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Branch migration

Elisabeth B Evans, Samantha W Brady, Anubhav Tripathi, Diane Hoffman-Kim
Background: Successful nerve regeneration depends upon directed migration of morphologically specialized repair state Schwann cells across a nerve defect. Although several groups have studied directed migration of Schwann cells in response to chemical or topographic cues, the current understanding of how the mechanical environment influences migration remains largely understudied and incomplete. Therefore, the focus of this study was to evaluate Schwann cell migration and morphodynamics in the presence of stiffness gradients, which revealed that Schwann cells can follow extracellular gradients of increasing stiffness, in a form of directed migration termed durotaxis...
2018: Biomaterials Research
Matteo Tomasini, Stephan Peischl
We study the establishment probabilities of locally adapted mutations using a multi-type branching process framework. We find a surprisingly simple and intuitive analytical approximation for the establishment probabilities in a symmetric two-deme model under the assumption of weak (positive) selection. This is the first analytical closed-form approximation for arbitrary migration rate to appear in the literature. We find that the establishment probability lies between the weak and the strong migration limits if we condition the origin of the mutation to the deme where it is advantageous...
May 17, 2018: Genetics
Yunping Xue, Pengfei Xu, Sujuan Xu, Kai Xue, Lingling Xu, Jie Chen, Juan Xu, Xiaoyan Shi, Qian Li, Lin Gu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ovarian endometriosis (OvE) is ovarian cyst that is lined with endometrial tissue. They are found in 17-44% of women with endometriosis. Their clinical manifestations include pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and infertility. Although the incidence of OvE has increased yearly, the exact pathogenesis of OvE is still unclear. We used peptidomics, an emerging branch of proteomics, to identify differentially expressed peptides in order to determine the possible roles of these peptides in the pathogenesis of OvE...
May 9, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Soochul Shin, Kwangbeom Hyun, Jaehoon Kim, Sungchul Hohng
Replication fork reversal is one of the major pathways for reactivating stalled DNA replication. Many enzymes with replication fork reversal activity have DNA-unwinding activity as well, but none of the fork reversal enzymes in the SWI/SNF family shows a separate DNA-unwinding activity, raising the question of how they initiate the remodeling process. Here, we found ATP binding to Rad5 induces the unwinding of the leading arm of the replication fork and proximally positions the leading and lagging arms. This facilitates the spontaneous remodeling of the replication fork into a four-way junction...
May 8, 2018: Cell Reports
Thomas M Nero, Triana N Dalia, Joseph Che-Yen Wang, David T Kysela, Matthew L Bochman, Ankur B Dalia
Acquisition of foreign DNA by natural transformation is an important mechanism of adaptation and evolution in diverse microbial species. Here, we characterize the mechanism of ComM, a broadly conserved AAA+ protein previously implicated in homologous recombination of transforming DNA (tDNA) in naturally competent Gram-negative bacterial species. In vivo, we found that ComM was required for efficient comigration of linked genetic markers in Vibrio cholerae and Acinetobacter baylyi, which is consistent with a role in branch migration...
May 2, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Zachary J Buras, Te-Chun Chu, Adeel Jamal, Nathan W Yee, Joshua E Middaugh, William H Green
The C9H11 potential energy surface (PES) was experimentally and theoretically explored because it is a relatively simple, prototypical alkylaromatic radical system. Although the C9H11 PES has already been extensively studied both experimentally (under single-collision and thermal conditions) and theoretically, new insights were made in this work by taking a new experimental approach: flash photolysis combined with time-resolved molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) and visible laser absorbance. The C9H11 PES was experimentally accessed by photolytic generation of the phenyl radical and subsequent reaction with excess propene (C6H5 + C3H6)...
May 3, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Andrey I Lavrov, Igor A Kosevich
Sponges (phylum Porifera) traditionally are represented as inactive, sessile filter-feeding animals devoid of any behavior except filtering activity. However, different time-lapse techniques demonstrate that sponges are able to show a wide range of coordinated but slow whole-organism behavior. The present study concerns a peculiar type of such behavior in the psychrophilic demosponge Amphilectus lobatus: stolonial movement. During stolonial movement, sponges produce outgrowths (stolons) that crawl along a substrate with a speed of 4...
February 2018: Biological Bulletin
M Loher, T Pape, Y Marcon, M Römer, P Wintersteller, D Praeg, M Torres, H Sahling, G Bohrmann
Submarine mud volcanoes release sediments and gas-rich fluids at the seafloor via deeply-rooted plumbing systems that remain poorly understood. Here the functioning of Venere mud volcano, on the Calabrian accretionary prism in ~1,600 m water depth is investigated, based on multi-parameter hydroacoustic and visual seafloor data obtained using ship-borne methods, ROVs, and AUVs. Two seepage domains are recognized: mud breccia extrusion from a summit, and hydrocarbon venting from peripheral sites, hosting chemosynthetic ecosystems and authigenic carbonates indicative of long-term seepage...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mengmeng Li, Cunbin An, Wojciech Pisula, Klaus Müllen
Donor-acceptor (D-A) conjugated polymers are of great interest as organic semiconductors, because they offer a rational tailoring of the electronic properties by modification of the donor and acceptor units. Nowadays, D-A polymers exhibit field-effect mobilities on the order of 10-2 -100 cm2 V-1 s-1 , while several examples showed a mobility over 10 cm2 V-1 s-1 . The development of cyclopentadithiophene-benzothiadiazole (CDT-BTZ) copolymers one decade ago represents an important step toward high-performance organic semiconductors for field-effect transistors...
April 17, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Zhiping Zeng, Yujing Wu, Yirong Cao, Ziying Yuan, Yuanqing Zhang, David Y Zhang, Daisuke Hasegawa, Scott L Friedman, Jinsheng Guo
BACKGROUND & AIM: Slit/Robo signaling was originally identified as a repulsive guidance cue in regulating axon branching and neuronal migration. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the key fibrogenic cells in the liver, which are migratory when activated, and express neural crest markers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional significance of Slit/Robo signaling in liver fibrogenesis and in HSCs. KEY FINDINGS: By transcriptomic analysis it was found that axon guidance signaling pathways were significantly upregulated in both diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and thioacetamide (TAA)-induced experimental liver fibrosis...
April 13, 2018: Life Sciences
He-Jing Bao, Shu-Dong Ma
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the regulatory role of classical Shh signaling pathway in the development of the epithelium and mesenchyme (bronchial cartilage and smooth muscles) during lung development in fetal mice. METHODS: Immunohistochemical technique was used to detect the expression of Shh signaling pathway receptor Smo and Pdgfr-α in murine fetal lungs to explore the spatial and temporal characteristics of their expression. Based on the interstitial specificity of Pdgfr-α expression, we constructed a Pdgfr-α-cre to establish a E12...
March 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Marie-Claude Marsolier-Kergoat, Md Muntaz Khan, Jonathan Schott, Xuan Zhu, Bertrand Llorente
Meiotic recombination is essential for fertility and allelic shuffling. Canonical recombination models fail to capture the observed complexity of meiotic recombinants. Here, by combining genome-wide meiotic heteroduplex DNA patterns with meiotic DNA double-strand break (DSB) sites, we show that part of this complexity results from frequent template switching during synthesis-dependent strand annealing that yields noncrossovers and from branch migration of double Holliday junction (dHJ)-containing intermediates that mainly yield crossovers...
April 5, 2018: Molecular Cell
Byeonggyu Park, Hyeseon Kim, Taeck Joong Jeon
The small GTPase Ras proteins are involved in diverse cellular processes. We investigated the functions of RapC, one of 15 Ras subfamily GTPases in Dictyostelium. Loss of RapC resulted in a spread shape of cells; severe defects in cytokinesis leading to multinucleation; decrease of migration speed in chemoattractant-mediated cell migration, likely through increased cell adhesion; and aberrations in multicellular development producing abnormal multiple tips from one mound and multi-branched developmental structures...
March 31, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Kojiro Suda, Ibuki Ueoka, Yumiko Azuma, Yuuka Muraoka, Hideki Yoshida, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
Mutations in SLC25A46 gene have been identified in mitochondrial diseases that are sometimes classified as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2, optic atrophy and Leigh syndrome. Human SLC25A46 functions as a transporter across the outer mitochondrial membrane. However, it is still unknown how the neurodegeneration occurring in these diseases relates to the loss of SLC25A46 function. Drosophila has CG5755 (dSLC25A46) as a single human SLC25A46 homolog. Here we established pan-neuron specific dSLC25A46 knockdown flies, and examined their phenotypes...
March 28, 2018: Brain Research
Gui-Song Zhu, Ling-Yi Tang, Dong-Ling Lv, Meng Jiang
Angiogenesis is a process of new blood vessel formation from pre-existing vessels. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) binds to VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) and thus activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway play a central role in angiogenesis. Total flavones of Abelmoschus manihot (TFA), the major active component of the traditional Chinese herb Abelmoschus manihot, display novel pro-angiogenic activity. However, little information concerning its underlying mechanism is available...
March 29, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Fawaz Al-Mufti, Krishna Amuluru, Eric R Cohen, Vikas Patel, Mohammad El-Ghanem, Ethan Wajswol, Vincent Dodson, Sarmad Al-Marsoummi, Neil Majmundar, Neha S Dangayach, Rolla Nuoman, Chirag D Gandhi
Flow diverting devices (FDDs) have revolutionized the treatment of morphologically complex intracranial aneurysms such as wide-necked, giant, or fusiform aneurysms. Although FDDs are extremely effective, they carry a small yet significant risk of intraprocedural complications. As the implementation of these devices increases, the ability to predict and rapidly treat complications, especially those that are iatrogenic or intraprocedural in nature, is becoming increasingly more necessary.Our objective in this paper is to provide a descriptive summary of the various types of intraprocedural complications that may occur during FDDs deployment and how they may best be treated...
March 22, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
W Li, S Zhai, K Xu, Q Li, H Zhong, T Li, Z Zhang
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a new unibody branched stent graft for the reconstruction of the canine aortic arch. METHODS: The unibody branched stent grafts included single branched stent grafts and double branched stent grafts. The main stent graft and branched limbs were sutured together. The branched stent grafts were folded into the introducer system, which consisted of a double channel catheter, a detachable sleeve, and an introducer sheath...
March 23, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Laurence Bertier, Tim Hebbrecht, Elien Mettepenningen, Natasja De Wit, Olivier Zwaenepoel, Adriaan Verhelle, Jan Gettemans
Cortactin is a multidomain actin binding protein that activates Arp2/3 mediated branched actin polymerization. This is essential for the formation of protrusive structures during cancer cell invasion. Invadopodia are cancer cell-specific membrane protrusions, specialized at extracellular matrix degradation and essential for invasion and tumor metastasis. Given the unequivocal role of cortactin at every stage of invadopodium formation, it is considered an invadopodium marker and potential drug target. We used cortactin nanobodies to examine the role of cortactin domain-specific function at endogenous protein level...
March 19, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Luisa Bracci, Elisabetta Mandarini, Jlenia Brunetti, Lorenzo Depau, Alessandro Pini, Lucia Terzuoli, Silvia Scali, Chiara Falciani
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans, HSPGs, modulate major transformations of cancer cells, leading to tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. HSPGs also regulate neo-angiogenesis which prompts cancer progression and metastatic spread. A different aspect of heparin and analogs is their prominent role in the coagulation of blood. The interplay between coagulation and metastasis is being actively studied: anticoagulants such as heparin-derivatives have anticancer activity and procoagulants, such as thrombin, positively modulate proliferation, migration and invasion...
2018: PloS One
Yukiko Kariya, Midori Oyama, Yasuhiro Hashimoto, Jianguo Gu, Yoshinobu Kariya
Malignant transformation is associated with aberrant N -glycosylation, but the role of protein N -glycosylation in cancer progression remains poorly defined. β4-integrin is a major carrier of N -glycans and is associated with poor prognosis, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. Here, N -glycosylation of β4-integrin contributes to the activation of signaling pathways that promote β4-dependent tumor development and progression. Increased expression of β1,6GlcNAc-branched N -glycans was found to be colocalized with β4-integrin in human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma tissues, and that the β1,6GlcNAc residue was abundant on β4-integrin in transformed keratinocytes...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
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