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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812976/learning-and-recognition-of-tactile-temporal-sequences-by-mice-and-humans
#1
Michael R Bale, Malamati Bitzidou, Anna Pitas, Leonie S Brebner, Lina Khazim, Stavros T Anagnou, Caitlin D Stevenson, Miguel Maravall
The world around us is replete with stimuli that unfold over time. When we hear an auditory stream like music or speech or scan a texture with our fingertip, physical features in the stimulus are concatenated in a particular order. This temporal patterning is critical to interpreting the stimulus. To explore the capacity of mice and humans to learn tactile sequences, we developed a task in which subjects had to recognise a continuous modulated noise sequence delivered to whiskers or fingertips, defined by its temporal patterning over hundreds of milliseconds...
August 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812952/impact-of-adult-attachment-anxiety-on-deception-judgments-examining-the-moderating-effect-of-motivation
#2
Song Wu, Wei Cai, Yanjun Zhang, Ying Liu, Shenghua Jin
Several psychologists have paid attention to individual differences in deception detection, but only a few studies have found significant results. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between attachment anxiety and deception judgment when there are no obvious cues to distinguish lies from truth, and to examine the moderating effect of motives. Participants were instructed to judge each of 10 audios on whether they were true or false. Subsequently, the attachment anxiety of participants was assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812270/oxytocin-and-facial-emotion-recognition
#3
Mark A Ellenbogen
The expression of emotion in faces serves numerous meaningful functions, such as conveying messages of danger or approach, facilitating communication, and promoting the formation of social bonds and relationships. The study of facial expressions of emotion has become integral to research in social psychology and social neuroscience, particularly with respect to the neuropeptide oxytocin. This chapter examines how oxytocin influences the processing of emotion in faces by reviewing intranasal administration studies of automatic processing, selective attention, and emotion recognition...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811869/pro-and-antioxidant-functions-of-the-peroxisome-mitochondria-connection-and-its-impact-on-aging-and-disease
#4
REVIEW
Amparo Pascual-Ahuir, Sara Manzanares-Estreder, Markus Proft
Peroxisomes and mitochondria are the main intracellular sources for reactive oxygen species. At the same time, both organelles are critical for the maintenance of a healthy redox balance in the cell. Consequently, failure in the function of both organelles is causally linked to oxidative stress and accelerated aging. However, it has become clear that peroxisomes and mitochondria are much more intimately connected both physiologically and structurally. Both organelles share common fission components to dynamically respond to environmental cues, and the autophagic turnover of both peroxisomes and mitochondria is decisive for cellular homeostasis...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811669/paraventricular-thalamic-control-of-food-intake-and-reward-role-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-signaling
#5
Zhi Yi Ong, Jing-Jing Liu, Zhiping P Pang, Harvey J Grill
Paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) neurons receive hindbrain and hypothalamic inputs, and project to forebrain sites involved in reward and motivation function. The role of PVT in energy balance and reward control is however understudied. Given that PVT neurons express glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors (GLP-1R), which are critical to feeding and body weight control, we tested the hypothesis that PVT GLP-1R signaling contributes to food intake and reward inhibition. To assess the hypothesis, behavioral tests including chow and high-fat diet intake, meal patterns, conditioned place preference for high-fat food, cue-induced reinstatement of sucrose-seeking, and motivation to work for sucrose were employed following intra-PVT delivery of either GLP-1R agonist, exendin-4 (Ex4), or GLP-1R antagonist, exendin-9-39 (Ex9)...
July 19, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811493/fragile-temporal-prediction-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-is-related-to-minimal-self-disorders
#6
Brice Martin, Nicolas Franck, Michel Cermolacce, Agnès Falco, Anabel Benair, Estelle Etienne, Sébastien Weibel, Jennifer T Coull, Anne Giersch
Patients with schizophrenia have difficulty in making sensory predictions, in the time domain, which have been proposed to be related to self-disorders. However experimental evidence is lacking. We examined both voluntary and automatic forms of temporal prediction in 28 patients and 24 matched controls. A visual cue predicted (temporal cue) or not (neutral cue) the time (400 ms/1000 ms) at which a subsequent target was presented. In both patients and controls, RTs were faster for targets presented after long versus short intervals due to the temporal predictability inherent in the elapse of time ("hazard function")...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811461/sparse-orthogonal-population-representation-of-spatial-context-in-the-retrosplenial-cortex
#7
Dun Mao, Steffen Kandler, Bruce L McNaughton, Vincent Bonin
Sparse orthogonal coding is a key feature of hippocampal neural activity, which is believed to increase episodic memory capacity and to assist in navigation. Some retrosplenial cortex (RSC) neurons convey distributed spatial and navigational signals, but place-field representations such as observed in the hippocampus have not been reported. Combining cellular Ca(2+) imaging in RSC of mice with a head-fixed locomotion assay, we identified a population of RSC neurons, located predominantly in superficial layers, whose ensemble activity closely resembles that of hippocampal CA1 place cells during the same task...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811324/the-transcriptional-program-functional-heterogeneity-and-clinical-targeting-of-mast-cells
#8
REVIEW
Gökhan Cildir, Harshita Pant, Angel F Lopez, Vinay Tergaonkar
Mast cells are unique tissue-resident immune cells that express an array of receptors that can be activated by several extracellular cues, including antigen-immunoglobulin E (IgE) complexes, bacteria, viruses, cytokines, hormones, peptides, and drugs. Mast cells constitute a small population in tissues, but their extraordinary ability to respond rapidly by releasing granule-stored and newly made mediators underpins their importance in health and disease. In this review, we document the biology of mast cells and introduce new concepts and opinions regarding their role in human diseases beyond IgE-mediated allergic responses and antiparasitic functions...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811128/a-newly-synthesized-ligustrazine-stilbene-derivative-inhibits-pdgf-bb-induced-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-phenotypic-switch-and-proliferation-via-delaying-cell-cycle-progression
#9
Chunlian Peng, Siming Zhang, Haixin Liu, Yanxiao Jiao, Guifa Su, Yan Zhu
Vascular Smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) possess remarkable phenotype plasticity that allows it to rapidly adapt to fluctuating environmental cues, including the period of development and progression of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and restenosis subsequent to vein grafting or coronary intervention. Although VSMC phenotypic switch is an attractive target, there is no effective drug so far. Using rat aortic VSMCs, we investigate the effects of Ligustrazine and its synthetic derivatives on platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) induced proliferation and phenotypic switch by a cell image-based screening of 60 Ligustrazine stilbene derivatives...
August 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810379/preliminary-support-for-the-role-of-alcohol-cues-in-food-cravings-and-attentional-biases
#10
Kenny A Karyadi, Melissa A Cyders
This study examined whether alcohol odors, in isolation or when combined with pictures, would influence food attentional biases and cravings. Participants' cravings and attentional biases to food and alcohol pictures were assessed after exposure to alcohol or water odors ( n = 77; mean age = 30.84 years, 51.9% female, 83.1% Caucasian). Food attentional biases were increased by alcohol odors, but food cravings were increased only by a combination of alcohol odors and food pictures. These effects were related with self-reported problematic food consumption...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810238/long-term-weight-maintenance-strategies-are-experienced-as-a-burden-by-persons-who-have-lost-weight-compared-to-persons-with-a-lifetime-normal-stable-weight
#11
Maaike Kruseman, Noémi Schmutz, Isabelle Carrard
OBJECTIVE: To assess dietary intake, eating patterns, physical activity and eating behaviors, and to explore strategies and perceptions of the experience of weight maintenance in weight loss maintainers (weight loss maintenance (WLM) ≥ 10% weight loss maintained for ≥1 year) and in matched controls with a lifetime stable normal weight. METHODS: Volunteers (32) were recruited by a snowball procedure in this cross-sectional, mixed-methods study. Diet, physical activity, and eating behaviors were assessed with validated questionnaires...
August 16, 2017: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810173/effect-of-haptic-sensory-input-through-a-fluttering-cloth-on-tandem-gait-performance
#12
Kazushige Oshita, Sumio Yano
This study investigated the effects of haptic sensory input through a fluttering cloth on balance control during locomotion. Twenty-one healthy men performed a tandem gait test for 4m with their eyes closed under two different conditions: (1) wearing only half or short tights (HT-condition), or (2) wearing a fluttering cloth that was wrapped around the waist and extended to the lower leg (CLOTH-condition). Participants performed two trials with a 3-min rest period. The first trial involved the HT-condition, whereas the second trial involved either the CLOTH-condition (n=11), or the HT-condition again (n=10)...
August 11, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810163/decoding-the-architecture-and-origins-of-mechanisms-for-developmental-polyphenism
#13
REVIEW
Joana Projecto-Garcia, Joseph F Biddle, Erik J Ragsdale
Developmental polyphenism affords a single genotype multiple solutions to match an organism to its environment. Because polyphenism is the extreme example of how development deviates from a linear genetic blueprint, it demands a genetic explanation for how environmental cues shunt development to hypothetically alternative modules. We highlight several recent advances that have begun to illuminate genetic mechanisms for polyphenism and how this recurring developmental novelty may arise. An emerging genetic knowledge of polyphenism is providing precise targets for testing hypotheses of how switch mechanisms are built-out of olfactory, nutrient-sensing, hormone-reception, and developmental and genetic buffering systems-to accommodate plasticity...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809822/assessment-and-communication-for-people-with-disorders-of-consciousness
#14
Rupert Ortner, Brendan Z Allison, Gerald Pichler, Alexander Heilinger, Nikolaus Sabathiel, Christoph Guger
In this experiment, we demonstrate a suite of hybrid Brain-Computer Interface (BCI)-based paradigms that are designed for two applications: assessing the level of consciousness of people unable to provide motor response and, in a second stage, establishing a communication channel for these people that enables them to answer questions with either 'yes' or 'no'. The suite of paradigms is designed to test basic responses in the first step and to continue to more comprehensive tasks if the first tests are successful...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809690/occlusion-leak-compensation-for-optical-see-through-displays-using-a-single-layer-transmissive-spatial-light-modulator
#15
Yuta Itoh, Takumi Hamasaki, Maki Sugimoto
We propose an occlusion compensation method for optical see-through head-mounted displays (OST-HMDs) equipped with a singlelayer transmissive spatial light modulator (SLM), in particular, a liquid crystal display (LCD). Occlusion is an important depth cue for 3D perception, yet realizing it on OST-HMDs is particularly difficult due to the displays' semitransparent nature. A key component for the occlusion support is the SLM-a device that can selectively interfere with light rays passing through it. For example, an LCD is a transmissive SLM that can block or pass incoming light rays by turning pixels black or transparent...
August 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808932/visual-attention-and-action-how-cueing-direct-mapping-and-social-interactions-drive-orienting
#16
REVIEW
Mark A Atkinson, Andrew A Simpson, Geoff G Cole
Despite considerable interest in both action perception and social attention over the last 2 decades, there has been surprisingly little investigation concerning how the manual actions of other humans orient visual attention. The present review draws together studies that have measured the orienting of attention, following observation of another's goal-directed action. Our review proposes that, in line with the literature on eye gaze, action is a particularly strong orienting cue for the visual system. However, we additionally suggest that action may orient visual attention using mechanisms, which gaze direction does not (i...
August 14, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808909/oxytocin-and-anxiety-disorders-translational-and-therapeutic-aspects
#17
REVIEW
Wadih Jean Naja, Michaelangelo Pietro Aoun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to evaluate the most recent literature examining the oxytocin (OXT) system's role in human anxiety by surveying various fields of preclinical and clinical research supporting this role, and queries whether the OXT system might be a target for novel anxiolytics. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence from the diverse body of literature presented here, from translational research, genetic and neuroimaging studies, to clinical trials of intranasal (IN) OXT reveals a positive association...
August 15, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808590/genesis-and-maintenance-of-attentional-biases-the-role-of-the-locus-coeruleus-noradrenaline-system
#18
REVIEW
Mana R Ehlers, Rebecca M Todd
Emotionally arousing events are typically better remembered than mundane ones, in part because emotionally relevant aspects of our environment are prioritized in attention. Such biased attentional tuning is itself the result of associative processes through which we learn affective and motivational relevance of cues. We propose that the locus coeruleus-noradrenaline (LC-NA) system plays an important role in the genesis of attentional biases through associative learning processes as well as their maintenance...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808557/timing-and-pattern-of-annual-silver-eel-migration-in-two-european-watersheds-are-determined-by-similar-cues
#19
Odd Terje Sandlund, Ola H Diserud, Russell Poole, Knut Bergesen, Mary Dillane, Gerard Rogan, Caroline Durif, Eva B Thorstad, Leif Asbjørn Vøllestad
Many animals perform long-distance migrations in order to maximize lifetime reproductive success. The European eel migrates several thousand kilometers between their feeding habitats in continental waters (fresh-, brackish, and sea water) and their spawning area in the Sargasso Sea. Eels residing in freshwaters usually initiate their spawning migration as silver eels during autumn, triggered by diverse environmental cues. We analyzed the time series of silver eel downstream migration in Burrishoole, Ireland (1971-2015), and Imsa, Norway (1975-2015), to examine factors regulating the silver eel migration from freshwater to the sea...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808247/social-learning-promotes-nicotine-self-administration-by-facilitating-the-extinction-of-conditioned-aversion-in-isogenic-strains-of-rats
#20
Wenyan Han, Tengfei Wang, Hao Chen
Both social environment and genetic factors are critical for smoking initiation and nicotine addiction. We reported that rats developed conditioned flavor (i.e., taste and odor) aversion to intravenously self-administered (IVSA) nicotine, and that social learning promoted nicotine IVSA with flavor cues. We thus tested the hypothesis that socially acquired nicotine IVSA is a heritable trait by using female rats of six inbred strains and six F1 hybrids. Each strain was tested for 10 daily IVSA sessions. We found that the intake of nicotine (15 and 30 μg/kg/inf) varied among these strains by 33...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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