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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089516/environmental-geometry-aligns-the-hippocampal-map-during-spatial-reorientation
#1
Alex T Keinath, Joshua B Julian, Russell A Epstein, Isabel A Muzzio
When a navigator's internal sense of direction is disrupted, she must rely on external cues to regain her bearings, a process termed spatial reorientation. Extensive research has demonstrated that the geometric shape of the environment exerts powerful control over reorientation behavior, but the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. Whereas some theories claim that geometry controls behavior through an allocentric mechanism potentially tied to the hippocampus, others postulate that disoriented navigators reach their goals by using an egocentric view-matching strategy...
January 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088066/activity-dependent-development-of-visual-receptive-fields
#2
REVIEW
Andrew Thompson, Alexandra Gribizis, Chinfei Chen, Michael C Crair
It is widely appreciated that neuronal activity contributes to the development of brain representations of the external world. In the visual system, in particular, it is well known that activity cooperates with molecular cues to establish the topographic organization of visual maps on a macroscopic scale [1,2] (Huberman et al., 2008; Cang and Feldheim, 2013), mapping axons in a retinotopic and eye-specific manner. In recent years, significant progress has been made in elucidating the role of activity in driving the finer-scale circuit refinement that shapes the receptive fields of individual cells...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081136/task-irrelevant-external-cues-can-influence-language-selection-in-voluntary-object-naming-evidence-from-hindi-english-bilinguals
#3
Divya Bhatia, Seema Gorur Prasad, Kaushik Sake, Ramesh Kumar Mishra
We examined if external cues such as other agents' actions can influence the choice of language during voluntary and cued object naming in bilinguals in three experiments. Hindi-English bilinguals first saw a cartoon waving at a color patch. They were then asked to either name a picture in the language of their choice (voluntary block) or to name in the instructed language (cued block). The colors waved at by the cartoon were also the colors used as language cues (Hindi or English). We compared the influence of the cartoon's choice of color on naming when speakers had to indicate their choice explicitly before naming (Experiment 1) as opposed to when they named directly on seeing the pictures (Experiment 2 and 3)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079678/sound-localization-in-patients-with-congential-unilateral-conductive-hearing-loss-with-a-transcutaneous-bone-conduction-implant
#4
Erich Vyskocil, Rudolfs Liepins, Alexandra Kaider, Michaela Blineder, Sasan Hamzavi
OBJECTIVE: There is no consensus regarding the benefit of implantable hearing aids in congenital unilateral conductive hearing loss (UCHL). This study aimed to measure sound source localization performance in patients with congenital UCHL and contralateral normal hearing who received a new bone conduction implant. STUDY DESIGN: Evaluation of within-subject performance differences for sound source localization in a horizontal plane. SETTING: Tertiary referral center...
January 10, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078966/visual-and-cross-modal-cues-increase-the-identification-of-overlapping-visual-stimuli-in-balint-s-syndrome
#5
Daniela D'Imperio, Michele Scandola, Valeria Gobbetto, Cristina Bulgarelli, Matteo Salgarello, Renato Avesani, Valentina Moro
INTRODUCTION: Cross-modal interactions improve the processing of external stimuli, particularly when an isolated sensory modality is impaired. When information from different modalities is integrated, object recognition is facilitated probably as a result of bottom-up and top-down processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of cross-modal stimulation in a case of simultanagnosia. METHOD: We report a detailed analysis of clinical symptoms and an (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) brain positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) study of a patient affected by Balint's syndrome, a rare and invasive visual-spatial disorder following bilateral parieto-occipital lesions...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077170/prosodic-processing-post-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review
#6
Gabriela Ilie, Michael D Cusimano, Wenshan Li
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors often report difficulties with understanding and producing paralinguistic cues, as well as understanding and producing basic communication tasks. However, a large range of communicative deficits in this population cannot be adequately explained by linguistic impairment. The review examines prosodic processing performance post-TBI, its relationship with injury severity, brain injury localization, recovery and co-occurring psychiatric or mental health issues post-TBI METHODS: A systematic review using several databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, LLBA (Linguistics and Language Behaviour Abstract) and Web of Science (January 1980 to May 2015), as well as a manual search of the cited references of the selected articles and the search cited features of PubMed was performed...
January 4, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076901/nuclear-factor-one-transcription-factors-as-epigenetic-regulators-in-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Mitchell Fane, Lachlan Harris, Aaron G Smith, Michael Piper
Tumour heterogeneity poses a distinct obstacle to therapeutic intervention. While the initiation of tumours across various physiological systems is frequently associated with signature mutations in genes that drive proliferation and bypass senescence, increasing evidence suggests that tumour progression and clonal diversity is driven at an epigenetic level. The tumour microenvironment plays a key role in driving diversity as cells adapt to demands during tumour growth, and is thought to drive certain subpopulations back to a stem cell-like state...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062793/self-and-conspecific-discrimination-between-unparasitized-and-parasitized-green-peach-aphid-hemiptera-aphididae-by-aphelinus-asychis-hymenoptera-aphelinidae
#8
Qifu Liang, Yujie Jia, Tongxian Liu
Aphelinus asychis Walker (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is a solitary koinobiont endoparasitoid, which parasitizes the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Host discrimination is the ability of a parasitoid to distinguish between unparasitized and parasitized hosts, so parasitoids can avoid wasting eggs and time. We determined the influence of host density (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 aphids per experienced parasitoid during a 24-h period) on egg distribution, and tested the effects of different time intervals (0, 24, 48, and 72 h) between successive ovipositions on host discrimination between unparasitized and self- or conspecific-parasitized aphids...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062561/sperm-sensory-signaling
#9
Dagmar Wachten, Jan F Jikeli, U Benjamin Kaupp
Fertilization is exceptionally complex and, depending on the species, happens in entirely different environments. External fertilizers in aquatic habitats, like marine invertebrates or fish, release their gametes into the seawater or freshwater, whereas sperm from most internal fertilizers like mammals cross the female genital tract to make their way to the egg. Various chemical and physical cues guide sperm to the egg. Quite generally, these cues enable signaling pathways that ultimately evoke a cellular Ca(2+) response that modulates the waveform of the flagellar beat and, hence, the swimming path...
January 6, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057451/the-critical-role-of-the-dorsal-fronto-median-cortex-in-voluntary-action-inhibition-a-tms-study
#10
Stefania C Ficarella, Lorella Battelli
BACKGROUND: Action inhibition is a complex decision process that can be triggered by external factors (exogenous) or internal decisions (endogenous). While the neuronal underpinnings of exogenous action inhibition have been extensively investigated, less is known about the brain areas responsible for endogenous action inhibition. OBJECTIVE: We used inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to test the causal role of two brain areas, the left dorsal fronto-median Cortex (dFMC) and the right Inferior Frontal Cortex (rIFC) in exogenous and endogenous action inhibition...
December 19, 2016: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054822/episodic-future-thinking-following-vmpfc-damage-impaired-event-construction-maintenance-or-narration
#11
Elena Bertossi, Vanessa Candela, Flavia De Luca, Elisa Ciaramelli
OBJECTIVE: Functional neuroimaging and lesion studies show that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is implicated in episodic future thinking (EFT), yet its role remains unclear. In this study, we sought to (a) confirm recent findings of impaired EFT in patients with lesions to the vmPFC (vmPFC patients) using a new task, and (b) investigate the influence of nonepisodic mechanisms, namely, narrative construction and working memory maintenance, on vmPFC patients' EFT performance...
January 5, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042038/exposure-to-food-cues-moderates-the-indirect-effect-of-reward-sensitivity-and-external-eating-via-implicit-eating-expectancies
#12
Aimee L Maxwell, Natalie J Loxton, Julie M Hennegan
Previous research has suggested that the expectancy "eating is rewarding" is one pathway driving the relationship between trait reward sensitivity and externally-driven eating. The aim of the current study was to extend previous research by examining the conditions under which the indirect effect of reward sensitivity and external eating via this eating expectancy occurs. Using a conditional indirect effects approach we tested the moderating effect of exposure to food cues (e.g., images) relative to non-food cues on the association between reward sensitivity and external eating, via eating expectancies...
December 29, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025055/changes-in-the-distribution-of-sustained-attention-alter-the-perceived-structure-of-visual-space
#13
Francesca C Fortenbaugh, Lynn C Robertson, Michael Esterman
Visual spatial attention is a critical process that allows for the selection and enhanced processing of relevant objects and locations. While studies have shown attentional modulations of perceived location and the representation of distance information across multiple objects, there remains disagreement regarding what influence spatial attention has on the underlying structure of visual space. The present study utilized a method of magnitude estimation in which participants must judge the location of briefly presented targets within the boundaries of their individual visual fields in the absence of any other objects or boundaries...
December 30, 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018204/bayesian-analysis-of-perceived-eye-level
#14
Elaine E Orendorff, Laurynas Kalesinskas, Robert T Palumbo, Mark V Albert
To accurately perceive the world, people must efficiently combine internal beliefs and external sensory cues. We introduce a Bayesian framework that explains the role of internal balance cues and visual stimuli on perceived eye level (PEL)-a self-reported measure of elevation angle. This framework provides a single, coherent model explaining a set of experimentally observed PEL over a range of experimental conditions. Further, it provides a parsimonious explanation for the additive effect of low fidelity cues as well as the averaging effect of high fidelity cues, as also found in other Bayesian cue combination psychophysical studies...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017879/circadian-rhythms-time-restricted-feeding-and-healthy-aging
#15
REVIEW
Emily N C Manoogian, Satchidananda Panda
Circadian rhythms optimize physiology and health by temporally coordinating cellular function, tissue function, and behavior. These endogenous rhythms dampen with age and thus compromise temporal coordination. Feeding-fasting patterns are an external cue that profoundly influence the robustness of daily biological rhythms. Erratic eating patterns can disrupt the temporal coordination of metabolism and physiology leading to chronic diseases that are also characteristic of aging. However, sustaining a robust feeding-fasting cycle, even without altering nutrition quality or quantity, can prevent or reverse these chronic diseases in experimental models...
December 23, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017731/consistent-individual-variation-in-day-night-and-gnrh-induced-testosterone-concentrations-in-house-sparrows-passer-domesticus
#16
Katie B Needham, Ned A Dochtermann, Timothy J Greives
The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) initiating the endocrine cascade, regulates testosterone secretion. Testosterone, through its pleiotropic effects, plays a crucial role in coordinating morphology, physiology and behavior in a reproductive context. The concentration of circulating testosterone, however, varies over the course of the day and in response to other internal or external stimuli, potentially making it difficult to relate testosterone sampled at one time point with traits of interest...
December 23, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012090/a-decade-of-orexin-hypocretin-and-addiction-where-are-we-now
#17
Morgan H James, Stephen V Mahler, David E Moorman, Gary Aston-Jones
One decade ago, our laboratory provided the first direct evidence linking orexin/hypocretin signaling with drug seeking by showing that activation of these neurons promotes conditioned morphine-seeking behavior. In the years since, contributions from many investigators have revealed roles for orexins in addiction for all drugs of abuse tested, but only under select circumstances. We recently proposed that orexins play a fundamentally unified role in coordinating "motivational activation" under numerous behavioral conditions, and here we unpack this hypothesis as it applies to drug addiction...
December 24, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008323/emotional-eating-is-not-what-you-think-it-is-and-emotional-eating-scales-do-not-measure-what-you-think-they-measure
#18
REVIEW
Peggy Bongers, Anita Jansen
In eating research, it is common practice to group people into different eater types, such as emotional, external and restrained eaters. This categorization is generally based on scores on self-report questionnaires. However, recent studies have started to raise questions about the validity of such questionnaires. In the realm of emotional eating, a considerable number of studies, both in the lab and in naturalistic settings, fail to demonstrate increased food intake in emotional situations in self-described emotional eaters...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993562/superior-parietal-cortex-and-the-attention-to-delayed-intention-an-rtms-study
#19
Giorgia Cona, Giuliana Marino, Patrizia Silvia Bisiacchi
Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to carry out an intention when the appropriate cue occurs. This study aimed to investigate whether the superior parietal cortex is causally involved in PM and, if so, what is its functional role. We applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the left and right superior parietal cortex, and we evaluated the TMS effects on two different PM tasks that required to direct the attention towards either the external stimuli ('Monitoring-load' task) or the intention in memory ('Retrospective-load' task)...
December 16, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989019/canalization-of-language-structure-from-environmental-constraints-a-computational-model-of-word-learning-from-multiple-cues
#20
Padraic Monaghan
There is substantial variation in language experience, yet there is surprising similarity in the language structure acquired. Constraints on language structure may be external modulators that result in this canalization of language structure, or else they may derive from the broader, communicative environment in which language is acquired. In this paper, the latter perspective is tested for its adequacy in explaining robustness of language learning to environmental variation. A computational model of word learning from cross-situational, multimodal information was constructed and tested...
December 18, 2016: Topics in Cognitive Science
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