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external cue

Kit D Longden
Color is famous for not existing in the external world: our brains create the perception of color from the spatial and temporal patterns of the wavelength and intensity of light. For an intangible quality, we have detailed knowledge of its origins and consequences. Much is known about the organization and evolution of the first phases of color processing, the filtering of light in the eye and processing in the retina, and about the final phases, the roles of color in behavior and natural selection. To understand how color processing in the central brain has evolved, we need well-defined pathways or circuitry where we can gauge how color contributes to the computations involved in specific behaviors...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Micah Allen, Darya Frank, D Samuel Schwarzkopf, Francesca Fardo, Joel S Winston, Tobias U Hauser, Geraint Rees
Human perception is invariably accompanied by a graded feeling of confidence that guides metacognitive awareness and decision-making. It is often assumed that this arises solely from the feed-forward encoding of the strength or precision of sensory inputs. In contrast, interoceptive inference models suggest that confidence reflects a weighted integration of sensory precision and expectations about internal states, such as arousal. Here we test this hypothesis using a novel psychophysical paradigm, in which unseen disgust-cues induced unexpected, unconscious arousal just before participants discriminated motion signals of variable precision...
October 25, 2016: ELife
D Caballero, J Katuri, J Samitier, S Sánchez
The ubiquitous random motion of mesoscopic active particles, such as cells, can be "rectified" or directed by embedding the particles in systems containing local and periodic asymmetric cues. Incorporated on lab-on-a-chip devices, these microratchet-like structures can be used to self-propel fluids, transport particles, and direct cell motion in the absence of external power sources. In this Focus article we discuss recent advances in the use of ratchet-like geometries in microfluidics which could open new avenues in biomedicine for applications in diagnosis, cancer biology, and bioengineering...
October 19, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Subarna Dutta, Maitree Bhattacharyya, Kaushik Sengupta
Lamins are mechanosensitive and elastic components of the nuclear lamina that respond to external mechanical cues by altering gene regulation in a feedback mechanism. Numerous mutations in A-type lamins cause a plethora of diverse diseases collectively termed as laminopathies, the majority of which are characterized by irregularly shaped, fragile, and plastic nuclei. These nuclei are challenged to normal mechanotransduction and lead to disease phenotypes. Here, we review our current understanding of the nucleocytoskeleton coupling in mechanotransduction mediated by lamins...
October 14, 2016: Cells
Lenny R Vartanian, Samantha Spanos, C Peter Herman, Janet Polivy
Objective: Social factors have a powerful influence on people's food intake but people typically fail to acknowledge the influence of such external cues, instead explaining their food intake in terms of factors such as how hungry they are. We examined whether the tendency to explain one's food intake in terms of internal cues (i.e., hunger) rather than external cues (i.e., other people's behavior) would be apparent when those cues are in conflict with one another. Method: Female participants (n = 104) took part in a pizza taste test after having been food deprived for 18-hr or after consuming a meal-replacement preload...
October 17, 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Karen Stanic, Natalia Saldivia, Benjamín Förstera, Marcela Torrejón, Hernán Montecinos, Teresa Caprile
Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules are pivotal for central nervous system (CNS) development, facilitating cell migration, axonal growth, myelination, dendritic spine formation, and synaptic plasticity, among other processes. During axon guidance, the ECM not only acts as a permissive or non-permissive substrate for navigating axons, but also modulates the effects of classical guidance cues, such as netrin or Eph/ephrin family members. Despite being highly important, little is known about the expression of ECM molecules during CNS development...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Fabian Grabenhorst, Istvan Hernadi, Wolfram Schultz
The amygdala is a prime valuation structure yet its functions in advanced behaviors are poorly understood. We tested whether individual amygdala neurons encode a critical requirement for goal-directed behavior: the evaluation of progress during sequential choices. As monkeys progressed through choice sequences toward rewards, amygdala neurons showed phasic, gradually increasing responses over successive choice steps. These responses occurred in the absence of external progress cues or motor preplanning. They were often specific to self-defined sequences, typically disappearing during instructed control sequences with similar reward expectation...
October 12, 2016: ELife
Y Ge, Y H Lin, L A Lautscham, W H Goldmann, B Fabry, C A Naumann
Fate and function of anchorage-dependent cells depend on a variety of environmental cues, including those of mechanical nature. Previous progress in the understanding of cellular mechanosensitivity has been closely linked to the availability of artificial cell substrates of adjustable viscoelasticity, allowing for a direct correlation between substrate stiffness and cell response. Exemplary, polymeric gel substrates with polymer-conjugated cell-substrate linkers provided valuable insight into the role of mechanical signals during cell migration in an extracellular matrix environment...
October 12, 2016: Soft Matter
Chiara Giverso, Pasquale Ciarletta
Multicellular tumour spheroids (MCTSs) are extensively used as in vitro system models for investigating the avascular growth phase of solid tumours. In this work, we propose a continuous growth model of heterogeneous MCTSs within a porous material, taking into account a diffusing nutrient from the surrounding material directing both the proliferation rate and the mobility of tumour cells. At the time scale of interest, the MCTS behaves as an incompressible viscous fluid expanding inside a porous medium. The cell motion and proliferation rate are modelled using a non-convective chemotactic mass flux, driving the cell expansion in the direction of the external nutrients' source...
October 2016: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Candida J Rebello, Frank L Greenway
The homeostatic controls over eating are inextricably linked to the reward aspects of eating. The result is an integrated response that coordinates the internal milieu with the prevailing environment. Thus, appetite, which reflects a complex interaction among the external environment, behavioral profile, and subjective states as well as the storage and metabolism of energy, has an important role in the regulation of energy balance. In the prevailing food environment which offers an abundance of food choices it is likely that the motivation to consume from a wide range of delectable foods plays a greater role in contributing to overeating than in the past when the motivation to eat was largely governed by metabolic need...
October 7, 2016: Advances in Therapy
Hollie S Jones, Emily L Williams, David Marchant, S Andy Sparks, Craig A Bridge, Adrian W Midgley, Lars R Mc Naughton
The provision of performance-related feedback during exercise is acknowledged as an influential external cue used to inform pacing decisions. The provision of this feedback in a challenging or deceptive context allows research to explore how feedback can be used to improve performance and influence perceptual responses. However, the effects of deception on both acute and residual responses have yet to be explored, despite potential application for performance enhancement. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of challenging and deceptive feedback on perceptual responses and performance in self-paced cycling time trials (TT) and explored whether changes in performance are sustained in a subsequent TT following the disclosure of the deception...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Julia M Selfridge, Tetsuya Gotoh, Samuel Schiffhauer, JingJing Liu, Philip E Stauffer, Andrew Li, Daniel G S Capelluto, Carla V Finkielstein
Circadian rhythms are a collection of endogenously driven biochemical, physiological, and behavioral processes that oscillate in a 24-h cycle and can be entrained by external cues. Circadian clock molecules are responsible for the expression of regulatory components that modulate, among others, the cell's metabolism and energy consumption. In clinical practice, the regulation of clock mechanisms is relevant to biotransformation of therapeutics. Accordingly, xenobiotic metabolism and detoxification, the two processes that directly influence drug effectiveness and toxicity, are direct manifestations of the daily oscillations of the cellular and biochemical processes taking place within the gastrointestinal, hepatic/biliary, and renal/urologic systems...
October 3, 2016: Drugs
Christopher Frederick Mugler, Maria Hondele, Stephanie Heinrich, Ruchika Sachdev, Pascal Vallotton, Adriana Y Koek, Leon Y Chan, Karsten Weis
Translational repression and mRNA degradation are critical mechanisms of posttranscriptional gene regulation that help cells respond to internal and external cues. In response to certain stress conditions, many mRNA decay factors are enriched in processing bodies (PBs), cellular structures involved in degradation and/or storage of mRNAs. Yet, how cells regulate assembly and disassembly of PBs remains poorly understood. Here, we show that in budding yeast, mutations in the DEAD-box ATPase Dhh1 that prevent ATP hydrolysis, or that affect the interaction between Dhh1 and Not1, the central scaffold of the Ccr4-NOT complex and an activator of the Dhh1 ATPase, prevent PB disassembly in vivo...
October 3, 2016: ELife
R Nicholas Carleton, Michelle J N Teale Sapach, Chris Oriet, Daniel M LeBouthillier
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) models posit vigilance for external social threat cues and exacerbated self-focused attention as key in disorder development and maintenance. Evidence indicates a modified dot-probe protocol may reduce symptoms of SAD; however, the efficacy when compared to a standard protocol and long-term maintenance of treatment gains remains unclear. Furthermore, the efficacy of such protocols on SAD-related constructs remains relatively unknown. The current investigation clarified these associations using a randomized control trial replicating and extending previous research...
August 15, 2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Therese M O'Neil-Pirozzi, Henry Hsu
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pilot study was to explore feasibility and effects of participation in a computerized cognitive fitness exercise program by a group of adults with chronic moderate-to-severe cognitive impairments following an acquired brain injury (ABI). RESEARCH DESIGN: This study used a mixed methods design with a convenience sample of individuals forming two groups (+/- exercise). METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Following neurocognitive and satisfaction with life pre-testing of 14 participants, seven were enrolled in a 5-month, 5-days a week computerized cognitive exercise program...
September 28, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Akram Bakkour, Jarrod A Lewis-Peacock, Russell A Poldrack, Tom Schonberg
Biasing choices may prove a useful way to implement behavior change. Previous work has shown that a simple training task (the cue-approach task), which does not rely on external reinforcement, can robustly influence choice behavior by biasing choice toward items that were targeted during training. In the current study, we replicate previous behavioral findings and explore the neural mechanisms underlying the shift in preferences following cue-approach training. Given recent successes in the development and application of machine learning techniques to task-based fMRI data, which have advanced understanding of the neural substrates of cognition, we sought to leverage the power of these techniques to better understand neural changes during cue-approach training that subsequently led to a shift in choice behavior...
September 24, 2016: NeuroImage
Katherine G Elliston, Stuart G Ferguson, Natalie Schüz, Benjamin Schüz
Objectives: Individual eating behavior is a risk factor for obesity and highly dependent on internal and external cues. Many studies also suggest that the food environment (i.e., food outlets) influences eating behavior. This study therefore examines the momentary food environment (at the time of eating) and the role of cues simultaneously in predicting everyday eating behavior in adults with overweight and obesity. Methods: Intensive longitudinal study using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) over 14 days in 51 adults with overweight and obesity (average body mass index = 30...
September 26, 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
M Brunelli, C M Perrault, D Lacroix
3D polymeric scaffolds are increasingly used for in vitro experiments aiming to mimic the environment found in vivo, to support for cellular growth and to induce differentiation through the application of external mechanical cues. In research, experimental results must be shown to be reproducible to be claimed as valid and the first clause to ensure consistency is to provide identical initial experimental conditions between trials. As a matter of fact, 3D structures fabricated in batch are supposed to present a highly reproducible geometry and consequently, to give the same bulk response to mechanical forces...
September 15, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Nan Jiang, Zixu Wang, Jing Cao, Yulan Dong, Yaoxing Chen
The avian pineal gland is a master clock that can receive external photic cues and translate them into output rhythms. To clarify whether a shift in light wavelength can influence the circadian expression in chick pineal gland, a total of 240 Arbor Acre male broilers were exposed to white light (WL), red light (RL), green light (GL) or blue light (BL). After 2weeks light illumination, circadian expressions of seven core clock genes in pineal gland and the level of melatonin in plasma were examined. The results showed after illumination with monochromatic light, 24h profiles of all clock gene mRNAs retained circadian oscillation, except that RL tended to disrupt the rhythm of cCry2...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Penney M Gilbert, Valerie M Weaver
Human tissues are remarkably adaptable and robust, harboring the collective ability to detect and respond to external stresses while maintaining tissue integrity. Following injury, many tissues have the capacity to repair the damage - and restore form and function - by deploying cellular and molecular mechanisms reminiscent of developmental programs. Indeed, it is increasingly clear that cancer and chronic conditions that develop with age arise as a result of cells and tissues re-implementing and deregulating a selection of developmental programs...
September 15, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
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