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Olga Zueva, Maleana Khoury, Thomas Heinzeller, Daria Mashanova, Vladimir Mashanov
Background: Brittle stars (Ophiuroidea, Echinodermata) have been increasingly used in studies of animal behavior, locomotion, regeneration, physiology, and bioluminescence. The success of these studies directly depends on good working knowledge of the ophiuroid nervous system. Results: Here, we describe the arm nervous system at different levels of organization, including the microanatomy of the radial nerve cord and peripheral nerves, ultrastructure of the neural tissue, and localization of different cell types using specific antibody markers...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
S A Leonovich, S A Filimonova
The structure of sensory organs situated on palps and inside the cheliceral stylet of the quill mite Sringophilopsis fringilla (Fritsch, 1958) was examined in scanning and transmitting electron microscopes. Eight sensilla of 3 types were revealed on palptarsus, including two contact chemo-mechanosensory sensilla, a single distant chemosensory (probably olfactory) sensillum, and 5 tactile mechanosensitive sensilla. All other sensilla situated on basas parts of the palp and on the outer surface of gnathosoma are represented by tactile mechanoreceptors...
March 2017: Parazitologiia
Cole Malloy, Viresh Dayaram, Sarah Martha, Brenda Alvarez, Ikenna Chukwudolue, Nadera Dabbain, Dlovan D Mahmood, Slavina Goleva, Tori Hickey, Angel Ho, Molly King, Paige Kington, Matthew Mattingly, Samuel Potter, Landon Simpson, Amanda Spence, Henry Uradu, Jacob Van Doorn, Kristin Weineck, Robin L Cooper
Proprioception of limbs and joints is a basic sensory function throughout most of the animal kingdom. It is important to understand how proprioceptive organs and the associated sensory neurons function with altered environments such as increased potassium ion concentrations ([K+]) from diseased states, ionic imbalances, and damaged tissues. These factors can drastically alter neuronal activity. To assess this matter, we used the chordotonal organ in a walking leg of a blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and the muscle receptor organ of the crayfish (Procambarus clarkii)...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Serpil Cecen, Imran Khan Niazi, Rasmus Wiberg Nedergaard, Alice Cade, Kathryn Allen, Kelly Holt, Heidi Haavik, Kemal S Türker
The effect of body posture on the human soleus H-reflex via electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve at the popliteal fossa was studied. All parameters that may influence the reflex were controlled stringently. H-reflexes were elicited in three different body postures while keeping the level of background muscle activation to a minimum. The H-reflex curve relative to the M-wave curve did not change significantly in any of the body postures. However, the maximal H-reflex amplitude significantly increased in the prone position compared with the sitting (p = 0...
March 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Lei Zhang, Ji Qi, Yan Zeng, Shaoqun Zhang, Shijie Fu, Xin Zhou, Ruiyue Ping, Yikai Li
BACKGROUND The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most important structures maintaining stability of knee joints, and the proprioception of the ACL plays a key role in it. If the ACL is injured in the unilateral knee joint, it changes nerve electrophysiology, morphology, and quantity of the proprioceptors in the bilateral ACL. The aim of this study was to explore the proprioceptive changes in the bilateral knee joints following unilateral ACL injury, and to provide a theoretical foundation and ideas for clinical treatment...
January 6, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Leslie M Theunissen, Nikolaus F Troje
Stabilization of the head in animals with limited capacity to move their eyes is key to maintain a stable image on the retina. In many birds, including pigeons, a prominent example for the important role of head stabilization is the characteristic head-bobbing behavior observed during walking. Multimodal sensory feedback from the eyes, the vestibular system and proprioceptors in body and neck is required to control head stabilization. Here, we trained unrestrained pigeons (Columba livia) to stand on a perch that was sinusoidally moved with a motion platform along all three translational and three rotational degrees of freedom...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Ala Paduca, Jan Richard Bruenech
The potential role of sensory feedback from human extraocular muscles has been subjected to considerable speculation in the ophthalmic literature. Extraocular muscles pull against a fairly even load and do not initiate a stretch reflex, even when the eyes are directed toward the boundaries of their respective field of action. These unique working conditions and physiological properties have led to the notion that the sensory signal arising from receptors in extraocular muscles differs from the conventional proprioceptive signal arising from their somatic counterparts...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Sasha Reschechtko, Cristian Cuadra, Mark L Latash
We explored predictions of a scheme that views position and force perception as a result of measuring proprioceptive signals within a reference frame set by ongoing efferent process. In particular, this hypothesis predicts force illusions caused by muscle vibration and mediated via changes in both afferent and efferent components of kinesthesia. Healthy subjects performed accurate steady force production tasks by pressing with the four fingers of one hand (the task hand) on individual force sensors with and without visual feedback...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Lei Zhang, Yi-Kai Li, Ji Qi, Shao-Qun Zhang, Rui-Yue Ping, Xin Zhou, Lin Yu, Rui-Feng Liu, Shi-Jie Fu
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of electroacupuncture on proprioception in cynomolgus monkeys after unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. METHODS: Twenty-seven cynomolgus monkeys were randomized equally into 3 groups, namely unilateral ACL injury with electroacupuncture group, unilateral ACL injury model group and blank control group. One week after modeling, the monkeys in electroacupuncture group were treated daily for 12 weeks with electroacupuncture at the acupoints Wei Yang, Yin Gu, Xi Yangguan and Qu Quan...
September 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Ronen Blecher, Sharon Krief, Tal Galili, Eran Assaraf, Tomer Stern, Yoram Anekstein, Gabriel Agar, Elazar Zelzer
Successful fracture repair requires restoration of bone morphology and mechanical integrity. Recent evidence shows that fractured bones of neonatal mice undergo spontaneous realignment, dubbed "natural reduction." Here, we show that natural reduction is regulated by the proprioceptive system and improves with age. Comparison among mice of different ages revealed, surprisingly, that 3-month-old mice exhibited more rapid and effective natural reduction than newborns. Fractured bones of null mutants for transcription factor Runx3, lacking functional proprioceptors, failed to realign properly...
August 22, 2017: Cell Reports
Jacob A Vincent, Hanna M Gabriel, Adam S Deardorff, Paul Nardelli, Robert E W Fyffe, Thomas Burkholder, Timothy C Cope
The characteristic signaling and intraspinal projections of muscle proprioceptors best described in the cat are often generalized across mammalian species. However, species-dependent adaptations within this system seem necessary to accommodate asymmetric scaling of length, velocity, and force information required by the physics of movement. In the present study we report mechanosensory responses and intraspinal destinations of three classes of muscle proprioceptors. Proprioceptors from triceps surae muscles in adult female Wistar rats anesthetized with isoflurane were physiologically classified as muscle spindle group Ia or II or as tendon organ group Ib afferents, studied for their firing responses to passive-muscle stretch, and in some cases labeled and imaged for axon projections and varicosities in spinal segments...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Rachel S White, Robert M Spencer, Michael P Nusbaum, Dawn M Blitz
Sensory feedback influences motor circuits and/or their projection neuron inputs to adjust ongoing motor activity, but its efficacy varies. Currently, less is known about regulation of sensory feedback onto projection neurons that control downstream motor circuits than about sensory regulation of the motor circuit neurons themselves. In this study, we tested whether sensory feedback onto projection neurons is sensitive only to activation of a motor system, or also to the modulatory state underlying that activation, using the crab Cancer borealis stomatogastric nervous system...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Fernando P Santos, Carlos D Maciel, Philip L Newland
Directed information transfer measures are increasingly being employed in modeling neural system behavior due to their model-free approach, applicability to nonlinear and stochastic signals, and the potential to integrate repetitions of an experiment. Intracellular physiological recordings of graded synaptic potentials provide a number of additional challenges compared to spike signals due to non-stationary behaviour generated through extrinsic processes. We therefore propose a method to overcome this difficulty by using a preprocessing step based on Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) to remove nonlinear trends and discontinuities...
October 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
Philia Gau, Andrew Curtright, Logan Condon, David W Raible, Ajay Dhaka
In terrestrial vertebrates such as birds and mammals, neurotrophin receptor expression is considered fundamental for the specification of distinct somatosensory neuron types where TrkA, TrkB and TrkC specify nociceptors, mechanoceptors and proprioceptors/mechanoceptors, respectively. In turn, Runx transcription factors promote neuronal fate specification by regulating neurotrophin receptor and sensory receptor expression where Runx1 mediates TrkA+ nociceptor diversification while Runx3 promotes a TrkC+ proprioceptive/mechanoceptive fate...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
Liqing Wang, Chao Yu, Jun Wang, Hui Zhao, Sun-On Chan
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans (PGs) are a family of complex molecules in the extracellular matrix and cell surface that regulate axon growth and guidance during development of the central nervous system. In this study, the expression of CSPGs was investigated in the mouse spinal cord at late embryonic and neonatal stages using CS-56 antibody. CS immunoreactivity was observed abundantly in ventral regions of spinal cord of embryonic day (E) 15 embryos. At E16 to E18, CS expression spread dorsally, but never reached the superficial layers of the dorsal horn...
August 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Misuk Cho, Wontae Gong
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of dynamic exercise utilizing the proprioceptor neuromuscular facilitation pattern accompanied by abdominal drawing-in exercises on posture in healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] The total number of subjects were 32; 16 were randomly placed in the training group, and the remaining 16 made up the control group. The subjects in the training group conducted 5 sets of dynamic exercises utilizing the proprioceptor neuromuscular facilitation patterns each day, 3 times a week for 6 weeks...
June 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Eugenia C Olesnicky, Jeremy M Bono, Laura Bell, Logan T Schachtner, Meghan C Lybecker
BACKGROUND: Alternative splicing mediated by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) is emerging as a fundamental mechanism for the regulation of gene expression. Alternative splicing has been shown to be a widespread phenomenon that facilitates the diversification of gene products in a tissue-specific manner. Although defects in alternative splicing are rooted in many neurological disorders, only a small fraction of splicing factors have been investigated in detail. RESULTS: We find that the splicing factor Caper is required for the development of multiple different mechanosensory neuron subtypes at multiple life stages in Drosophila melanogaster...
August 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Anna Bezulska, M Naczk, Z Adach, J Arlet, J Celichowski
Numerous motor abilities depend on the activity of proprioceptors, which has been suggested to be genetically determined. To test this hypothesis, the control of torque generated by knee extensors and knee position was studied in 30 father-son pairs both before and immediately after running. After stabilisation of the participant in a sitting position, the knee joint of his dominant leg was flexed to 90°, and the maximal voluntary torque (MVT) of the dominant knee extensors under static conditions was measured...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
Atsushi Yoshida, Takashi Fujio, Fumihiko Sato, Md Sams Sazzad Ali, Tahsinul Haque, Haruka Ohara, Masayuki Moritani, Takafumi Kato, Jonathan O Dostrovsky, Yoshihisa Tachibana
The ascending pathway mediating proprioception from the orofacial region is still not fully known. The present study elucidated the relay of jaw-closing muscle spindle (JCMS) inputs from brainstem to thalamus in rats. We injected an anterograde tracer into the electrophysiologically identified supratrigeminal nucleus (Su5), known to receive JCMS input. Many thalamic axon terminals were labeled and were found mainly contralaterally in a small, unpredicted area of the caudo-ventromedial edge (VPMcvm) of ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus (VPM)...
April 5, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
C Y Zhang, D Y Bai, Y H Cui, S L Hu, Y Zhang, C Li, L Li
Objective: To explore the ultrastructural alteration of extraocular muscle proprioceptor in congenital idiopathic nystagmus (CIN). Methods: Case-control study. Ten extraocular muscle samples were collected from five CIN children who underwent nystagmus surgeries in Beijing Children's Hospital from March 2015 to March 2016. Another ten extraocular muscle specimens were collected from five strabismus children in surgery at the same period as normal contrast. There were 3 male patients and 2 female patients of CIN with age of 61-147 months (median age: 91 months)...
February 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
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