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Branch migration

Alexander Leithner, Alexander Eichner, Jan Müller, Anne Reversat, Markus Brown, Jan Schwarz, Jack Merrin, David J J de Gorter, Florian Schur, Jonathan Bayerl, Ingrid de Vries, Stefan Wieser, Robert Hauschild, Frank P L Lai, Markus Moser, Dontscho Kerjaschki, Klemens Rottner, J Victor Small, Theresia E B Stradal, Michael Sixt
Most migrating cells extrude their front by the force of actin polymerization. Polymerization requires an initial nucleation step, which is mediated by factors establishing either parallel filaments in the case of filopodia or branched filaments that form the branched lamellipodial network. Branches are considered essential for regular cell motility and are initiated by the Arp2/3 complex, which in turn is activated by nucleation-promoting factors of the WASP and WAVE families. Here we employed rapid amoeboid crawling leukocytes and found that deletion of the WAVE complex eliminated actin branching and thus lamellipodia formation...
October 24, 2016: Nature Cell Biology
Lili Chen, Fangling Ji, Yongming Bao, Jing Xia, Lianying Guo, Jingyun Wang, Yachen Li
The greatest crux in the combination of chemotherapy and gene therapy is the construction of a feasible and biocompatible carrier for loading the therapeutic drug and gene simultaneously. Here, a new amphiphilic bifunctional pullulan derivative (named as PDP) synthesized by grafting lipophilic desoxycholic acid and low-molecular weight (1kDa) branched polyethylenimine onto the backbone of pullulan was evaluated as a nano-carrier for the co-delivery of drug and gene for potential cancer therapy. PDP exhibited good blood compatibility and low cytotoxicity in the hemolysis and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, respectively...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Dongliang Chao, Pei Liang, Zhen Chen, Linyi Bai, He Shen, Xiaoxu Liu, Xinhui Xia, Yanli Zhao, Serguei V Savilov, Jianyi Lin, Ze Xiang Shen
The abundant reservation and low cost of sodium have provoked tremendous evolution of Na-ion batteries (SIBs) in the past few years, but their performances were still limited either by the specific capacity or rate capability. Attempts to pursuit high-rate ability with maintained high-capacity in a single electrode remains even more challenging. Here, an elaborate self-branched 2D SnS2 (B-SnS2) nanoarrays electrode is designed by a facile hot bath method for Na storage. This interesting electrode exhibits areal reversible capacity of ca...
October 21, 2016: ACS Nano
Soula Danopoulos, Michael Krainock, Omar Toubat, Matthew Thornton, Brendan Grubbs, Denise Al Alam
Lung branching morphogenesis relies on a number of factors, including proper epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation, cell polarity and migration. Rac1, a small Rho GTPase, orchestrates a number of these cellular processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation, cellular alignment and polarization. Furthermore, Rac1 modulates both non-canonical and canonical Wnt signaling, important pathways in lung branching morphogenesis. Culture of embryonic mouse lung explants in the presence of the Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in branching...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Kipp Weiskopf, Peter J Schnorr, Wendy W Pang, Mark P Chao, Akanksha Chhabra, Jun Seita, Mingye Feng, Irving L Weissman
The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) is a multipotent stem cell that resides in the bone marrow and has the ability to form all of the cells of the blood and immune system. Since its first purification in 1988, additional studies have refined the phenotype and functionality of HSCs and characterized all of their downstream progeny. The hematopoietic lineage is divided into two main branches: the myeloid and lymphoid arms. The myeloid arm is characterized by the common myeloid progenitor and all of its resulting cell types...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Branko Harnik, Richard J Miron, Daniel Buser, Reinhard Gruber
Angiogenesis is essential for the consolidation of bone allografts. The underlying molecular mechanism, however, remains unclear. Soluble factors released from demineralized freeze-dried bone target mesenchymal cells; however, their effect on endothelial cells has not been investigated so far. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the effect of conditioned medium from demineralized freeze-dried bone on human umbilical endothelial cells in vitro. Conditioned medium was first prepared from demineralized freeze-dried bone following 24 hours incubation at room temperature to produce demineralized bone conditioned media...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Guangxia Miao, Shigeo Hayashi
Extrinsic branching factors promote the elongation and migration of tubular organs. In the Drosophila tracheal system, Branchless/Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) stimulates the branching program by specifying tip cells that acquire motility and lead branch migration to a specific destination. Tip cells have two alternative cell fates: the terminal cell (TC), which elongates the cytoplasmic extension with intracellular lumen, and the fusion cell (FC), which mediates branch connections to form tubular networks...
October 14, 2016: Development
Pia Rantakari, Norma Jäppinen, Emmi Lokka, Elias Mokkala, Heidi Gerke, Emilia Peuhu, Johanna Ivaska, Kati Elima, Kaisa Auvinen, Marko Salmi
Macrophages are required for normal embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis and immunity against microorganisms and tumours. Adult tissue-resident macrophages largely originate from long-lived, self-renewing embryonic precursors and not from haematopoietic stem-cell activity in the bone marrow. Although fate-mapping studies have uncovered a great amount of detail on the origin and kinetics of fetal macrophage development in the yolk sac and liver, the molecules that govern the tissue-specific migration of these cells remain completely unknown...
October 12, 2016: Nature
Peng Zhang, Hui Liu, Xiaocheng Li, Suzhen Ma, Shuai Men, Heng Wei, Jingjing Cui, Hongning Wang
The harm of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) to public health mainly by the consumption of contaminated agricultural products or water stresses an urgent need for rapid detection methods to help control the spread of S. typhimurium. In this work, an intelligently designed sensor system took creative advantage of triple trigger sequences-regenerated strand displacement amplification and self-protective hairpin template-generated-scaffolded silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) for the first time. In the presence of live S...
September 12, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Xiaolong Yang, Yanan Tang, Sarah M Traynor, Feng Li
Toehold-mediated DNA strand displacement is the fundamental basis for the construction and operation of diverse DNA devices, including circuits, machines, sensors, and reconfigurable structures. Controllable activation and regulation of toeholds are critical to construct devices with multistep, autonomous, and complex behaviors. A handful of unique toehold activation mechanisms, including toehold-exchange, associative toehold, and remote toehold, have been developed and are often combined to achieve desired strand displacement behaviors and functions...
October 5, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Meng Xu, Qingquan Liu, Yuli Jia, Kangsheng Tu, Yingmin Yao, Qingguang Liu, Cheng Guo
Branched-chain amino acid transaminase 1 (BCAT1) has been associated with numerous types of tumors; however, few previous studies have evaluated the expression and role of BCAT1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, the expression of BCAT1 was detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting in six HCC cell lines and 74 pairs of HCC and adjacent non-cancerous liver tissues. In addition, the correlation between the expression levels of c-Myc and BCAT1 was analyzed using immunohistochemistry...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Sayantan Jana, Kasturi Chatterjee, Amlan K Ray, Pramathes DasMahapatra, Snehasikta Swarnakar
Endometriosis is characterized by the ectopic development of the endometrium which relies on angiogenesis. Although studies have identified the involvement of different matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in endometriosis, no study has yet investigated the role of MMP-2 in endometriosis-associated angiogenesis. The present study aims to understand the regulation of MMP-2 activity in endothelial cells and on angiogenesis during progression of ovarian endometriosis. Histological and biochemical data showed increased expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor-2, cycloxygenase (COX)-2, von Willebrand factor along with angiogenesis during endometriosis progression...
2016: PloS One
Benjamin W Starnes, Rachel E Heneghan, Billi Tatum
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to report midterm results of an ongoing physician-sponsored investigational device exemption pivotal clinical trial using physician-modified endovascular grafts (PMEGs) for treatment of patients with juxtarenal aortic aneurysms who are deemed unfit for open repair. METHODS: Data from a nonrandomized, prospective, consecutively enrolling investigational device exemption clinical trial were used. Data collection began on April 1, 2011, and data lock occurred on May 31, 2015, with outcomes analysis through December 31, 2015...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
A-Ram Lee, Kwang Woo Ko, Hojae Lee, Yi-Seul Yoon, Mi-Ryoung Song, Chul-Seung Park
UNLABELLED: During brain development, dynamic changes in neuronal membranes perform critical roles in neuronal morphogenesis and migration to create functional neural circuits. Among the proteins that induce membrane dynamics, cell adhesion molecules are important in neuronal membrane plasticity. Here, we report that V-set and transmembrane domain-containing protein 5 (Vstm5), a cell-adhesion-like molecule belonging to the Ig superfamily, was found in mouse brain. Knock-down of Vstm5 in cultured hippocampal neurons markedly reduced the complexity of dendritic structures, as well as the number of dendritic filopodia...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Sarah D Diermeier, Kung-Chi Chang, Susan M Freier, Junyan Song, Osama El Demerdash, Alexander Krasnitz, Frank Rigo, C Frank Bennett, David L Spector
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent the largest and most diverse class of non-coding RNAs, comprising almost 16,000 currently annotated transcripts in human and 10,000 in mouse. Here, we investigated the role of lncRNAs in mammary tumors by performing RNA-seq on tumor sections and organoids derived from MMTV-PyMT and MMTV-Neu-NDL mice. We identified several hundred lncRNAs that were overexpressed compared to normal mammary epithelium. Among these potentially oncogenic lncRNAs we prioritized a subset as Mammary Tumor Associated RNAs (MaTARs) and determined their human counterparts, hMaTARs...
September 27, 2016: Cell Reports
Sylvia Tielens, Sandra Huysseune, Juliette D Godin, Alain Chariot, Brigitte Malgrange, Laurent Nguyen
The migration of cortical interneurons is a fundamental process for the establishment of cortical connectivity and its impairment underlies several neurological disorders. During development, these neurons are born in the ganglionic eminences and they migrate tangentially to populate the cortical layers. This process relies on various morphological changes that are driven by dynamic cytoskeleton remodelings. By coupling time lapse imaging with molecular analyses, we show that the Elongator complex controls cortical interneuron migration in mouse embryos by regulating nucleokinesis and branching dynamics...
October 2016: Cell Research
Jessica Byerly, Gwyneth Halstead-Nussloch, Koichi Ito, Igor Katsyv, Hanna Y Irie
BACKGROUND: The protein kinase C (PKC) family comprises distinct classes of proteins, many of which are implicated in diverse cellular functions. Protein tyrosine kinase C theta isoform (PRKCQ)/PKCθ, a member of the novel PKC family, may have a distinct isoform-specific role in breast cancer. PKCθ is preferentially expressed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) compared to other breast tumor subtypes. We hypothesized that PRKCQ/PKCθ critically regulates growth and survival of a subset of TNBC cells...
2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
L Scotti, M Di Pietro, N Pascuali, G Irusta, I de Zúñiga, M Gomez Peña, C Pomilio, F Saravia, M Tesone, D Abramovich, F Parborell
STUDY QUESTION: Are follicular fluid (FF) sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) levels in patients at risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) altered and in part responsible for the high vascular permeability observed in these patients. STUDY ANSWER: FF S1P levels are lower in FF from patients at risk of OHSS and treatment with S1P may reduce vascular permeability in these patients. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Although advances have been made in the diagnosis, and management of OHSS and in basic knowledge of its development, complete prevention has proven difficult...
September 19, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
Monn Monn Myat, Unisha Patel
Lumen formation and maintenance are important for the development and function of essential organs such as the lung, kidney and vasculature. In the Drosophila embryonic trachea, lumena form de novo to connect the different tracheal branches into an interconnected network of tubes. Here, we identify a novel role for the receptor type guanylyl cyclase at 76C (Gyc76C) in de novo lumen formation in the Drosophila trachea. We show that in embryos mutant for gyc76C or its downsteam effector protein kinase G (PKG) 1, tracheal lumena are disconnected...
2016: PloS One
Tamar Y Feinberg, R Grant Rowe, Thomas L Saunders, Stephen J Weiss
During late embryogenesis, mammary epithelial cells initiate migration programs that drive ductal invasion into the surrounding adipose-rich mesenchyme. Currently, branching morphogenesis is thought to depend on the mobilization of the membrane-anchored matrix metalloproteinases, MT1-MMP/MMP14 and MT2-MMP/MMP15, that drive epithelial cell invasion by remodeling the extracellular matrix and triggering associated signaling cascades. However, the roles that these proteinases play during mammary gland development in vivo remain undefined...
September 15, 2016: Development
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