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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315417/higher-bmi-is-associated-with-stronger-effects-of-social-cues-on-everyday-snacking-behaviour
#1
Benjamin Schüz, Sarah Revell, Andrew P Hills, Natalie Schüz, Stuart G Ferguson
Discretionary food choices (snacks) contribute up to a third of the daily energy intake and potentially contribute to energy imbalance and weight gain. Individual snack intake behaviour is guided by internal and external cues, with social cues (seeing others eat, being alone) consistently showing large effects. A wide body of (mainly laboratory-based) research suggests marked differences in people's response to eating cues based on BMI. Here, we show that these BMI differences in cue responsiveness also pertain to everyday snacking behaviour...
March 15, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303017/nmda-receptors-linking-physiological-output-to-biophysical-operation
#2
REVIEW
Gary J Iacobucci, Gabriela K Popescu
NMDA receptors are preeminent neurotransmitter-gated channels in the CNS, which respond to glutamate in a manner that integrates multiple external and internal cues. They belong to the ionotropic glutamate receptor family and fulfil unique and crucial roles in neuronal development and function. These roles depend on characteristic response kinetics, which reflect the operation of the receptors. Here, we review biologically salient features of the NMDA receptor signal and its mechanistic origins. Knowledge of distinctive NMDA receptor biophysical properties, their structural determinants and physiological roles is necessary to understand the physiological and neurotoxic actions of glutamate and to design effective therapeutics...
March 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293896/directed-evolution-methods-to-rewire-signaling-networks
#3
Raphaël B Di Roberto, Benjamin M Scott, Sergio G Peisajovich
The ability to sense and process cues about changing environments is fundamental to life. Cells have evolved elaborate signaling pathways in order to respond to both internal and external stimuli appropriately. These pathways combine protein receptors, signal transducers, and effector genes in highly connected networks. The numerous interactions found between signaling proteins are essential to maintain strict regulation and produce a suitable cellular response. As a result, a signaling protein's activity in isolation can differ greatly from its activity in a native context...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277967/plant-electrome-can-be-pushed-toward-a-self-organized-critical-state-by-external-cues-evidences-from-a-study-with-soybean-seedlings-subject-to-different-environmental-conditions
#4
Gustavo M Souza, Arlan S Ferreira, Gustavo F R Saraiva, Gabriel R A Toledo
In the present study, we have investigated how the low-voltage electrical signals of soybean seedlings change their temporal dynamic under different environmental conditions (cold, low light, and low osmotic potential). We have used electrophytografic technique (EPG) with sub-dermal electrodes inserted in 15-days-old seedlings located between root and shoot, accounting for a significant part of the individual seedlings. Herein, to work on a specific framework to settle this type of the study, we are adopting the term "electrome" as a reference to the totality of electrical activity measured...
March 4, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276461/paired-synchronous-rhythmic-finger-tapping-without-an-external-timing-cue-shows-greater-speed-increases-relative-to-those-for-solo-tapping
#5
Masahiro Okano, Masahiro Shinya, Kazutoshi Kudo
In solo synchronization-continuation (SC) tasks, intertap intervals (ITI) are known to drift from the initial tempo. It has been demonstrated that people in paired and group contexts modulate their action timing unconsciously in various situations such as choice reaction tasks, rhythmic body sway, and hand clapping in concerts, which suggests the possibility that ITI drift is also affected by paired context. We conducted solo and paired SC tapping experiments with three tempos (75, 120, and 200 bpm) and examined whether tempo-keeping performance changed according to tempo and/or the number of players...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265869/portion-size-latest-developments-and-interventions
#6
REVIEW
Ingrid Steenhuis, Maartje Poelman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of (1) underlying mechanisms of the effect of portion size on energy intake, (2) external factors explaining the portion size effect and (3) interventions and measurements aimed at food portion size. RECENT FINDINGS: Previous studies have shown that portion sizes have increased in recent decades. Many experimental studies have been conducted to unravel the mechanisms underlying the portion-size effect on food intake (e...
March 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264991/giga-and-gigb-are-master-regulators-of-antibiotic-resistance-stress-responses-and-virulence-in-acinetobacter-baumannii
#7
Michael J Gebhardt, Howard A Shuman
A critical component of bacterial pathogenesis is the ability of an invading organism to sense and adapt to the harsh environment imposed by the host's immune system. This is especially important for opportunistic pathogens, such as Acinetobacter baumannii, a nutritionally versatile, environmental organism that has recently gained attention as a life-threatening human pathogen. The emergence of A. baumannii is closely linked to antibiotic resistance and many contemporary isolates are multi-drug resistant (MDR)...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264006/timing-and-locations-of-reef-fish-spawning-off-the-southeastern-united-states
#8
Nicholas A Farmer, William D Heyman, Mandy Karnauskas, Shinichi Kobara, Tracey I Smart, Joseph C Ballenger, Marcel J M Reichert, David M Wyanski, Michelle S Tishler, Kenyon C Lindeman, Susan K Lowerre-Barbieri, Theodore S Switzer, Justin J Solomon, Kyle McCain, Mark Marhefka, George R Sedberry
Managed reef fish in the Atlantic Ocean of the southeastern United States (SEUS) support a multi-billion dollar industry. There is a broad interest in locating and protecting spawning fish from harvest, to enhance productivity and reduce the potential for overfishing. We assessed spatiotemporal cues for spawning for six species from four reef fish families, using data on individual spawning condition collected by over three decades of regional fishery-independent reef fish surveys, combined with a series of predictors derived from bathymetric features...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263945/thin-polymeric-films-for-building-biohybrid-microrobots
#9
Leonardo Ricotti, Toshinori Fujie
This paper aims to describe the disruptive potential that polymeric thin films have in the field of biohybrid devices and to review the recent efforts in this area. Thin (thickness  <  1 mm) and ultra-thin (thickness  <  1 µm) matrices possess a series of intriguing features, such as large surface area/volume ratio, high flexibility, chemical and physical surface tailorability, etc. This enables the fabrication of advanced bio/non-bio interfaces able to efficiently drive cell-material interactions, which are the key for optimizing biohybrid device performances...
March 6, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261568/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lifestyle-a-paradigm-for-adaptation-survival-and-persistence
#10
REVIEW
M Fata Moradali, Shirin Ghods, Bernd H A Rehm
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen affecting immunocompromised patients. It is known as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and as one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. Due to a range of mechanisms for adaptation, survival and resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics, infections by P. aeruginosa strains can be life-threatening and it is emerging worldwide as public health threat. This review highlights the diversity of mechanisms by which P...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261251/transcript-profiling-reveals-the-presence-of-abiotic-stress-and-developmental-stage-specific-ascorbate-oxidase-genes-in-plants
#11
Rituraj Batth, Kapil Singh, Sumita Kumari, Ananda Mustafiz
Abiotic stress and climate change is the major concern for plant growth and crop yield. Abiotic stresses lead to enhanced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) consequently resulting in cellular damage and major losses in crop yield. One of the major scavengers of ROS is ascorbate (AA) which acts as first line of defense against external oxidants. An enzyme named ascorbate oxidase (AAO) is known to oxidize AA and deleteriously affect the plant system in response to stress. Genome-wide analysis of AAO gene family has led to the identification of five, three, seven, four, and six AAO genes in Oryza sativa, Arabidopsis, Glycine max, Zea mays, and Sorghum bicolor genomes, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261043/the-role-of-circadian-rhythms-in-muscular-and-osseous-physiology-and-their-regulation-by-nutrition-and-exercise
#12
REVIEW
Shinya Aoyama, Shigenobu Shibata
The mammalian circadian clock regulates the day and night cycles of various physiological functions. The circadian clock system consists of a central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus and peripheral clocks in peripheral tissues. According to the results of circadian transcriptomic studies in several tissues, the majority of rhythmic genes are expressed in a tissue-specific manner and are influenced by tissue-specific circadian rhythms. Here we review the diurnal variations of musculoskeletal functions and discuss the impact of the circadian clock on homeostasis in skeletal muscle and bone...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260623/visuo-spatial-knowledge-acquisition-in-individuals-with-down-syndrome-the-role-of-descriptions-and-sketch-maps
#13
Chiara Meneghetti, Silvia Lanfranchi, Barbara Carretti, Enrico Toffalini
Few studies on individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have explored how they learn space. The present study examines space learning from verbal descriptions in individuals with DS, and explores the role of external cues (such as a sketch map). Twenty-eight individuals with DS and 28 matched typically-developing (TD) children listened to route or survey descriptions with or without seeing a corresponding sketch map (Description+Sketch Map [D+SM] and Description alone [D], respectively). After hearing each description, they performed tasks that involved recognizing, arranging sequentially, and locating landmarks...
March 2, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248557/the-parkinson-s-active-living-pal-program
#14
London C Butterfield, Cynthia R Cimino, Robert Salazar, Juan Sanchez-Ramos, Dawn Bowers, Michael S Okun
BACKGROUND: Apathy, one of the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), has been associated with reduced daily functioning, cognition, treatment compliance, quality of life, and increased caregiver burden and distress, among other outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to develop and gather pilot data on the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of the Parkinson's Active Living (PAL) program, to our knowledge, the first behavioral treatment specifically designed to target apathy in patients with PD...
January 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242795/thalamic-control-of-dorsomedial-striatum-regulates-internal-state-to-guide-goal-directed-action-selection
#15
Laura A Bradfield, Bernard W Balleine
We (Bradfield et al. 2013) have previously demonstrated that parafascicular (PF)-controlled neurons in the posterior dorsomedial striatum (pDMS) are critical for interlacing new and existing action-outcome contingencies to control goal-directed action. Based on these findings it was suggested that animals with a dysfunctional PF-pDMS pathway might suffer a deficit in creating or retrieving internal contexts or 'states' on which such information could become conditional. To assess this hypothesis more directly rats were given a disconnection treatment using contralateral cytotoxic lesions of the parafascicular thalamic nucleus (PF) and pDMS (Group CONTRA) or ipsilateral control lesions (Group IPSI) and trained to press a right and left lever for sucrose and pellet outcomes after which these contingencies were reversed...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242729/abandoning-and-modifying-one-action-plan-for-alternatives
#16
REVIEW
Joo-Hyun Song
Visual scenes are often complex and crowded with many different objects. To interact effectively, we must choose one object at a time as a goal for action. Certain external cues can act as a stop signal, quickly cancelling an ongoing action. Less recognized are internal signals. These can come from recent experience, anticipated action outcomes, cognitive states, and when attention is captured by a salient object. These signals elevate one action plan over alternatives and can quickly modify an initial choice...
April 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237551/modulation-of-attentional-networks-by-food-related-disinhibition
#17
Maike A Hege, Krunoslav T Stingl, Ralf Veit, Hubert Preissl
The risk of weight gain is especially related to disinhibition, which indicates the responsiveness to external food stimuli with associated disruptions in eating control. We adapted a food-related version of the attention network task and used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the effects of disinhibition on attentional networks in 19 normal-weight participants. High disinhibition scores were associated with a rapid reorienting response to food pictures after invalid cueing and with an enhanced alerting effect of a warning cue signalizing the upcoming appearance of a food picture...
February 22, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236967/the-hippo-pathway-a-master-regulatory-network-important-in-development-and-dysregulated-in-disease
#18
Cathie M Pfleger
The Hippo Pathway is a master regulatory network that regulates proliferation, cell growth, stemness, differentiation, and cell death. Coordination of these processes by the Hippo Pathway throughout development and in mature organisms in response to diverse external and internal cues plays a role in morphogenesis, in controlling organ size, and in maintaining organ homeostasis. Given the importance of these processes, the Hippo Pathway also plays an important role in organismal health and has been implicated in a variety of diseases including eye disease, cardiovascular disease, neurodegeneration, and cancer...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226309/the-feasibility-of-singing-to-improve-gait-in-parkinson-disease
#19
Elinor C Harrison, Marie E McNeely, Gammon M Earhart
Brain regions important for controlling movement are also responsible for rhythmic processing. In Parkinson disease (PD), defective internal timing within the brain has been linked to impaired beat discrimination, and may contribute to a loss of ability to maintain a steady gait rhythm. Less rhythmic gait is inherently less efficient, and this may lead to gait impairment including reduced speed, cadence, and stride length, as well as increased variability. While external rhythmic auditory stimulation (e.g. a metronome beat) is well-established as an effective tool to stabilize gait in PD, little is known about whether self-generated cues such as singing have the same beneficial effect on gait in PD...
February 14, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222810/does-nordic-walking-restore-the-temporal-organization-of-gait-variability-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Thibault Warlop, Christine Detrembleur, Maïté Buxes Lopez, Gaëtan Stoquart, Thierry Lejeune, Anne Jeanjean
BACKGROUND: Gait disorders of Parkinson's disease (PD) are characterized by the breakdown of the temporal organization of stride duration variability that was tightly associated to dynamic instability in PD. Activating the upper body during walking, Nordic Walking (NW) may be used as an external cueing to improve spatiotemporal parameters of gait, such as stride length or gait variability, in PD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of NW on temporal organization of gait variability and spatiotemporal gait variables in PD...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
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