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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141223/gradients-of-rac1-nanoclusters-support-spatial-patterns-of-rac1-signaling
#1
Amanda Remorino, Simon De Beco, Fanny Cayrac, Fahima Di Federico, Gaetan Cornilleau, Alexis Gautreau, Maria Carla Parrini, Jean-Baptiste Masson, Maxime Dahan, Mathieu Coppey
Rac1 is a small RhoGTPase switch that orchestrates actin branching in space and time and protrusion/retraction cycles of the lamellipodia at the cell front during mesenchymal migration. Biosensor imaging has revealed a graded concentration of active GTP-loaded Rac1 in protruding regions of the cell. Here, using single-molecule imaging and super-resolution microscopy, we show an additional supramolecular organization of Rac1. We find that Rac1 partitions and is immobilized into nanoclusters of 50-100 molecules each...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138289/the-evolution-of-cortical-development-the-synapsid-diapsid-divergence
#2
REVIEW
Andre M Goffinet
The cerebral cortex covers the rostral part of the brain and, in higher mammals and particularly humans, plays a key role in cognition and consciousness. It is populated with neuronal cell bodies distributed in radially organized layers. Understanding the common and lineage-specific molecular mechanisms that orchestrate cortical development and evolution are key issues in neurobiology. During evolution, the cortex appeared in stem amniotes and evolved divergently in two main branches of the phylogenetic tree: the synapsids (which led to present day mammals) and the diapsids (reptiles and birds)...
November 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136008/automated-tracking-and-quantification-of-angiogenic-vessel-formation-in-3d-microfluidic-devices
#3
Mengmeng Wang, Lee-Ling Sharon Ong, Justin Dauwels, H Harry Asada
Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels, is a critical step in cancer invasion. Better understanding of the angiogenic mechanisms is required to develop effective antiangiogenic therapies for cancer treatment. We culture angiogenic vessels in 3D microfluidic devices under different Sphingosin-1-phosphate (S1P) conditions and develop an automated vessel formation tracking system (AVFTS) to track the angiogenic vessel formation and extract quantitative vessel information from the experimental time-lapse phase contrast images...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130119/p85-regulates-neuronal-migration-through-affecting-neuronal-morphology-during-mouse-corticogenesis
#4
Xinran Cheng, Kaikai Li, MengMeng Liu, Xinde Hu, Mingrui Xu, Runchuan Yan, Shanting Zhao
In mammalian developing embryonic cortex, projection neurons migrate from the ventricular zone to the cortical plate, guided by radial glial cells with a transformation between bipolar and multipolar morphology. Previous studies have demonstrated that the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signal plays a critical role in brain development. However, the function of P85 in cortical development is still unclear. In the present study, we found that overexpression of P85 impaired cortical neuronal migration. Using in utero electroporation, we revealed that the length of the leading process in P85 overexpressed neurons became shorter than that in the control group but with more branches...
November 13, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123467/the-role-of-sdf-1-cxcr4-cxcr7-in-neuronal-regeneration-after-cerebral-ischemia
#5
REVIEW
Xi Cheng, Huibin Wang, Xiuchun Zhang, Shanshan Zhao, Zhike Zhou, Xiaopeng Mu, Chuansheng Zhao, Weiyu Teng
Stromal cell-derived factor-1 is a chemoattractant produced by bone marrow stromal cell lines. It is recognized as a critical factor in the immune and central nervous systems (CNSs) as well as exerting a role in cancer. SDF-1 activates two G protein-coupled receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7; these are expressed in both developing and mature CNSs and participate in multiple physiological and pathological events, e.g., inflammatory response, neurogenesis, angiogenesis, hematopoiesis, cancer metastasis, and HIV infection...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118719/the-origins-and-functions-of-tissue-resident-macrophages-in-kidney-development
#6
REVIEW
David A D Munro, Jeremy Hughes
The adult kidney hosts tissue-resident macrophages that can cause, prevent, and/or repair renal damage. Most of these macrophages derive from embryonic progenitors that colonize the kidney during its development and proliferate in situ throughout adulthood. Although the precise origins of kidney macrophages remain controversial, recent studies have revealed that embryonic macrophage progenitors initially migrate from the yolk sac, and later from the fetal liver, into the developing kidney. Once in the kidney, tissue-specific transcriptional regulators specify macrophage progenitors into dedicated kidney macrophages...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097501/eb1-and-cytoplasmic-dynein-mediate-protrusion-dynamics-for-efficient-3-dimensional-cell-migration
#7
Hasini Jayatilaka, Anjil Giri, Michelle Karl, Ivie Aifuwa, Nicholaus J Trenton, Jude M Phillip, Shyam Khatau, Denis Wirtz
Microtubules have long been implicated to play an integral role in metastatic disease, for which a critical step is the local invasion of tumor cells into the 3-dimensional (3D) collagen-rich stromal matrix. Here we show that cell migration of human cancer cells uses the dynamic formation of highly branched protrusions that are composed of a microtubule core surrounded by cortical actin, a cytoskeletal organization that is absent in cells on 2-dimensional (2D) substrates. Microtubule plus-end tracking protein End-binding 1 and motor protein dynein subunits light intermediate chain 2 and heavy chain 1, which do not regulate 2D migration, critically modulate 3D migration by affecting RhoA and thus regulate protrusion branching through differential assembly dynamics of microtubules...
November 2, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075512/rhodopsin-gene-copies-in-japanese-eel-originated-in-a-teleost-specific-genome-duplication
#8
Yoji Nakamura, Motoshige Yasuike, Miyuki Mekuchi, Yuki Iwasaki, Nobuhiko Ojima, Atushi Fujiwara, Seinen Chow, Kenji Saitoh
BACKGROUND: Gene duplication is considered important to increasing the genetic diversity in animals. In fish, visual pigment genes are often independently duplicated, and the evolutionary significance of such duplications has long been of interest. Eels have two rhodopsin genes (rho), one of which (freshwater type, fw-rho) functions in freshwater and the other (deep-sea type, ds-rho) in marine environments. Hence, switching of rho expression in retinal cells is tightly linked with eels' unique life cycle, in which they migrate from rivers or lakes to the sea...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073091/reply-to-youngflesh-and-lynch-migration-and-population-growth-rate-in-animal-black-swan-events
#9
Sean C Anderson, Trevor A Branch, Andrew B Cooper, Nicholas K Dulvy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039951/1-2-fluorine-radical-rearrangements-isomerization-events-in-perfluorinated-radicals
#10
Daniel J Van Hoomissen, Shubham Vyas
Devising effective degradation technologies for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is an active area of research, where the molecular mechanisms involving both oxidative and reductive pathways are still elusive. One commonly neglected pathway in PFAS degradation is fluorine atom migration in perfluoroalkyl radicals, which was largely assumed to be implausible because of the high C-F bond strength. Using density functional theory calculations, it was demonstrated that 1,2-F atom migrations are thermodynamically favored when the fluorine atom migrated from a less branched carbon center to a more branched carbon center...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039442/angiogenic-effects-of-apigenin-on-endothelial-cells-after-hypoxia-reoxygenation-via-the-caveolin-1-pathway
#11
Fengxia Tu, Qiongyi Pang, Xiang Chen, Tingting Huang, Meixia Liu, Qiongxiang Zhai
In the present study, we aimed to elucidate whether apigenin contributes to the induction of angiogenesis and the related mechanisms in cell hypoxia-reoxygenation injury. The role of apigenin was examined in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) viability, migration and tube formation in vitro. To investigate the related mechanisms, we used caveolin-1 short interfering RNA. The viability of HUVECs was measured using Cell Counting Kit-8 assays, HUVEC migration was analyzed by crystal violet staining, and a tube formation assay was performed using the branch point method...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023217/visual-impairment-by-multiple-vascular-embolization-with-hydroxyapatite-particles
#12
Yayoi Marumo, Miki Hiraoka, Masato Hashimoto, Hiroshi Ohguro
We demonstrate a case of ocular impairment caused by a hydroxyapatite filler injection and review the prior literature on clinical presentations. A healthy woman, who received a hydroxyapatite filler injection into the glabella for nose augmentation suddenly had symptoms of nausea, diplopia, visual loss in the left eye, and impaired consciousness. Her left eye showed paresis of the inferior branch of the oculomotor nerve, conjunctival injection, cell infiltration in the anterior chamber, and multiple white spots in the nasal fundus...
October 12, 2017: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991231/slug-pcad-pathway-controls-epithelial-cell-dynamics-in-mammary-gland-and-breast-carcinoma
#13
Y Idoux-Gillet, M Nassour, E Lakis, F Bonini, C Theillet, S Du Manoir, P Savagner
Mammary gland morphogenesis results from the coordination of proliferation, cohort migration, apoptosis and stem/progenitor cell dynamics. We showed earlier that the transcription repressor Slug is involved in these functions during mammary tubulogenesis. Slug is expressed by a subpopulation of basal epithelial cells, co-expressed with P-cadherin (Pcad). Slug-knockout mammary glands showed excessive branching, similarly to Pcad-knockout. Here, we found that Slug unexpectedly binds and activates Pcad promoter through E-boxes, inducing Pcad expression...
October 9, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972042/transmembrane-and-coiled-coil-domain-1-impairs-the-akt-signaling-pathway-in-urinary-bladder-urothelial-carcinoma-a-characterization-of-a-tumor-suppressor
#14
Chien-Feng Li, Wen-Ren Wu, Ti-Chun Chan, Yu-Hui Wang, Lih-Ren Chen, Wen-Jeng Wu, Bi-Wen Yeh, Shih-Shin Liang, Yow-Ling Shiue
PURPOSE: Urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma (UBUC) is a common malignant disease in developed countries. Cell cycle dysregulation resulting in uncontrolled cell proliferation has been associated with UBUC development. This study aimed to explore the roles of TMCO1 in UBUCs. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Data mining, branched DNA assay, immunohistochemistry, xenograft, cell culture, quantitative RT-PCR, immunoblotting, stable and transient transfection, lentivirus production and stable knockdown, cell cycle, cell viability and proliferation, soft agar, wound healing, transwell migration and invasion, co-immunoprecipitation, immunocytochemistry, AKT serine/threonine kinase (AKT) activity assays and site-directed mutagenesis were used to study TMCO1 involvement in vivo and in vitro...
September 29, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971977/human-lung-branching-morphogenesis-is-orchestrated-by-the-spatio-temporal-distribution-of-acta2-sox2-and-sox9
#15
Soula Danopoulos, Irving Alonso, Matthew Thornton, Brendan Grubbs, Saverio Bellusci, David Warburton, Denise Al Alam
Lung morphogenesis relies on a number of important processes including proximal-distal patterning, cell proliferation, migration and differentiation, as well as epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. In mouse lung development, SOX2+ cells are localized in the proximal epithelium whereas SOX9+ cells are present in the distal epithelium. We show that in human lung, expression of these transcription factors differs, in that during the pseudoglandular stage distal epithelial progenitors at the tips co-express SOX2 and SOX9...
September 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961460/bacillus-subtilis-disa-helps-to-circumvent-replicative-stress-during-spore-revival
#16
Marina Raguse, Rubén Torres, Elena M Seco, Carolina Gándara, Silvia Ayora, Ralf Moeller, Juan C Alonso
The mechanisms that allow to circumvent replicative stress, and to resume DNA synthesis are poorly understood in Bacillus subtilis. To study the role of the diadenylate cyclase DisA and branch migration translocase (BMT) RadA/Sms in restarting a stalled replication fork, we nicked and broke the circular chromosome of an inert mature haploid spore, damaged the bases, and measured survival of reviving spores. During undisturbed ripening, nicks and breaks should be repaired by pathways that do not invoke long-range end resection or genetic exchange by homologous recombination, after which DNA replication might be initiated...
September 22, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956729/the-use-of-thoracic-stent-grafts-for-endovascular-repair-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms
#17
V P Bastiaenen, Mgj Snoeijs, Jgam Blomjous, J Bosma, V J Leijdekkers, R C van Nieuwenhuizen, A C Vahl
Objectives Stent grafts for endovascular repair of infrarenal aneurysms are commercially available for aortic necks up to 32 mm in diameter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of endovascular repair with large thoracic stent grafts in the infrarenal position to obtain adequate proximal seal in wider necks. Methods All patients who underwent endovascular aneurysm repair using thoracic stent grafts with diameters greater than 36 mm between 2012 and 2016 were included. Follow-up consisted of CT angiography after six weeks and annual duplex thereafter...
January 1, 2017: Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954549/functions-of-smarcal1-zranb3-and-hltf-in-maintaining-genome-stability
#18
Lisa A Poole, David Cortez
A large number of SNF2 family, DNA and ATP-dependent motor proteins are needed during transcription, DNA replication, and DNA repair to manipulate protein-DNA interactions and change DNA structure. SMARCAL1, ZRANB3, and HLTF are three related members of this family with specialized functions that maintain genome stability during DNA replication. These proteins are recruited to replication forks through protein-protein interactions and bind DNA using both their motor and substrate recognition domains (SRDs)...
September 28, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933765/potential-role-of-microtubule-stabilizing-agents-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Sara Anna Bonini, Andrea Mastinu, Giulia Ferrari-Toninelli, Maurizio Memo
Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are characterized by neuroanatomical abnormalities indicative of corticogenesis disturbances. At the basis of NDDs cortical abnormalities, the principal developmental processes involved are cellular proliferation, migration and differentiation. NDDs are also considered "synaptic disorders" since accumulating evidence suggests that NDDs are developmental brain misconnection syndromes characterized by altered connectivity in local circuits and between brain regions. Microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins play a fundamental role in the regulation of basic neurodevelopmental processes, such as neuronal polarization and migration, neuronal branching and synaptogenesis...
July 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928725/the-neurospora-crassa-pp2a-regulatory-subunits-rgb1-and-b56-are-required-for-proper-growth-and-development-and-interact-with-the-ndr-kinase-cot1
#20
Hila Shomin-Levi, Oded Yarden
COT1 is the founding member of the highly conserved nuclear Dbf2-related (NDR) Ser/Thr kinase family and plays a role in the regulation of polar growth and development in Neurospora crassa and other fungi. Changes in COT1 phosphorylation state have been shown to affect hyphal elongation, branching, and conidiation. The function of NDR protein kinases has been shown to be regulated by type 2A protein phosphatases (PP2As). PP2As are heterotrimers comprised of a catalytic and scaffolding protein along with an interchangeable regulatory subunit involved in determining substrate specificity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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