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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348407/error-related-cardiac-response-as-information-for-visibility-judgements
#1
Marta Łukowska, Michał Sznajder, Michał Wierzchoń
Interoception provides information about the saliency of external or internal sensory events and thus may inform perceptual decision-making. Error in performance is an example of a motivationally significant internal event that evokes autonomic nervous system response resembling the orienting response: heart rate deceleration, increased skin conductance response, and pupil dilation. Here, we investigate whether error-related cardiac activity may serve as a source of information when making metacognitive judgments in an orientation discrimination backward masking task...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348192/differential-contributions-of-nucleus-accumbens-subregions-to-cue-guided-risk-reward-decision-making-and-implementation-of-conditional-rules
#2
Stan B Floresco, David R Montes, Maric M T Tse, Mieke van Holstein
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a key node within cortico-limbic circuitry for guiding action selection and cost/benefit decision making in situations involving reward uncertainty. Preclinical studies have typically assessed risk/reward decision making using assays where decisions are guided by internally-generated representations of choice-outcome contingencies. Yet, real-life decisions are often influenced by external stimuli that inform about likelihoods of obtaining rewards. How different subregions of the NAc mediate decision making in such situations is unclear...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343748/sac7-and-rho1-regulate-the-white-to-opaque-switching-in-candida-albicans
#3
Siwy Ling Yang, Guisheng Zeng, Fong Yee Chan, Yan-Ming Wang, Dongliang Yang, Yue Wang
Candida albicans cells homozygous at the mating-type locus stochastically undergo the white-to-opaque switching to become mating-competent. This switching is regulated by a core circuit of transcription factors organized through interlocking feedback loops around the master regulator Wor1. Although a range of distinct environmental cues is known to induce the switching, the pathways linking the external stimuli to the central control mechanism remains largely unknown. By screening a C. albicans haploid gene-deletion library, we found that SAC7 encoding a GTPase-activating protein of Rho1 is required for the white-to-opaque switching...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343732/the-neural-correlates-of-the-unified-percept-of-alcohol-related-craving-a-fmri-and-eeg-study
#4
Yuefeng Huang, Anusha Mohan, Dirk De Ridder, Stefan Sunaert, Sven Vanneste
Alcohol addiction is accompanied by aberrant neural activity. Previously, task-based fMRI and resting-state EEG studies have revealed that craving, a critical component of addiction, is linked to abnormal activity in cortical regions including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), nucleus accumbens (NAcc), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), etc. In this study, we combine these two imaging techniques to investigate a group of alcohol-addicted patients and provide convergent evidence for the neural correlates of craving not only in alcohol but substance abuse in general...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327436/effect-of-patterned-electrospun-hierarchical-structures-on-alignment-and-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-biomimicking-bone
#5
Sharanya Sankar, Manohar Kakunuri, Sindhuja D E, Chandra S Sharma, Subha N Rath
Considering the complex hierarchical structure of bone, biomimicking the micro and nano level features should be an integral part of scaffold fabrication for successful bone regeneration. We aim to biomimic the micro- and nano-structure of bone and study the effect of physical cues on cell alignment, proliferation and differentiation. To achieve this, we have divided the scaffolds into groups: electrospun SU-8 nanofibers, electrospun SU-8 nanofibers with UV treatment and micropatterned (20 μm sized ridges and grooves) SU-8 nanofibers by photolithography with UV treatment...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317726/revisiting-the-link-between-body-and-agency-visual-movement-congruency-enhances-intentional-binding-but-is-not-body-specific
#6
Regine Zopf, Vince Polito, James Moore
Embodiment and agency are key aspects of how we perceive ourselves that have typically been associated with independent mechanisms. Recent work, however, has suggested that these mechanisms are related. The sense of agency arises from recognising a causal influence on the external world. This influence is typically realised through bodily movements and thus the perception of the bodily self could also be crucial for agency. We investigated whether a key index of agency - intentional binding - was modulated by body-specific information...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316985/cognitive-enhancement-in-old-dogs-from-dietary-supplementation-with-a-nutrient-blend-containing-arginine-antioxidants-b-vitamins-and-fish-oil
#7
Yuanlong Pan, Adam D Kennedy, Thomas J Jönsson, Nortan W Milgram
This study focused on the hypothesis that cognitive decline in aged dogs could be attenuated by dietary supplementation with a nutrient blend consisting of antioxidants, B vitamins, fish oil and l-arginine, referred to hereafter as the Brain Protection Blend (BPB). Baseline cognitive assessment before the start of treatment was used to establish cognitively equivalent control (10·464+2·33 kg) and treatment (12·118+3·386 kg) groups of aged dogs between 9·1 and 11·5 years of age and with body condition score of 5...
January 10, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314743/sensor-kinase-kinb-and-its-pathway-associated-key-factors-sense-the-signal-of-nutrition-starvation-in-sporulation-of-bacillus%C3%A2-subtilis
#8
Weipeng Liu, Zeying He, Feng Gao, Jinyuan Yan, Xiaowei Huang
Bacillus subtilis responds to environmental stress cues and develops endospores for survival. In the process of endospore formation, sporulation initiation is a vital stage and this stage is governed by autophosphorylation of the sensor histidine kinases. The second major sensor kinase KinB perceives the intracellular changes of GTP and ATP during sporulation. However, determination of the environmental signals as well as its related signaling pathway of KinB requires further elucidation. Our current study found that, contrary to the sporulation failure induced by ΔkinA in the nutrient-rich 2× SG medium, the sensor kinase KinB sensed the environmental cues in the nutrient-poor MM medium...
January 3, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312826/heteroassociative-storage-of-hippocampal-pattern-sequences-in-the-ca3-subregion
#9
Raphael Y de Camargo, Renan S Recio, Marcelo B Reyes
Background: Recent research suggests that the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus has properties of both autoassociative network, due to its ability to complete partial cues, tolerate noise, and store associations between memories, and heteroassociative one, due to its ability to store and retrieve sequences of patterns. Although there are several computational models of the CA3 as an autoassociative network, more detailed evaluations of its heteroassociative properties are missing. Methods: We developed a model of the CA3 subregion containing 10,000 integrate-and-fire neurons with both recurrent excitatory and inhibitory connections, and which exhibits coupled oscillations in the gamma and theta ranges...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309851/stress-and-psychological-constructs-related-to-eating-behavior-are-associated-with-anthropometry-and-body-composition-in-young-adults
#10
Katie C Hootman, Kristin A Guertin, Patricia A Cassano
BACKGROUND: The transition to college is associated with weight gain, but the relation between eating behavior indicators and anthropometric outcomes during this period remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate sex differences in stress, emotional eating, tendency to overeat, and restrained eating behavior, and determine whether the psycho-behavioral constructs assessed immediately prior to starting college are associated with anthropometry and adiposity at the start of college, and with first-semester weight gain...
January 5, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304401/experiences-of-sexual-harassment-are-associated-with-the-sexual-behavior-of-14-to-18-year-old-adolescents
#11
Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino, Hanna Savioja, Sari Fröjd, Mauri Marttunen
Subjection to sexual harassment is associated with a number of negative outcomes, such as internalizing and externalizing symptoms and a disinclination to attend school. Among adolescents, sexual harassment may increase with both their emerging sexual desires and increased socializing in mixed-gender peer groups during early adolescence. We set out to study the possible associations between normative and risk-taking sexual behavior and subjection to sexual harassment among adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 years...
January 2, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299282/inducing-broadcast-coral-spawning-ex-situ-closed-system-mesocosm-design-and-husbandry-protocol
#12
Jamie Craggs, James R Guest, Michelle Davis, Jeremy Simmons, Ehsan Dashti, Michael Sweet
For many corals, the timing of broadcast spawning correlates strongly with a number of environmental signals (seasonal temperature, lunar, and diel cycles). Robust experimental studies examining the role of these putative cues in triggering spawning have been lacking until recently because it has not been possible to predictably induce spawning in fully closed artificial mesocosms. Here, we present a closed system mesocosm aquarium design that utilizes microprocessor technology to accurately replicate environmental conditions, including photoperiod, seasonal insolation, lunar cycles, and seasonal temperature from Singapore and the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295558/effects-of-sleeve-gastrectomy-vs-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-on-eating-behavior-and-sweet-taste-perception-in-subjects-with-obesity
#13
Katie Nance, J Christopher Eagon, Samuel Klein, Marta Yanina Pepino
The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has greater effects on taste perception and eating behavior than comparable weight loss induced by sleeve gastrectomy (SG). We evaluated the following outcomes in 31 subjects both before and after ~20% weight loss induced by RYGB (n = 23) or SG (n = 8): (1) sweet, savory, and salty taste sensitivity; (2) the most preferred concentrations of sucrose and monosodium glutamate; (3) sweetness palatability, by using validated sensory testing techniques; and (4) eating behavior, by using the Food Craving Inventory and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire...
December 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289568/mapping-the-polarity-interactome
#14
REVIEW
Helena R Pires, Mike Boxem
Interactions between proteins are an essential part of biology, and the desire to identify these interactions has led to the development of numerous technologies to systematically map protein-protein interactions at a large scale. As in most cellular processes, protein interactions are central to the control of cell polarity, and a full understanding of polarity will require comprehensive knowledge of the protein interactions involved. At its core, cell polarity is established through carefully regulated mutually inhibitory interactions between several groups of cortical proteins...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288462/primary-characterization-of-small-rnas-in-symbiotic-nitrogen-fixing-bacteria
#15
Marta Robledo, Natalia I García-Tomsig, José I Jiménez-Zurdo
High-throughput transcriptome profiling (RNAseq) has uncovered large and heterogeneous populations of small noncoding RNA species (sRNAs) with potential regulatory roles in bacteria. A large fraction of sRNAs are differentially regulated and rely on protein-assisted antisense interactions to trans-encoded target mRNAs to fine-tune posttranscriptional reprogramming of gene expression in response to external cues. However, annotation and function of sRNAs are still largely overlooked in nonmodel bacteria with complex lifestyles...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278283/delirium-pathophysiology-an-updated-hypothesis-of-the-etiology-of-acute-brain-failure
#16
José R Maldonado
BACKGROUND: Delirium is the most common neuropsychiatric syndrome encountered by clinicians dealing with older adults and the medically ill and is best characterized by 5 core domains: cognitive deficits, attentional deficits, circadian rhythm dysregulation, emotional dysregulation, and alteration in psychomotor functioning. DESIGN: An extensive literature review and consolidation of published data into a novel interpretation of known pathophysiological causes of delirium...
December 26, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276730/the-ebb-and-flow-of-experience-determines-the-temporal-structure-of-memory
#17
David Clewett, Lila Davachi
Everyday life consists of a continuous stream of information, yet somehow we remember the past as distinct episodic events. Prominent models posit that event segmentation is driven by erroneous predictions about how current experiences are unfolding. Yet this perspective fails to explain how memories become integrated or separated in the absence of prior knowledge. Here, we propose that contextual stability dictates the temporal organization of events in episodic memory. To support this view, we summarize new findings showing that neural measures of event organization index how ongoing changes in external contextual cues and internal representations of time influence different forms of episodic memory...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251568/integrated-simultaneous-detection-of-tactile-and-bending-cues-for-soft-robotics
#18
Massimo Totaro, Alessio Mondini, Andrea Bellacicca, Paolo Milani, Lucia Beccai
Soft robots should move in an unstructured environment and explore it and, to do so, they should be able to measure and distinguish proprioceptive and exteroceptive stimuli. This can be done by embedding mechanosensing systems in the body of the robot. Here, we present a polydimethylsiloxane block sensorized with an electro-optical system and a resistive strain gauge made with the supersonic cluster beam implantation (SCBI) technique. We show how to integrate these sensing elements during the whole fabrication process of the soft body and we demonstrate that their presence does not change the mechanical properties of the bulk material...
December 2017: Soft Robotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248548/epigenetic-regulation-of-mammalian-sex-determination
#19
REVIEW
Shunsuke Kuroki, Makoto Tachibana
Regulation of gene expression without changing the DNA sequence is governed by epigenetic mechanisms. Epigenetic regulation is important for changing chromatin structure in response to environmental cues as well as maintaining chromatin structure after cell division. The epigenetic machinery can reversibly change chromatin function, allowing a wide variety of biological processes in multicellular organisms to be controlled. Epigenetic regulation ensures spatial and temporal accuracy of the expression of developmentally regulated genes...
December 14, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241100/the-effect-of-spatial-auditory-landmarks-on-ambulation
#20
Adham M Karim, Kavelin Rumalla, Laurie A King, Timothy E Hullar
The maintenance of balance and posture is a result of the collaborative efforts of vestibular, proprioceptive, and visual sensory inputs, but a fourth neural input, audition, may also improve balance. Here, we tested the hypothesis that auditory inputs function as environmental spatial landmarks whose effectiveness depends on sound localization ability during ambulation. Eight blindfolded normal young subjects performed the Fukuda-Unterberger test in three auditory conditions: silence, white noise played through headphones (head-referenced condition), and white noise played through a loudspeaker placed directly in front at 135 centimeters away from the ear at ear height (earth-referenced condition)...
December 5, 2017: Gait & Posture
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