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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913580/responding-to-challenges-for-people-with-psychotic-illness-updated-evidence-from-the-survey-of-high-impact-psychosis
#1
REVIEW
Vera A Morgan, Anna Waterreus, Vaughan Carr, David Castle, Martin Cohen, Carol Harvey, Cherrie Galletly, Andrew Mackinnon, Patrick McGorry, John J McGrath, Amanda L Neil, Suzy Saw, Johanna C Badcock, Debra L Foley, Geoff Waghorn, Sarah Coker, Assen Jablensky
OBJECTIVE: The objective is to summarise recent findings from the 2010 Australian Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP) and examine their implications for future policy and planning to improve mental health, physical health and other circumstances of people with a psychotic disorder. METHODS: Survey of High Impact Psychosis collected nationally representative data on 1825 people with psychotic illness. Over 60 papers have been published covering key challenges reported by participants: financial problems, loneliness and social isolation, unemployment, poor physical health, uncontrolled symptoms of mental illness, and lack of stable, suitable housing...
December 1, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912908/childhood-sexual-abuse-and-substance-abuse-a-gender-paradox
#2
Lil Tonmyr, Margot Shields
We examine associations between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and substance abuse, the role of mental health indicators as mediators in these associations and whether or not associations differ by gender. Data are from 14,063 respondents aged 18-76 years from the 2004-2005 Canadian Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS). Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine associations between CSA and substance abuse variables, controlling for socio-demographic factors. Odds were adjusted by indicators of mental health to assess if these variables mediated associations between CSA and substance abuse...
November 29, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911073/reducing-risky-alcohol-use-what-health-care-systems-can-do
#3
Amity E Quinn, Mary Brolin, Maureen T Stewart, Brooke Evans, Constance Horgan
Risky, non-dependent alcohol use is prevalent in the United States, affecting 25% of adults (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014b). Massachusetts has higher rates of alcohol use and binge drinking than most states (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2015). Serious physical, social, and economic consequences result. Excessive alcohol use contributes to cancer, cardiovascular disease, sleep disorders, birth defects, motor vehicle injuries, and suicide, and it complicates management of chronic illnesses (Green, McKnight-Eily, Tan, Mejia, & Denny, 2016; Laramee et al...
April 27, 2016: Issue Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909988/predicting-the-abuse-liability-of-entactogen-class-new-and-emerging-psychoactive-substances-via-preclinical-models-of-drug-self-administration
#4
Shawn M Aarde, Michael A Taffe
Animal models of drug self-administration are currently the gold standard for making predictions regarding the relative likelihood that a recreational drug substance will lead to continued use and addiction. Such models have been found to have high predictive accuracy and discriminative validity for a number of drug classes including ethanol, nicotine, opioids, and psychostimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine. Members of the entactogen class of psychostimulants (drugs that produce an "open mind state" including feelings of interpersonal closeness, intimacy and empathy) have been less frequently studied in self-administration models...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908844/quittr-the-design-of-a-video-game-to-support-smoking-cessation
#5
Ivan Bindoff, Kristy de Salas, Gregory Peterson, Tristan Ling, Ian Lewis, Lindsay Wells, Peter Gee, Stuart G Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Smoking is recognized as the largest, single, preventable cause of death and disease in the developed world. While the majority of smokers report wanting to quit, and many try each year, smokers find it difficult to maintain long-term abstinence. Behavioral support, such as education, advice, goal-setting, and encouragement, is known to be beneficial in improving the likelihood of succeeding in a quit attempt, but it remains difficult to effectively deliver this behavioral support and keep the patient engaged with the process for a sufficient duration...
December 1, 2016: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908258/neurotoxicity-induced-by-mephedrone-an-up-to-date-review
#6
Flaminia Pantano, Roberta Tittarelli, Giulio Mannocchi, Roberta Pacifici, Alessandro di Luca, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Enrico Marinelli
Mephedrone is a β-ketoamphetamine belonging to the family of synthetic cathinones, an emerging class of designer drugs known for their hallucinogenic and psychostimulant properties as well as for their abuse potential. The aim of this review was to examine the emerging scientific literature on the possible mephedrone-induced neurotoxicity, yet not well defined due to the limited number of experimental studies, mainly carried on animal models. Relevant scientific articles were identified from international literature databases (Medline, Scopus, etc...
November 30, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907114/rates-and-predictors-of-non-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-positive-individuals-in-kenya-results-from-the-second-kenya-aids-indicator-survey-2012
#7
Irene N Mukui, Lucy Ng'ang'a, John Williamson, Joyce N Wamicwe, Shobha Vakil, Abraham Katana, Andrea A Kim
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the levels and associated factors of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is crucial in designing interventions to improve adherence and health outcomes of ART. We assessed non-adherence to ART among HIV-infected persons reporting ART use in a nationally representative survey in Kenya. METHODS: The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012 was a population-based, household survey of persons aged 18 months-64 years conducted in 2012-2013...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906413/comparison-of-psychodrug-prescription-patterns-in-patients-diagnosed-with-bipolar-disorder-and-addiction
#8
Diego Barral, Fátima Barral, Nuria Cruz, Juan D Molina, Victoria Sánchez, Teresa Rosique
OBJECTIVE: To describe if there are differences in the prescription of psychodrug at discharge between bipolar disorder patients with or without addiction. METHODS: We review all the psychotropic drugs dispensed to inpatients of a brief hospitalization psychiatric unit diagnosed as having bipolar disorder at time of discharge. We recluted 225 patients over 18 years old on their last manic episode, between the year 2000 and 2010. We classify them according to the comorbid presence or not of a substance abuse or dependence disorder...
November 2016: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905916/study-protocol-a-dose-escalating-phase-2-study-of-oral-lisdexamfetamine-in-adults-with-methamphetamine-dependence
#9
Nadine Ezard, Adrian Dunlop, Brendan Clifford, Raimondo Bruno, Andrew Carr, Alexandra Bissaker, Nicholas Lintzeris
BACKGROUND: The treatment of methamphetamine dependence is a continuing global health problem. Agonist type pharmacotherapies have been used successfully to treat opioid and nicotine dependence and are being studied for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. One potential candidate is lisdexamfetamine, a pro-drug for dexamphetamine, which has a longer lasting therapeutic action with a lowered abuse potential. The purpose of this study is to determine the safety of lisdexamfetamine in this population at doses higher than those currently approved for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or binge eating disorder...
December 1, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901585/a-review-of-positron-emission-tomography-studies-exploring-the-dopaminergic-system-in-substance-use-with-a-focus-on-tobacco-as-a-co-variate
#10
Thulasi Thiruchselvam, Saima Malik, Bernard Le Foll
With the evolving sensitivity of positron emission tomography (PET) and the emergence of novel radiotracers, greater insight has been gained into the dopaminergic system as it relates to substance use. In this review, we summarize PET investigations from the last ten years that explore the dopaminergic system in tobacco, alcohol, stimulant, opiates, and cannabis addiction. In light of the prevalence of substance co-use, this review will also explore the effect of tobacco and other substance abuse co-morbidity on the dopaminergic system across study samples in the reviewed literature...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900640/statistical-effects-of-religious-participation-and-marriage-on-substance-use-and-abuse-in-racial-and-ethnic-minorities
#11
Kristine Ria Hearld, Amy Badham, Henna Budhwani
Substance use and abuse, which includes alcohol use, alcohol dependence, drug use, and drug dependence, inflicts a substantial toll on Americans. Although studies have demonstrated the protective effect of social support, such as religious participation and via marriage, understanding their influence on racial and ethnic minorities is limited. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the impact of social support on substance use and abuse in racial and ethnic minorities. The Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys, sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health, a repository of race, ethnicity, and mental health data, was leveraged to develop four models using multivariate analysis, specifically logistic regression to estimate the probability of meeting the criteria for substance use and abuse...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899215/toxicology-in-international-drug-control-prioritizing-the-most-harmful-persistent-and-prevalent-substances
#12
Susan C Ifeagwu, Martin Raithelhuber, Conor Crean, Dimitri Gerostamoulos, Heesun Chung, Justice N Tettey
The nature of the global drugs market has evolved rapidly and has become more complex with the emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS), some of which have been associated with increased abuse, hospital emergency admissions and sometimes fatalities. NPS are characterized by geographic heterogeneity, with some only transient in nature and others not satisfying the criteria for harm required for international control. Consequently, a pragmatic response of the international community is to prioritize the most harmful, persistent and prevalent substances for action - an objective, which is hampered by the paucity of data on harms...
November 20, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899120/violence-narratives-of-mexican-women-treated-in-mutual-aid-residential-centers-for-addiction-treatment
#13
Ignacio Lozano-Verduzco, Martha Romero-Mendoza, Rodrigo Marín-Navarrete
BACKGROUND: Violence against women is a social and public health issue in Mexico. The aim of this article is to explore violence among an understudied group of women, who attended Mutual-Aid Residential Centers for Addiction Treatment and experienced stigma both as women and addicts. These centers are particular kind of addiction treatment services that stem from 12-step philosophy, but that have been found to manipulate said philosophy and exercise extreme forms of psychological and physical violence...
November 30, 2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898722/suicide-among-young-people-and-adults-in-ireland-method-characteristics-toxicological-analysis-and-substance-abuse-histories-compared
#14
Ella Arensman, Marco Bennardi, Celine Larkin, Amanda Wall, Carmel McAuliffe, Jacklyn McCarthy, Eileen Williamson, Ivan J Perry
OBJECTIVE: Information on factors associated with suicide among young individuals in Ireland is limited. The aim of this study was to identify socio-demographic characteristics and circumstances of death associated with age among individuals who died by suicide. METHODS: The study examined 121 consecutive suicides (2007-2012) occurring in the southern eastern part of Ireland (Cork city and county). Data were obtained from coroners, family informants, and health care professionals...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897965/factors-associated-with-substance-use-in-older-homeless-adults-results-from-the-hope-home-study
#15
Matthew A Spinelli, Claudia Ponath, Lina Tieu, Emily E Hurstak, David Guzman, Margot Kushel
BACKGROUND: The median age of the single adult homeless population is 50 and rising. While the prevalence of substance use decreases as individuals age, older adults now have a higher prevalence of substance use than older adults did ten years ago. Homeless individuals have a higher prevalence of substance use disorders than the general population. However, little is known about substance use in older homeless adults. METHODS: We examined prevalence of and factors associated with substance use in a population-based sample (n = 350) of homeless individuals aged 50 and older in Oakland, CA...
November 29, 2016: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894037/psychopathology-profiles-of-acutely-suicidal-adolescents-associations-with-post-discharge-suicide-attempts-and-rehospitalization
#16
Johnny Berona, Adam G Horwitz, Ewa K Czyz, Cheryl A King
BACKGROUND: Suicidal adolescents are heterogeneous, which can pose difficulties in predicting suicidal behavior. The Youth Self-Report (YSR) psychopathology profiles predict the future onset of psychopathology and suicide-related outcomes. The present study examined the prevalence and correlates of YSR psychopathology profiles among suicidal adolescents and prospective associations with post-discharge rates of suicide attempts and psychiatric rehospitalization. METHODS: Participants were acutely suicidal, psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents (N=433 at baseline; n=355 at follow-up) who were enrolled in a psychosocial intervention trial during hospitalization...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893581/the-effect-of-socioeconomic-status-and-parental-demographics-on-activation-of-department-of-child-and-family-services-in-pediatric-burn-injury
#17
Jessica K Campos, Yee M Wong, Brittany N Hasty, Kelly A McElligott, Michael J Mosier
Burns resulting from child maltreatment are tragic causes of significant morbidity and mortality, most commonly affecting children under 3 years of age. More than one third of nonaccidental burns occur in single-parent homes or have parents with history of mental illness, substance abuse, incarceration, or Department of Children and Family Services (DCFS) involvement. The authors sought to profile pediatric burn injuries associated with DCFS investigations. They performed a retrospective chart review of pediatric burn patients, admitted between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2014...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891209/feasibility-of-connecting-a-substance-abuse-prevention-program-for-foster-teens-and-their-caregivers
#18
Kevin P Haggerty, Susan E Barkan, Martie Skinner, W Ben Packard, Janice J Cole
OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility, usability, and proximal outcomes of Connecting, an adaptation of a low-cost, self-directed, family-based substance use prevention program, Staying Connected with Your Teen, with foster families in a randomized, waitlist control pilot study. METHOD: Families (n = 60) fostering teens between 11 and 15 years of age were recruited into the study and randomly assigned into the self-administered program with telephone support from a family consultant (n = 32) or a waitlist control condition (n = 28)...
2016: Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891077/presynaptic-g-protein-coupled-receptors-gatekeepers-of-addiction
#19
REVIEW
Kari A Johnson, David M Lovinger
Drug abuse and addiction cause widespread social and public health problems, and the neurobiology underlying drug actions and drug use and abuse is an area of intensive research. Drugs of abuse alter synaptic transmission, and these actions contribute to acute intoxication as well as the chronic effects of abused substances. Transmission at most mammalian synapses involves neurotransmitter activation of two receptor subtypes, ligand-gated ion channels that mediate fast synaptic responses and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that have slower neuromodulatory actions...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889564/interactive-pathways-to-substance-abuse
#20
Marc A Lindberg, Dana Zeid
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
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