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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527590/phosphate-scouting-by-root-tips
#1
REVIEW
Steffen Abel
Chemistry assigns phosphate (Pi) dominant roles in metabolism; however, it also renders the macronutrient a genuinely limiting factor of plant productivity. Pi bioavailability is restricted by low Pi mobility in soil and antagonized by metallic toxicities, which force roots to actively seek and selectively acquire the vital element. During the past few years, a first conceptual outline has emerged of the sensory mechanisms at root tips, which monitor external Pi and transmit the edaphic cue to inform root development...
May 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522968/the-effect-of-visual-spatial-and-temporal-manipulations-on-embodiment-and-action
#2
Natasha Ratcliffe, Roger Newport
The feeling of owning and controlling the body relies on the integration and interpretation of sensory input from multiple sources with respect to existing representations of the bodily self. Illusion paradigms involving multisensory manipulations have demonstrated that while the senses of ownership and agency are strongly related, these two components of bodily experience may be dissociable and differentially affected by alterations to sensory input. Importantly, however, much of the current literature has focused on the application of sensory manipulations to external objects or virtual representations of the self that are visually incongruent with the viewer's own body and which are not part of the existing body representation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515866/effect-of-different-display-types-on-vection-and-its-interaction-with-motion-direction-and-field-dependence
#3
Behrang Keshavarz, Martina Speck, Bruce Haycock, Stefan Berti
Illusory self-motion (vection) can be generated by visual stimulation. The purpose of the present study was to compare behavioral vection measures including intensity ratings, duration, and onset time across different visual display types. Participants were exposed to a pattern of alternating black-and-white horizontal or vertical bars that moved either in vertical or horizontal direction, respectively. Stimuli were presented on four types of displays in randomized order: (a) large field of view dome projection, (b) combination of three computer screens, (c) single computer screen, (d) large field of view flat projection screen...
May 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512742/differing-intrinsic-biological-properties-between-forebrain-and-spinal-oligodendroglial-lineage-cells
#4
Makoto Horiuchi, Yoko Suzuki-Horiuchi, Tasuku Akiyama, Aki Itoh, David Pleasure, Earl Carstens, Takayuki Itoh
Differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes is known to be regulated by the microenvironment where they differentiate. However, current research has not verified whether or not oligodendroglial lineage cells (OLCs) derived from different anatomical regions of the central nervous system (CNS) respond to microenvironmental cues in the same manner. Here, we isolated pure OPCs from rat neonatal forebrain (FB) and spinal cord (SC) and compared their phenotypes in the same in vitro conditions...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511727/rejection-sensitivity-as-a-moderator-of-psychosocial-outcomes-following-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Emily A Meadows, Keith Owen Yeates, Kenneth H Rubin, H Gerry Taylor, Erin D Bigler, Maureen Dennis, Cynthia A Gerhardt, Kathryn Vannatta, Terry Stancin, Kristen R Hoskinson
OBJECTIVES: The current study examines whether psychosocial outcomes following pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) vary as a function of children's rejection sensitivity (RS), defined as their disposition to be hypersensitive to cues of rejection from peers. METHODS: Children ages 8-13 with a history of severe TBI (STBI, n=16), complicated mild/moderate TBI (n=35), or orthopedic injury (OI, n=49) completed measures assessing self-esteem and RS on average 3.28 years post-injury (SD=1...
May 17, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506994/gain-of-function-mutations-of-mau-draqp3a-influence-zebrafish-pigment-pattern-formation-through-the-tissue-environment
#6
Anastasia Eskova, Francois Chauvigné, Hans-Martin Maischein, Moritz Ammelburg, Joan Cerdà, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Uwe Irion
The development of the pigmentation pattern in zebrafish is a tightly regulated process that depends on both the self-organizing properties of pigment cells and extrinsic cues from other tissues. Many of the known mutations that alter the pattern act cell autonomously in pigment cells, and our knowledge about external regulators is limited. Here, we describe several dominant missense mutations in Aquaporin 3a (Aqp3a/mau) that lead to broken stripes and short fins in zebrafish. A loss-of-function allele, generated by CRISPR-Cas9, has no phenotypic consequences, demonstrating that Aqp3a is dispensable for normal development...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504266/low-phosphate-activates-stop1-almt1-to-rapidly-inhibit-root-cell-elongation
#7
Coline Balzergue, Thibault Dartevelle, Christian Godon, Edith Laugier, Claudia Meisrimler, Jean-Marie Teulon, Audrey Creff, Marie Bissler, Corinne Brouchoud, Agnès Hagège, Jens Müller, Serge Chiarenza, Hélène Javot, Noëlle Becuwe-Linka, Pascale David, Benjamin Péret, Etienne Delannoy, Marie-Christine Thibaud, Jean Armengaud, Steffen Abel, Jean-Luc Pellequer, Laurent Nussaume, Thierry Desnos
Environmental cues profoundly modulate cell proliferation and cell elongation to inform and direct plant growth and development. External phosphate (Pi) limitation inhibits primary root growth in many plant species. However, the underlying Pi sensory mechanisms are unknown. Here we genetically uncouple two Pi sensing pathways in the root apex of Arabidopsis thaliana. First, the rapid inhibition of cell elongation in the transition zone is controlled by transcription factor STOP1, by its direct target, ALMT1, encoding a malate channel, and by ferroxidase LPR1, which together mediate Fe and peroxidase-dependent cell wall stiffening...
May 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501773/trpv4-functions-in-flow-shear-stress-induced-early-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#8
Kongzu Hu, Heyan Sun, Binjie Gui, Cong Sui
Mechanical cues have been shown to induce osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs). The TRPV4 channel, a Ca(2+)-permeable membrane ion channel, is implicated in the transduction of external mechanical stimulation into specific intracellular responses in a wide variety of bone cells. However, the role of TRPV4 in transducing and regulating the differentiation of human MSCs in response to flow shear stress (FSS) is unclear. In this study, using FSS and calcium imaging, we demonstrated that FSS activated early osteogenic differentiation, as shown by the early osteogenic differentiation marker osterix (Osx) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining...
May 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500535/reconstitution-of-protein-dynamics-involved-in-bacterial-cell-division
#9
Martin Loose, Katja Zieske, Petra Schwille
Even simple cells like bacteria have precisely regulated cellular anatomies, which allow them to grow, divide and to respond to internal or external cues with high fidelity. How spatial and temporal intracellular organization in prokaryotic cells is achieved and maintained on the basis of locally interacting proteins still remains largely a mystery. Bulk biochemical assays with purified components and in vivo experiments help us to approach key cellular processes from two opposite ends, in terms of minimal and maximal complexity...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499558/influence-of-response-bias-and-internal-external-source-on-lateral-posterior-parietal-successful-retrieval-activity
#10
Danielle R King, Michael B Miller
In studies of recognition memory, regions of the lateral posterior parietal cortex exhibit greater activity (as indexed by the fMRI BOLD signal) during correct recognition of "old" (studied) items than correct rejection of "new" (unstudied) items. This effect appears to be source-sensitive, with greater activity associated with recognition of perceived than imagined events. Parietal successful retrieval activity also varies with response bias, or the tendency to be conservative about making "old" judgments...
April 15, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496405/temporal-dynamics-of-proactive-and-reactive-motor-inhibition
#11
Matthias Liebrand, Inga Pein, Elinor Tzvi, Ulrike M Krämer
Proactive motor inhibition refers to endogenous preparatory mechanisms facilitating action inhibition, whereas reactive motor inhibition is considered to be a sudden stopping process triggered by external signals. Previous studies were inconclusive about the temporal dynamics of involved neurocognitive processes during proactive and reactive motor control. Using electroencephalography (EEG), we investigated the time-course of proactive and reactive inhibition, measuring event-related oscillations and event-related potentials (ERPs)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495597/the-learned-reinterpretation-of-fluency-in-amnesia
#12
Marie Geurten, Sylvie Willems
Fluency is one of many cues that are involved in memory decisions. To date, however, the extent to which fluency-based decisions are preserved in amnesia is not yet clear. In this study, we tested and found differences in how patients with amnesia (n=8) and control participants (n=16) use fluency when making recognition decisions (Experiment 1). Our results suggested that these differences could be due to changes in the readiness with which patients attribute the subjective feeling of fluency to pre-exposure when an alternative explanation is available (i...
May 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487117/teaching-medical-students-to-express-empathy-by-exploring-patient-emotions-and-experiences-in-standardized-medical-encounters
#13
Roger Ruiz-Moral, Luis Pérula de Torres, Diana Monge, Cristina García Leonardo, Fernando Caballero
OBJECTIVES: To increase medical students' ability to detect contextual and emotional cues and to respond empathetically to patients. METHODS: a training course in communication skills and patient-centered care with different teaching activities (didactic, reflective and interactive: workshops and encounters with simulated patients) was delivered to third-year medical students just before their clerkships. The program was evaluated by an external observer (OE) and simulated patients (SP) in 2 or 3 videotaped encounters...
April 29, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486525/hypothesis-driven-single-cell-dual-oscillator-mathematical-model-of-circadian-rhythms
#14
Shiju S, K Sriram
Molecular mechanisms responsible for 24 h circadian oscillations, entrainment to external cues, encoding of day length and the time-of-day effects have been well studied experimentally. However, it is still debated from the molecular network point of view whether each cell in suprachiasmatic nuclei harbors two molecular oscillators, where one tracks dawn and the other tracks dusk activities. A single cell dual morning and evening oscillator was proposed by Daan et al., based on the molecular network that has two sets of similar non-redundant per1/cry1 and per2/cry2 circadian genes and each can independently maintain their endogenous oscillations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483977/uncoupling-of-unc5c-with-polymerized-tubb3-in-microtubules-mediates-netrin-1-repulsion
#15
Qiangqiang Shao, Tao Yang, Huai Huang, Farrah Alarmanazi, Guofa Liu
Modulation of microtubule (MT) dynamics is a key event of cytoskeleton remodeling in the growth cone (GC) during axon outgrowth and pathfinding. Our previous studies have shown that the direct interaction of netrin receptor DCC and DSCAM with polymerized TUBB3, a neuron-specific MT subunit in the brain, is required for netrin-1-mediated axon outgrowth, branching and attraction. Here, we show that uncoupling of polymerized TUBB3 with netrin-1 repulsive receptor UNC5C is involved in netrin-1-mediated axonal repulsion...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482101/environment-dependent-regulation-of-spliceosome-activity-by-the-lsm2-8-complex-in-arabidopsis
#16
Cristian Carrasco-López, Tamara Hernández-Verdeja, Carlos Perea-Resa, David Abia, Rafael Catalá, Julio Salinas
Spliceosome activity is tightly regulated to ensure adequate splicing in response to internal and external cues. It has been suggested that core components of the spliceosome, such as the snRNPs, would participate in the control of its activity. The experimental indications supporting this proposition, however, remain scarce, and the operating mechanisms poorly understood. Here, we present genetic and molecular evidence demonstrating that the LSM2-8 complex, the protein moiety of the U6 snRNP, regulates the spliceosome activity in Arabidopsis, and that this regulation is controlled by the environmental conditions...
May 8, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476120/central-peptidergic-modulation-of-peripheral-olfactory-responses
#17
Sion Lee, Young-Joon Kim, Walton D Jones
BACKGROUND: Animal olfactory systems detect volatile environmental chemicals and integrate this information to direct the discovery of food and mates as well as danger avoidance. Rather than remaining constant, olfactory response thresholds are modulated by internal and external cues to adapt odor-guided behaviors to changing conditions. RESULTS: Here, we show in Drosophila melanogaster that neuropeptide F (NPF) modulates the responses of a specific population of antennal olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) to food-derived odors...
May 5, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473782/neurophysiological-evidence-of-compensatory-brain-mechanisms-underlying-attentional-related-processes-in-symptomatically-remitted-patients-with-schizophrenia
#18
Guoliang Chen, Weiyan Ding, Lei Zhang, Hong Cui, Zhongdong Jiang, Yansong Li
A recent electrophysiological study suggests existing compensatory brain activity as a mechanism for functional recovery of visual attention detection (the capacity for detecting external cues) in symptomatically remitted schizophrenia patients. Despite such evidence, little is known about other aspects of attentional-related processes in schizophrenia during clinical remission, such as their capacity to concentrate on the task at hands without being interfered by distracting information. To this end, we recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) from 20 symptomatically remitted schizophrenia patients and 20 healthy controls while they engaged in a classic Stroop task...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459560/nongenetic-reprogramming-of-the-ligand-specificity-of-growth-factor-receptors-by-bispecific-dna-aptamers
#19
Ryosuke Ueki, Saki Atsuta, Ayaka Ueki, Shinsuke Sando
The reprogramming of receptor-ligand interactions affords an opportunity to direct cells to respond to user-defined external cues. Although this has often been achieved via the genetic engineering of receptors, an alternative, nongenetic approach is highly demanded. In this article, we propose the design of oligonucleotide-based synthetic switches that feature the ability to reprogram the ligand specificity of the growth factor receptor. We demonstrated that our synthetic switches induced growth factor signaling via the formation of the dynamic complex with specific external cues that would otherwise not induce the signaling...
May 8, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450839/investigating-the-prospective-sense-of-agency-effects-of-processing-fluency-stimulus-ambiguity-and-response-conflict
#20
Nura Sidarus, Matti Vuorre, Janet Metcalfe, Patrick Haggard
How do we know how much control we have over our environment? The sense of agency refers to the feeling that we are in control of our actions, and that, through them, we can control our external environment. Thus, agency clearly involves matching intentions, actions, and outcomes. The present studies investigated the possibility that processes of action selection, i.e., choosing what action to make, contribute to the sense of agency. Since selection of action necessarily precedes execution of action, such effects must be prospective...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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