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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708822/an-ancient-neurotrophin-receptor-code-a-single-runx-cbf%C3%AE-complex-determines-somatosensory-neuron-fate-specification-in-zebrafish
#1
Philia Gau, Andrew Curtright, Logan Condon, David W Raible, Ajay Dhaka
In terrestrial vertebrates such as birds and mammals, neurotrophin receptor expression is considered fundamental for the specification of distinct somatosensory neuron types where Traka, TrkB and TrkC specify nociceptors, mechanoceptors and proprioceptors/mechanoceptors, respectively. In turn, Runx transcription factors promote neuronal fate specification by regulating neurotrophin receptor and sensory receptor expression where Runx1 mediates TrkA+ nociceptor diversification while Runx3 promotes a TrkC+ proprioceptive/mechanoceptive fate...
July 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689049/the-spatiotemporal-relationships-between-chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycans-and-terminations-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-and-parvalbumin-immunoreactive-afferents-in-the-spinal-cord-of-mouse-embryos
#2
Liqing Wang, Chao Yu, Jun Wang, Hui Zhao, Sun-On Chan
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans (PGs) are a family of complex molecules in the extracellular matrix and cell surface that regulate axon growth and guidance during development of the central nervous system. In this study, the expression of CSPGs was investigated in the mouse spinal cord at late embryonic and neonatal stages using CS-56 antibody. CS immunoreactivity was observed abundantly in ventral regions of spinal cord of embryonic day (E) 15 embryos. At E16 to E18, CS expression spread dorsally, but never reached the superficial layers of the dorsal horn...
July 5, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626327/the-effects-of-dynamic-exercise-using-the-proprioceptive-neuromuscular-facilitation-pattern-on-posture-in-healthy-adults
#3
Misuk Cho, Wontae Gong
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of dynamic exercise utilizing the proprioceptor neuromuscular facilitation pattern accompanied by abdominal drawing-in exercises on posture in healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] The total number of subjects were 32; 16 were randomly placed in the training group, and the remaining 16 made up the control group. The subjects in the training group conducted 5 sets of dynamic exercises utilizing the proprioceptor neuromuscular facilitation patterns each day, 3 times a week for 6 weeks...
June 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543982/the-rna-binding-protein-caper-is-required-for-sensory-neuron-development-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#4
Eugenia C Olesnicky, Jeremy M Bono, Laura Bell, Logan T Schachtner, Meghan C Lybecker
BACKGROUND: Alternative splicing mediated by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) is emerging as a fundamental mechanism for the regulation of gene expression. Alternative splicing has been shown to be a widespread phenomenon that facilitates the diversification of gene products in a tissue-specific manner. Although defects in alternative splicing are rooted in many neurological disorders, only a small fraction of splicing factors have been investigated in detail. RESULTS: We find that the splicing factor Caper is required for the development of multiple different mechanosensory neuron subtypes at multiple life stages in Drosophila melanogaster...
August 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471325/sense-of-extension-force-and-angle-of-the-knee-joint-are-correlated-between-two-generations-of-men
#5
Anna Bezulska, M Naczk, Z Adach, J Arlet, J Celichowski
Numerous motor abilities depend on the activity of proprioceptors, which has been suggested to be genetically determined. To test this hypothesis, the control of torque generated by knee extensors and knee position was studied in 30 father-son pairs both before and immediately after running. After stabilisation of the participant in a sitting position, the knee joint of his dominant leg was flexed to 90°, and the maximal voluntary torque (MVT) of the dominant knee extensors under static conditions was measured...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382578/orofacial-proprioceptive-thalamus-of-the-rat
#6
Atsushi Yoshida, Takashi Fujio, Fumihiko Sato, Md Sams Sazzad Ali, Tahsinul Haque, Haruka Ohara, Masayuki Moritani, Takafumi Kato, Jonathan O Dostrovsky, Yoshihisa Tachibana
The ascending pathway mediating proprioception from the orofacial region is still not fully known. The present study elucidated the relay of jaw-closing muscle spindle (JCMS) inputs from brainstem to thalamus in rats. We injected an anterograde tracer into the electrophysiologically identified supratrigeminal nucleus (Su5), known to receive JCMS input. Many thalamic axon terminals were labeled and were found mainly contralaterally in a small, unpredicted area of the caudo-ventromedial edge (VPMcvm) of ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus (VPM)...
April 5, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260365/-ultrastructural-alteration-of-extraocular-muscle-proprioceptor-in-congenital-idiopathic-nystagmus
#7
C Y Zhang, D Y Bai, Y H Cui, S L Hu, Y Zhang, C Li, L Li
Objective: To explore the ultrastructural alteration of extraocular muscle proprioceptor in congenital idiopathic nystagmus (CIN). Methods: Case-control study. Ten extraocular muscle samples were collected from five CIN children who underwent nystagmus surgeries in Beijing Children's Hospital from March 2015 to March 2016. Another ten extraocular muscle specimens were collected from five strabismus children in surgery at the same period as normal contrast. There were 3 male patients and 2 female patients of CIN with age of 61-147 months (median age: 91 months)...
February 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194135/inaccurate-saccades-and-enhanced-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-suppression-during-combined-eye-head-movements-in-patients-with-chronic-neck-pain-possible-implications-for-cervical-vertigo
#8
Janine L Johnston, Pierre M Daye, Glen T D Thomson
BACKGROUND: The primate ocular motor system is designed to acquire peripheral targets of interest by coordinating visual, vestibular, and neck muscle activation signals. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is greatly reduced at the onset of large eye-head (gaze) saccades and resumes before the end of the saccades to stabilize eye-in-orbit and ensure accurate target acquisition. Previous studies have relied on manipulating head movements in normal individuals to study VOR suppression and gaze kinematics...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122055/analysis-of-proprioceptive-sensory-innervation-of-the-mouse-soleus-a-whole-mount-muscle-approach
#9
Martha J Sonner, Marie C Walters, David R Ladle
Muscle proprioceptive afferents provide feedback critical for successful execution of motor tasks via specialized mechanoreceptors housed within skeletal muscles: muscle spindles, supplied by group Ia and group II afferents, and Golgi tendon organs, supplied by group Ib afferents. The morphology of these proprioceptors and their associated afferents has been studied extensively in the cat soleus, and to a lesser degree, in the rat; however, quantitative analyses of proprioceptive innervation in the mouse soleus are comparatively limited...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060839/sensory-feedback-in-interlimb-coordination-contralateral-afferent-contribution-to-the-short-latency-crossed-response-during-human-walking
#10
Sabata Gervasio, Michael Voigt, Uwe G Kersting, Dario Farina, Thomas Sinkjær, Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting
A constant coordination between the left and right leg is required to maintain stability during human locomotion, especially in a variable environment. The neural mechanisms underlying this interlimb coordination are not yet known. In animals, interneurons located within the spinal cord allow direct communication between the two sides without the need for the involvement of higher centers. These may also exist in humans since sensory feedback elicited by tibial nerve stimulation on one side (ipsilateral) can affect the muscles activation in the opposite side (contralateral), provoking short-latency crossed responses (SLCRs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003412/dicer-maintains-the-identity-and-function-of-proprioceptive-sensory-neurons
#11
Sean M O'Toole, Monica M Ferrer, Jennifer Mekonnen, Haihan Zhang, Yasuyuki Shima, David R Ladle, Sacha B Nelson
Neuronal cell identity is established during development and must be maintained throughout an animal's life (Fishell G, Heintz N. Neuron 80: 602-612, 2013). Transcription factors critical for establishing neuronal identity can be required for maintaining it (Deneris ES, Hobert O. Nat Neurosci 17: 899-907, 2014). Posttranscriptional regulation also plays an important role in neuronal differentiation (Bian S, Sun T. Mol Neurobiol 44: 359-373, 2011), but its role in maintaining cell identity is less established...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974811/recessive-piezo2-stop-mutation-causes-distal-arthrogryposis-with-distal-muscle-weakness-scoliosis-and-proprioception-defects
#12
Goknur Haliloglu, Kerstin Becker, Cagri Temucin, Beril Talim, Nalan Küçükşahin, Matthias Pergande, Susanne Motameny, Peter Nürnberg, Ustun Aydingoz, Haluk Topaloglu, Sebahattin Cirak
The genetic work-up of arthrogryposis is challenging due to the diverse clinical and molecular etiologies. We report a-18(3/12)-year-old boy, from a 2nd degree consanguineous family, who presented at 3(6/12) years with hypotonia, distal laxity, contractures, feeding difficulties at birth. He required surgery for progressive scoliosis at 16 years of age, and walked independently since then with an unstable gait and coordination defects. His latest examination at 18 years of age revealed a proprioceptive defect and loss-of-joint position sense in the upper limbs...
April 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880894/requirement-for-dicer-in-maintenance-of-monosynaptic-sensory-motor-circuits-in-the-spinal-cord
#13
Fumiyasu Imai, Xiaoting Chen, Matthew T Weirauch, Yutaka Yoshida
In contrast to our knowledge of mechanisms governing circuit formation, our understanding of how neural circuits are maintained is limited. Here, we show that Dicer, an RNaseIII protein required for processing microRNAs (miRNAs), is essential for maintenance of the spinal monosynaptic stretch reflex circuit in which group Ia proprioceptive sensory neurons form direct connections with motor neurons. In postnatal mice lacking Dicer in proprioceptor sensory neurons, there are no obvious defects in specificity or formation of monosynaptic sensory-motor connections...
November 22, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868313/nutrient-dependent-increased-dendritic-arborization-of-somatosensory-neurons
#14
Kaori Watanabe, Yuki Furumizo, Tadao Usui, Yukako Hattori, Tadashi Uemura
Suboptimal nutrition imposes developmental constraints on infant animals, which marshal adaptive responses to eventually become mature adults. Such responses are mounted at multiple levels from systemic to cellular. At the cellular level, the underlying mechanisms of cell proliferation control have been intensively studied. However, less is known about how growth of postmitotic and morphologically complex cells, such as neurons, is controlled by nutritional status. We address this question using Class I and Class IV dendritic arborization neurons in Drosophila larvae...
January 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669454/a-comparative-animal-study-of-tendon-grafts-healing-after-remnant-preserving-versus-conventional-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#15
Lei Zhang, Kan Jiang, Hao Chai, Mei Zhou, Jingping Bai
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine if anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction by remnant preservation promotes cell proliferation, vascularization, proprioception recovery, and improved biomechanical properties of the tendon grafts. MATERIAL AND METHODS 75 New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned into the control group (group A), conventional ACL reconstruction group (group B), ACL reconstruction using remnant preservation and graft through remnant sleeve technique group (group C), and ACL reconstruction using remnant preservation and remnant tensioning technique group (group D)...
September 26, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665954/an-evaluation-of-the-posterior-cruciate-ligament-function-in-total-knee-arthroplasty-with-regard-to-its-morphology-and-clinical-properties
#16
Dariusz Marczak, Jacek Kowalczewski, Tomasz Okoń, Marek Synder, Marcin Piotr Sibiński
The aim of the study was to determine the degree of PCL (posterior cruciate ligament) degeneration and the reduction in the number of its mechanoreceptors, in patients with advanced degenerative joint disease. PCLs taken from study group of 50 patients in the mean age of 70.7 (53 to 84 years) with a diagnosis of advanced idiopathic osteoarthritis undergoing condylar TKA were compared to those taken form the control group of 10 knee joints of cadavers. Groups were matched with regard to sex and age. Histological examination of PCLs of the study group showed changes of an inflammatory process and no significant signs of osteoarthritis in the control group...
September 26, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486390/whisking-kinematics-enables-object-localization-in-head-centered-coordinates-based-on-tactile-information-from-a-single-vibrissa
#17
Anne E T Yang, Mitra J Z Hartmann
During active tactile exploration with their whiskers (vibrissae), rodents can rapidly orient to an object even though there are very few proprioceptors in the whisker muscles. Thus a long-standing question in the study of the vibrissal system is how the rat can localize an object in head-centered coordinates without muscle-based proprioception. We used a three-dimensional model of whisker bending to simulate whisking motions against a peg to investigate the possibility that the 3D mechanics of contact from a single whisker are sufficient for localization in head-centered coordinates...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27397106/a-novel-path-to-chronic-proprioceptive-disability-with-oxaliplatin-distortion-of-sensory-encoding
#18
Jacob A Vincent, Krystyna B Wieczerzak, Hanna M Gabriel, Paul Nardelli, Mark M Rich, Timothy C Cope
Persistent neurotoxic side effects of oxaliplatin (OX) chemotherapy, including sensory ataxia, limit the efficacy of treatment and significantly diminish patient quality of life. The common explanation for neurotoxicity is neuropathy, however the degree of neuropathy varies greatly among patients and appears insufficient in some cases to fully account for disability. We recently identified an additional mechanism that might contribute to sensory ataxia following OX treatment. In the present study, we tested whether that mechanism, selective modification of sensory signaling by muscle proprioceptors might result in behavioral deficits in rats...
November 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27309215/motor-control-of-fly-feeding
#19
Claire E McKellar
Following considerable progress on the molecular and cellular basis of taste perception in fly sensory neurons, the time is now ripe to explore how taste information, integrated with hunger and satiety, undergo a sensorimotor transformation to lead to the motor actions of feeding behavior. I examine what is known of feeding circuitry in adult flies from more than 250 years of work in larger flies and from newer work in Drosophila. I review the anatomy of the proboscis, its muscles and their functions (where known), its motor neurons, interneurons known to receive taste inputs, interneurons that diverge from taste circuitry to provide information to other circuits, interneurons from other circuits that converge on feeding circuits, proprioceptors that influence the motor control of feeding, and sites of integration of hunger and satiety on feeding circuits...
June 2016: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27304988/neuromodulation-of-limb-proprioceptive-afferents-decreases-apnea-of-prematurity-and-accompanying-intermittent-hypoxia-and-bradycardia
#20
Kalpashri Kesavan, Paul Frank, Daniella M Cordero, Peyman Benharash, Ronald M Harper
BACKGROUND: Apnea of Prematurity (AOP) is common, affecting the majority of infants born at <34 weeks gestational age. Apnea and periodic breathing are accompanied by intermittent hypoxia (IH). Animal and human studies demonstrate that IH exposure contributes to multiple pathologies, including retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), injury to sympathetic ganglia regulating cardiovascular action, impaired pancreatic islet cell and bone development, cerebellar injury, and neurodevelopmental disabilities...
2016: PloS One
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