorder. Modeling gray matter (GM) microstructural properties is now possible with a recently proposed diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging modeling technique: neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging. This technique may bridge the gap between neuroimaging and histopathological findings. METHODS: We performed an extended series of multishell diffusion-weighted imaging and other structural imaging series using 3T magnetic resonance imaging...
December 8, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070912/role-of-testosterone-and-y-chromosome-genes-for-the-masculinization-of-the-human-brain
#15
Ivanka Savic, Louise Frisen, Amirhossein Manzouri, Anna Nordenstrom, Angelica Lindén Hirschberg
: Women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) have a male (46,XY) karyotype but no functional androgen receptors. Their condition, therefore, offers a unique model for studying testosterone effects on cerebral sex dimorphism. We present MRI data from 16 women with CAIS and 32 male (46,XY) and 32 female (46,XX) controls. METHODS: FreeSurfer software was employed to measure cortical thickness and subcortical structural volumes. Axonal connections, indexed by fractional anisotropy, (FA) were measured with diffusion tensor imaging, and functional connectivity with resting state fMRI...
January 10, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069796/high-dietary-folate-in-pregnant-mice-leads-to-pseudo-mthfr-deficiency-and-altered-methyl-metabolism-with-embryonic-growth-delay-and-short-term-memory-impairment-in-offspring
#16
Renata H Bahous, Nafisa M Jadavji, Liyuan Deng, Marta Cosín-Tomás, Jessica Lu, Olga Malysheva, Kit-Yi Leung, Ming-Kai Ho, Mercè Pallàs, Perla Kaliman, Nicholas DE Greene, Barry J Bedell, Marie A Caudill, Rima Rozen
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) generates methyltetrahydrofolate for methylation reactions. Severe MTHFR deficiency results in homocystinuria and neurologic impairment. Mild MTHFR deficiency (677C>T polymorphism) increases risk for complex traits, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Although low dietary folate impacts brain development, recent concerns have focused on high folate intake following food fortification and increased vitamin use. Our goal was to determine whether high dietary folate during pregnancy affects brain development in murine offspring...
January 9, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069103/does-cu-supplementation-affect-the-mechanical-and-structural-properties-and-mineral-content-of-red-deer-antler-bone-tissue
#17
P Gambín, M P Serrano, L Gallego, A García, J Cappelli, F Ceacero, T Landete-Castillejos
The main factors affecting the mechanical (and other) properties of bone, including antler, are the proportions of ash (especially Ca and P) and collagen content. However, some trace minerals may also play more important roles than would be expected, given their low levels in bone and antler. One such trace mineral is Cu. Here, we studied the effects of Cu supplementation on the mechanical and structural characteristics, and mineral content of antlers from yearling and adult (4 years of age) red deer fed a balanced diet...
January 10, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067429/lnk-deficiency-leads-to-tpo-mediated-osteoclastogenesis-and-increased-bone-mass-phenotype
#18
David J Olivos, Marta Alvarez, Ying-Hua Cheng, R Adam Hooker, Wendy A Ciovacco, Monique Bethel, Haley McGough, Christopher Yim, Brahmananda R Chitteti, Pierre P Eleniste, Mark C Horowitz, Edward F Srour, Angela Bruzzaniti, Robyn K Fuchs, Melissa A Kacena
The Lnk adapter protein negatively regulates the signaling of thrombopoietin (TPO), the main megakaryocyte (MK) growth factor. Lnk-deficient (-/-) mice have increased TPO signaling and increased MK number. Interestingly, several mouse models exist in which increased MK number leads to a high bone mass phenotype. Here we report the bone phenotype of these mice. MicroCT and static histomorphometric analyses at 20 weeks showed the distal femur of Lnk(-/-) mice to have significantly higher bone volume fraction and trabecular number compared to wild-type (WT) mice...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065685/excessive-daytime-sleepiness-and-fatigue-may-indicate-accelerated-brain-aging-in-cognitively-normal-late-middle-aged-and-older-adults
#19
Diego Z Carvalho, Erik K St Louis, Bradley F Boeve, Michelle M Mielke, Scott A Przybelski, David S Knopman, Mary M Machulda, Rosebud O Roberts, Yonas E Geda, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Prashanthi Vemuri
Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and fatigue increases with age. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between EDS and fatigue with cortical thickness and hippocampal volume in cognitively normal, late middle-aged and older adults. We performed a cross-sectional observational study of 1374 cognitively-normal subjects aged 50 years and older who had a structural MRI. Regional cortical thickness and hippocampal volume were measured. Multiple linear regression models were fit to explore associations between EDS and fatigue and structural MRI measures in different brain regions, adjusting for multiple covariates...
November 3, 2016: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062900/melorheostosis-with-recurrent-soft-tissue-components-a-histologically-confirmed-case
#20
Shoichi Hasegawa, Shotaro Kanda, Hiroki Imada, Takehiko Yamaguchi, Toru Akiyama
Melorheostosis is a very rare disorder characterized by irregular cortical thickening seen on radiographs. In this paper, we present a case of melorheostosis with microscopically confirmed soft-tissue components. The patient was a 51-year-old man who complained of severe pain in the lateral aspect of his right knee. The excision of an ossified soft-tissue lesion relieved intractable pain that had lasted 20 years. Microscopically, the cortex of the affected fibula was composed of thick compact bone and the soft-tissue component consisted of dense compact bone without endochondral ossification...
January 6, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
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