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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933164/effect-of-elevated-carbon-dioxide-on-shoal-familiarity-and-metabolism-in-a-coral-reef-fish
#1
Lauren E Nadler, Shaun S Killen, Mark I McCormick, Sue-Ann Watson, Philip L Munday
Atmospheric CO2 is expected to more than double by the end of the century. The resulting changes in ocean chemistry will affect the behaviour, sensory systems and physiology of a range of fish species. Although a number of past studies have examined effects of CO2 in gregarious fishes, most have assessed individuals in social isolation, which can alter individual behaviour and metabolism in social species. Within social groups, a learned familiarity can develop following a prolonged period of interaction between individuals, with fishes preferentially associating with familiar conspecifics because of benefits such as improved social learning and greater foraging opportunities...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932983/cannabidiol-regulation-of-learned-fear-implications-for-treating-anxiety-related-disorders
#2
Regimantas Jurkus, Harriet L L Day, Francisco S Guimarães, Jonathan L C Lee, Leandro J Bertoglio, Carl W Stevenson
Anxiety and trauma-related disorders are psychiatric diseases with a lifetime prevalence of up to 25%. Phobias and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are characterized by abnormal and persistent memories of fear-related contexts and cues. The effects of psychological treatments such as exposure therapy are often only temporary and medications can be ineffective and have adverse side effects. Growing evidence from human and animal studies indicates that cannabidiol, the main non-psychotomimetic phytocannabinoid present in Cannabis sativa, alleviates anxiety in paradigms assessing innate fear...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932967/better-not-to-know-emotion-regulation-fails-to-benefit-from-affective-cueing
#3
Siwei Liu, Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt, Juan Zhou, Annett Schirmer
Often we know whether an upcoming event is going to be good or bad. But does that knowledge help us regulate ensuing emotions? To address this question, we exposed participants to alleged social feedback that was either positive or negative. On half the trials, a preceding cue indicated the feedback's affective quality. On the remaining trials, the cue was uninformative. In two different blocks, participants either appraised feedback spontaneously or down-regulated ensuing emotions using a controlled appraisal strategy...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932962/neural-differences-between-covert-and-overt-attention-studied-using-eeg-with-simultaneous-remote-eye-tracking
#4
Louisa V Kulke, Janette Atkinson, Oliver Braddick
Research on neural mechanisms of attention has generally instructed subjects to direct attention covertly while maintaining a fixed gaze. This study combined simultaneous eye tracking and electroencephalogram (EEG) to measure neural attention responses during exogenous cueing in overt attention shifts (with saccadic eye movements to a target) and compared these with covert attention shifts (responding manually while maintaining central fixation). EEG analysis of the period preceding the saccade latency showed similar occipital response amplitudes for overt and covert shifts, although response latencies differed...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932542/h2o2-sensitive-isoforms-of-drosophila-trpa1-act-in-bitter-sensing-gustatory-neurons-to-promote-avoidance-of-uv-during-egg-laying
#5
Ananya R Guntur, Bin Gou, Pengyu Gu, Ruo He, Ulrich Stern, Yang Xiang, Chung-Hui Yang
The evolutionarily conserved TRPA1 channel can sense various stimuli including temperatures and chemical irritants. Recent results have suggested that specific isoforms of Drosophila TRPA1 (dTRPA1) are UV sensitive and that their UV sensitivity is due to H2O2 sensitivity. However, whether such UV sensitivity serves any physiological purposes in behaving animals was unclear. Here, we demonstrate that H2O2-sensitive dTRPA1 isoforms promote avoidance of UV when adult Drosophila females are selecting sites for egg-laying...
December 7, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932534/perceptual-and-motor-performance-of-combat-sport-athletes-differs-according-to-specific-demands-of-the-discipline
#6
Wei-Ying Chen, Sheng K Wu, Tai-Fen Song, Kuei-Ming Chou, Kuei-Yuan Wang, Yao-Ching Chang, Patrick T Goodbourn
The specific demands of a combat-sport discipline may be reflected in the perceptual-motor performance of its athletes. Taekwondo, which emphasizes kicking, might require faster perceptual processing to compensate for longer latencies to initiate lower-limb movements and to give rapid visual feedback for dynamic postural control, while Karate, which emphasizes both striking with the hands and kicking, might require exceptional eye-hand coordination and fast perceptual processing. In samples of 38 Taekwondo athletes (16 females, 22 males; mean age = 19...
December 7, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932241/nonspecific-effects-of-gap-paradigm-on-swallowing
#7
Masaki Yoneda, Kazuya Saitoh
OBJECTIVE: Analogous to the gap paradigm in experiments for saccadic eye movements with very short reaction times, we hypothesized that the initiation of oropharyngeal swallowing movements guided by visual cues are encouraged under experimental conditions using a similar gap paradigm. METHODS: A red visual cue indicating to hold a bolus in the mouth and a blue one indicating to swallow the bolus were sequentially provided on a computer display to 11 healthy participants...
December 5, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930906/an-elegant-circuit-for-balancing-risk-and-reward
#8
Zhaoyu Li, Adam J Iliff, X Z Shawn Xu
Animals constantly encounter conflicting cues in natural environments. To survive and thrive, they must make appropriate behavioral decisions. In this issue, Ghosh et al. (2016) identified a neural circuit underlying multisensory threat-reward decision making using an elegant C. elegans model.
December 7, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929344/can-repetitive-mental-simulation-of-smoking-engender-habituation
#9
Janet Audrain-McGovern, Andrew A Strasser, E Paul Wileyto
Smoking cue exposure sensitizes smokers to cigarettes (i.e., increases cravings). Research examining the overlap between perception and mental imagery suggests that mentally simulating smoking a cigarette in a manner analogous to actually smoking should lead to habituation or a decrease in a smoker's motivation to smoke. The authors sought to determine whether repetitive mental simulation of smoking can engender habituation thereby reducing smoking cue-induced craving and shifts in mood, latency to smoke, and the hedonic response to smoking...
December 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928656/sparsetracer-the-reconstruction-of-discontinuous-neuronal-morphology-in-noisy-images
#10
Shiwei Li, Hang Zhou, Tingwei Quan, Jing Li, Yuxin Li, Anan Li, Qingming Luo, Hui Gong, Shaoqun Zeng
Digital reconstruction of a single neuron occupies an important position in computational neuroscience. Although many novel methods have been proposed, recent advances in molecular labeling and imaging systems allow for the production of large and complicated neuronal datasets, which pose many challenges for neuron reconstruction, especially when discontinuous neuronal morphology appears in a strong noise environment. Here, we develop a new pipeline to address this challenge. Our pipeline is based on two methods, one is the region-to-region connection (RRC) method for detecting the initial part of a neurite, which can effectively gather local cues, i...
December 7, 2016: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927844/congenital-hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism-functional-hypogonadotropism-or-constitutional-delay-of-growth-and-puberty-an-analysis-of-a-large-patient-series-from-a-single-tertiary-center
#11
Tero Varimo, Päivi J Miettinen, Johanna Känsäkoski, Taneli Raivio, Matti Hero
STUDY QUESTION: What diagnoses underlie delayed puberty (DP) and predict its outcome? SUMMARY ANSWER: A multitude of different diagnoses underlie DP, and in boys a history of cryptorchidism, small testicular size and slow growth velocity (GV) predict its clinical course. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: DP is caused by a variety of underlying etiologies. Hormonal markers can be used in the differential diagnosis of DP but none of them have shown complete diagnostic accuracy...
December 6, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927805/transmission-of-metabolic-dysfunction-across-generations
#12
REVIEW
Kathleen Jaeger, Jessica L Saben, Kelle H Moley
Recent human and animal studies investigating the roles of the genome, epigenome, and environmental cues have identified associations between offspring predisposition to life-long obesity/metabolic disease and epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation. This review explores the mechanisms by which maternal exposures impair the health of not only the next generation but also potentially future generations of offspring.
January 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927740/chronic-vortioxetine-treatment-reduces-exaggerated-expression-of-conditioned-fear-memory-and-restores-active-coping-behavior-in-chronically-stressed-rats
#13
Lauren Hatherall, Connie Sánchez, David A Morilak
BACKGROUND: Stress is a risk factor for depression and anxiety disorders, disrupting neuronal processes leading to exaggerated fear and compromised coping behaviors. Current antidepressants are only partially effective. Vortioxetine, a novel multimodal antidepressant, is a serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitor, 5-HT3, 5-HT7, and 5-HT1D receptor antagonist, 5-HT1B partial agonist, and 5-HT1A agonist. We have shown that chronic dietary vortioxetine administration reversed stress-induced deficits in cognitive flexibility...
December 7, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927551/reliability-and-validity-testing-of-a-danish-translated-version-of%C3%A2-spinal%C3%A2-appearance-questionnaire-saq-v-1-1
#14
Ane Simony, Leah Y Carreon, Karen Hoejmark Hansen, Mikkel O Andersen
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. OBJECTIVE: To develop a psychometrically reliable and valid Danish version of the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The SAQ was developed as a disease-specific measure of quality of life in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), specifically for younger patients, as it has more visual cues than verbal questions. A reliable and valid Danish Version is not available...
March 2016: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927093/optomotor-reactions-reveal-polarization-sensitvity-in-the-zika-virus-transmitting-yellow-fever-mosquito-aedes-stegomyia-aegypti-diptera-nematocera
#15
Balazs Bernáth, Victor Benno Meyer-Rochow
In polarization-sensitive insect species an orthogonal arrangement of photoreceptive microvilli is a characteristic feature. However, mosquito eyes had not revealed this feature, and polarization sensitivity (PS) was considered to be non-existent in them. Recently, however, gravid Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti females were found to possess PS, sequels of which could be demonstrated only in the absence of chemicals emitted by conspecifics. Therefore, PS in Ae. aegypti, unlike that of other aquatic insects, apparently does not play a dominant role in locating water bodies, and is difficult to demonstrate in situations free of chemical cues...
December 2016: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926875/ship2-regulates-lumen-generation-cell-division-and-ciliogenesis-through-the-control-of-basolateral-to-apical-lumen-localization-of-aurora-a-and-hef-1
#16
Ola Hamze-Komaiha, Sokavuth Sarr, Yannick Arlot-Bonnemains, Didier Samuel, Ama Gassama-Diagne
Lumen formation during epithelial morphogenesis requires the creation of a luminal space at cell interfaces named apical membrane-initiation sites (AMISs). This is dependent upon integrated signaling from mechanical and biochemical cues, vesicle trafficking, cell division, and processes tightly coupled to ciliogenesis. Deciphering relationships between polarity determinants and lumen or cilia generation remains a fundamental issue. Here, we report that Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase 2 (SHIP2), a basolateral determinant of polarity, regulates RhoA-dependent actin contractility and cell division to form AMISs...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925227/an-erp-study-of-response-inhibition-in-the-auditory-domain-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#17
Matthew M Gerhold, Sandra W Jacobson, Joseph L Jacobson, Christopher D Molteno, Ernesta M Meintjes, Colin M Andrew
BACKGROUND: Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies of response inhibition in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) have used a visual Go/NoGo task to study the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on response inhibition. No studies exist using auditory versions of the task; thus, it is unclear how the deficits observed in visual tasks translate into the auditory domain. METHODS: This study examined ERPs using an auditory Go/NoGo paradigm in a sample of 35 school-age children-18 with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and 17 normally developing controls...
December 7, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925178/adaptive-patterns-of-phenotypic-plasticity-in-laboratory-and-field-environments-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#18
Vinayak Mathur, Paul S Schmidt
Identifying mechanisms of adaptation to variable environments is essential in developing a comprehensive understanding of evolutionary dynamics in natural populations. Phenotypic plasticity allows for phenotypic change in response to changes in the environment, and as such may play a major role in adaptation to environmental heterogeneity. Here, the plasticity of stress response in D. melanogaster originating from two distinct geographic regions and ecological habitats was examined. Adults were given a short-term, 5-day exposure to combinations of temperature and photoperiod to elicit a plastic response for three fundamental aspects of stress tolerance that vary adaptively with geography...
December 7, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924568/visualization-of-ras-mapk-signaling-in-situ-by-the-proximity-ligation-assay-pla
#19
Zijian Tang, Chengkai Dai
RAS/MAPK signaling responds to diverse extracellular cues and regulates a wide array of cellular processes. Given its biological importance, abnormalities in RAS/MAPK signaling cascade have been intimately implicated in numerous human diseases, including cancer. Herein, we describe a novel methodology to study activation of this pivotal signaling pathway. The Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA) is employed to monitor kinase-substrate interactions between MEK1 and HSF1, or MEK1 and ERK1 in situ.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924563/high-throughput-in-vitro-identification-of-direct-mapk-erk-substrates
#20
Rona Grossman, Ze'ev Paroush
Phosphorylation mediated by cellular protein kinases is an effective mechanism employed by an organism to regulate central processes such as cell-cycle progression, metabolic pathways, cytoskeletal function, cell migration and differentiation. Thus, for example, various signaling pathways utilize sequential phosphorylation events to relay external cues from the cell surface to the nucleus, where eventually gene expression profiles are altered and, consequently, changes in cell fates and function are induced...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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