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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431292/cannabis-and-cue-induced-craving-in-cocaine-dependent-individuals-a-pilot-study
#1
K Giasson-Gariépy, S Potvin, M Ghabrash, J Bruneau, D Jutras-Aswad
BACKGROUND: Cannabis consumption is common among cocaine users; however, little is known about its effect on cocaine craving. The objective of this study was to assess whether cannabis co-use is associated with lower cue-induced cocaine craving in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals. METHODS: Data from twenty-eight cocaine-dependent men were analyzed in this pilot study. Cocaine-dependent subjects (n=12) were compared with cocaine-dependent subjects who also abused or were dependent on cannabis (n=16)...
March 30, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431246/fatty-acids-regulate-germline-sex-determination-through-acs-4-dependent-myristoylation
#2
Hongyun Tang, Min Han
Fat metabolism has been linked to fertility and reproductive adaptation in animals and humans, and environmental sex determination potentially plays a role in the process. To investigate the impact of fatty acids (FA) on sex determination and reproductive development, we examined and observed an impact of FA synthesis and mobilization by lipolysis in somatic tissues on oocyte fate in Caenorhabditis elegans. The subsequent genetic analysis identified ACS-4, an acyl-CoA synthetase and its FA-CoA product, as key germline factors that mediate the role of FA in promoting oocyte fate through protein myristoylation...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431134/floral-transitions-in-wheat-and-barley-interactions-between-photoperiod-abiotic-stresses-and-nutrient-status
#3
Leonard Gol, Filipa Tomé, Maria von Korff
The timing of plant reproduction has a large impact on yield in crop plants. Reproductive development in temperate cereals comprises two major developmental transitions. During spikelet initiation, the identity of the shoot meristem switches from the vegetative to the reproductive stage and spikelet primordia are formed on the apex. Subsequently, floral morphogenesis is initiated, a process strongly affected by environmental variation. Recent studies in cereal grasses have suggested that this later phase of inflorescence development controls floret survival and abortion, and is therefore crucial for yield...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430708/the-somatosensory-evoked-potential-in-reaction-time-is-gated-and-elicited-earlier-when-the-motor-response-to-a-somatosensory-cue-is-faster
#4
Koichi Hiraoka, Chisato Kori, Kana Sato
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP) is gated and elicited earlier when a motor response to a somatosensory stimulus is faster. In healthy humans, the left index finger and thumb were pinched in response to a somatosensory stimulus administered over the left median nerve. The SEP elicited by this stimulus when producing a fast motor response was compared with that when producing a slow motor response. The amplitudes of N18 and frontal P40 when producing a fast motor response were smaller than those when producing a slow motor response...
April 20, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430043/tuning-neural-phase-entrainment-to-speech
#5
Simone Falk, Cosima Lanzilotti, Daniele Schön
Musical rhythm positively impacts on subsequent speech processing. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are so far unclear. We investigated whether carryover effects from a preceding musical cue to a speech stimulus result from a continuation of neural phase entrainment to periodicities that are present in both music and speech. Participants listened and memorized French metrical sentences that contained (quasi-)periodic recurrences of accents and syllables. Speech stimuli were preceded by a rhythmically regular or an irregular musical cue...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429835/levodopa-prevents-the-reinstatement-of-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats-via-potentiation-of-dopamine-release-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#6
Silvia Antinori, Liana Fattore, Pierluigi Saba, Walter Fratta, Gian Luigi Gessa, Paola Devoto
Dopamine agonists have been proposed as therapeutic tools for cocaine addiction. We have recently demonstrated that indirect dopamine agonists, including levodopa (L-DOPA), markedly increase cocaine-induced dopamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats leading to the suppression of cocaine-seeking behavior. This study was aimed to understand the behavioral and neurochemical effects of L-DOPA on cocaine-taking and cocaine-seeking in rats. After reaching a stable pattern of intravenous cocaine self-administration under a continuous fixed ratio (FR-1) schedule of reinforcement, male rats were treated with L-DOPA at different steps of the self-administration protocol...
April 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429733/sites-of-overt-and-covert-attention-define-simultaneous-spatial-reference-centers-for-visuomotor-response
#7
Yang Zhou, Lixin Liang, Yujun Pan, Ning Qian, Mingsha Zhang
The site of overt attention (fixation point) defines a spatial reference center that affects visuomotor response as indicated by the stimulus-response-compatibility (SRC) effect: When subjects press, e.g., a left key to report stimuli, their reaction time is shorter when stimuli appear to the left than to the right of the fixation. Covert attention to a peripheral site appears to define a similar reference center but previous studies did not control for confounding spatiotemporal factors or investigate the relationship between overt- and covert-attention-defined centers...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429648/-the-influence-of-scene-context-on-parafoveal-processing-of-objects
#8
Monica S Castelhano, Effie J Pereira
Many studies in reading have shown the enhancing effect of context on the processing of a word before it is directly fixated (parafoveal processing of words; Balota et al., 1985; Balota & Rayner, 1983; Ehrlich & Rayner, 1981). Here, we examined whether scene context influences the parafoveal processing of objects and enhances the extraction of object information. Using a modified boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975), the Dot-Boundary paradigm, participants fixated on a suddenly-onsetting cue before the preview object would onset 4° away...
April 21, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429538/finding-a-partner-in-the-ocean-molecular-and-evolutionary-bases-of-the-response-to-sexual-cues-in-a-planktonic-diatom
#9
Swaraj Basu, Shrikant Patil, Daniel Mapleson, Monia Teresa Russo, Laura Vitale, Cristina Fevola, Florian Maumus, Raffaella Casotti, Thomas Mock, Mario Caccamo, Marina Montresor, Remo Sanges, Maria Immacolata Ferrante
Microalgae play a major role as primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. Cell signalling regulates their interactions with the environment and other organisms, yet this process in phytoplankton is poorly defined. Using the marine planktonic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata, we investigated the cell response to cues released during sexual reproduction, an event that demands strong regulatory mechanisms and impacts on population dynamics. We sequenced the genome of P. multistriata and performed phylogenomic and transcriptomic analyses, which allowed the definition of gene gains and losses, horizontal gene transfers, conservation and evolutionary rate of sex-related genes...
April 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429189/using-time-perception-to-explore-implicit-sensitivity-to-emotional-stimuli-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Catherine R G Jones, Anna Lambrechts, Sebastian B Gaigg
Establishing whether implicit responses to emotional cues are intact in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is fundamental to ascertaining why their emotional understanding is compromised. We used a temporal bisection task to assess for responsiveness to face and wildlife images that varied in emotional salience. There were no significant differences between an adult ASD and comparison group, with both showing implicit overestimation of emotional stimuli. Further, there was no correlation between overestimation of emotional stimuli and autistic traits in undergraduate students...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429126/assessing-the-role-of-place-and-timing-cues-in-coding-frequency-and-amplitude-modulation-as-a-function-of-age
#11
Kelly L Whiteford, Heather A Kreft, Andrew J Oxenham
Natural sounds can be characterized by their fluctuations in amplitude and frequency. Ageing may affect sensitivity to some forms of fluctuations more than others. The present study used individual differences across a wide age range (20-79 years) to test the hypothesis that slow-rate, low-carrier frequency modulation (FM) is coded by phase-locked auditory-nerve responses to temporal fine structure (TFS), whereas fast-rate FM is coded via rate-place (tonotopic) cues, based on amplitude modulation (AM) of the temporal envelope after cochlear filtering...
April 20, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429124/how-bumblebees-use-lateral-and-ventral-optic-flow-cues-for-position-control-in-environments-of-different-proximity
#12
Nellie Linander, Emily Baird, Marie Dacke
Flying insects frequently navigate through environments of different complexity. In this study, buff-tailed bumblebees (Bombus terrestris L.) were trained to fly along tunnels of different widths, from 60 to 240 cm. In tunnel widths of 60 and 120 cm, bumblebees control their lateral position by balancing the magnitude of translational optic flow experienced in the lateral visual field of each eye. In wider tunnels, bumblebees use translational optic flow cues in the ventral visual field to control their lateral position and to steer along straight tracks...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429068/nicotine-deprivation-elevates-neural-representation-of-smoking-related-cues-in-object-sensitive-visual-cortex-a-proof-of-concept-study
#13
Anne Havermans, Onno C P van Schayck, Eric F P M Vuurman, Wim J Riedel, Job van den Hurk
OBJECTIVE: In the current study, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to investigate whether tobacco addiction biases basic visual processing in favour of smoking-related images. We hypothesize that the neural representation of smoking-related stimuli in the lateral occipital complex (LOC) is elevated after a period of nicotine deprivation compared to a satiated state, but that this is not the case for object categories unrelated to smoking...
April 21, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428935/genetic-analysis-of-mosquito-detection-of-humans
#14
Joshua I Raji, Matthew DeGennaro
Mosquitoes detect the presence of humans by integrating chemosensory, thermal, and visual cues. Among these, odors are crucial for mosquito host detection. Insects have evolved a diverse repertoire of receptors to detect their plant and animal hosts. Genetic analysis of these receptors in Drosophila has set the stage for similar studies in mosquitoes. The diversity of the cues involved in mosquito host-seeking has made designing behavioral control strategies a challenge. The sensory receptors that are most important for mosquito detection of humans can now be determined using genome editing...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428770/prolonged-walking-with-a-wearable-system-providing-intelligent-auditory-input-in-people-with-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Pieter Ginis, Elke Heremans, Alberto Ferrari, Kim Dockx, Colleen G Canning, Alice Nieuwboer
Rhythmic auditory cueing is a well-accepted tool for gait rehabilitation in Parkinson's disease (PD), which can now be applied in a performance-adapted fashion due to technological advance. This study investigated the immediate differences on gait during a prolonged, 30 min, walk with performance-adapted (intelligent) auditory cueing and verbal feedback provided by a wearable sensor-based system as alternatives for traditional cueing. Additionally, potential effects on self-perceived fatigue were assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428767/social-cognitive-training-improves-emotional-processing-and-reduces-aggressive-attitudes-in-ex-combatants
#16
Sandra Trujillo, Natalia Trujillo, Jose D Lopez, Diana Gomez, Stella Valencia, Jorge Rendon, David A Pineda, Mario A Parra
Emotional processing (EP) is a complex cognitive function necessary to successfully adjust to social environments where we need to interpret and respond to cues that convey threat or reward signals. Ex-combatants have consistently shown atypical EP as well as poor social interactions. Available reintegration programs aim to facilitate the re-adaptation of ex-combatants to their communities. However, they do not incorporate actions to improve EP and to enhance cognitive-emotional regulation. The present study was aimed at evaluating the usefulness of an intervention focused on Social Cognitive Training (SCT), which was designed to equip ex-combatants enrolled in the Social Reintegration Route with EP and social cognition skills...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428741/assessing-auditory-processing-deficits-in-tinnitus-and-hearing-impaired-patients-with-the-auditory-behavior-questionnaire
#17
Isabel Diges, Francisco Simón, Pedro Cobo
Background and Purpose: Auditory processing disorders (APD), tinnitus and hearing loss (HL) are typical issues reported by patients in audiologic clinics. These auditory impairments can be concomitant or mutually excluding. APD are not necessarily accompanied by significant HL, whereas many adults exhibit peripheral HL and typical cognitive deficits often associated with APD. Since HL, tinnitus and APD affects to several parts of the ascending auditory pathway from the periphery to the auditory cortex, there could be some interrelationship between them...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428330/genomic-responses-to-socio-sexual-environment-in-male-drosophila-melanogaster-exposed-to-conspecific-rivals
#18
Irina I Mohorianu, Amanda Bretman, Damian T Smith, Emily Fowler, Tamas Dalmay, Tracey Chapman
Socio-sexual environments have profound effects on fitness. Local sex ratios can alter the threat of sexual competition, to which males respond via plasticity in reproductive behaviours and ejaculate composition. In Drosophila melanogaster, males detect the presence of conspecific mating rivals prior to mating using multiple, redundant sensory cues. Males that respond to rivals gain significant fitness benefits by altering mating duration and ejaculate composition. Here we investigated the underlying genome-wide changes involved...
April 20, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427322/dental-pulp-pluripotent-like-stem-cells-dppsc-a-new-stem-cell-population-with-chromosomal-stability-and-osteogenic-capacity-for-biomaterials-evaluation
#19
Raquel Núñez-Toldrà, Ester Martínez-Sarrà, Carlos Gil-Recio, Miguel Ángel Carrasco, Ashraf Al Madhoun, Sheyla Montori, Maher Atari
BACKGROUND: Biomaterials are widely used to regenerate or substitute bone tissue. In order to evaluate their potential use for clinical applications, these need to be tested and evaluated in vitro with cell culture models. Frequently, immortalized osteoblastic cell lines are used in these studies. However, their uncontrolled proliferation rate, phenotypic changes or aberrations in mitotic processes limits their use in long-term investigations. Recently, we described a new pluripotent-like subpopulation of dental pulp stem cells derived from the third molars (DPPSC) that shows genetic stability and shares some pluripotent characteristics with embryonic stem cells...
April 21, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427147/brca1-controls-the-cell-division-axis-and-governs-ploidy-and-phenotype-in-human-mammary-cells
#20
Zhengcheng He, Nagarajan Kannan, Oksana Nemirovsky, Helen Chen, Marisa Connell, Brian Taylor, Jihong Jiang, Linda M Pilarski, Markus C Fleisch, Dieter Niederacher, Miguel Angel Pujana, Connie J Eaves, Christopher A Maxwell
BRCA1 deficiency may perturb the differentiation hierarchy present in the normal mammary gland and is associated with the genesis of breast cancers that are genomically unstable and typically display a basal-like transcriptome. Oriented cell division is a mechanism known to regulate cell fates and to restrict tumor formation. We now show that the cell division axis is altered following shRNA-mediated BRCA1 depletion in immortalized but non-tumorigenic, or freshly isolated normal human mammary cells with graded consequences in progeny cells that include aneuploidy, perturbation of cell polarity in spheroid cultures, and a selective loss of cells with luminal features...
February 25, 2017: Oncotarget
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