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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933765/potential-role-of-microtubule-stabilizing-agents-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Sara Anna Bonini, Andrea Mastinu, Giulia Ferrari-Toninelli, Maurizio Memo
Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are characterized by neuroanatomical abnormalities indicative of corticogenesis disturbances. At the basis of NDDs cortical abnormalities, the principal developmental processes involved are cellular proliferation, migration and differentiation. NDDs are also considered "synaptic disorders" since accumulating evidence suggests that NDDs are developmental brain misconnection syndromes characterized by altered connectivity in local circuits and between brain regions. Microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins play a fundamental role in the regulation of basic neurodevelopmental processes, such as neuronal polarization and migration, neuronal branching and synaptogenesis...
July 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928725/the-neurospora-crassa-pp2a-regulatory-subunits-rgb1-and-b56-are-required-for-proper-growth-and-development-and-interact-with-the-ndr-kinase-cot1
#2
Hila Shomin-Levi, Oded Yarden
COT1 is the founding member of the highly conserved nuclear Dbf2-related (NDR) Ser/Thr kinase family and plays a role in the regulation of polar growth and development in Neurospora crassa and other fungi. Changes in COT1 phosphorylation state have been shown to affect hyphal elongation, branching, and conidiation. The function of NDR protein kinases has been shown to be regulated by type 2A protein phosphatases (PP2As). PP2As are heterotrimers comprised of a catalytic and scaffolding protein along with an interchangeable regulatory subunit involved in determining substrate specificity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923513/a-dioxin-like-compound-induces-hyperplasia-and-branching-morphogenesis-in-mouse-mammary-gland-through-alterations-in-tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-signaling
#3
Miret Noelia, Rico-Leo Eva, Pontillo Carolina, Zotta Elsa, Fernández-Salguero Pedro, Randi Andrea
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a widespread environmental pollutant and a dioxin-like compound that binds weakly to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Because AhR and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) converge to regulate common signaling pathways, alterations in this crosstalk might contribute to developing preneoplastic lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate HCB action on TGF-β1 and AhR signaling in mouse mammary gland, through AhR+/+ and AhR-/- models. Results showed a differential effect in mouse mammary epithelial cells (NMuMG), depending on the dose: 0...
September 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919591/the-establishment-and-operation-of-longjing-medical-college-the-history-of-longjing-medical-college-as-frontier-history-focusing-on-its-disconnection-and-continuity
#4
Mira Moon, Young-Jeon Shin
Longjing Medial College, established in Longjing, Yanbian, China on September 12, 1945, existed for about 1 year and 6 months until it was renamed as the Medical Department of Dongbei Junzheng Daxue Jilin Fenxiao in April 1947. However, there are only few records and studies on Longjing Medical College in Yanbian as well as in Korea. In order to fill the gap, this study attempted to restore the history of Longjing Medical College built in Yanbian, China immediately after the liberation. In particular, it analyzed how and why the Longjing Medical College was founded and operated, and which relations the college had with the post-war medical educational institutions, focusing on the 'disconnection' and 'continuity' in the historical sense...
August 2017: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918949/old-growth-fishes-become-scarce-under-fishing
#5
Lewis A K Barnett, Trevor A Branch, R Anthony Ranasinghe, Timothy E Essington
Researchers have long recognized the importance of ecological differences at the species level in structuring natural communities yet until recently have often overlooked the influence of intraspecific trait variation, which can profoundly alter community dynamics [1]. Human extraction of living resources can reduce intraspecific trait variation by, for example, causing truncation of age and size structure of populations, where numbers of older individuals decline far more with exploitation than younger individuals...
September 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918480/sgs1-helicase-is-required-for-efficient-pcna-monoubiquitination-and-translesion-dna-synthesis-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#6
Fangfang Li, Lindsay G Ball, Li Fan, Michelle Hanna, Wei Xiao
DNA-damage tolerance (DDT) is employed by eukaryotes to deal with replication blocks on the template strand, and is divided into two parallel pathways that are activated by sequential ubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) at the Lys164 residue. Rad6-Rad18-mediated PCNA monoubiquitination promotes translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) and the monoubiquitinated PCNA can be further polyubiquitinated by an Mms2-Ubc13-Rad5 complex, leading to error-free lesion bypass. We previously reported that the DNA helicase Sgs1 is required for error-free lesion bypass, probably through the double-Holliday junction migration and subsequent resolution...
September 16, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898673/arp2-3-not-absolutely-required-after-all
#7
Stefan Linder
The Arp2/3 complex nucleates branched actin networks and is thought to be essential for macrophage migration and phagocytosis. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Rotty et al. (2017) show that there is only a surprisingly specific requirement for Arp2/3 in integrin-dependent macrophage functions, including CR3 phagocytosis and haptotaxis on fibronectin.
September 11, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869696/comparison-and-functional-characterization-of-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-isolated-from-filarial-lymphedema-and-endemic-normals-of-a-south-indian-population
#8
Abel Arul Nathan, Madhulika Dixit, Subash Babu, Anand Setty Balakrishnan
OBJECTIVE: The underlying problem in lymphatic filariasis is irreversible swelling of the limbs (lymphedema), which is a unique feature of lymphatic insufficiency. It is still unclear whether the natural ability of lymphatics to form functional lymphatic vasculature is achieved or attenuated in the lymphedemal pathology. Clinical studies have clearly shown that circulating lymphatic progenitors (CLPs), a subset of bone-marrow derived mononuclear cells (PBMCs), contribute to post-natal lymph vasculogenesis...
September 4, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867673/bmp7-dose-dependently-stimulates-proliferation-and-cadherin-11-expression-via-erk-and-p38-in-a-murine-metanephric-mesenchymal-cell-line
#9
Midori Awazu, Michio Nagata, Mariko Hida
BMP7 is expressed in ureteric buds and cap mesenchyme of the fetal kidney, mediating branching morphogenesis and survival and priming of metanephric mesenchyme. Although dose-dependent effects of BMP7 in collecting duct cells have been reported, studies in metanephric mesenchymal cells are lacking. We examined the effects of BMP7 on MAP kinase activation, proliferation, and expression of cadherins in a metanephric mesenchymal cell line MS7 by thymidine incorporation, immunoblot analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR The levels of phosphorylated ERK (P-ERK) and phosphorylated p38 (P-p38) were not altered at 10 min, 1 h, and 6 h with low-dose BMP7 (0...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867487/arp2-3-complex-is-required-for-macrophage-integrin-functions-but-is-dispensable-for-fcr-phagocytosis-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-motility
#10
Jeremy D Rotty, Hailey E Brighton, Stephanie L Craig, Sreeja B Asokan, Ning Cheng, Jenny P Ting, James E Bear
The Arp2/3 complex nucleates branched actin, forming networks involved in lamellipodial protrusion, phagocytosis, and cell adhesion. We derived primary bone marrow macrophages lacking Arp2/3 complex (Arpc2(-/-)) and directly tested its role in macrophage functions. Despite protrusion and actin assembly defects, Arpc2(-/-) macrophages competently phagocytose via FcR and chemotax toward CSF and CX3CL1. However, CR3 phagocytosis and fibronectin haptotaxis, both integrin-dependent processes, are disrupted. Integrin-responsive actin assembly and αM/β2 integrin localization are compromised in Arpc2(-/-) cells...
September 11, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867286/load-adaptation-of-lamellipodial-actin-networks
#11
Jan Mueller, Gregory Szep, Maria Nemethova, Ingrid de Vries, Arnon D Lieber, Christoph Winkler, Karsten Kruse, J Victor Small, Christian Schmeiser, Kinneret Keren, Robert Hauschild, Michael Sixt
Actin filaments polymerizing against membranes power endocytosis, vesicular traffic, and cell motility. In vitro reconstitution studies suggest that the structure and the dynamics of actin networks respond to mechanical forces. We demonstrate that lamellipodial actin of migrating cells responds to mechanical load when membrane tension is modulated. In a steady state, migrating cell filaments assume the canonical dendritic geometry, defined by Arp2/3-generated 70° branch points. Increased tension triggers a dense network with a broadened range of angles, whereas decreased tension causes a shift to a sparse configuration dominated by filaments growing perpendicularly to the plasma membrane...
August 29, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865029/juxtanuclear-drebrin-enriched-zone
#12
Wiebke K Ludwig-Peitsch
Drebrin E contributes to remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and formation of cell processes. Therefore, its role in cell migration was studied in prototypes of motile cells with prominent lamellipodia such as murine B16F1 melanoma and Swiss 3T3 cells and in human SV80 fibroblasts. Confocal microscopy revealed absence of drebrin from the tips of lamellipodia but enrichment in the tail of the cells, in retraction zones and in a specific juxtanuclear actin filament compartment, named "drebrin-enriched zone." A similar subset of juxtanuclear actin filaments is characterized by the actin-binding protein SWAP-70, but drebrin and SWAP-70 localized to different compartments, suggesting the existence of novel distinct subdomains within the actin filament system...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865019/drebrin-in-neuronal-migration-and-axonal-growth
#13
Kenji Hanamura
During development, production of neurons from neural stem cells, migration of neurons from their birthplace to their final location, and extension of neurites, axons, and dendrites are important for the formation of functional neuronal circuits. The actin cytoskeleton has major roles in the morphological development of neurons. In this chapter, we focused on the distribution and function of the actin-binding protein, drebrin, to elucidate the importance of drebrin-bound F-actin in neurons during early developmental stages of neurons in embryonic, postnatal, and adult brains...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860131/clasp1-regulates-endothelial-cell-branching-morphology-and-directed-migration
#14
Nicole M Myer, Kenneth A Myers
Endothelial cell (EC) branching is critically dependent upon the dynamic nature of the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton. Extracellular matrix (ECM) mechanosensing is a prominent mechanism by which cytoskeletal reorganization is achieved; yet how ECM-induced signaling is able to target cytoskeletal reorganization intracellularly to facilitate productive EC branching morphogenesis is not known. Here, we set out to test the hypothesis that the composition and density of the ECM drive the regulation of MT growth dynamics in ECs by targeting the MT stabilizing protein, CLASP1...
August 31, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846685/myeloid-wnt-ligands-are-required-for-normal-development-of-dermal-lymphatic-vasculature
#15
Ajit Muley, Yoshi Odaka, Ian P Lewkowich, Shruti Vemaraju, Terry P Yamaguchi, Carrie Shawber, Belinda H Dickie, Richard A Lang
Resident tissue myeloid cells play a role in many aspects of physiology including development of the vascular systems. In the blood vasculature, myeloid cells use VEGFC to promote angiogenesis and can use Wnt ligands to control vascular branching and to promote vascular regression. Here we show that myeloid cells also regulate development of the dermal lymphatic vasculature using Wnt ligands. Using myeloid-specific deletion of the WNT transporter Wntless we show that myeloid Wnt ligands are active at two distinct stages of development of the dermal lymphatics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821490/serca-directs-cell-migration-and-branching-across-species-and-germ-layers
#16
Danielle V Bower, Nick Lansdale, Sonia Navarro, Thai V Truong, Dan J Bower, Neil C Featherstone, Marilyn G Connell, Denise Al-Alam, Mark R Frey, Le A Trinh, G Esteban Fernandez, David Warburton, Scott E Fraser, Daimark Bennett, Edwin C Jesudason
Branching morphogenesis underlies organogenesis in vertebrates and invertebrates, yet is incompletely understood. Here, we show that the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) reuptake pump (SERCA) directs budding across germ layers and species. Clonal knockdown demonstrated a cell-autonomous role for SERCA in Drosophila air sac budding. Live imaging of Drosophila tracheogenesis revealed elevated Ca(2+) levels in migratory tip cells as they form branches. SERCA blockade abolished this Ca(2+) differential, aborting both cell migration and new branching...
August 17, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820356/a-phantom-study-for-the-comparison-of-different-brands-of-computed-tomography-scanners-and-software-packages-for-endovascular-aneurysm-repair-sizing-and-planning
#17
Juliëtte F Velu, Erik Groot Jebbink, Jean-Paul Pm de Vries, Job Am van der Palen, Cornelis H Slump, Robert H Geelkerken
Objectives Correct sizing of endoprostheses used for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms is important to prevent endoleaks and migration. Sizing requires several steps and each step introduces a possible sizing error. The goal of this study was to investigate the magnitude of these errors compared to the golden standard: a vessel phantom. This study focuses on the errors in sizing with three different brands of computed tomography angiography scanners in combination with three reconstruction software packages...
January 1, 2017: Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817611/the-directed-migration-of-gonadal-distal-tip-cells-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-requires-ngat-1-a-%C3%A3-1-4-n-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-enzyme
#18
Joseph Veyhl, Robert J Dunn, Wendy L Johnston, Alexa Bennett, Lijia W Zhang, James W Dennis, Harry Schachter, Joseph G Culotti
Glycoproteins such as growth factor receptors and extracellular matrix have well-known functions in development and cancer progression, however, the glycans at sites of modification are often heterogeneous molecular populations which makes their functional characterization challenging. Here we provide evidence for a specific, discrete, well-defined glycan modification and regulation of a stage-specific cell migration in Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that a chain-terminating, putative null mutation in the gene encoding a predicted β1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, named ngat-1, causes a maternally rescued temperature sensitive (ts) defect in the second phase of the three phase migration pattern of the posterior, but not the anterior, hermaphrodite Distal Tip Cell (DTC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813152/coherent-exciton-delocalization-in-a-two-state-dna-templated-dye-aggregate-system
#19
Brittany L Cannon, Donald L Kellis, Lance K Patten, Paul H Davis, Jeunghoon Lee, Elton Graugnard, Bernard Yurke, William B Knowlton
Coherent exciton delocalization in dye aggregate systems gives rise to a variety of intriguing optical phenomena, including J- and H-aggregate behavior and Davydov splitting. Systems that exhibit coherent exciton delocalization at room temperature are of interest for the development of artificial light-harvesting devices, colorimetric detection schemes, and quantum computers. Here, we report on a simple dye system templated by DNA that exhibits tunable optical properties. At low salt and DNA concentrations, a DNA duplex with two internally functionalized Cy5 dyes (i...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811312/myosin-ii-is-not-required-for-drosophila-tracheal-branch-elongation-and-cell-intercalation
#20
Amanda Ochoa-Espinosa, Stefan Harmansa, Emmanuel Caussinus, Markus Affolter
The Drosophila tracheal system consists of an interconnected network of monolayered epithelial tubes that ensures oxygen transport in the larval and adult body. During tracheal dorsal branch (DB) development, individual DBs elongate as a cluster of cells, led by tip cells at the front and trailing cells in the rear. Branch elongation is accompanied by extensive cell intercalation and cell lengthening of the trailing stalk cells. Although cell intercalation is governed by Myosin II (MyoII)-dependent forces during tissue elongation in the Drosophila embryo that lead to germ-band extension, it remained unclear whether MyoII plays a similar active role during tracheal branch elongation and intercalation...
August 15, 2017: Development
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