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external cue

David De Vito, Anne E Ferrey, Mark J Fenske, Naseem Al-Aidroos
Ignoring visual stimuli in the external environment leads to decreased liking of those items, a phenomenon attributed to the affective consequences of attentional inhibition. Here we investigated the generality of this "distractor devaluation" phenomenon by asking whether ignoring stimuli represented internally within visual working memory has the same affective consequences. In two experiments we presented participants with two or three visual stimuli and then, after the stimuli were no longer visible, provided an attentional cue indicating which item in memory was the target they would have to later recall, and which were task-irrelevant distractors...
March 15, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Manoj Kumar Sharma, Thamil Selvan Palanichamy
Increase in the use of technology has led to an increase in various kinds of technological addictions. A range of psychological and behavioural theories has been proposed to explain technology addictions. These include learning theories, reward-deficiency hypothesis, impulsivity, cognitive-behavioural models and social skills deficiency theories. While no particular form of psychological intervention has been suggested as being the golden standard for its treatment, the most frequently investigated approaches have been cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and motivational enhancement therapy...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Michael Cleary-Gaffney, Andrew N Coogan
Circadian rhythms are recurring patterns in a range of behavioural, physiological and molecular parameters that display periods of near 24 h, and are underpinned by an endogenous biological timekeeping system. Circadian clocks are increasingly recognised as being key for health. Environmental light is the key stimulus that synchronises the internal circadian system with the external time cues. There are emergent health concerns regarding increasing worldwide prevalence of electric lighting, especially man-made light-at-night, and light's impact on the circadian system may be central to these effects...
March 11, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Shahaf Weiss, Dori Derdikman
Since their discovery, mammalian head-direction (HD) cells have been extensively researched in terms of sensory origins, external cue control and circuitry. However, the relationship of HD cells to behavior is not yet fully understood. In the current review, we examine the anatomical clues for information flow in the HD circuit, and an emerging body of evidence that links between neural activity of HD cells and spatial orientation. We hypothesize from results obtained in spatial orientation tasks involving HD cells, that when properly aligned with available external cues, the HD signal could be used for guiding rats to a goal location...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Xu Liu, Xingliang Hou
The phytohormones gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) are widely recognized as essential endogenous regulators that mostly play antagonistic roles in plant developmental processes and environmental responses. A variety of both internal and external cues oppositely regulate GA and ABA biosynthesis and catabolism, which directly and indirectly affect their signaling pathways and subsequent responses. Recent discoveries have revealed direct molecular links between GA- and ABA-signaling components, which provide novel insights into their antagonistic regulation...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jea Kwon, Min Gu Park, Seung Eun Lee, C Justin Lee
Circadian rhythm is defined as a 24-hour biological oscillation, which persists even without any external cues but also can be re-entrained by various environmental cues. One of the widely accepted circadian rhythm behavioral experiment is measuring the wheel-running activity (WRA) of rodents. However, the price for commercially available WRA recording system is not easily affordable for researchers due to high-cost implementation of sensors for wheel rotation. Here, we developed a cost-effective and comprehensive system for circadian rhythm recording by measuring the house-keeping activities (HKA)...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Elizabeth Harford-Wright, Julie Gavard
Glioblastoma multiforme are mortifying brain tumors that contain a subpopulation of tumor cells with stem-like properties, termed as glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs). These GSCs constitute an autonomous reservoir of aberrant cells able to initiate, maintain, and repopulate the tumor mass. A new therapeutic strategy would consist of targeting the GSC population. The GSCs are situated in perivascular niches, closely associated with brain microvascular endothelial cells thereby involved in bidirectional molecular and cellular interactions...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Ki Eun Shin, Michelle G Newman
Even after successful exposure, relapse is not uncommon. Based on the retrieval model of fear extinction (e.g., Vervliet, Craske, & Hermans, 2013), return of fear can occur after exposure due to an elapse of time (spontaneous recovery) or change in context (contextual renewal). The use of external salient stimuli presented throughout extinction (i.e., retrieval cues [RCs]) has been suggested as a potential solution to this problem (Bouton, 2002). The current study examined whether RCs attenuated return of fear in individuals with public speaking anxiety...
March 2018: Behavior Therapy
Attila Németh, Ingrid Grummt
The nucleolus is the largest nuclear sub-compartment in which the early steps of ribosome biogenesis take place. It also plays an essential role in the assembly and function of non-ribosomal ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes, controls cell cycle progression and senses environmental stress. The spatial organization and dynamics of nucleolar proteins and RNA is regulated at different structural levels, which finally determine nucleolar architecture. The intimate link between nucleolar structure and function is reflected by transcription-dependent changes in nucleolus-associated chromatin, overall morphological alterations in response to external cues, and the liquid droplet-like behavior of nucleolar compartments...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Alberto M Martelli, Francesca Buontempo, James A McCubrey
Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is the kinase subunit of two structurally and functionally distinct large multiprotein complexes, referred to as mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2. mTORC1 and mTORC2 play key physiological roles as they control anabolic and catabolic processes in response to external cues in a variety of tissues and organs. However, mTORC1 and mTORC2 activities are deregulated in widespread human diseases, including cancer. Cancer cells take advantage of mTOR oncogenic signaling to drive their proliferation, survival, metabolic transformation, and metastatic potential...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Stephanie L Harrison, Kate E Laver, Kayla Ninnis, Cherie Rowett, Natasha A Lannin, Maria Crotty
PURPOSE: To examine in people with neurological disorders, which method/s of providing external cues to improve task performance are most effective. METHODS: Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were systematically searched. Two reviewers independently screened, extracted data, and assessed the quality of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). RESULTS: Twenty six studies were included. Studies examined a wide-range of cues including visual, tactile, auditory, verbal, and multi-component cues...
March 9, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Wayne I Doyle, Julian P Meeks
Steroids play vital roles in animal physiology across species, and the production of specific steroids is associated with particular internal biological functions. The internal functions of steroids are, in most cases, quite clear. However, an important feature of many steroids -- their chemical stability -- allows these molecules to play secondary, external roles as chemical messengers after their excretion via urine, feces, or other shed substances. The presence of steroids in animal excretions has long been appreciated, but their capacity to serve as chemosignals has not received as much attention...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Oda Bjørklund, Jay Belsky, Lars Wichstrøm, Silje Steinsbekk
Children's eating behavior influences energy intake and thus weight through choices of type and amount of food. One type of eating behavior, food responsiveness, defined as eating in response to external cues such as the sight and smell of food, is particularly related to increased caloric intake and weight. Because little is known about the potential determinants of such behavior, we focus herein on child and parent predictors of food responsiveness in a large community sample of Norwegian 6-year-olds, followed up at ages 8 and 10...
March 8, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Darwin O Larco, Bradly M Bauman, Madelaine Cho-Clark, Shaila K Mani, T John Wu
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons originate outside the central nervous system (CNS) in the nasal placode where their migration to the basal forebrain is dependent on the integration of multiple signaling cues during development. The proper migration and establishment of the GnRH neuronal population within the CNS are critical for normal pubertal onset and reproductive function. The endopeptidase EP24.15 is expressed along the migratory path of GnRH neurons and cleaves the full-length GnRH to generate the metabolite GnRH-(1-5)...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Sorour Ahmadyan, Mahboubeh Kabiri, Noushin Tasharofi, Simzar Hosseinzadeh, Mousa Kehtari, Athena Hajari Zadeh, Masoud Soleimani, Ali Farazmand, Hana Hanaee-Ahvaz
Stem cells' fate during in vitro differentiation is influenced by biophysicochemical cues. Osmotic stress has proved to enhance chondrocyte marker expression, however its potent negative impacts had never been surveyed. We questioned whether specific osmotic conditions, regarding the osmolyte agent, could benefit chondrogenesis while dampening undesired concomitant hypertrophy and inflammatory responses. To examine the potential side effects of hypertonicity, we assessed cell proliferation as well as chondrogenic and hypertrophic marker expression of human Adipose Derived-MSC after a two week induction in chondrogenic media with either NaCl or Sorbitol, as the osmolyte agent to reach a +100 mOsm hypertonic condition...
February 28, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Cristiano Cuppini, Barry E Stein, Benjamin A Rowland
The ability to integrate information across its multiple senses enhances the brain's ability to detect, localize, and identify external events. This process has been well-documented in single neurons in the superior colliculus (SC), which synthesize concordant combinations of visual, auditory, and/or somatosensory signals to enhance the vigor of their responses. This increases the physiological salience of cross-modal events and, in turn, the speed and accuracy of SC-mediated behavioral responses to them. However, this capability is not an innate feature of the circuit, and only develops postnatally after the animal acquires sufficient experience with covariant cross-modal events to form links between their modality-specific components...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Kun Guo, Yoshi Soornack, Rebecca Settle
Our capability of recognizing facial expressions of emotion under different viewing conditions implies the existence of an invariant expression representation. As natural visual signals are often distorted and our perceptual strategy changes with external noise level, it is essential to understand how expression perception is susceptible to face distortion and whether the same facial cues are used to process high- and low-quality face images. We systematically manipulated face image resolution (experiment 1) and blur (experiment 2), and measured participants' expression categorization accuracy, perceived expression intensity and associated gaze patterns...
February 26, 2018: Vision Research
Stefano Coletta, Markus Frey, Khaled Nasr, Patricia Preston-Ferrer, Andrea Burgalossi
In order to support navigation, the firing of head-direction (HD) neurons must be tightly anchored to the external space. Indeed, inputs from external landmarks can rapidly reset the preferred direction of HD cells. Landmark stimuli have often been simulated as excitatory inputs from 'visual cells' (encoding landmark information) to the HD attractor network; when excitatory visual inputs are sufficiently strong, preferred directions switch abruptly to the landmark location. In the present work, we tested whether mimicking such inputs via juxtacellular stimulation would be sufficient for shifting the tuning of individual presubicular HD cells, recorded in passively-rotated male rats...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Mª Jesús Rodríguez-Palero, Ana López-Díaz, Roxane Marsac, José-Eduardo Gomes, María Olmedo, Marta Artal-Sanz
The study of mechanisms that govern feeding behaviour and its related disorders is a matter of global health interest. The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans is becoming a model organism of choice to study these conserved pathways. C. elegans feeding depends on the contraction of the pharynx (pumping). Thanks to the worm transparency, pumping can be directly observed under a stereoscope. Therefore, C. elegans feeding has been historically investigated by counting pharyngeal pumping or by other indirect approaches...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tom Salomon, Rotem Botvinik-Nezer, Tony Gutentag, Rani Gera, Roni Iwanir, Maya Tamir, Tom Schonberg
Recent findings show that preferences for food items can be modified without external reinforcements using the cue-approach task. In the task, the mere association of food item images with a neutral auditory cue and a speeded button press, resulted in enhanced preferences for the associated stimuli. In a series of 10 independent samples with a total of 255 participants, we show for the first time that using this non-reinforced method we can enhance preferences for faces, fractals and affective images, as well as snack foods, using auditory, visual and even aversive cues...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
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