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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213446/acetylcholine-release-in-prefrontal-cortex-promotes-gamma-oscillations-and-theta-gamma-coupling-during-cue-detection
#1
W M Howe, H J Gritton, N Lusk, Erik A Roberts, Vaughn L Hetrick, Joshua D Berke, Martin Sarter
The capacity for using external cues to guide behavior ("cue detection") constitutes an essential aspect of attention and goal-directed behavior. The cortical cholinergic input system, via phasic increases in prefrontal acetylcholine release, plays an essential role in attention by mediating such cue detection. However, the relationship between cholinergic signaling during cue detection and neural activity dynamics in prefrontal networks remains unclear. Here we combined sub-second measures of cholinergic signaling, neurophysiological recordings, and cholinergic receptor blockade to delineate the cholinergic contributions to prefrontal oscillations during cue detection in rats...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209779/a-histone-h4-lysine-20-methyltransferase-couples-environmental-cues-to-sensory-neuron-control-of-developmental-plasticity
#2
Colin E Delaney, Albert T Chen, Jacqueline V Graniel, Kathleen J Dumas, Patrick J Hu
Animals change developmental fates in response to external cues. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, unfavorable environmental conditions induce a state of diapause known as dauer by inhibiting the conserved DAF-2 insulin-like signaling (ILS) pathway through incompletely understood mechanisms. We previously established a role for the C. elegans dosage compensation protein DPY-21 in the control of dauer arrest and DAF-2 ILS. Here we show that the histone H4 lysine 20 methyltransferase SET-4, which also influences dosage compensation, promotes dauer arrest in part by repressing the X-linked ins-9 gene, which encodes a new agonist insulin-like peptide (ILP) expressed specifically in the paired ASI sensory neurons that are required for dauer bypass...
February 16, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198148/stimuli-responsive-liposomes-for-drug-delivery
#3
REVIEW
Y Lee, D H Thompson
The ultimate goal of drug delivery is to increase the bioavailability and reduce the toxic side effects of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) by releasing them at a specific site of action. In the case of antitumor therapy, association of the therapeutic agent with a carrier system can minimize damage to healthy, nontarget tissues, while limit systemic release and promoting long circulation to enhance uptake at the cancerous site due to the enhanced permeation and retention effect (EPR). Stimuli-responsive systems have become a promising way to deliver and release payloads in a site-selective manner...
February 15, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191904/n-terminomics-identifies-prli42-as-a-membrane-miniprotein-conserved-in-firmicutes-and-critical-for-stressosome-activation-in-listeria-monocytogenes
#4
Francis Impens, Nathalie Rolhion, Lilliana Radoshevich, Christophe Bécavin, Mélodie Duval, Jeffrey Mellin, Francisco García Del Portillo, M Graciela Pucciarelli, Allison H Williams, Pascale Cossart
To adapt to changing environments, bacteria have evolved numerous pathways that activate stress response genes. In Gram-positive bacteria, the stressosome, a cytoplasmic complex, relays external cues and activates the sigma B regulon. The stressosome is structurally well-characterized in Bacillus, but how it senses stress remains elusive. Here, we report a genome-wide N-terminomic approach in Listeria that strikingly led to the discovery of 19 internal translation initiation sites and 6 miniproteins, among which one, Prli42, is conserved in Firmicutes...
February 13, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190729/a-functional-gradient-in-the-rodent-prefrontal-cortex-supports-behavioral-inhibition
#5
Stefanie Hardung, Robert Epple, Zoe Jäckel, David Eriksson, Cem Uran, Verena Senn, Lihi Gibor, Ofer Yizhar, Ilka Diester
The ability to plan and execute appropriately timed responses to external stimuli is based on a well-orchestrated balance between movement initiation and inhibition. In impulse control disorders involving the prefrontal cortex (PFC) [1], this balance is disturbed, emphasizing the critical role that PFC plays in appropriately timing actions [2-4]. Here, we employed optogenetic and electrophysiological techniques to systematically analyze the functional role of five key subareas of the rat medial PFC (mPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in action control [5-9]...
February 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182823/how-to-direct-the-neuronal-growth-process-in-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-future-strategies-for-nanosurfaces-scaffold-and-magnetic-nanoparticles
#6
Andrea Poggetti, Pietro Battistini, Paolo Domenico Parchi, Michela Novelli, Simona Raffa, Marco Cecchini, Anna Maria Nucci, Michele Lisanti
Currently, the gold standard to repair large nerve defects is the autologous nerve graft. These solutions offer a mechanical support, adhesion substrates, and, with Schwann cells (SC), a source of neurotropic factors for axonal growth. The technical limits are the donor side damage, multiple surgical accesses, and the unavailability of large amounts of grafts. In recent years, several researchers focused their attention on the interaction between cells (nervous and glial) and physic-chemical cues that arise from the extracellular milieu...
February 7, 2017: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179187/scaffolding-function-of-pi3kgamma-emerges-from-enzyme-s-shadow
#7
REVIEW
Maradumane L Mohan, Sathyamangla V Naga Prasad
Traditionally an enzyme is a protein that mediates biochemical action by binding to the substrate and catalyzing the reaction that translates external cues into biological responses. Sequential dissemination of information from one enzyme to another facilitates signal transduction in biological systems providing for feed-forward and feed-back mechanisms. Given this view-point, an enzyme without its catalytic activity is generally considered to be an inert organizational protein without catalytic function and has classically been termed as pseudoenzymes...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167093/effect-of-cue-timing-and-modality-on-gait-initiation-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-freezing-of-gait
#8
Chiahao Lu, Sommer L Amundsen Huffmaster, Paul J Tuite, Jacqueline M Vachon, Colum D MacKinnon
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of cue timing, across three sensory modalities, on anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) during gait initiation in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Biomechanics research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-five individuals with idiopathic PD (11 with freezing of gait, FOG) were studied in the off-levodopa state (12-hour overnight withdrawal)...
February 3, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164721/human-life-history-strategies
#9
Kristine J Chua, Aaron W Lukaszewski, DeMond M Grant, Oliver Sng
Human life history (LH) strategies are theoretically regulated by developmental exposure to environmental cues that ancestrally predicted LH-relevant world states (e.g., risk of morbidity-mortality). Recent modeling work has raised the question of whether the association of childhood family factors with adult LH variation arises via (i) direct sampling of external environmental cues during development and/or (ii) calibration of LH strategies to internal somatic condition (i.e., health), which itself reflects exposure to variably favorable environments...
January 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155611/galectins-a-potential-target-for-cardiovascular-therapy
#10
Ghulam Md Ashraf, Asma Perveen, Syed Kashif Zaidi, Ausaf Ahmad, Shazi Shakil, Chelapram Kandy Firoz, Nasimudeen R Jabir, Iftekhar Hassan, Taqi Ahmad Khan, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Shams Tabrez
Cells constantly adapt to external humoral cues like cytokines and hormones, but practically most cellular behavior is under locally guided control via cell-cell interactions. Galectins (Gals) are one of the most prominent members of the group of molecules involved in this intercellular signaling. They are the family of β-galactoside specific lectins and consist of 15 different types, each with a specific function. They play crucial role in the immune system, inflammation, wound healing and carcinogenesis...
February 1, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148648/coupled-excitable-ras-and-f-actin-activation-mediate-spontaneous-pseudopod-formation-and-directed-cell-movement
#11
Peter J M van Haastert, Ineke Keizer-Gunnink, Arjan Kortholt
Many eukaryotic cells regulate their mobility by external cues. Genetic studies have identified more than hundred components that participate in chemotaxis, which hinders to identify the conceptual framework how cells sense and respond to shallow chemical gradients. The activation of Ras occurs during basal locomotion, and is an essential connector between receptor and the cytoskeleton during chemotaxis. Using a sensitive assay for activated Ras we show here that activation of Ras and F-actin form two excitable systems that are coupled through mutual positive feedback and memory...
February 1, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137701/a-smarter-pathway-for-delivering-cue-exposure-therapy-the-design-and-development-of-a-smartphone-app-targeting-alcohol-use-disorder
#12
Angelina Isabella Mellentin, Elsebeth Stenager, Bent Nielsen, Anette Søgaard Nielsen, Fei Yu
BACKGROUND: Although the number of alcohol-related treatments in app stores is proliferating, none of them are based on a psychological framework and supported by empirical evidence. Cue exposure treatment (CET) with urge-specific coping skills (USCS) is often used in Danish treatment settings. It is an evidence-based psychological approach that focuses on promoting "confrontation with alcohol cues" as a means of reducing urges and the likelihood of relapse. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe the design and development of a CET-based smartphone app; an innovative delivery pathway for treating alcohol use disorder (AUD)...
January 30, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135848/self-reported-overeating-and-attributions-for-food-intake
#13
Lenny R Vartanian, Natalie M Reily, Samantha Spanos, C Peter Herman, Janet Polivy
OBJECTIVE: We examined whether people's attributions for their eating behaviour differ according to whether they believe they have eaten more, less or about the same as they normally would. DESIGN: Participants were served a small or large portion of pasta for lunch. Afterwards, they were asked to compare how much they ate in the study to how much they normally eat for lunch, resulting in three intake-evaluation categories: 'ate less', 'ate about the same' or 'ate more'...
January 30, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134542/time-on-your-hands-perceived-duration-of-sensory-events-is-biased-toward-concurrent-actions
#14
Daniel Yon, Rosanna Edey, Richard B Ivry, Clare Press
Perceptual systems must rapidly generate accurate representations of the world from sensory inputs that are corrupted by internal and external noise. We can typically obtain more veridical representations by integrating information from multiple channels, but this integration can lead to biases when inputs are, in fact, not from the same source. Although a considerable amount is known about how different sources of information are combined to influence what we perceive, it is not known whether temporal features are combined...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132093/palatable-food-consumption-in-children-interplay-between-food-reward-motivation-and-the-home-food-environment
#15
Annelies De Decker, Sandra Verbeken, Isabelle Sioen, Wendy Van Lippevelde, Caroline Braet, Gabrielle Eiben, Valeria Pala, Lucia A Reish, Stefaan De Henauw
: To understand the importance of the home food environment on unhealthy food consumption in children high in reward sensitivity, this study tested the hypothesis that the home availability of unhealthy food moderates the effect of reward sensitivity on children's fast-food consumption frequency, exerted via food cue responsiveness. Children between 7.5 and 14 years (n = 174, 50.6% boys) reported on reward sensitivity and food cue responsiveness (by means of the subscale 'external eating')...
January 28, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130443/na-h-exchanger-9-regulates-iron-mobilization-at-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-response-to-iron-starvation
#16
Rami Beydoun, Mohamed A Hamood, Daniela M Gomez Zubeita, Kalyan C Kondapalli
Iron is essential for brain function, with loss of iron homeostasis in the brain linked to neurological diseases ranging from rare syndromes to more common disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Iron entry into the brain is regulated by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Molecular mechanisms regulating this transport are poorly understood. Using an in vitro model of the BBB, we identify NHE9, an endosomal cation/proton exchanger, as a novel regulator of this system. Human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMVECs) that constitute the BBB receive brain-iron status information via paracrine signals from ensheathing astrocytes...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130120/trifluoroacetylated-tyrosine-rich-d-tetrapeptides-have-potent-antioxidant-activity
#17
Annamaria Sandomenico, Valeria Severino, Fabio Apone, Adriana De Lucia, Andrea Caporale, Nunzianna Doti, Anna Russo, Rosita Russo, Camilla Rega, Tiziana Del Giacco, Lucia Falcigno, Menotti Ruvo, Angela Chambery
The term "oxidative stress" indicates a set of chemical reactions unleashed by a disparate number of events inducing DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, protein modification and other effects, which are responsible of altering the physiological status of cells or tissues. Excessive Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) levels may accelerate ageing of tissues or induce damage of biomolecules thus promoting cell death or proliferation in dependence of cell status and of targeted molecules. In this context, new antioxidants preventing such effects may have a relevant role as modulators of cell homeostasis and as therapeutic agents...
January 24, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129140/committing-to-memory-memory-prosthetics-show-promise-in-helping-those-with-neurodegenerative-disorders
#18
Michele Solis
Cell phone chimes, sticky notes, even the proverbial string around a finger-these timehonored external cues help guard against our inevitable memory lapses. But some internal help to the brain itself may be on the way in the form of what's being called memory prosthetics. Once considered to be on the fringes of neuroscience, the idea of adding hardware to the brain to help with memory has gathered steam. In 2014, the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) made a US$30 million investment in memory prosthetic research as part of the Obama administration's Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies initiative...
January 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122209/mechanochemical-signaling-directs-cell-shape-change
#19
REVIEW
Eric S Schiffhauer, Douglas N Robinson
For specialized cell function, as well as active cell behaviors such as division, migration, and tissue development, cells must undergo dynamic changes in shape. To complete these processes, cells integrate chemical and mechanical signals to direct force production. This mechanochemical integration allows for the rapid production and adaptation of leading-edge machinery in migrating cells, the invasion of one cell into another during cell-cell fusion, and the force-feedback loops that ensure robust cytokinesis...
January 24, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119061/nfib-mediates-brn2-driven-melanoma-cell-migration-and-invasion-through-regulation-of-ezh2-and-mitf
#20
Mitchell E Fane, Yash Chhabra, David E J Hollingsworth, Jacinta L Simmons, Loredana Spoerri, Tae Gyu Oh, Jagat Chauhan, Toby Chin, Lachlan Harris, Tracey J Harvey, George E O Muscat, Colin R Goding, Richard A Sturm, Nikolas K Haass, Glen M Boyle, Michael Piper, Aaron G Smith
While invasion and metastasis of tumour cells are the principle factor responsible for cancer related deaths, the mechanisms governing the process remain poorly defined. Moreover, phenotypic divergence of sub-populations of tumour cells is known to underpin alternative behaviors linked to tumour progression such as proliferation, survival and invasion. In the context of melanoma, heterogeneity between two transcription factors, BRN2 and MITF, has been associated with phenotypic switching between predominantly invasive and proliferative behaviors respectively...
January 16, 2017: EBioMedicine
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