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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920266/variability-of-ponto-cerebellar-fibers-by-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-diverse-brain-malformations
#1
Nancy K Rollins, Timothy N Booth, Maria H Chahrour
To describe pontine axonal anomalies across diverse brain malformations. Institutional review board-approved review of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and genetic testing of 31 children with brain malformations and abnormal pons by diffusion tensor imaging. Anomalous dorsal pontocerebellar tracts were seen in mid-hindbrain anomalies and in diffuse malformations of cortical development including lissencephaly, gyral disorganization with dysplastic basal ganglia, presumed congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 3, and in callosal agenesis without malformations of cortical development...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917825/molecular-symmetry-constrained-systematic-search-approach-to-structure-solution-of-the-coiled-coil-srgap2-f-barx-domain
#2
Michael Sporny, Julia Guez-Haddad, David G Waterman, Michail N Isupov, Yarden Opatowsky
SRGAP2 (Slit-Robo GTPase-activating protein 2) is a cytoplasmic protein found to be involved in neuronal branching, restriction of neuronal migration and restriction of the length and density of dendritic postsynaptic spines. The extended F-BAR (F-BARx) domain of SRGAP2 generates membrane protrusions when expressed in COS-7 cells, while most F-BARs induce the opposite effect: membrane invaginations. As a first step to understand this discrepancy, the F-BARx domain of SRGAP2 was isolated and crystallized after co-expression with the carboxy domains of the protein...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890847/fenestrated-and-branched-stent-grafting-in-complex-aneurysmatic-aortic-disease-a-single-center-early-experience
#3
Georgios D Vourliotakis, Vasileios D Tzilalis, Panagiotis G Theodoridis, Charalampos S Stoumpos, Dimitrios G Kamvysis, Giannis G Kantounakis
PURPOSE: To present our early experience and highlight the technical difficulties associated with the use of fenestrated and branched stent-grafts to treat patients with juxta-, para-renal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAA). METHODS: A prospectively held database maintained at our department, was queried for patients who have undergone branched and fenestrated stent-grafting for AAA or TAAA treatment. Indication for repair, co-morbidity precluding open repair, technical challenges associated with the repair, as well as operative mortality, morbidity and re-intervention rate were evaluated...
November 24, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888192/atypical-chemokine-receptor-ackr2-controls-branching-morphogenesis-in-the-developing-mammary-gland
#4
Gillian J Wilson, Kay D Hewit, Kenneth J Pallas, Claire J Cairney, Kit M Lee, Christopher A Hansell, Torsten Stein, Gerard J Graham
Macrophages are important regulators of branching morphogenesis during development, and postnatally in the mammary gland. Regulation of macrophage dynamics during these processes can therefore have a profound impact on development. We demonstrate here that the developing mammary gland expresses high levels of inflammatory CC-chemokines which are essential in vivo regulators of macrophage migration. We further demonstrate that the atypical chemokine receptor ACKR2, which scavenges inflammatory CC-chemokines, is differentially expressed during mammary gland development...
November 25, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871553/fascia-iliaca-block-associated-only-with-deep-sedation-in-high-risk-patients-taking-p2y12-receptor-inhibitors-for-intramedullary-femoral-fixation-in-intertrochanteric-hip-fracture-a-series-of-3-cases
#5
Carlos Rodrigues Almeida, Emília Milheiro Francisco, Vítor Pinho-Oliveira, José Pedro Assunção
OBJECTIVE: We present a series of 3 cases in which the impact in outcome was, first of all, related to the capacity to offer early and safer treatment to some hip fracture high-risk patients using a fascia iliaca block (FIB; ropivacaine 0,5% 20 cc and mepivacaine 1,3% 15 cc, given 30 minutes before incision) associated only with deep sedation, contributing to better practice and outcome. CASE REPORTS: All elderly patients were American Society of Anesthesiologists IV patients, under P2Y12 receptor inhibitors, suffering from an intertrochanteric fracture, and purposed for intramedullary femoral fixation (IMF)...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853133/genetic-trail-for-the-early-migrations-of-aisin-gioro-the-imperial-house-of-the-qing-dynasty
#6
Lan-Hai Wei, Shi Yan, Ge Yu, Yun-Zhi Huang, Da-Li Yao, Shi-Lin Li, Li Jin, Hui Li
The House of Aisin Gioro, the imperial clan of Qing dynasty (1644-1911), affected the history of China and the formation of Manchu ethnicity greatly. However, owing to the lack of historical records and archeological evidences, the origin of the House of Aisin Gioro remains ambiguous. To clarify the origin of Aisin Gioro clan, we conducted whole Y-chromosome sequencing on three samples and Y-single-nucleotide polymorphism (Y-SNP) genotyping on other four samples beside those reported in previous work. We confirmed that the paternal lineage of the Aisin Gioro clan belongs to haplogroup C3b1a3a2-F8951, a brother branch of C3*-Star Cluster (currently named as C3b1a3a1-F3796, once linked to Genghis Khan), which is quite different from the predominant lineage C3c-M48 in other Tungusic-speaking populations...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852945/new-challenges-in-adolescent-safeguarding
#7
REVIEW
David R James, Nwanneka N Sargant, Nancy Bostock, Sophie Khadr
The environment in which young people are growing up has changed significantly with the growth in social communication, changes in migration patterns and the proliferation of gangs. These changes pose a real and present danger to the health and well-being of young people in the UK and around the world. However, recognition of the safeguarding needs for this group continues to lag behind those of younger children and services often remain patchy and incomplete. We present a review of current safeguarding concerns as well as practical suggestions on their recognition and response for professionals working with young people in all branches of healthcare as well as education and wider society...
November 15, 2016: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844143/aberrant-expression-of-limk1-impairs-neuronal-migration-during-neocortex-development
#8
Jiongfang Xie, Xuzhao Li, Wei Zhang, Xuejun Chai, Yingxue Huang, Kaikai Li, Xinran Cheng, Shanting Zhao
Neuronal migration is essential for the formation of cortical layers, and proper neuronal migration requires the coordination of cytoskeletal regulation. LIMK1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that mediates actin dynamics by regulating actin depolymerization factor/cofilin. However, the role of LIMK1 in neuronal migration and its potential mechanism remains elusive. Here, we found that using the in utero electroporation to overexpress LIMK1 and its mutants, constitutively active LIMK1 (LIMK1-CA) and dominant-negative LIMK1 (LIMK1-DN), impaired neuronal migration in the embryonic mouse brain...
November 14, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823590/endovascular-aneurysm-sealing-addresses-several-limitations-of-conventional-endovascular-aneurysm-repair
#9
REVIEW
Zachary W Kostun, Edward Y Woo
Endovascular aneurysm repair has enabled a broad population of patients with infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm to be treated by a less-invasive technique. However, endovascular aneurysm repair has therapeutic limitations, including the need for lifelong surveillance and a higher rate of secondary interventions than open repair. These outcomes can promote patient dissatisfaction and result in increased health care costs and associated morbidity and mortality. The primary reason for secondary interventions is continued abdominal aortic aneurysm sac enlargement due to endoleaks...
March 2016: Seminars in Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822498/the-x-linked-autism-protein-kiaa2022-kidlia-regulates-neurite-outgrowth-via-n-cadherin-and-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#10
James Gilbert, Heng-Ye Man
Our previous work showed that loss of the KIAA2022 gene protein results in intellectual disability with language impairment and autistic behavior (KIDLIA, also referred to as XPN). However, the cellular and molecular alterations resulting from a loss of function of KIDLIA and its role in autism with severe intellectual disability remain unknown. Here, we show that KIDLIA plays a key role in neuron migration and morphogenesis. We found that KIDLIA is distributed exclusively in the nucleus. In the developing rat brain, it is expressed only in the cortical plate and subplate region but not in the intermediate or ventricular zone...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802616/charge-migration-in-polycyclic-norbornadiene-cations-winning-the-race-against-decoherence
#11
Andrew J Jenkins, Morgane Vacher, Rebecca M Twidale, Michael J Bearpark, Michael A Robb
The observation of electronic motion remains a key target in the development of the field of attoscience. However, systems in which long-lived oscillatory charge migration may be observed must be selected carefully, particularly because it has been shown that nuclear spatial delocalization leads to a loss of coherent electron density oscillations. Here we demonstrate electron dynamics in norbornadiene and extended systems where the hole density migrates between two identical chromophores. By studying the effect of nuclear motion and delocalization in these example systems, we present the physical properties that must be considered in candidate molecules in which to observe electron dynamics...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793362/netrin-1-a-regulator-of-cancer-cell-motility
#12
Irene Ylivinkka, Jorma Keski-Oja, Marko Hyytiäinen
Netrins form a family of secreted and membrane-associated proteins, netrin-1 being the prototype and most investigated member of the family. The major physiological functions of netrin-1 lie in the regulation of axonal development as well as morphogenesis of different branched organs, by promoting the polarity of migratory/invasive front of the cell. On the other hand, netrin-1 acts as a factor preventing cell apoptosis. These events are mediated via a range of different receptors, including UNC5 and DCC-families...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790365/normal-endothelial-but-impaired-arterial-development-in-map-kinase-activated-protein-kinase-2-mk2-deficient-mice
#13
L Christian Napp, Olga Jabs, Anna Höckelmann, Jochen Dutzmann, Piyush R Kapopara, Daniel G Sedding, Matthias Gaestel, Johann Bauersachs, Udo Bavendiek
Angiogenesis is a fundamental process during development and disease, and many details of the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are incompletely understood. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2), a major downstream target of p38 MAPK, has recently been identified as a regulator of Interleukin 1β dependent angiogenesis in vivo, and in vitro data suggest a role of MK2 for VEGF-dependent angiogenic processes in endothelial cells. We thus hypothesized that MK2 plays a role during physiological vascular development in vivo...
2016: Vascular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783123/surface-coating-and-matrix-effect-on-the-electrophoretic-mobility-of-gold-nanoparticles-a-capillary-electrophoresis-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry-study
#14
Haiou Qu, Sean W Linder, Thilak K Mudalige
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is considered as a versatile technique in the size-based separation and speciation of nanomaterials. The electrophoretic mobility is determined by charge and size of an analyte which are affected by the surface composition of nanomaterials. Size-dependent differential electrophoretic mobility is used as a mechanism for size-based separation of nanoparticles. Understanding the effect of surface chemistry on the electrophoretic mobility of nanomaterials in CE is critical in obtaining accurate results in retention-based size calculation...
October 25, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780040/functional-coordination-of-wave-and-wasp-in-c-%C3%A2-elegans-neuroblast-migration
#15
Zhiwen Zhu, Yongping Chai, Yuxiang Jiang, Wenjing Li, Huifang Hu, Wei Li, Jia-Wei Wu, Zhi-Xin Wang, Shanjin Huang, Guangshuo Ou
Directional cell migration is critical for metazoan development. We define two molecular pathways that activate the Arp2/3 complex during neuroblast migration in Caenorhabditis elegans. The transmembrane protein MIG-13/Lrp12 is linked to the Arp2/3 nucleation-promoting factors WAVE or WASP through direct interactions with ABL-1 or SEM-5/Grb2, respectively. WAVE mutations partially impaired F-actin organization and decelerated cell migration, and WASP mutations did not inhibit cell migration but enhanced migration defects in WAVE-deficient cells...
October 24, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780037/wasp-and-wave-team-up-at-the-leading-edge
#16
Nicolas Molinie, Alexis Gautreau
Arp2/3-dependent branched actin networks drive membrane protrusions, with WAVE being recognized as the critical Arp2/3 activator in this process. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Zhu et al. (2016) demonstrate that WASP, an Arp2/3 activator mostly involved in endocytosis, collaborates with WAVE to promote migration of neuroblasts in Caenorhabditis elegans.
October 24, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775702/diversified-actin-protrusions-promote-environmental-exploration-but-are-dispensable-for-locomotion-of%C3%A2-leukocytes
#17
Alexander Leithner, Alexander Eichner, Jan Müller, Anne Reversat, Markus Brown, Jan Schwarz, Jack Merrin, David J J de Gorter, Florian Schur, Jonathan Bayerl, Ingrid de Vries, Stefan Wieser, Robert Hauschild, Frank P L Lai, Markus Moser, Dontscho Kerjaschki, Klemens Rottner, J Victor Small, Theresia E B Stradal, Michael Sixt
Most migrating cells extrude their front by the force of actin polymerization. Polymerization requires an initial nucleation step, which is mediated by factors establishing either parallel filaments in the case of filopodia or branched filaments that form the branched lamellipodial network. Branches are considered essential for regular cell motility and are initiated by the Arp2/3 complex, which in turn is activated by nucleation-promoting factors of the WASP and WAVE families. Here we employed rapid amoeboid crawling leukocytes and found that deletion of the WAVE complex eliminated actin branching and thus lamellipodia formation...
October 24, 2016: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770912/biocompatible-cationic-pullulan-g-desoxycholic-acid-g-pei-micelles-used-to-co-deliver-drug-and-gene-for-cancer-therapy
#18
Lili Chen, Fangling Ji, Yongming Bao, Jing Xia, Lianying Guo, Jingyun Wang, Yachen Li
The greatest crux in the combination of chemotherapy and gene therapy is the construction of a feasible and biocompatible carrier for loading the therapeutic drug and gene simultaneously. Here, a new amphiphilic bifunctional pullulan derivative (named as PDP) synthesized by grafting lipophilic desoxycholic acid and low-molecular weight (1kDa) branched polyethylenimine onto the backbone of pullulan was evaluated as a nano-carrier for the co-delivery of drug and gene for potential cancer therapy. PDP exhibited good blood compatibility and low cytotoxicity in the hemolysis and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, respectively...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768284/pseudocapacitive-na-ion-storage-boosts-high-rate-and-areal-capacity-of-self-branched-2d-layered-metal-chalcogenide-nanoarrays
#19
Dongliang Chao, Pei Liang, Zhen Chen, Linyi Bai, He Shen, Xiaoxu Liu, Xinhui Xia, Yanli Zhao, Serguei V Savilov, Jianyi Lin, Ze Xiang Shen
The abundant reservation and low cost of sodium have provoked tremendous evolution of Na-ion batteries (SIBs) in the past few years, but their performances were still limited either by the specific capacity or rate capability. Attempts to pursuit high-rate ability with maintained high-capacity in a single electrode remains even more challenging. Here, an elaborate self-branched 2D SnS2 (B-SnS2) nanoarrays electrode is designed by a facile hot bath method for Na storage. This interesting electrode exhibits areal reversible capacity of ca...
October 21, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765763/rac1-modulates-mammalian-lung-branching-morphogenesis-in-part-through-canonical-wnt-signaling
#20
Soula Danopoulos, Michael Krainock, Omar Toubat, Matthew Thornton, Brendan Grubbs, Denise Al Alam
Lung branching morphogenesis relies on a number of factors, including proper epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation, cell polarity, and migration. Rac1, a small Rho GTPase, orchestrates a number of these cellular processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation, cellular alignment, and polarization. Furthermore, Rac1 modulates both noncanonical and canonical Wnt signaling, important pathways in lung branching morphogenesis. Culture of embryonic mouse lung explants in the presence of the Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in branching...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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