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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918520/derivation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-ipsc-lines-and-mechanism-of-pluripotency-historical-perspective-and-recent-advances
#1
REVIEW
Arvind Chhabra
Derivation of human embryonic stem cell (hES) lines in 1998 was not only a major technological breakthrough in the field of regenerative medicine; it also triggered a passionate debate about the ethical issues associated with the utilization of human embryos for derivation of hESC lines. Successful derivation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) lines from human somatic cells with defined reprogramming factors by Shinya Yamanaka`s group in 2007 was another breakthrough that generated enormous excitement and hope for the development of donor-specific personalized cell replacement therapies (CRT) without the ethical dilemma associated with it...
September 16, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911317/generation-of-ips-derived-model-cells-for-analyses-of-hair-shaft-differentiation
#2
Takumi Kido, Tomoatsu Horigome, Minori Uda, Naoki Adachi, Yohei Hirai
Biological evaluation of hair growth/differentiation activity in vitro has been a formidable challenge, primarily due to the lack of relevant model cell systems. To solve this problem, we generated a stable model cell line in which successive differentiation via epidermal progenitors to hair components is easily inducible and traceable. Mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells were selected to stably express a tetracycline (Tet)-inducible bone morphogenic protein-4 (BMP4) expression cassette and a luciferase reporter driven by a hair-specific keratin 31 gene (krt31) promoter (Tet-BMP4-KRT31-Luc iPS)...
September 1, 2017: BioTechniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895148/critical-roles-of-hmagea2-in-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-pluripotency-proliferation-and-differentiation
#3
Song Park, Yonghun Sung, Jain Jeong, Minjee Choi, Jinhee Lee, Wookbong Kwon, Soyoung Jang, Si Jun Park, Jae Young Kim, Sung Hyun Kim, Duhak Yoon, Zae Young Ryoo, Myoung Ok Kim
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are important for clinical application and stem cell research. Although human melanoma-associated antigen A2 (hMAGEA2) expression is known to affect differentiation in embryonic stem cells, its specific role in iPS cells remains unclear. To evaluate the function of hMAGEA2 and its characteristics in iPS cells, we produced hMAGEA2-overexpressing iPS cells from hMAGEA2-overexpressing transgenic mice. Although the iPS cells with overexpressed hMAGEA2 did not differ in morphology, their pluripotency, and self-renewal related genes (Nanog, Oct3/4, Sox2, and Stat3), expression level was significantly upregulated...
September 11, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893653/hepatitis-c-virus-induced-innate-immune-responses-in-human-ips-cell-derived-hepatocyte-like-cells
#4
Fuminori Sakurai, Takemaru Kunito, Kazuo Takayama, Rina Hashimoto, Masashi Tachibana, Naoya Sakamoto, Takaji Wakita, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. In order to develop effective remedies for hepatitis C, it is important to understand the HCV infection profile and host-HCV interaction. HCV-induced innate immune responses play a crucial role in spontaneous HCV clearance; however, HCV-induced innate immune responses have not been fully evaluated in hepatocytes, partly because there are few in vitro models of HCV-induced innate immunity. Recently, human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have received much attention as an in vitro model of infection with various pathogens, including HCV...
September 9, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887108/new-approach-for-the-derivation-of-melanocytes-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-ips-cells
#5
Tamihiro Kawakami, Tatsuro Okano, Sora Takeuchi, Kayoko Osumi, Yoshinao Soma, Munenari Itoh, Tomohisa Hirobe, Kowichi Jimbow
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have the ability to differentiate into multiple cell types in the body and have an unlimited growth potential. However, iPS cell-derived melanocytes produced by existing protocols have significant limitations in developing novel strategies for regenerative medicine and cell therapies of pigmentation disorders in humans, because they involve culture in media containing fetal bovine serum (FBS) and non-physiologic agents. In this study, we established a new in vitro approach to generate iPS cell-derived human melanocytes which have higher proliferation rates and increased melanin production compared to melanocytes prepared by previously reported approaches...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886268/implanted-hair-follicle-associated-pluripotent-hap-stem-cells-encapsulated-in-polyvinylidene-fluoride-membrane-cylinders-promote-effective-recovery-of-peripheral-nerve-injury
#6
Aiko Yamazaki, Kohya Obara, Natsuko Tohgi, Kyoumi Shirai, Sumiyuki Mii, Yuko Hamada, Nobuko Arakawa, Ryoichi Aki, Robert M Hoffman, Yasuyuki Amoh
Hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells are located in the bulge area of the hair follicle, express the stem-cell marker, nestin, and have been shown to differentiate to nerve cells, glial cells, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells, and melanocytes. Transplanted HAP stem cells promote the recovery of peripheral nerve and spinal cord injuries and have the potential for heart regeneration as well. In the present study, we implanted mouse HAP stem-cell spheres encapsulated in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-membrane cylinders into the severed sciatic nerve of immunocompetent and immunocompromised (nude) mice...
September 8, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885496/%C3%A3-cell-replacement-therapy-the-next-10-years
#7
Christian Schuetz, Takayuki Anazawa, Sarah E Cross, Leticia Labriola, Raphael P H Meier, Robert R Redfield, Hanne Scholz, Peter G Stock, Nathan W Zammit
ß cell replacement with either pancreas or islet transplantation has progressed immensely over the last decades with current 1- and 5-year insulin independence rates of ~85% and ~50%, respectively. Recent advances are largely attributed to improvements in immunosuppressive regimen, donor selection and surgical technique. However, both strategies are compromised by a scarce donor source. Xenotransplantation provides a potential solution by providing a theoretically unlimited supply of islets, but clinical application has been limited by concerns for a potent immune response against xenogeneic tissue...
September 6, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882998/transplantation-of-ips-derived-tumor-cells-with-a-homozygous-mhc-haplotype-induces-grp94-antibody-production-in-mhc-matched-macaques
#8
Hirohito Ishigaki, Toshinaga Maeda, Hirokazu Inoue, Tsuyoshi Akagi, Takako Sasamura, Hideaki Ishida, Toshiro Inubushi, Junko Okahara, Takashi Shiina, Misako Nakayama, Yasushi Itoh, Kazumasa Ogasawara
Immune surveillance is a critical component of the anti-tumor response in vivo, yet the specific components of the immune system involved in this regulatory response remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that autoantibodies can mitigate tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. We generated two cancer cell lines, embryonal carcinoma and glioblastoma cell lines, from monkey induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) carrying a homozygous haplotype of major histocompatibility complex (MHC, Mafa in Macaca fascicularis)...
September 7, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878117/tead1-is-required-for-maintaining-adult-cardiomyocyte-function-and-its-loss-results-in-lethal-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#9
Ruya Liu, Jeongkyung Lee, Byung S Kim, Qiongling Wang, Samuel K Buxton, Nikhil Balasubramanyam, Jean J Kim, Jianrong Dong, Aijun Zhang, Shumin Li, Anisha A Gupte, Dale J Hamilton, James F Martin, George G Rodney, Cristian Coarfa, Xander Ht Wehrens, Vijay K Yechoor, Mousumi Moulik
Heart disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide, highlighting a pressing need to identify novel regulators of cardiomyocyte (CM) function that could be therapeutically targeted. The mammalian Hippo/Tead pathway is critical in embryonic cardiac development and perinatal CM proliferation. However, the requirement of Tead1, the transcriptional effector of this pathway, in the adult heart is unknown. Here, we show that tamoxifen-inducible adult CM-specific Tead1 ablation led to lethal acute-onset dilated cardiomyopathy, associated with impairment in excitation-contraction coupling...
September 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860464/characterization-of-a-core-region-in-the-a2ucoe-that-confers-effective-anti-silencing-activity
#10
Fang Zhang, Giorgia Santilli, Adrian J Thrasher
We have previously shown that reliability of the A2UCOE in driving transgene expression can be attributed to its resistance to DNA methylation, and its ability to confer this property to linked regulatory sequences. In order to gain a better understanding of how resistance to DNA methylation from the A2UCOE is conferred, and whether the anti-silencing effect from the A2UCOE is confined within a core region, we evaluated the anti-silencing effect of different sub-domains. We found that maximal epigenetic regulatory activity was contained within a 455 bp element derived from the CBX3 region when tested in the context of a lentiviral vector in murine embryonic stem (ES) cells and human inducible pluripotent stem (iPS) cells...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858313/human-ips-cell-derived-dopaminergic-neurons-function-in-a-primate-parkinson-s-disease-model
#11
Tetsuhiro Kikuchi, Asuka Morizane, Daisuke Doi, Hiroaki Magotani, Hirotaka Onoe, Takuya Hayashi, Hiroshi Mizuma, Sayuki Takara, Ryosuke Takahashi, Haruhisa Inoue, Satoshi Morita, Michio Yamamoto, Keisuke Okita, Masato Nakagawa, Malin Parmar, Jun Takahashi
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) are a promising source for a cell-based therapy to treat Parkinson's disease (PD), in which midbrain dopaminergic neurons progressively degenerate. However, long-term analysis of human iPS cell-derived dopaminergic neurons in primate PD models has never been performed to our knowledge. Here we show that human iPS cell-derived dopaminergic progenitor cells survived and functioned as midbrain dopaminergic neurons in a primate model of PD (Macaca fascicularis) treated with the neurotoxin MPTP...
August 30, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848389/the-generation-of-mouse-and-human-huntington-disease-ips-cells-suitable-for-in-vitro-studies-on-huntingtin-function
#12
Wojciech J Szlachcic, Kalina Wiatr, Marta Trzeciak, Marek Figlerowicz, Maciej Figiel
Huntington disease (HD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of CAG repeats in huntingtin (HTT) gene, resulting in expanded polyglutamine tract in HTT protein. Although, HD has its common onset in adulthood, subtle symptoms in patients may occur decades before diagnosis, and molecular and cellular changes begin much earlier, even in cells that are not yet lineage committed such as stem cells. Studies in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) HD models have demonstrated that multiple molecular processes are altered by the mutant HTT protein and suggested its silencing as a promising therapeutic strategy...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848052/bacterial-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-like-myo-inositol-phosphatases-phya-in-complex-with-the-ins-1-3-4-5-p4-and-ins-1-4-5-p3-second-messengers
#13
Lisza M Bruder, Robert J Gruninger, Colyn P Cleland, Steven C Mosimann
Myo-inositol phosphates (IPs) are important bioactive molecules that have multiple activities within eukaryotic cells including well-known roles as second messengers and cofactors that help regulate diverse biochemical processes such as transcription and hormone-receptor activity. Despite the typical absence of IPs in prokaryotes, many of these organisms express IPases (or phytases) that dephosphorylate IPs. Functionally, these enzymes participate in phosphate-scavenging pathways and in plant pathogenesis. Here, we have determined X-ray crystallographic structures of two catalytically inactive mutants of protein tyrosine phosphatase-like myo-inositol phosphatases (PTPLPs) from the non-pathogenic bacteria Selenomonas runimantium (PhyAsr) and Mitsuokella multacida (PhyAmm) in complex with the known eukaryotic second messengers, Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 and Ins(1,4,5)P3 Both enzymes bind these less-phosphorylated IPs in a catalytically-competent manner suggesting IP hydrolysis has a role in plant pathogenesis...
August 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847510/ampk-downregulates-alk2-via-increasing-the-interaction-between-smurf1-and-smad6-leading-to-inhibition-of-in-vitro-osteogenic-differentiation
#14
Hui Lin, Ying Ying, Yuan-Yuan Wang, Gang Wang, Shan-Shan Jiang, Deiang Huang, Lingyu Luo, Ye-Guang Chen, Louis C Gerstenfeld, Zhijun Luo
Activin A receptor type I or activin receptor-like kinase 2 (ACVRI/ALK2) belongs to type I TGF-β family and plays an important role in bone development. Activating mutations of ALK2 containing the R206 to H mutation, are present in 95% in the rare autosomal genetic diseasefibrodysplasiaossificansprogressiva (FOP), which leads to the development of ectopic bone formation in muscle.The effect of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)activation on ALK2R206H-mediated signaling in fibroblast obtained from a FOP patientwasassessed in the present study...
August 25, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845162/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-reduce-progression-of-experimental-chronic-kidney-disease-but-develop-wilms-tumors
#15
Heloisa Cristina Caldas, Fernando Henrique Lojudice, Cinthia Dias, Ida Maria Maximina Fernandes-Charpiot, Maria Alice Sperto Ferreira Baptista, Rosa Sayoko Kawasaki-Oyama, Mari Cleide Sogayar, Christina Maeda Takiya, Mario Abbud-Filho
The therapeutic effect of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSs) on the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has not yet been demonstrated. In this study, we sought to assess whether treatment with iPSs retards progression of CKD when compared with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Untreated 5/6 nephrectomized rats were compared with CKD animals receiving BMSCs or iPSs. Renal function, histology, immunohistochemistry, and gene expression were studied. Implanted iPSs were tracked by the SRY gene expression analysis...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837677/characterization-of-lincrna-expression-in-the-human-retinal-pigment-epithelium-and-differentiated-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#16
Elizabeth D Au, Rosario Fernandez-Godino, Tadeusz J Kaczynksi, Maria E Sousa, Michael H Farkas
Long intervening non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are increasingly being implicated as important factors in many aspects of cellular development, function, and disease, but remain poorly understood. In this study, we examine the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) lincRNA transcriptome using RNA-Seq data generated from human fetal RPE (fRPE), RPE derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS-RPE), and undifferentiated iPS (iPS). In addition, we determine the suitability of iPS-RPE, from a transcriptome standpoint, as a model for use in future studies of lincRNA structure and function...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824641/decidual-stromal-cell-necroptosis-contributes-to-polyinosinic-polycytidylic-acid-triggered-abnormal-murine-pregnancy
#17
Shui-Xing Yu, Feng-Hua Zhou, Wei Chen, Gui-Mei Jiang, Chong-Tao Du, Gui-Qiu Hu, Zhen-Zhen Liu, Shi-Qing Yan, Jing-Min Gu, Xu-Ming Deng, Tong-Jun Lin, En-Kui Duan, Yong-Jun Yang
Infectious agents can reach the placenta either via the maternal blood or by ascending the genito-urinary tract, and then initially colonizing the maternal decidua. Decidual stromal cells (DSCs) are the major cellular component of the decidua. Although DSCs at the maternal-fetal interface contribute to the regulation of immunity in pregnancy in the face of immunological and physiological challenges, the roles of these DSCs during viral infection remain ill defined. Here, we characterized the response of DSCs to a synthetic double-stranded RNA molecule, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], which is a mimic of viral infection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823985/quality-control-towards-the-application-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#18
REVIEW
Kaixuan Lin, Andrew Z Xiao
The advance of iPS technology holds great promise for regenerative medicine. Despite their global similarity to ES cells, fully reprogrammed iPS cells generated by current procedures still display clone-to-clone variations in molecular properties and developmental potentials, which calls for the development of reliable quality control assays. The differences in developmental potentials in iPS cells may be caused by epigenetic variations, such as histone variant H2A.X deposition. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of molecular variations of iPS cells and their implication on quality assessments...
August 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821761/enhanced-therapeutic-effects-of-human-ips-cell-derived-cardiomyocyte-by-combined-cell-sheets-with-omental-flap-technique-in-porcine-ischemic-cardiomyopathy-model
#19
Masashi Kawamura, Shigeru Miyagawa, Satsuki Fukushima, Atsuhiro Saito, Kenji Miki, Shunsuke Funakoshi, Yoshinori Yoshida, Shinya Yamanaka, Tatsuya Shimizu, Teruo Okano, Takashi Daimon, Koichi Toda, Yoshiki Sawa
Transplant of human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs) cell-sheet is a promising approach for treating ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). However, poor blood supply to the transplanted cell-sheet is a concern related to the effectiveness and durability of the treatment. Herein, we hypothesized that the combined the omentum flap might enhance survival and the therapeutic effects of hiPS-CM cell-sheet transplant for ICM treatment. Treatment by Wnt signaling molecules in hiPS cells produced hiPS-CMs, which were magnetically labeled by superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO), followed by culture in the thermoresponsive dishes to generate hiPS-CMs cell-sheets...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815470/alterations-in-scai-expression-during-cell-plasticity-fibrosis-and-cancer
#20
Ákos Gasparics, Gábor Kökény, Attila Fintha, Rita Bencs, Miklós M Mózes, Emese Irma Ágoston, Anna Buday, Zoltán Ivics, Péter Hamar, Balázs Győrffy, László Rosivall, Attila Sebe
Suppressor of cancer cell invasion (SCAI) has been originally characterized as a tumor suppressor inhibiting metastasis in different human cancer cells, and it has been suggested that SCAI expression declines in tumors. The expression patterns and role of SCAI during physiological and pathophysiological processes is still poorly understood. Earlier we demonstrated that SCAI is regulating the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of proximal tubular epithelial cells, it is downregulated during renal fibrosis and it is overexpressed in Wilms' tumors...
August 16, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
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