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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910933/learning-by-association-in-plants
#1
Monica Gagliano, Vladyslav V Vyazovskiy, Alexander A Borbély, Mavra Grimonprez, Martial Depczynski
In complex and ever-changing environments, resources such as food are often scarce and unevenly distributed in space and time. Therefore, utilizing external cues to locate and remember high-quality sources allows more efficient foraging, thus increasing chances for survival. Associations between environmental cues and food are readily formed because of the tangible benefits they confer. While examples of the key role they play in shaping foraging behaviours are widespread in the animal world, the possibility that plants are also able to acquire learned associations to guide their foraging behaviour has never been demonstrated...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900542/effects-of-parasitism-on-host-reproductive-investment-in-a-rodent-flea-system-host-litter-size-matters
#2
Elizabeth M Warburton, Irina S Khokhlova, Elizabeth M Dlugosz, Luther Van Der Mescht, Boris R Krasnov
Parents may alter offspring phenotype depending on the type of environment they encounter. Parasitism is a common stressor; therefore, maternal reproductive investment could change in response to parasitic infection. However, few experiments have investigated the relationship between parasitism and maternal investment, whereas earlier field studies provided contradictory evidence. We investigated number, sex ratio, and growth of offspring in two rodent species, solitary altricial Meriones crassus and social precocial Acomys cahirinus, exposed to parasitism by fleas Xenopsylla ramesis and Parapulex chephrenis...
November 29, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885978/factors-affecting-daily-cochlear-implant-use-in-children-datalogging-evidence
#3
Vijayalakshmi Easwar, Joseph Sanfilippo, Blake Papsin, Karen Gordon
BACKGROUND: Children with profound hearing loss can gain access to sound through cochlear implants (CIs), but these devices must be worn consistently to promote auditory development. Although subjective parent reports have identified several factors limiting long-term CI use in children, it is also important to understand the day-to-day issues which may preclude consistent device use. In the present study, objective measures gathered through datalogging software were used to quantify the following in children: (1) number of hours of CI use per day, (2) practical concerns including repeated disconnections between the external transmission coil and the internal device (termed "coil-offs"), and (3) listening environments experienced during daily use...
November 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882360/static-and-dynamic-predictors-of-foot-progression-angle-in-individuals-with-and-without-diabetes-mellitus-and-peripheral-neuropathy
#4
Ericka N Merriwether, Mary K Hastings, Michael J Mueller, Kathryn L Bohnert, Michael J Strube, Darrah R Snozek, David R Sinacore
INTRODUCTION: Foot progression angle (FPA) is a predictor of elevated regional plantar stresses and loads, which are indicators of dermal injury risk in individuals with diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy (DMPN). FPA accounts for 15-45% of the variance in plantar stresses and loads in adults with DMPN. However, the biomechanical factors underlying an "out-toeing" gait pattern in this clinical population have not been examined. The primary purpose of this study was to identify static and dynamic predictors of foot progression angle magnitude in adults with and without DMPN...
2016: Annals of Gerontology and Geriatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879329/phenotypic-profiling-reveals-that-candida-albicans-opaque-cells-represent-a-metabolically-specialized-cell-state-compared-to-default-white-cells
#5
Iuliana V Ene, Matthew B Lohse, Adrian V Vladu, Joachim Morschhäuser, Alexander D Johnson, Richard J Bennett
: The white-opaque switch is a bistable, epigenetic transition affecting multiple traits in Candida albicans including mating, immunogenicity, and niche specificity. To compare how the two cell states respond to external cues, we examined the fitness, phenotypic switching, and filamentation properties of white cells and opaque cells under 1,440 different conditions at 25°C and 37°C. We demonstrate that white and opaque cells display striking differences in their integration of metabolic and thermal cues, so that the two states exhibit optimal fitness under distinct conditions...
November 22, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876642/arabidopsis-nf-ycs-mediate-the-light-control-of-hypocotyl-elongation-via-modulating-histone-acetylation
#6
Yang Tang, Xuncheng Liu, Xu Liu, Yuge Li, Keqiang Wu, Xingliang Hou
Light is a crucial environmental signal that promotes photomorphogenesis, the developmental process containing a series of light-dependent alterations for plants to adapt various external challenges. Chromatin modification has been proposed to be involved in such light-mediated growth, but the underlying mechanism is still elusive. Here, we identify that the four Arabidopsis thaliana Nuclear Factor-YC homologues NF-YC1, NF-YC3, NF-YC4, and NF-YC9 (NF-YCs) function redundantly as the repressors of light control of hypocotyl elongation via histone de-acetylation...
November 19, 2016: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869181/functional-states-of-rat-cortical-circuits-during-the-unpredictable-availability-of-a-reward-related-cue
#7
Iván Fernández-Lamo, Raudel Sánchez-Campusano, Agnès Gruart, José M Delgado-García M
Proper performance of acquired abilities can be disturbed by the unexpected occurrence of external changes. Rats trained with an operant conditioning task (to press a lever in order to obtain a food pellet) using a fixed-ratio (1:1) schedule were subsequently placed in a Skinner box in which the lever could be removed randomly. Field postsynaptic potentials (fPSPs) were chronically evoked in perforant pathway-hippocampal CA1 (PP-CA1), CA1-subiculum (CA1-SUB), CA1-medial prefrontal cortex (CA1-mPFC), mPFC-nucleus accumbens (mPFC-NAc), and mPFC-basolateral amygdala (mPFC-BLA) synapses during lever IN and lever OUT situations...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866264/effects-of-intentional-movement-preparation-on-response-times-to-symbolic-and-imitative-cues
#8
Katherine R Naish, Amentha Rajagobal, Carl Michael Galang, Luisa Sartori, Sukhvinder S Obhi
Speeded responses to an external cue are slower when the cue interrupts preparation to perform the same or a similar action in a self-paced manner. To explore the mechanism underlying this 'cost of intention', we examined whether the size of the cost is influenced by the nature of the external cue. Specifically, we assessed whether the cost of intention is different for movements made in response to an imitative cue (an on-screen hand movement) compared to those made in response to a symbolic cue. Consistent with previous reports, externally cued responses were significantly slower on trials where participants were preparing to perform an internally driven movement later in the trial...
November 19, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866221/inter-organ-regulation-of-adipose-tissue-browning
#9
REVIEW
Simeng Wang, Xiaoyong Yang
Adaptive thermogenesis is an important component of energy expenditure. Brown adipocytes are best known for their ability to convert chemical energy into heat. Beige cells are brown-like adipocytes that arise in white adipose tissue in response to certain environmental cues to dissipate heat and improve metabolic homeostasis. A large body of intrinsic factors and external signals are critical for the function of beige adipocytes. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of neuronal, hormonal, and metabolic regulation of the development and activation of beige adipocytes, with a focus on the regulation of beige adipocytes by other organs, tissues, and cells...
November 19, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864076/electric-field-as-a-potential-directional-cue-in-homing-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-cutaneous-wounds
#10
Eliza Zimolag, Julia Borowczyk-Michalowska, Sylwia Kedracka-Krok, Bozena Skupien-Rabian, Elzbieta Karnas, Slawomir Lasota, Jolanta Sroka, Justyna Drukala, Zbigniew Madeja
Bone marrow-derived cells are thought to participate and enhance the healing process contributing to skin cells or releasing regulatory cytokines. Directional cell migration in a weak direct current electric field (DC-EF), known as electrotaxis, may be a way of cell recruitment to the wound site. Here we examined the influence of electric field on bone marrow adherent cells (BMACs) and its potential role as a factor attracting mesenchymal stem cells to cutaneous wounds. We observed that in an external EF, BMAC movement was accelerated and highly directed with distinction of two cell populations migrating toward opposite poles: mesenchymal stem cells migrated toward the cathode, whereas macrophages toward the anode...
November 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863122/modeling-signaling-and-cytoskeleton-dynamics-integrated-modeling-experimental-frameworks-in-cell-migration
#11
REVIEW
Meng Sun, Muhammad H Zaman
Cell migration is a complex and multistep process involved in homeostasis maintenance, morphogenesis, and disease development, such as cancer metastasis. Modeling cell migration and the relevant cytoskeleton dynamics have profound implications for studying fundamental development and disease diagnosis. This review focuses on some recent models of both cell migration and migration-related cytoskeleton dynamics, addressing issues such as the difference between amoeboid and mesenchymal migration modes, and between single-cell migration and collective cell migration...
November 15, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862517/clock-gene-polymorphism-migratory-behaviour-and-geographic-distribution-a-comparative-study-of-trans-saharan-migratory-birds
#12
Gaia Bazzi, Jacopo G Cecere, Manuela Caprioli, Emanuele Gatti, Luca Gianfranceschi, Stefano Podofillini, Cristina D Possenti, Roberto Ambrosini, Nicola Saino, Fernando Spina, Diego Rubolini
Migratory behaviour is controlled by endogenous circannual rhythms that are synchronized by external cues, such as photoperiod. Investigations on the genetic basis of circannual rhythmicity in vertebrates have highlighted that variation at candidate 'circadian clock' genes may play a major role in regulating photoperiodic responses and timing of life cycle events, such as reproduction and migration. In this comparative study of 23 trans-Saharan migratory bird species, we investigated the relationships between species-level genetic variation at two candidate genes, Clock and Adcyap1, and species' traits related to migration and geographic distribution, including timing of spring migration across the Mediterranean Sea, migration distance and breeding latitude...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860372/biomaterials-and-culture-technologies-for-regenerative-therapy-of-liver-tissue
#13
Roman A Perez, Cho-Rok Jung, Hae-Won Kim
Regenerative approach has emerged to substitute the current extracorporeal technologies for the treatment of diseased and damaged liver tissue. This is based on the use of biomaterials that modulate the responses of hepatic cells through the unique matrix properties tuned to recapitulate regenerative functions. Cells in liver preserve their phenotype or differentiate through the interactions with extracellular matrix molecules. Therefore, the intrinsic properties of the engineered biomaterials, such as stiffness and surface topography, need to be tailored to induce appropriate cellular functions...
November 18, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856251/local-calcium-signalling-is-mediated-by-mechanosensitive-ion-channels-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#14
Vladislav I Chubinskiy-Nadezhdin, Valeria Y Vasileva, Natalia A Pugovkina, Irina O Vassilieva, Elena A Morachevskaya, Nikolay N Nikolsky, Yuri A Negulyaev
Mechanical forces are implicated in key physiological processes in stem cells, including proliferation, differentiation and lineage switching. To date, there is an evident lack of understanding of how external mechanical cues are coupled with calcium signalling in stem cells. Mechanical reactions are of particular interest in adult mesenchymal stem cells because of their promising potential for use in tissue remodelling and clinical therapy. Here, single channel patch-clamp technique was employed to search for cation channels involved in mechanosensitivity in mesenchymal endometrial-derived stem cells (hMESCs)...
November 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853290/spatial-hearing-with-incongruent-visual-or-auditory-room-cues
#15
Juan C Gil-Carvajal, Jens Cubick, Sébastien Santurette, Torsten Dau
In day-to-day life, humans usually perceive the location of sound sources as outside their heads. This externalized auditory spatial perception can be reproduced through headphones by recreating the sound pressure generated by the source at the listener's eardrums. This requires the acoustical features of the recording environment and listener's anatomy to be recorded at the listener's ear canals. Although the resulting auditory images can be indistinguishable from real-world sources, their externalization may be less robust when the playback and recording environments differ...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852836/perturbations-in-actin-dynamics-reconfigure-protein-complexes-that-modulate-gcn2-activity-and-promote-an-eif2-response
#16
Richard C Silva, Evelyn Sattlegger, Beatriz A Castilho
Genetic and pharmacological interventions in yeast and mammalian cells have suggested a cross-talk between the actin cytoskeleton and protein synthesis. Regulation of the activity of the translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) is a paramount mechanism for cells to rapidly adjust the rate of protein synthesis and to trigger reprogramming of gene expression to adapt in response to internal and external cues. Here we show that disruption of F-actin in mammalian cells inhibits translation in a GCN2-dependent manner, correlating with increased levels of uncharged tRNA...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852770/environmental-anchoring-of-head-direction-in-a-computational-model-of-retrosplenial-cortex
#17
Andrej Bicanski, Neil Burgess
: Allocentric (world-centered) spatial codes driven by path integration accumulate error unless reset by environmental sensory inputs that are necessarily egocentric (body-centered). Previous models of the head direction system avoided the necessary transformation between egocentric and allocentric reference frames by placing visual cues at infinity. Here we present a model of head direction coding that copes with exclusively proximal cues by making use of a conjunctive representation of head direction and location in retrosplenial cortex...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845032/increased-contextual-cue-utilization-with-tdcs-over-the-prefrontal-cortex-during-a-recognition-task
#18
Denise Pergolizzi, Elizabeth F Chua
The precise role of the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices in recognition performance remains controversial, with questions about whether these regions contribute to recognition via the availability of mnemonic evidence or via decision biases and retrieval orientation. Here we used an explicit memory cueing paradigm, whereby external cues probabilistically predict upcoming memoranda as old or new, in our case with 75% validity, and these cues affect recognition decision biases in the direction of the cue...
November 11, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834657/segmentation-of-white-blood-cells-image-using-adaptive-location-and-iteration
#19
Yuehua Liu, Feilong Cao, Jianwei Zhao, Jianjun Chu
Segmentation of white blood cells (WBCs) image is meaningful but challenging due to the complex internal characteristics of the cells and external factors, such as illumination and different microscopic views. This paper addresses two problems of the segmentation: WBC location and sub-image segmentation. To locate WBCs, a method that uses multiple windows obtained by scoring multi-scale cues to extract a rectangular region is proposed. In this manner, the location window not only can cover the whole WBC completely, but also achieve adaptive adjustment...
November 4, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831561/rapidly-cycling-lgr5-stem-cells-are-exquisitely-sensitive-to-extrinsic-dietary-factors-that-modulate-colon-cancer-risk
#20
Eunjoo Kim, Laurie A Davidson, Roger S Zoh, Martha E Hensel, Michael L Salinas, Bhimanagouda S Patil, Guddadarangavvanahally K Jayaprakasha, Evelyn S Callaway, Clinton D Allred, Nancy D Turner, Brad R Weeks, Robert S Chapkin
The majority of colon tumors are driven by aberrant Wnt signaling in intestinal stem cells, which mediates an efficient route toward initiating intestinal cancer. Natural lipophilic polyphenols and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) generally suppress Wnt- and NF-κB- (nuclear factor-κ light-chain enhancer of activated B-cell) related pathways. However, the effects of these extrinsic agents on colonic leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5-positive (Lgr5(+)) stem cells, the cells of origin of colon cancer, have not been documented to date...
November 10, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
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