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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646093/emerging-roles-of-mechanical-forces-in-chromatin-regulation
#1
REVIEW
Yekaterina A Miroshnikova, Michele M Nava, Sara A Wickström
Cells are constantly subjected to a spectrum of mechanical cues, such as shear stress, compression, differential tissue rigidity and strain, to which they adapt by engaging mechanisms of mechanotransduction. While the central role of cell adhesion receptors in this process is established, it has only recently been appreciated that mechanical cues reach far beyond the plasma membrane and the cytoskeleton, and are directly transmitted to the nucleus. Furthermore, changes in the mechanical properties of the perinuclear cytoskeleton, nuclear lamina and chromatin are critical for cellular responses and adaptation to external mechanical cues...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645751/psychometric-evaluation-of-the-german-version-of-the-intuitive-eating-scale-2-in-a-community-sample
#2
Ulrike Alexandra Ruzanska, Petra Warschburger
Intuitive eating is based on a strong physical connection with the body, aligned to internal cues of hunger and satiety, and a low preoccupation with food. The aim of this study was to provide a German version of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) and to examine its psychometric properties with data collected from 532 participants aged 18-91 years. The IES-2 was translated into German following the World Health Organization guidelines (2016). Cronbach's alpha as a measure of internal consistency was .89 for the IES-2 total score, as well as ...
June 20, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645248/characterizing-the-reproductive-transcriptomic-correlates-of-acute-dehydration-in-males-in-the-desert-adapted-rodent-peromyscus-eremicus
#3
Lauren Kordonowy, Matthew MacManes
BACKGROUND: The understanding of genomic and physiological mechanisms related to how organisms living in extreme environments survive and reproduce is an outstanding question facing evolutionary and organismal biologists. One interesting example of adaptation is related to the survival of mammals in deserts, where extreme water limitation is common. Research on desert rodent adaptations has focused predominantly on adaptations related to surviving dehydration, while potential reproductive physiology adaptations for acute and chronic dehydration have been relatively neglected...
June 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643166/structural-disorder-in-plant-proteins-where-plasticity-meets-sessility
#4
REVIEW
Alejandra A Covarrubias, Cesar L Cuevas-Velazquez, Paulette S Romero-Pérez, David F Rendón-Luna, Caspar C C Chater
Plants are sessile organisms. This intriguing nature provokes the question of how they survive despite the continual perturbations caused by their constantly changing environment. The large amount of knowledge accumulated to date demonstrates the fascinating dynamic and plastic mechanisms, which underpin the diverse strategies selected in plants in response to the fluctuating environment. This phenotypic plasticity requires an efficient integration of external cues to their growth and developmental programs that can only be achieved through the dynamic and interactive coordination of various signaling networks...
June 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642382/a-global-brain-state-underlies-c-elegans-sleep-behavior
#5
Annika L A Nichols, Tomáš Eichler, Richard Latham, Manuel Zimmer
How the brain effectively switches between and maintains global states, such as sleep and wakefulness, is not yet understood. We used brainwide functional imaging at single-cell resolution to show that during the developmental stage of lethargus, the Caenorhabditis elegans brain is predisposed to global quiescence, characterized by systemic down-regulation of neuronal activity. Only a few specific neurons are exempt from this effect. In the absence of external arousing cues, this quiescent brain state arises by the convergence of neuronal activities toward a fixed-point attractor embedded in an otherwise dynamic neural state space...
June 23, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641271/joint-attributes-and-event-analysis-for-multimedia-event-detection
#6
Zhigang Ma, Xiaojun Chang, Zhongwen Xu, Nicu Sebe, Alexander G Hauptmann
Semantic attributes have been increasingly used the past few years for multimedia event detection (MED) with promising results. The motivation is that multimedia events generally consist of lower level components such as objects, scenes, and actions. By characterizing multimedia event videos with semantic attributes, one could exploit more informative cues for improved detection results. Much existing work obtains semantic attributes from images, which may be suboptimal for video analysis since these image-inferred attributes do not carry dynamic information that is essential for videos...
June 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641118/mechanisms-for-fast-cell-migration-in-complex-environments
#7
REVIEW
Pablo Vargas, Lucie Barbier, Pablo José Sáez, Matthieu Piel
Cell migration depends on a combination of the cell's intrinsic capacity to move and the proper interpretation of external cues. This multistep process enables leukocytes to travel long distances in organs in just a few hours. This fast migration is partly due to the leukocytes' high level of plasticity, which helps them to adapt to a changing environment. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the mechanisms used by leukocytes to move rapidly and efficiently in intricate anatomical landscapes. We shall focus on specific cytoskeletal rearrangements used by neutrophils and dendritic cells to migrate within confined environments...
June 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641092/nuclear-mechanotransduction-sensing-the-force-from-within
#8
REVIEW
Avathamsa Athirasala, Nivi Hirsch, Amnon Buxboim
The cell nucleus is a hallmark of eukaryotic evolution, where gene expression is regulated and the genome is replicated and repaired. Yet, in addition to complex molecular processes, the nucleus has also evolved to serve physical tasks that utilize its optical and mechanical properties. Nuclear mechanotransduction of externally applied forces and extracellular stiffness is facilitated by the physical connectivity of the extracellular environment, the cytoskeleton and the nucleoskeletal matrix of lamins and chromatin...
June 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636959/the-enteric-network-interactions-between-the-immune-and-nervous-systems-of-the-gut
#9
REVIEW
Bryan B Yoo, Sarkis K Mazmanian
Interactions between the nervous and immune systems enable the gut to respond to the variety of dietary products that it absorbs, the broad spectrum of pathogens that it encounters, and the diverse microbiome that it harbors. The enteric nervous system (ENS) senses and reacts to the dynamic ecosystem of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by translating chemical cues from the environment into neuronal impulses that propagate throughout the gut and into other organs in the body, including the central nervous system (CNS)...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634444/experience-dependency-of-reliance-on-local-visual-and-idiothetic-cues-for-spatial-representations-created-in-the-absence-of-distal-information
#10
Fabian Draht, Sijie Zhang, Abdelrahman Rayan, Fabian Schönfeld, Laurenz Wiskott, Denise Manahan-Vaughan
Spatial encoding in the hippocampus is based on a range of different input sources. To generate spatial representations, reliable sensory cues from the external environment are integrated with idiothetic cues, derived from self-movement, that enable path integration and directional perception. In this study, we examined to what extent idiothetic cues significantly contribute to spatial representations and navigation: we recorded place cells while rodents navigated towards two visually identical chambers in 180° orientation via two different paths in darkness and in the absence of reliable auditory or olfactory cues...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633908/dynamics-of-the-cell-division-orientation-of-granule-cell-precursors-during-cerebellar-development
#11
Satoshi Miyashita, Toma Adachi, Mariko Yamashita, Takayuki Sota, Mikio Hoshino
The cerebellar granule cell (GC) system provides a good model for studying neuronal development. In the external granule layer (EGL), granule cell precursors (GCPs) rapidly and continuously divide to produce numerous GCs as well as GCPs. In some brain regions, the orientation of cell division affects daughter cell fate, thus the direction of GCP division is related to whether it produces a GCP or a GC. Therefore, we tried to characterize the orientation of GCP division from embryonic to postnatal stages and to identify an environmental cue that regulates the orientation...
June 17, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630932/differential-intron-retention-in-jumonji-chromatin-modifier-genes-is-implicated-in-reptile-temperature-dependent-sex-determination
#12
Ira W Deveson, Clare E Holleley, James Blackburn, Jennifer A Marshall Graves, John S Mattick, Paul D Waters, Arthur Georges
In many vertebrates, sex of offspring is determined by external environmental cues rather than by sex chromosomes. In reptiles, for instance, temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) is common. Despite decades of work, the mechanism by which temperature is converted into a sex-determining signal remains mysterious. This is partly because it is difficult to distinguish the primary molecular events of TSD from the confounding downstream signatures of sexual differentiation. We use the Australian central bearded dragon, in which chromosomal sex determination is overridden at high temperatures to produce sex-reversed female offspring, as a unique model to identify TSD-specific features of the transcriptome...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630321/how-selective-severing-by-katanin-promotes-order-in-the-plant-cortical-microtubule-array
#13
Eva E Deinum, Simon H Tindemans, Jelmer J Lindeboom, Bela M Mulder
Plant morphogenesis requires differential and often asymmetric growth. A key role in controlling anisotropic expansion of individual cells is played by the cortical microtubule array. Although highly organized, the array can nevertheless rapidly change in response to internal and external cues. Experiments have identified the microtubule-severing enzyme katanin as a central player in controlling the organizational state of the array. Katanin action is required both for normal alignment and the adaptation of array orientation to mechanical, environmental, and developmental stimuli...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622330/sensory-noise-predicts-divisive-reshaping-of-receptive-fields
#14
Matthew Chalk, Paul Masset, Boris Gutkin, Sophie Deneve
In order to respond reliably to specific features of their environment, sensory neurons need to integrate multiple incoming noisy signals. Crucially, they also need to compete for the interpretation of those signals with other neurons representing similar features. The form that this competition should take depends critically on the noise corrupting these signals. In this study we show that for the type of noise commonly observed in sensory systems, whose variance scales with the mean signal, sensory neurons should selectively divide their input signals by their predictions, suppressing ambiguous cues while amplifying others...
June 16, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621811/multisensory-neural-integration-of-chemical-and-mechanical-signals
#15
REVIEW
Juan Antonio Sánchez-Alcañiz, Richard Benton
Chemosensation and mechanosensation cover an enormous spectrum of processes by which animals use information from the environment to adapt their behavior. For pragmatic reasons, these sensory modalities are commonly investigated independently. Recent advances, however, have revealed numerous situations in which they function together to control animals' actions. Highlighting examples from diverse vertebrates and invertebrates, we first discuss sensory receptors and neurons that have dual roles in the detection of chemical and mechanical stimuli...
June 16, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619182/evolution-of-circadian-rhythms-from-bacteria-to-human
#16
REVIEW
Utpal Bhadra, Nirav Thakkar, Paromita Das, Manika Pal Bhadra
The human body persists in its rhythm as per its initial time zone, and transition always occur according to solar movements around the earth over 24 h. While traveling across different latitudes and longitudes, at the pace exceeding the earth's movement, the changes in the external cues exceed the level of toleration of the body's biological clock. This poses an alteration in our physiological activities of sleep-wake pattern, mental alertness, organ movement, and eating habits, causing them to temporarily lose the track of time...
July 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607158/the-two-component-signal-transduction-system-vxrab-positively-regulates-vibrio-cholerae-biofilm-formation
#17
Jennifer K Teschler, Andrew T Cheng, Fitnat H Yildiz
Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs), typically composed of a sensor histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR), are the primary mechanism by which pathogenic bacteria sense and respond to extracellular signals. The pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae is no exception and encodes for 52 RR genes. Using in frame deletion mutants of each RR gene, we performed a systematic analysis of their role in V. cholerae biofilm formation. We determined that 7 RRs impacted expression of an essential biofilm gene and found that the recently characterized RR, VxrB, regulates expression of key structural and regulatory biofilm-genes in V...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603772/compensatory-shifts-in-visual-perception-are-associated-with-hallucinations-in-lewy-body-disorders
#18
Alan Robert Bowman, Vicki Bruce, Christopher J Colbourn, Daniel Collerton
Visual hallucinations are a common, distressing, and disabling symptom of Lewy body and other diseases. Current models suggest that interactions in internal cognitive processes generate hallucinations. However, these neglect external factors. Pareidolic illusions are an experimental analogue of hallucinations. They are easily induced in Lewy body disease, have similar content to spontaneous hallucinations, and respond to cholinesterase inhibitors in the same way. We used a primed pareidolia task with hallucinating participants with Lewy body disorders (n = 16), non-hallucinating participants with Lewy body disorders (n = 19), and healthy controls (n = 20)...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601097/college-students-health-behavior-clusters-differences-by-sex
#19
Sarah Colby, Wenjun Zhou, Morgan F Sowers, Karla Shelnutt, Melissa D Olfert, Jesse Morrell, Mallory Koenings, Tandalayo Kidd, Tanya M Horacek, Geoffrey W Greene, Onikia Brown, Adrienne A White, Sharon L Hoerr, Carol Byrd-Bredbenner, Kendra K Kattelmann
OBJECTIVE: The study purpose was to identify clusters of weight-related behaviors by sex in a college student populations. METHODS: We conducted secondary data analysis from online surveys and physical assessments collected in Project Young Adults Eating and Active for Health (YEAH) with a convenience sample of students on 13 college campuses in the United States. We performed 2-step cluster analysis by sex to identify subgroups with homogeneous characteristics and behaviors...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593097/the-effect-of-electrical-stimulation-versus-sham-cueing-on-scapular-position-during-exercise-in-patients-with-scapular-dyskinesis
#20
Deborah L Walker, Cheryl J Hickey, Mason B Tregoning
BACKGROUND: Conventional therapeutic exercise programs are commonly used to treat patients with scapular dyskinesis. There are no studies that have examined traditional therapeutic exercise programs with the addition of remote triggered electrical stimulation (ES) to affect the position of the scapula (using spine to scapular border distance as a reference point) during the performance of exercises that have lower upper trapezius (UT) to lower trapezius (LT) ratio exercises. PURPOSE: The purpose of this pilot study was to compare scapular position after performance of three low UT/LT ratio therapeutic exercises in two conditions, electrical stimulation (ESTherex) and sham electrical stimulation (ShamTherex) in asymptomatic persons who were positive for scapular dyskinesis...
June 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
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