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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906478/does-nicotine-impact-tramadol-abuse-insights-from-neurochemical-and-neurobehavioral-changes-in-mice
#1
Shimaa M Azmy, Mai A Abd El Fattah, Sahar S Abd El-Rahman, Somia A Nada, Omar M E Abdel Salam, Mohammed F El-Yamany, Noha N Nassar
Nicotine and tramadol concomitant drug dependence pose increasing social, economic as well as public threats. Accordingly, the present study investigated neurochemical, neurobehavioral and neuropathological changes in the brain subsequent to the interaction of nicotine and tramadol. To this end, tramadol (20 mg/kg, i.p) and nicotine (0.25 mg/kg, i.p) were administrated to male albino mice once daily for 30 days. Consequent to microglial activation, nicotine exacerbated oxidative/nitrosative stress induced by tramadol as manifest by the step-up in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide subsequent to the enhanced levels of neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthases; paralleled by decreased non-protein sulfhydryls...
June 12, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905667/burden-of-schizophrenia-or-psychosis-related-symptoms-in-adults-undergoing-substance-abuse-evaluation
#2
Kimberlee J Trudeau, Joanna Burtner, Albert J Villapiano, Megan Jones, Stephen F Butler, Kruti Joshi
This study evaluated the biopsychosocial characteristics of adults undergoing substance abuse evaluation with potential schizophrenia/psychotic disorder, or possible schizophrenia/psychosis-like symptoms, compared with those with no schizophrenia/psychosis-like symptoms. A cross-sectional, observational study examined 170,201 adults, aged 18 to 30, who completed the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version (ASI-MV). Approximately 10% were classified as having possible schizophrenia/psychosis-like symptoms or potential schizophrenia/psychotic disorder...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904327/pregabalin-misuse-and-abuse-in-jordan-a-qualitative-study-of-user-experiences
#3
Amneh Al-Husseini, Mayyada Wazaify, Marie Claire Van Hout
Pregabalin is currently approved for the treatment of epilepsy, generalized anxiety disorder, neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia. A qualitative study was undertaken in Jordan, where concerns have been raised about its unprescribed availability in community pharmacies and thereby its abuse. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with all patients with a history of pregabalin use in two Jordanian addiction treatment centers. All were male patients aged 21-30 years ( n  = 11). The majority was poly-drug abusers and had a previous history of substance abuse (tramadol, Captagon, synthetic cannabinoids, and marijuana) ...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904289/identifying-suspected-familial-chylomicronemia-syndrome
#4
Ronak Rengarajan, Peter A McCullough, Anima Chowdhury, Kristen M Tecson
Familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) is a rare lipid disorder posing significant clinical burdens on patients. Due to its rarity, variety of presentations, and lack of universal diagnostic criteria, patients see an average of five physicians before diagnosis. We screened adults for a triglyceride level ≥1000 mg/dL from September 2015 to September 2016 and a history of pancreatitis and performed a thorough chart review on those who met the criteria. An adjudication panel used a definition that also called for supportive information including history of hypertriglyceridemia or family history of pancreatitis/hypertriglyceridemia...
July 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903544/the-impact-of-traumatic-experiences-on-risky-sexual-behaviors-in-black-and-white-young-adult-women
#5
Kimberly B Werner, Renee M Cunningham-Williams, Whitney Sewell, Arpana Agrawal, Vivia V McCutcheon, Mary Waldron, Andrew C Heath, Kathleen K Bucholz
BACKGROUND: Trauma exposure has been linked to risky sexual behavior (RSB), but few studies have examined the impact of distinct trauma types on RSB in one model or how the association with trauma and RSB may differ across race. PURPOSE: The objective of the current study was to examine the contribution of trauma exposure types to RSB-substance-related RSB and partner-related RSB identified through factor analysis-in young Black and White adult women. METHODS: We investigated the associations of multiple trauma types and RSB factor scores in participants from a general population sample of young adult female twins (n = 2,948)...
June 11, 2018: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901709/safety-fears-held-by-caregivers-about-relatives-with-psychiatric-disorders
#6
Travis Labrum, Phyllis Solomon
In this period of post-deinstitutionalization, much of the care for people with severe psychiatric disorders (PD) is provided by their families. A primary stressor for caregivers is fears regarding their own safety and that of others, which has been virtually unexplored. To fill this gap, factors in three domains were assessed: (1) relatives with PD, (2) family caregivers, and (3) interactions with each other. This investigation was a secondary analysis of data obtained from a national survey of caregivers of adults with mental illness conducted by the National Alliance for Caregiving...
June 13, 2018: Health & Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901645/minor-physical-anomalies-in-adolescents-at-risk-for-substance-use-and-early-sex
#7
Meng-Che Tsai, Chih-Ting Lee, I-Ning Tsai, Shu-Ting Gan, Yi-Lin Liang, Sheng-Hsiang Lin
Minor physical anomalies (MPAs) are associated with disruptions of fetal development. We propose that the same genetic compositions that contribute to the presence of MPAs, also predispose individuals to health-compromising behaviors, thus considering MPAs as particular endophenotypes.We developed a screening questionnaire for problematic conduct, substance abuse, and early sexual practice. A total of 108 adolescents (55 males, 50.9%) aged 11 to 19 years were recruited and further divided into case and control groups according to their answers to the questions of health behaviors mentioned above...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901243/eating-disorders-and-non-suicidal-self-injury-structural-equation-modelling-of-a-conceptual-model
#8
Ana Isabel Vieira, Bárbara C Machado, Célia S Moreira, Paulo P P Machado, Isabel Brandão, António Roma-Torres, Sónia Gonçalves
Evidence suggests several risk factors for both eating disorders (ED) and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), but the relationships between these factors are not well understood. Considering our previous work and a conceptual model, this cross-sectional study aimed to assess the relationships among distal and proximal factors for the presence of NSSI in ED. We assessed 245 ED patients with the Oxford Risk Factor Interview for ED. Structural equation modelling revealed that both distal and proximal factors were related to the presence of NSSI in ED, disclosing a mediating role of the proximal factors...
June 14, 2018: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901225/understanding-parenting-stress-and-children-s-behavior-problems-among-homeless-substance-abusing-mothers
#9
Qiong Wu, Natasha Slesnick, Aaron Murnan
This article tested a model of parenting stress as a mediator between maternal depressive symptoms, emotion regulation, and child behavior problems using a sample of homeless, substance-abusing mothers. Participants were 119 homeless mothers (ages 18-24 years) and their young children (ages 0-6 years). Mothers responded to questions about their depressive symptoms, emotion regulation, parenting stress, and child behavior problems. A path analysis showed that maternal depressive symptoms were positively associated with child behavior problems through increased parenting stress whereas maternal cognitive reappraisal was negatively associated with child behavior problems through decreased parenting stress...
June 14, 2018: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898193/gender-related-dimensions-of-childhood-adversities-in-the-general-population
#10
Bruno M Coêlho, Geilson L Santana, Maria C Viana, Laura H Andrade, Yuan-Pang Wang
OBJECTIVE: Childhood adversities (CAs) comprise a group of negative experiences individuals may suffer in their lifetimes. The goal of the present study was to investigate the cluster discrimination of CAs through psychometric determination of the common attributes of such experiences for men and women. METHODS: Parental mental illness, substance misuse, criminality, death, divorce, other parental loss, family violence, physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, physical illness, and economic adversity were assessed in a general-population sample (n=5,037)...
June 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896097/a-focus-on-reward-prediction-and-the-lateral-habenula-functional-alterations-and-the-behavioral-outcomes-induced-by-drugs-of-abuse
#11
REVIEW
Nicholas M Graziane, Peter A Neumann, Yan Dong
The lateral habenula (LHb) regulates reward learning and controls the updating of reward-related information. Drugs of abuse have the capacity to hijack the cellular and neurocircuit mechanisms mediating reward learning, forming non-adaptable, compulsive behaviors geared toward obtaining illicit substances. Here, we discuss current findings demonstrating how drugs of abuse alter intrinsic and synaptic LHb neuronal function. Additionally, we discuss evidence for how drug-induced LHb alterations may affect the ability to predict reward, potentially facilitating an addiction-like state...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895517/detecting-recovery-problems-just-in-time-application-of-automated-linguistic-analysis-and-supervised-machine-learning-to-an-online-substance-abuse-forum
#12
Rachel Kornfield, Prathusha K Sarma, Dhavan V Shah, Fiona McTavish, Gina Landucci, Klaren Pe-Romashko, David H Gustafson
BACKGROUND: Online discussion forums allow those in addiction recovery to seek help through text-based messages, including when facing triggers to drink or use drugs. Trained staff (or "moderators") may participate within these forums to offer guidance and support when participants are struggling but must expend considerable effort to continually review new content. Demands on moderators limit the scalability of evidence-based digital health interventions. OBJECTIVE: Automated identification of recovery problems could allow moderators to engage in more timely and efficient ways with participants who are struggling...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895514/expert-consensus-survey-on-digital-health-tools-for-patients-with-serious-mental-illness-optimizing-for-user-characteristics-and-user-support
#13
Ainslie Hatch, Julia E Hoffman, Ruth Ross, John P Docherty
BACKGROUND: Digital technology is increasingly being used to enhance health care in various areas of medicine. In the area of serious mental illness, it is important to understand the special characteristics of target users that may influence motivation and competence to use digital health tools, as well as the resources and training necessary for these patients to facilitate the use of this technology. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to conduct a quantitative expert consensus survey to identify key characteristics of target users (patients and health care professionals), barriers and facilitators for appropriate use, and resources needed to optimize the use of digital health tools in patients with serious mental illness...
June 12, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895282/psychopathological-sequelae-of-female-genital-mutilation-and-their-neuroendocrinological-associations
#14
Anke Köbach, Martina Ruf-Leuschner, Thomas Elbert
BACKGROUND: Anecdotal evidence suggests the frequently traumatic nature of female genital mutilation (FGM). At present, systematic research on the psychological sequelae of this tradition has remained limited. The study provides preliminary, high-quality psychodiagnostic data on potential psychopathological consequences of FGM, with a focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), shutdown dissociation and other stress-related variables. METHODS: We investigated a convenience sample of N = 167 women, supported by the women's affairs headquarters in Jijiga (capital of the Ethiopian Somali Region) and a local Ethiopian non-governmental organization...
June 13, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893624/developmental-disorders-and-medical-complications-among-infants-with-subclinical-intrauterine-opioid-exposures
#15
Eric S Hall, Jennifer M McAllister, Scott L Wexelblatt
The objective was to compare diagnosis rates representing developmental outcomes and medical complications between infants with intrauterine opioid exposures who did not receive pharmacologic treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome at the time of birth and infants for whom no exposure to substances of abuse were detected. This retrospective, descriptive study included approximately 95% of Hamilton County, Ohio resident births in 2014 and 2015. Universal maternal drug test results, performed at the time of birth, were documented and linked to electronic health records representing pediatric primary and subspecialty follow-up care as well as urgent care, emergency care, and inpatient services provided by Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center through 2017, when all children were at least 24 months old...
June 12, 2018: Population Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893009/estimating-mental-health-impacts-of-alcohol-s-harms-from-other-drinkers-using-propensity-scoring-methods-with-national-cross-sectional-data-from-the-u-s
#16
Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Libo Li, Thomas K Greenfield
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol's harms to others (AHTO) may cause substantial distress, particularly when harms are perpetrated by close others. One challenge to identifying causal impacts is that people harmed by drinkers differ in many ways from those not so harmed, so our aim was to assess mental health in relation to two serious types of AHTO, financial harm and assault by someone who had been drinking, using propensity score (PS) weighting to adjust for potentially confounding differences...
June 12, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892705/the-prevalence-and-associated-factors-of-new-psychoactive-substance-use-a-2016-thailand-national-household-survey
#17
Rungsiya Wonguppa, Manop Kanato
Introduction: Analyzing the situation and risk factors associated with using new psychoactive substances (NPS) is essential for preventing and controlling health consequences. This study explored the prevalence and associated factors of NPS use in the Thai population. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in participants (N = 30,411, mean age = 42.4 ± 13.4 years, range = 15-64 years, 50.3% women) from urban and rural areas of Thailand. The participants were chosen using multistage sampling for large populations...
June 2018: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891412/risk-factors-for-postoperative-opioid-use-after-elective-shoulder-arthroplasty
#18
Anita G Rao, Priscilla H Chan, Heather A Prentice, Elizabeth W Paxton, Ronald A Navarro, Mark T Dillon, Anshuman Singh
BACKGROUND: The opioid epidemic remains a serious issue in the United States with significant impact to the medical and socioeconomic welfare of communities. We sought to determine baseline opioid use in patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty (SA) and identify patient characteristics, comorbidities, and surgical risk factors associated with postoperative opioid use. METHODS: A Shoulder Arthroplasty Registry identified the number of dispensed opioid medication prescriptions (Rxs) in the first postoperative year in patients who underwent elective primary SA from 2008 to 2014...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889946/characteristics-of-substance-abuse-and-self-injury-among-american-indian-adolescents-who-have-engaged-in-binge-drinking
#19
Mary F Cwik, Summer Rosenstock, Lauren Tingey, Novalene Goklish, Francene Larzelere, Rosemarie Suttle, Emily Haroz, Kyle Hill, Mariddie Craig, Allison Barlow
Binge drinking appears to be a risk factor, facilitator, and method of suicidal and non-suicidal self-injury for some American Indian (AI) youth. We examined characteristics, patterns, and motivations for binge use among AI adolescents (N = 69; 10-19 years-old) who recently engaged in binge drinking. The majority used alcohol alone (53.7%) or a combination of alcohol and marijuana (31.3%) for their binge event. Gender differences emerged with boys more severely affected than girls. Forty-seven percent reported lifetime suicidal thoughts...
2018: American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research: the Journal of the National Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889330/the-initiation-of-cannabis-use-in-adolescence-is-predicted-by-sex-specific-psychosocial-and-neurobiological-features
#20
Philip A Spechler, Nicholas Allgaier, Bader Chaarani, Robert Whelan, Richard Watts, Catherine Orr, Matthew D Albaugh, Nicholas D'Alberto, Stephen T Higgins, Kelsey E Hudson, Scott Mackey, Alexandra Potter, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Anna Cattrell, Patricia J Conrod, Sylvane Desrivières, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Jürgen Gallinat, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Tomáš Paus, Michael N Smolka, Henrik Walter, Gunter Schumann, Robert R Althoff, Hugh Garavan
Cannabis use initiated during adolescence might precipitate negative consequences in adulthood. Thus, predicting adolescent cannabis use prior to any exposure will inform the etiology of substance abuse by disentangling predictors from consequences of use. In this prediction study, data were drawn from the IMAGEN sample, a longitudinal study of adolescence. All selected participants (n=1,581) were cannabis-naïve at age 14. Those reporting any cannabis use (out of 6 ordinal use levels) by age 16 were included in the outcome group (N=365, males n=207)...
June 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
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