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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781093/hippocampal-place-cell-encoding-of-sloping-terrain
#1
Blake S Porter, Robert Schmidt, David K Bilkey
Effective navigation relies on knowledge of one's environment. A challenge to effective navigation is accounting for the time and energy costs of routes. Irregular terrain in ecological environments poses a difficult navigational problem as organisms ought to avoid effortful slopes to minimize travel costs. Route planning and navigation have previously been shown to involve hippocampal place cells and their ability to encode and store information about an organism's environment. However, little is known about how place cells may encode the slope of space and associated energy costs as experiments are traditionally carried out in flat, horizontal environments...
May 21, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780748/cell-adhesion-and-matrix-stiffness-coordinating-cancer-cell-invasion-and-metastasis
#2
REVIEW
Vasiliki Gkretsi, Triantafyllos Stylianopoulos
Metastasis is a multistep process in which tumor extracellular matrix (ECM) and cancer cell cytoskeleton interactions are pivotal. ECM is connected, through integrins, to the cell's adhesome at cell-ECM adhesion sites and through them to the actin cytoskeleton and various downstream signaling pathways that enable the cell to respond to external stimuli in a coordinated manner. Cues from cell-adhesion proteins are fundamental for defining the invasive potential of cancer cells, and many of these proteins have been proposed as potent targets for inhibiting cancer cell invasion and thus, metastasis...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780300/encoding-of-sucrose-s-palatability-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-and-its-modulation-by-exteroceptive-auditory-cues
#3
Miguel Villavicencio, Mario G Moreno, Sidney A Simon, Ranier Gutierrez
Although the palatability of sucrose is the primary reason for why it is over consumed, it is not well understood how it is encoded in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh), a brain region involved in reward, feeding, and sensory/motor transformations. Similarly, untouched are issues regarding how an external auditory stimulus affects sucrose palatability and, in the NAcSh, the neuronal correlates of this behavior. To address these questions in behaving rats, we investigated how food-related auditory cues modulate sucrose's palatability...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778521/vasculature-on-the-clock-circadian-rhythm-and-vascular-dysfunction
#4
REVIEW
Sandra Crnko, Martin Cour, Linda W Van Laake, Sandrine Lecour
The master mammalian circadian clock (i.e. central clock), located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, orchestrates the synchronization of the daily behavioural and physiological rhythms to better adapt the organism to the external environment in an anticipatory manner. This central clock is entrained by a variety of signals, the best established being light and food. However, circadian cycles are not simply the consequences of these two cues but are generated by endogenous circadian clocks...
May 17, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771359/neural-bases-of-social-communicative-intentions-in-speech
#5
Nele Hellbernd, Daniela Sammler
Our ability to understand others' communicative intentions in speech is key to successful social interaction. Indeed, misunderstanding an "excuse me" as apology, while meant as criticism, may have important consequences. Recent behavioural studies have provided evidence that prosody, i.e., vocal tone, is an important indicator for speakers' intentions. Using a novel audio-morphing paradigm, the present fMRI study examined the neurocognitive mechanisms that allow listeners to 'read' speakers' intents from vocal-prosodic patterns...
May 16, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770112/circadian-plasticity-in-the-brain-of-insects-and-rodents
#6
REVIEW
Wojciech Krzeptowski, Grzegorz Hess, Elżbieta Pyza
In both vertebrate and invertebrate brains, neurons, glial cells and synapses are plastic, which means that the physiology and structure of these components are modified in response to internal and external stimuli during development and in mature brains. The term plasticity has been introduced in the last century to describe experience-dependent changes in synapse strength and number. These changes result from local functional and morphological synapse modifications; however, these modifications also occur more commonly in pre- and postsynaptic neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768013/synergistic-effects-of-electrical-stimulation-and-aligned-nanofibrous-microenvironment-on-growth-behaviour-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#7
Lin Jin, Bin Hu, Zhanrong Li, Jingguo Li, Yanzheng Gao, Zhenling Wang, Jianhua Hao
Incontrollable cellular growth behaviour is a significant issue that severely affects the functional tissue formation and cellular protein expression. Development of natural extracellular matrix (ECM) like biomaterials to present microenvironment cues for the regulation of cell responses can effectively overcome this problem. The external simulation and topological characteristics as guiding cues are capable of providing diverse influences on cellular growth. Herein, we developed two dimensional aligned conductive nanofibers (2D-ACNFs) by electrospinning process and surface polymerization, and provided the effects of both alignment and electrical stimulation (ES) on cellular response of human mesenchymal cells (hMSCs)...
May 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762867/shaping-memory-consolidation-via-targeted-memory-reactivation-during-sleep
#8
REVIEW
Nicola Cellini, Alessandra Capuozzo
Recent studies have shown that the reactivation of specific memories during sleep can be modulated using external stimulation. Specifically, it has been reported that matching a sensory stimulus (e.g., odor or sound cue) with target information (e.g., pairs of words, pictures, and motor sequences) during wakefulness, and then presenting the cue alone during sleep, facilitates memory of the target information. Thus, presenting learned cues while asleep may reactivate related declarative, procedural, and emotional material, and facilitate the neurophysiological processes underpinning memory consolidation in humans...
May 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755599/nuclear-lamin-protein-c-is-linked-to-lineage-specific-whole-cell-mechanical-properties
#9
Rafael D González-Cruz, Jessica S Sadick, Vera C Fonseca, Eric M Darling
INTRODUCTION: Lamin proteins confer nuclear integrity and relay external mechanical cues that drive changes in gene expression. However, the influence these lamins have on whole-cell mechanical properties is unknown. We hypothesized that protein expression of lamins A, B1, and C would depend on the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton and correlate with cellular elasticity and viscoelasticity. METHODS: To test these hypotheses, we examined the protein expression of lamins A, B1, and C across five different cell lines with varied mechanical properties...
April 2018: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753729/controlled-microenvironments-to-evaluate-chemotactic-properties-of-cultured-m%C3%A3-ller-glia
#10
Juan Pena, Nihan Dulger, Tanya Singh, Jing Zhou, Robert Majeska, Stephen Redenti, Maribel Vazquez
Emerging therapies have begun to evaluate the abilities of Müller glial cells (MGCs) to protect and/or regenerate neurons following retina injury. The migration of donor cells is central to many reparative strategies, where cells must achieve appropriate positioning to facilitate localized repair. Although chemical cues have been implicated in the MGC migratory responses of numerous retinopathies, MGC-based therapies have yet to explore the extent to which external biochemical stimuli can direct MGC behavior...
May 10, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741449/the-influence-of-partner-status-and-sexual-behavior-on-college-women-s-consent-communication-and-feelings
#11
Tiffany Marcantonio, Kristen N Jozkowski, Jackie Wiersma-Mosley
Sexual consent has permeated mainstream discourse as a mechanism used to decrease rates of sexual assault and increase sex-positive communication. Women's external consent behaviors are frequently examined; however, research exploring their internal consent and feelings associated with sexual activity are understudied. The purpose of this study was to understand how partner status and sexual behavior at most recent sexual activity influence women's external/internal consent and feelings during sexual activity...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738617/sensory-attenuation-of-self-produced-signals-does-not-rely-on-self-specific-motor-predictions
#12
Jakob Kaiser, Simone Schütz-Bosbach
Sensory events produced by ourselves are known to lead to lower neural and perceptual impact than sensory events from other environmental sources. This sensory attenuation is widely assumed to result from control processes that are specific to our own motor actions, potentially helping us to distinguish effects produced by ourselves and others. However, previous research cannot rule out that the putative self-attenuation in fact reflect actor-independent, general predictive mechanisms, which, in direct comparison, just highlight external events due to lower predictability of their onset and thus higher surprise...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737878/involvement-of-cortisol-and-sirtuin1-during-the-response-to-stress-of-hypothalamic-circadian-system-and-food-intake-related-peptides-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#13
Fatemeh Naderi, Juan Hernández-Pérez, Mauro Chivite, José L Soengas, Jesús M Míguez, Marcos A López-Patiño
Stress is conditioning animal welfare by negatively affecting a wide range of physiological and behavioral functions. This may be applied to circadian physiology and food intake. Cortisol, the stress-related hormone, may mediate such effect of stress, but other indirect mediators might be considered, such as sirtuin1. Then, either the independent modulatory effect or the existence of any interaction between mediators may be responsible. The circadian system is the main modulator of several integrative mechanisms at both central and peripheral levels that are rhythmically presented, thus influencing different processes such as food intake...
May 8, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733624/external-modulation-of-the-sustained-attention-network-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Nadine M Richard, Charlene O'Connor, Ayan Dey, Ian H Robertson, Brian Levine
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with impairments in processing speed as well as higher-level cognitive functions that depend on distributed neural networks, such as regulating and sustaining attention. Although exogenous alerting cues have been shown to support patients in sustaining attentive, goal-directed behavior, the neural correlates of this rehabilitative effect are unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of moderate to severe TBI on activity and functional connectivity in the well-documented right-lateralized frontal-subcortical-parietal sustained attention network, and to assess the effects of alerting cues...
May 7, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724684/the-neural-bases-of-interoceptive-encoding-and-recall-in-healthy-adults-and-adults-with-depression
#15
Danielle C DeVille, Kara L Kerr, Jason A Avery, Kaiping Burrows, Jerzy Bodurka, Justin Feinstein, Sahib S Khalsa, Martin P Paulus, W Kyle Simmons
BACKGROUND: Theoretical models assert that the brain's interoceptive network links external stimuli with their interoceptive consequences, thereby supporting later recall of these associations to guide the selection of healthy behaviors. If these accounts are correct, previously reported interoceptive abnormalities in major depressive disorder (MDD) should lead to altered recall of associations between external stimuli and their interoceptive (somatic) consequences. To date, the processes underlying interoceptive recall have never been experimentally investigated...
March 27, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712774/eif4e-binding-proteins-1-and-2-limit-macrophage-anti-inflammatory-responses-through-translational-repression-of-il-10-and-cyclooxygenase-2
#16
Mirtha William, Louis-Philippe Leroux, Visnu Chaparro, Julie Lorent, Tyson E Graber, Marie-Noël M'Boutchou, Tania Charpentier, Aymeric Fabié, Charles M Dozois, Simona Stäger, Léon C van Kempen, Tommy Alain, Ola Larsson, Maritza Jaramillo
Macrophages represent one of the first lines of defense during infections and are essential for resolution of inflammation following pathogen clearance. Rapid activation or suppression of protein synthesis via changes in translational efficiency allows cells of the immune system, including macrophages, to quickly respond to external triggers or cues without de novo mRNA synthesis. The translational repressors eIF4E-binding proteins 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2 (4E-BP1/2) are central regulators of proinflammatory cytokine synthesis during viral and parasitic infections...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696392/prior-infections-or-defence-priming-what-determines-the-risk-of-trematode-infections-in-amphipod-hosts
#17
Olivia G McPherson, Olwyn C Friesen, Christian Selbach, Robert Poulin
Inducible defences against parasites that are only activated when needed can mitigate the cost of immune or behavioural evasion of parasites. Priming of the immune system and activation of behavioural defences can follow exposure to cues associated with imminent infection risk. In contrast, prior infection can cause immune depression or leave the host with less energy to defend itself against further infections. We investigate the priming of anti-parasite defences and the effect of prior infections in the amphipod Paracalliope fluviatilis, the second intermediate host of the trematode Coitocaecum parvum...
April 25, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696218/memory-focused-cognitive-therapy-for-cocaine-use-disorder-rationale-design-and-protocol-for-an-external-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
John Marsden, Camille Goetz, Tim Meynen, Luke Mitcheson, Garry Stillwell, Brian Eastwood, John Strang, Nick Grey
Introduction: Cocaine use disorder (CUD) is a debilitating condition characterised by maladaptive cocaine-related memories and impaired cognitive and behavioural control. There are no evidence-supported pharmacotherapies and only weakly effective psychological interventions specific for CUD. Our novel Memory-focused Cognitive Therapy (MFCT) aims to modify cocaine-related memories to reduce craving and drug use. Methods: This is a single-centre (outpatient), 15-week, two-arm, pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) to address feasibility, safety, quality and preliminary efficacy...
December 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692364/mitophagy-controls-beige-adipocyte-maintenance-through-a-parkin-dependent-and-ucp1-independent-mechanism
#19
Xiaodan Lu, Svetlana Altshuler-Keylin, Qiang Wang, Yong Chen, Carlos Henrique Sponton, Kenji Ikeda, Pema Maretich, Takeshi Yoneshiro, Shingo Kajimura
Beige adipocytes are an inducible form of mitochondria-enriched thermogenic adipocytes that emerge in response to external stimuli, such as chronic cold exposure. We have previously shown that after the withdrawal of external stimuli, beige adipocytes directly acquire a white fat-like phenotype through autophagy-mediated mitochondrial degradation. We investigated the upstream pathway that mediates mitochondrial clearance and report that Parkin-mediated mitophagy plays a key role in the beige-to-white adipocyte transition...
April 24, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673838/piezoelectric-materials-as-stimulatory-biomedical-materials-and-scaffolds-for-bone-repair
#20
REVIEW
Biranche Tandon, Jonny J Blaker, Sarah H Cartmell
The process of bone repair and regeneration requires multiple physiological cues including biochemical, electrical and mechanical - that act together to ensure functional recovery. Myriad materials have been explored as bioactive scaffolds to deliver these cues locally to the damage site, amongst these piezoelectric materials have demonstrated significant potential for tissue engineering and regeneration, especially for bone repair. Piezoelectric materials have been widely explored for power generation and harvesting, structural health monitoring, and use in biomedical devices...
April 16, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
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