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Subjective well being

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545190/radiation-exposure-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-fourteen-year-review-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-malaysia
#1
Jeevinesh Naidu, Zhiqin Wong, Shanthi Palaniappan, Chai Soon Ngiu, Raja Affendi Raja Ali
Background and Aims: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are subjected to a large amount of ionizing radiation during the course of their illness. This may increase their risk of malignancy to a greater level than that due to the disease itself. In Caucasian patients with Crohn’s disease, this has been well documented and recommendations are in place to avoid high radiation imaging protocols. However, there are limited data available on radiation exposure in Asian IBD patients.We therefore sought to identify total radiation exposure and any differences between ethnically diverse ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) patients at our centre along with determining factors that may contribute to any variation...
April 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545106/serum-microrna-signatures-as-liquid-biopsies-for-interrogating-hepatotoxic-mechanisms-and-liver-pathogenesis-in-human
#2
Julian Krauskopf, Theo M de Kok, Shelli J Schomaker, Mark Gosink, Deborah A Burt, Patricia Chandler, Roscoe L Warner, Kent J Johnson, Florian Caiment, Jos C Kleinjans, Jiri Aubrecht
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) released into the peripheral circulation upon cellular injury have shown a promise as a new class of tissue-specific biomarkers. We were first to demonstrate that next-generation sequencing analysis of serum from human subjects with acetaminophen-induced liver injury revealed a specific signature of circulating miRNAs. We consequently hypothesized that different types of hepatic liver impairments might feature distinct signatures of circulating miRNAs and that this approach might be useful as minimally invasive diagnostic "liquid biopsies" enabling the interrogation of underlying molecular mechanisms of injury in distant tissues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544833/how-heart-valves-evolve-to-adapt-to-an-extreme-pressure-system-morphologic-and-biomechanical-properties-of-giraffe-heart-valves
#3
Jonas Amstrup Funder, Carl Christian Danielsen, Ulrik Baandrup, Bo Martin Bibby, Ted Carl Andelius, Emil Toft Brøndum, Tobias Wang, J Michael Hasenkam
BACKGROUND: Heart valves which exist naturally in an extreme-pressure system must have evolved in a way to resist the stresses of high pressure. Giraffes are interesting as they naturally have a blood pressure twice that of humans. Thus, knowledge regarding giraffe heart valves may aid in developing techniques to design improved pressure-resistant biological heart valves. METHODS: Heart valves from 12 giraffes and 10 calves were explanted and subjected to either biomechanical or morphological examinations...
January 2017: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544815/fabrication-of-viable-and-functional-pre-vascularized-modular-bone-tissues-by-coculturing-mscs-and-huvecs-on-microcarriers-in-spinner-flasks
#4
Songjie Zhang, Min Zhou, Zhaoyang Ye, Yan Zhou, Wen-Song Tan
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Slow vascularization often impedes the viability and function of engineered bone replacements. Prevascularization is a promising way to solve this problem. In this study, a new process was developed by integrating microcarrier culture and coculture to fabricate pre-vascularized bone microtissues with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and human umbilical vein endotheli-al cells (HUVECs). METHODOLOGY: Initially, coculture medium and cell ratio between MSCs and HUVECs were optimized in tissue culture plates concerning cell proliferation, osteogenesis and angiogenesis...
May 24, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544774/safety-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-hetrombopag-olamine-a-novel-tpo-r-agonist-in-healthy-subjects
#5
Li Zheng, Mao-Zhi Liang, Xiao-Ling Zeng, Cai-Zheng Li, Yi-Fan Zhang, Xiao-Yan Chen, Xi Zhu, An-Bo Xiang
Hetrombopag olamine (hetrombopag) is a novel small-molecule, orally bioavailable, non-peptide thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonist that is being developed as the treatment for thrombocytopenia. Two randomized, placebo-controlled phase I studies were conducted in 72 healthy subjects to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of hetrombopag. Hetrombopag was orally administered with a single dose in 5 dose cohorts (5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg or 40 mg) in the first study, and given once daily for 10 days in 3 dose cohorts (2...
May 24, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544585/effects-of-ophthalmologic-solutions-on-sinonasal-ciliated-epithelium
#6
Alan D Workman, Ryan M Carey, Michael A Kohanski, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, Noam A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Off-label use of topical ophthalmologic formulations for treatment of rhinologic disease is cited in recent literature and is anecdotally prevalent among practicing otolaryngologists. Steroids, antibiotics, and other drugs designed for ocular use have subjective clinical efficacy in the nose and sinuses, but their specific effects on the ciliated epithelium are less well defined. This study examines 9 commercially available ophthalmologic drug formulations for effects on ciliary motility in sinonasal cultures, in an effort to characterize their utility as topical therapies for sinonasal diseases...
May 23, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544451/protection-and-restriction-a-mixed-methods-study-of-self-reported-well-being-among-youth-with-intellectual-disabilities
#7
Petra Boström, Malin Broberg
BACKGROUND: As most mental health studies of school-aged children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are based on proxy ratings, the subjective views of these young persons are rarely explored. The present study explores experiences of well-being, mental ill-health, family, school, and peer relations in students in special education. METHODS: Ten students in special education, aged 13-16 years, answered the Wellbeing in Special Education Questionnaire (WellSEQ) and participated in semi-structured interviews...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544042/forced-degradation-studies-of-lansoprazole-using-lc-esi-hrms-and-1-h-nmr-experiments-in-vitro-toxicity-evaluation-of-major-degradation-products
#8
G Shankar, R M Borkar, S Udutha, L Guntuku, V G M Naidu, N Nagesh, R Srinivas
Regulatory agencies from all over the world have set up stringent guidelines with regard to drug degradation products due to their toxic effects or carcinogenicity. Lansoprazole, a proton-pump inhibitor, was subjected to forced degradation studies as per ICH guidelines Q1A (R2). The drug was found to degrade under acidic, basic, neutral hydrolysis and oxidative stress conditions, whereas it was found to be stable under thermal and photolytic conditions. The chromatographic separation of the drug and its degradation products were achieved on a Hiber Purospher, C18 (250 X 4...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543920/uncertainty-increases-neural-indices-of-attention-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#9
Raoul Dieterich, Tanja Endrass, Norbert Kathmann
BACKGROUND: Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) experience abnormally high levels of uncertainty, and unpredictability is evaluated negatively and not well tolerated. The current study examined neural correlates of attentional processing in response to experimentally induced uncertainty in OCD. METHODS: Twenty-four OCD patients and 24 healthy controls performed a task where neutral and negative pictures were preceded by a cue, either being predictive (certain condition) or nonpredictive (uncertain condition) of subsequent picture valence...
May 25, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543843/white-matter-biomarkers-from-fast-protocols-using-axially-symmetric-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging
#10
Brian Hansen, Ahmad R Khan, Noam Shemesh, Torben E Lund, Ryan Sangill, Simon F Eskildsen, Leif Østergaard, Sune N Jespersen
White matter tract integrity (WMTI) can characterize brain microstructure in areas with highly aligned fiber bundles. Several WMTI biomarkers have now been validated against microscopy and provided promising results in studies of brain development and aging, as well as in a number of brain disorders. Currently, WMTI is mostly used in dedicated animal studies and clinical studies of slowly progressing diseases, and has not yet emerged as a routine clinical tool. To this end, a less data intensive experimental method would be beneficial by enabling high resolution validation studies, and ease clinical applications by speeding up data acquisition compared with typical diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) protocols utilized as part of WMTI imaging...
May 22, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543689/mild-cognitive-impairment-and-structural-brain-abnormalities-in-a-sexagenarian-with-a-history-of-childhood-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
John Darrell Van Horn, Andrei Irimia, Carinna M Torgerson, Avnish Bhattrai, Zachary Jacokes, Paul M Vespa
In this report, we present a case study involving an older, female patient with a history of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging volumes were acquired from the volunteer in question, her brain volumetrics and morphometrics were extracted, and these were then systematically compared against corresponding metrics obtained from a large sample of older healthy control (HC) subjects as well as from subjects in various stages of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD)...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543652/what-s-the-use-disparate-purposes-of-u-s-federal-bioethics-commissions
#12
Jenny Dyck Brian, Robert Cook-Deegan
In the forty-year history of U.S. bioethics commissions, these government-sanctioned forums have often demonstrated their power to address pressing problems and to enable policy change. For example, the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, established in 1974, left a legacy of reports that were translated into regulations and had an enormous practical impact. And the 1982 report Splicing Life, by the President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research, became the basis for the National Institutes of Health's Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee as well as for the Food and Drug Administration's developing "Points to Consider" when contemplating the introduction of recombinant DNA into human beings...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543609/understanding-the-school-experiences-of-children-and-adolescents-with-serious-chronic-illness-a-systematic-meta-review
#13
REVIEW
A Lum, C E Wakefield, B Donnan, M A Burns, J E Fardell, G M Marshall
BACKGROUND: Serious chronic illness can have a detrimental effect on school attendance, participation and engagement, leaving affected students at risk of failing to meet their developmental potential. An improved understanding of factors that help to explain or mitigate this risk can help educators and health professionals deliver the most effective support. This meta-review critiqued the available evidence examining the link between six chronic illnesses (asthma, cancer, chronic kidney diseases, heart diseases, cystic fibrosis and gastrointestinal diseases) and children's and adolescents' school experiences and outcomes, as well as investigating the medical, school, psychosocial and sociodemographic factors that are linked to poorer or better school outcomes...
May 23, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543587/optical-mapping-of-nonmelanoma-skin-cancers-a-pilot-clinical-study
#14
Anna N Yaroslavsky, Xin Feng, Victor A Neel
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common human cancer. Because these tumors often affect the face, there is a strong need for both accurate removal of these neoplasms to prevent recurrence and maximal tissue preservation to prevent cosmetic or functional deformity. Polarization-enhanced reflectance and fluorescence imaging (PERFI) is a new bedside method that uses fluorescent chromophores to image NMSC. While the feasibility of the technique has been successfully demonstrated in ex vivo studies, this is the first pilot study to extend the use of PERFI to in vivo intraoperative imaging of NMSC...
May 23, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543358/transient-arrest-of-germinal-vesicle-breakdown-improved-in-vitro-development-potential-of-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-oocytes
#15
Sandeep Kumar, Manish Kumar, Sunny Dholpuria, Parul Sarwalia, Vipul Batra, Sachinandan De, Rakesh Kumar, T K Datta
Germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) is the first milestone that an oocyte needs to achieve towards completing the maturation and gaining potential to fertilise. Significantly lower in vitro embryo production rate in buffaloes can be attributed to heterogeneity of GVBD occurrence among oocytes obtained from abattoir derived ovaries. Evidence from our earlier work had suggested that different qualities of buffalo oocytes differ significantly in their timing of GVBD. Besides, these oocytes also differ in terms of volume of Akt phosphorylation, which initiates the process of GVBD...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542705/a-pump-free-microfluidic-3d-perfusion-platform-for-the-efficient-differentiation-of-human-hepatocyte-like-cells
#16
Louis Jun Ye Ong, Lor Huai Chong, Lin Jin, Pawan Kumar Singh, Poh Seng Lee, Hanry Yu, Abhishek Ananthanarayanan, Hwa Liang Leo, Yi-Chin Toh
The practical application of microfluidic liver models for in vitro drug testing is partly hampered by their reliance on human primary hepatocytes, which are limited in number and have batch-to-batch variation. Human stem cell-derived hepatocytes offer an attractive alternative cell source, although their 3D differentiation and maturation in a microfluidic platform have not yet been demonstrated. We develop a pump-free microfluidic 3D perfusion platform to achieve long-term and efficient differentiation of human liver progenitor cells into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs)...
May 20, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542034/dopamine-d2-receptor-affinity-of-antipsychotics-in-relation-to-subjective-well-being-in-patients-with-a-psychotic-disorder
#17
Iris E de Wit, Floor A van Dijk, Carin J Meijer, Mirjam J van Tricht, Lieuwe de Haan
Dopamine D2-receptor blockade by antipsychotic medication reduces psychotic symptoms, but may reduce subjective well-being. The current study aims to further explore the relation between dopamine D2-receptor affinity and subjective well-being within a large sample of patients with psychotic disorders. Patients participated in a longitudinal naturalistic cohort study: the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) study. Three groups of antipsychotic medication were created on the basis of their affinity for the D2-receptor: (i) loose or partial agonistic binding, (ii) moderate binding, and (iii) tight binding...
May 24, 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541925/improvement-screening-for-ultra-high-dimensional-data-with-censored-survival-outcomes-and-varying-coefficients
#18
Mu Yue, Jialiang Li
Motivated by risk prediction studies with ultra-high dimensional bio markers, we propose a novel improvement screening methodology. Accurate risk prediction can be quite useful for patient treatment selection, prevention strategy or disease management in evidence-based medicine. The question of how to choose new markers in addition to the conventional ones is especially important. In the past decade, a number of new measures for quantifying the added value from the new markers were proposed, among which the integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) and net reclassification improvement (NRI) stand out...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541858/the-pathologic-finding-of-combined-lobular-carcinoma-in-situ-and-invasive-lobular-cancer-may-indicate-more-than-just-a-high-risk-marker-role-of-lobular-carcinoma-in-situ
#19
Christopher J Jean-Louis, Joshua Masdon, Betsy Smith, Oscar Battles, Paul Dale
For years, lobular carcinoma In Situ (LCIS) has been considered a high-risk marker for developing breast cancer. It is well known that ductal carcinoma In Situ is a precursor for the development of invasive ductal carcinoma, and ductal carcinoma In Situ is reported to be present in invasive ductal carcinoma in at least 40 per cent of cases. A similar relationship between LCIS and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) remains in question. This study evaluates the incidence of synchronous LCIS and ILC at our institution...
May 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541799/limited-engraftment-of-donor-microbiome-via-one-time-fecal-microbial-transplantation-in-treated-hiv-infected-individuals
#20
Ivan Vujkovic-Cvijin, Rachel L Rutishauser, Montha Pao, Peter W Hunt, Susan V Lynch, Joseph M McCune, Ma Somsouk
BACKGROUND: Many HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) exhibit persistent systemic inflammation, which predicts morbidity and mortality. ART-treated subjects concurrently exhibit marked compositional alterations in the gut bacterial microbiota and the degree of dysbiosis correlates with systemic inflammation. Whether interventions to modulate the microbiome can affect systemic inflammation is unknown. METHODS: An open-label fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) was delivered by colonoscopy to asymptomatic HIV-infected ART-suppressed individuals without antibiotic pre-treatment...
May 25, 2017: Gut Microbes
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