keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

external cue

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131744/not-doomed-to-repeat-enhanced-mpfc-tracking-of-errors-promotes-adaptive-behavior-during-adolescence
#1
Ethan M McCormick, Eva H Telzer
Feedback information is one of the most powerful forces that promotes learning, providing guidance for changes to ongoing behavioral patterns. Previous examinations of feedback learning have largely relied on explicit feedback based on task performance. However, learning is not restricted to explicit feedback and likely involves other forms of more subtle feedback cues. One potential form of this kind of learning may involve internally generated feedback in response to error commission. Whether this error-related response prompts neural and behavioral adaptation that overlaps with, or is distinct from, those evoked by external feedback is largely unknown...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128736/optimal-practice-conditions-enhance-the-benefits-of-gradually-increasing-error-opportunities-on-retention-of-a-stepping-sequence-task
#2
Danielle Levac, Kate Driscoll, Jessica Galvez, Kathleen Mercado, Lindsey O'Neil
INTRODUCTION: Physical therapists should implement practice conditions that promote motor skill learning after neurological injury. Errorful and errorless practice conditions are effective for different populations and tasks. Errorful learning provides opportunities for learners to make task-relevant choices. Enhancing learner autonomy through choice opportunities is a key component of the Optimizing Performance through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning (OPTIMAL) theory of motor learning...
November 9, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127388/brief-targeted-memory-reactivation-during-the-awake-state-enhances-memory-stability-and-benefits-the-weakest-memories
#3
Arielle Tambini, Alice Berners-Lee, Lila Davachi
Reactivation of representations corresponding to recent experience is thought to be a critical mechanism supporting long-term memory stabilization. Targeted memory reactivation, or the re-exposure of recently learned cues, seeks to induce reactivation and has been shown to benefit later memory when it takes place during sleep. However, despite recent evidence for endogenous reactivation during post-encoding awake periods, less work has addressed whether awake targeted memory reactivation modulates memory. Here, we found that brief (50 ms) visual stimulus re-exposure during a repetitive foil task enhanced the stability of cued versus uncued associations in memory...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126997/changes-in-the-time-of-day-of-conditioning-with-respect-to-the-pre-exposure-interfere-with-the-latent-inhibition-of-conditioned-taste-aversion-in-rats
#4
Andrés Molero-Chamizo
In rats, the reduction of the magnitude of a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) that occurs after taste pre-exposures (that is, the latent inhibition of CTA) can be attenuated by contextual changes of the external cues in the conditioning stage. Similarly, circadian internal cues such as those induced by the time of day may also modulate the magnitude of the taste aversion. Under a long period of temporal-contextual habituation, the latent inhibition of CTA is reduced if the pre-exposure and conditioning stages occur at different times of day...
November 7, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123465/autoimmunity-as-a-driving-force-of-cognitive-evolution
#5
Serge Nataf
In the last decades, increasingly robust experimental approaches have formally demonstrated that autoimmunity is a physiological process involved in a large range of functions including cognition. On this basis, the recently enunciated "brain superautoantigens" theory proposes that autoimmunity has been a driving force of cognitive evolution. It is notably suggested that the immune and nervous systems have somehow co-evolved and exerted a mutual selection pressure benefiting to both systems. In this two-way process, the evolutionary-determined emergence of neurons expressing specific immunogenic antigens (brain superautoantigens) has exerted a selection pressure on immune genes shaping the T-cell repertoire...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120193/feel-the-way-with-a-vibrotactile-compass-does-a-navigational-aid-aid-navigation
#6
Steven M Weisberg, Daniel Badgio, Anjan Chatterjee
Knowing where north is provides a navigator with invaluable information for learning and recalling a space, particularly in places with limited navigational cues, like complex indoor environments. Although north is effectively used by orienteers, pilots, and military personnel, very little is known about whether nonexpert populations can or will use north to create an accurate representation of an indoor space. In the current study, we taught people 2 nonoverlapping routes through a complex indoor environment, with which they were not familiar-a university hospital with few windows and several turns...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119945/mechanical-force-induces-mitochondrial-fission
#7
Sebastian Carsten Johannes Helle, Qian Feng, Mathias J Aebersold, Luca Hirt, Raphael R Grüter, Afshin Vahid, Andrea Sirianni, Serge Mostowy, Jess G Snedeker, Anđela Šarić, Timon Idema, Tomaso Zambelli, Benoît Kornmann
Eukaryotic cells are densely packed with macromolecular complexes and intertwining organelles, continually transported and reshaped. Intriguingly, organelles avoid clashing and entangling with each other in such limited space. Mitochondria form extensive networks constantly remodeled by fission and fusion. Here, we show that mitochondrial fission is triggered by mechanical forces. Mechano-stimulation of mitochondria - via encounter with motile intracellular pathogens, via external pressure applied by an atomic force microscope, or via cell migration across uneven microsurfaces - results in the recruitment of the mitochondrial fission machinery, and subsequent division...
November 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119218/odor-cueing-during-slow-wave-sleep-benefits-memory-independently-of-low-cholinergic-tone
#8
Jens G Klinzing, Sabine Kugler, Surjo R Soekadar, Björn Rasch, Jan Born, Susanne Diekelmann
RATIONALE: Sleep-dependent memory consolidation depends on the concerted reactivation of memories in the hippocampo-neocortical system. The communication of reactivated information from the hippocampus to the neocortex is assumed to be enabled by low levels of acetylcholine, particularly during slow-wave sleep (SWS). Recent studies suggest that the reactivation of memories does not only occur spontaneously but can also be externally triggered by re-presenting learning-associated cues during sleep...
November 8, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109698/the-emerging-facets-of-non-cancerous-warburg-effect
#9
Alyaa M Abdel-Haleem, Nathan E Lewis, Neema Jamshidi, Katsuhiko Mineta, Xin Gao, Takashi Gojobori
The Warburg effect (WE), or aerobic glycolysis, is commonly recognized as a hallmark of cancer and has been extensively studied for potential anti-cancer therapeutics development. Beyond cancer, the WE plays an important role in many other cell types involved in immunity, angiogenesis, pluripotency, and infection by pathogens (e.g., malaria). Here, we review the WE in non-cancerous context as a "hallmark of rapid proliferation." We observe that the WE operates in rapidly dividing cells in normal and pathological states that are triggered by internal and external cues...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107559/genetic-intersection-of-tsix-and-hedgehog-signaling-during-the-initiation-of-x-chromosome-inactivation
#10
Brian C Del Rosario, Amanda M Del Rosario, Anthony Anselmo, Peggy I Wang, Ruslan I Sadreyev, Jeannie T Lee
X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) silences one X chromosome in the female mammal and is essential to peri-implantation development. XCI is thought to be cell autonomous, with all factors required being produced within each cell. Nevertheless, external cues may exist. Here, we search for such developmental signals by combining bioinformatic, biochemical, and genetic approaches. Using ex vivo and in vivo models, we identify the Hedgehog (HH) paracrine system as a candidate signaling cascade. HH signaling keeps XCI in check in pluripotent cells and is transduced by GLI transcription factors to binding sites in Tsix, the antisense repressor of XCI...
November 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106697/navigational-efficiency-in-a-biased-and-correlated-random-walk-model-of-individual-animal-movement
#11
Joseph D Bailey, Jamie Wallis, Edward A Codling
Understanding how an individual animal is able to navigate through its environment is a key question in movement ecology that can give insight into observed movement patterns and the mechanisms behind them. Efficiency of navigation is important for behavioural processes at a range of different spatio-temporal scales, including foraging and migration. Random walk models provide a standard framework for modelling individual animal movement and navigation. Here we consider a vector-weighted biased and correlated random walk (BCRW) model for directed movement (taxis), where external navigation cues are balanced with forward persistence...
November 6, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104367/triggers-of-the-postural-display-of-courtship-in-drosophila-persimilis-flies
#12
Mónica Vega Hernández, Caroline Cecile Gabrielle Fabre
D. persimilis courtship shows some flexibility and courting males sometimes perform an elaborate postural display in addition to the standard courtship behaviours shared by most Drosophila species. This postural display includes the acrobatic contortion and tremulation of their abdomen, accompanied by the generation of substrate-borne vibrations, and they proffer a nutritional droplet to the female. Here, we use courtship and choice assays to ask what triggers this display and what advantages males may gain from it during courtship...
2017: Journal of Insect Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103048/treadmill-training-with-cues-and-feedback-improves-gait-in-people-with-more-advanced-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Valeria Studer, Roberto Maestri, Ilaria Clerici, Letizia Spina, Ilaria Zivi, Davide Ferrazzoli, Giuseppe Frazzitta
BACKGROUND: Gait disturbances in Parkinson's disease (PD) are highly disabling and poorly responsive to drugs, especially in advanced stages. While the efficacy of a treadmill training based on external feedback and cues (treadmill-plus) on gait disturbances in early PD stages is demonstrated, no definitive evidence exists about advanced stages. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and the effects of a treadmill-plus training on gait disturbances in advanced PD...
2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097024/health-belief-model-offers-opportunities-for-designing-weight-management-interventions-for-college-students
#14
Laura H McArthur, Alysse Riggs, Franchesca Uribe, Trent J Spaulding
OBJECTIVE: Identify weight-related beliefs of college students and test the predictive power of the Health Belief Model for body mass index (BMI). DESIGN: Cross-sectional online survey with beliefs measured on 5-point scales. SETTING: University in North Carolina. PARTICIPANTS: Undergraduates (n = 516; 91.9%), females (n = 399; 71.3%), white non-Hispanic students (n = 507; 86.2%), and 20.3% of overweight or obese status...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096327/early-visual-deprivation-prompts-the-use-of-body-centered-frames-of-reference-for-auditory-localization
#15
Tiziana Vercillo, Alessia Tonelli, Monica Gori
The effects of early visual deprivation on auditory spatial processing are controversial. Results from recent psychophysical studies show that people who were born blind have a spatial impairment in localizing sound sources within specific auditory settings, while previous psychophysical studies revealed enhanced auditory spatial abilities in early blind compared to sighted individuals. An explanation of why an auditory spatial deficit is sometimes observed within blind populations and its task-dependency remains to be clarified...
October 26, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072706/measuring-protein-structural-changes-on-a-proteome-wide-scale-using-limited-proteolysis-coupled-mass-spectrometry
#16
Simone Schopper, Abdullah Kahraman, Pascal Leuenberger, Yuehan Feng, Ilaria Piazza, Oliver Müller, Paul J Boersema, Paola Picotti
Protein structural changes induced by external perturbations or internal cues can profoundly influence protein activity and thus modulate cellular physiology. A number of biophysical approaches are available to probe protein structural changes, but these are not applicable to a whole proteome in a biological extract. Limited proteolysis-coupled mass spectrometry (LiP-MS) is a recently developed proteomics approach that enables the identification of protein structural changes directly in their complex biological context on a proteome-wide scale...
November 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070628/functional-roles-of-three-cues-that-pervade-the-brain-electro-magnetic-field-oxygen-and-carbon-dioxide
#17
Luigi F Agnati, Diego Guidolin, Guido Maura, Manuela Marcoli
The brain integrative actions depend on the exchange of information among its computational elements. Hence, such a phenomenon plays the key role in driving the complex dynamics of central nervous system (CNS), in which true computations interact with non-computational dynamical processes to generate brain representations of the body in the external world, hence the finalistic behaviour of the organism. In this context, it should be pointed out that beside the intercellular interactions mediated by classical electro-chemical signals also other types of interactions, namely 'cue' and 'coercion' appear to be exploited by the system to achieve its function...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065025/how-and-why-preclerkship-students-set-learning-goals-and-assess-their-achievement-a-qualitative-exploration
#18
Pawel M Kindler, Joanna Bates, Eric Hui, Kevin W Eva
PURPOSE: Health professionals are expected to routinely assess their weaknesses, set learning goals, and monitor their achievement. Unfortunately, it is well known that these professionals often struggle with effectively integrating external data and self-perceptions. To know how best to intervene, it is critical that the health professionals community understand the cues students and practitioners use to assess their abilities. Here the authors aimed to gain insights into how and why medical students set learning goals, monitor their progress, and demonstrate their learning...
November 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062053/spontaneous-circadian-rhythms-in-a-cold-adapted-natural-isolate-of-aureobasidium-pullulans
#19
Diana L Franco, Paulo Canessa, Nicolás Bellora, Sebastián Risau-Gusman, Consuelo Olivares-Yañez, Rodrigo Pérez-Lara, Diego Libkind, Luis F Larrondo, Luciano Marpegan
Circadian systems enable organisms to synchronize their physiology to daily and seasonal environmental changes relying on endogenous pacemakers that oscillate with a period close to 24 h even in the absence of external timing cues. The oscillations are achieved by intracellular transcriptional/translational feedback loops thoroughly characterized for many organisms, but still little is known about the presence and characteristics of circadian clocks in fungi other than Neurospora crassa. We sought to characterize the circadian system of a natural isolate of Aureobasidium pullulans, a cold-adapted yeast bearing great biotechnological potential...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060475/evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-different-external-cues-on-non-invasive-brain-computer-interfaces
#20
Sarah Pearce, Jennifer Boger, Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting, Dario Farina, Ning Jiang
Although BCI technology has vastly improved in the last few years, very little research has been done into how different types of cues may affect the resulting signal. We have conducted preliminary work to examine the effects of using auditory versus visual cues on MRCP signal detection. While our sample size was small (n=5), the data for auditory and visual cues were not statistically different for young, healthy participants, suggesting that they are comparable for the parameters analyzed. Our results indicated that audio and visual cues likely produce similar MRCP signals, which is useful information for designing non-invasive BCIs...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
keyword
keyword
33400
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"