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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728025/a-neural-signature-of-divisive-normalization-at-the-level-of-multisensory-integration-in-primate-cortex
#1
Tomokazu Ohshiro, Dora E Angelaki, Gregory C DeAngelis
Studies of multisensory integration by single neurons have traditionally emphasized empirical principles that describe nonlinear interactions between inputs from two sensory modalities. We previously proposed that many of these empirical principles could be explained by a divisive normalization mechanism operating in brain regions where multisensory integration occurs. This normalization model makes a critical diagnostic prediction: a non-preferred sensory input from one modality, which activates the neuron on its own, should suppress the response to a preferred input from another modality...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727758/longevity-effect-of-a-polysaccharide-from-chlorophytum-borivilianum-on-caenorhabditis-elegans-and-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#2
Steve Thomas Pannakal, Sibylle Jäger, Albert Duranton, Amit Tewari, Subarna Saha, Aneesha Radhakrishnan, Nita Roy, Jean François Kuntz, Soraya Fermas, Darryl James, Jane Mellor, Namita Misra, Lionel Breton
The traditional Indian medicine, Ayurveda, provides insights and practical solutions towards a healthy life style. Rasayana is a branch of Ayurveda known for preserving and promoting health, enhancing the quality of life and delaying the aging process. In the traditional knowledge, the Rasayana herb, Chlorophytum borivilianum (C. borivilanum) is regarded as a general health promoting tonic that delays aging and increases lifespan, cognitive function and physical strength. Aging is a complex and multifactorial physiological phenomenon that manifests itself over a wide range of biological systems, tissues, and functions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727144/density-mediated-indirect-effects-from-active-predators-and-narrow-habitat-domain-prey
#3
S A Rinehart, S C Schroeter, J D Long
The hunting mode-habitat domain range framework suggests that the mechanism driving trophic cascades [i.e. trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMIIs) versus density-mediated indirect interactions (DMIIs)] should depend upon the functional traits of predators and prey. For example, trophic cascades containing active, broad habitat domain range (BHDR) predators interacting with narrow habitat domain range (NHDR) prey are predicted to arise primarily via TMIIs, because these prey should reduce their conspicuous activity in the presence of these predators...
July 20, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727020/interaction-of-dietary-energy-source-and-body-weight-gain-during-the-juvenile-period-on-metabolic-endocrine-status-and-age-at-puberty-in-beef-heifers
#4
C C Allen, L O Tedeschi, D H Keisler, R C Cardoso, B R C Alves, M Amstalden, G L Williams
Using a previously established model for nutritional acceleration of puberty, beef heifers ( = 48; 1/2 Angus × 1/4 Hereford × 1/4 Brahman) were used in a replicated 2 × 2 factorial design to examine the effects of diet type (high forage [HF] vs. high concentrate [HC]) and rate of BW gain (low gain [LG], 0.45 kg/d, vs. high gain [HG], 0.91 kg/d) on key metabolic hormones and age at puberty. After weaning at 14 ± 1 wk of age, heifers were assigned randomly to be fed HC-HG, HC-LG, HF-HG, or HF-LG ( = 12/group) beginning at 4 mo of age for 14 wk...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726732/characterization-of-the-dioscorin-gene-family-in-dioscorea-alata-reveals-a-role-in-tuber-development-and-environmental-response
#5
Linya Liu, Yacheng Huang, Xiaolong Huang, Jianghua Yang, Wenqiang Wu, Yun Xu, Ziwen Cong, Jun Xie, Wei Xia, Dongyi Huang
Dioscorin is one of the major soluble proteins in yam tubers. Unlike other well-known plant storage proteins, such as patatin and sporamin, dioscorin is argued for its function as storage proteins, and the molecular mechanisms underlying its expressional complexity are little understood. In this study, we isolated five dioscorin genes from Dioscorea alata L., comprising three class A (Da-dio1, -3 and -4) and two class B (Da-dio2 and -5) isoforms. Expressions of all dioscorin genes gradually decreased in mother tubers during yam sprouting and regrowth...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726680/towards-4d-printed-scaffolds-for-tissue-engineering-exploiting-3d-shape-memory-polymers-to-deliver-time-controlled-stimulus-on-cultured-cells
#6
Wim Hendrikson, Jeroen Rouwkema, Federico Clementi, Clemens A van Blitterswijk, Silvia Fare, Lorenzo Moroni
Tissue engineering needs innovative solutions to better fit the requirements of a minimally-invasive approach, providing at the same time instructive cues to cells. The use of shape memory polyurethane has been investigated by producing 4D scaffolds via 3D printing technology. Scaffolds with two different pore network configurations (0/90° and 0/45°) were characterized by dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA). The thermo-mechanical analysis showed a Tg at about 32 °C (Tg = Ttrans), indicating no influence of the fabrication process on the transition temperature...
July 20, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726592/effect-of-extreme-adaptive-frequency-compression-in-bimodal-listeners-on-sound-localization-and-speech-perception
#7
Lidwien C E Veugen, Josef Chalupper, Lucas H M Mens, Ad F M Snik, A John van Opstal
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to improve access to high-frequency interaural level differences (ILD), by applying extreme frequency compression (FC) in the hearing aid (HA) of 13 bimodal listeners, using a cochlear implant (CI) and conventional HA in opposite ears. DESIGN: An experimental signal-adaptive frequency-lowering algorithm was tested, compressing frequencies above 160 Hz into the individual audible range of residual hearing, but only for consonants (adaptive FC), thus protecting vowel formants, with the aim to preserve speech perception...
July 20, 2017: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726502/spatial-reorientation-decline-in-aging-the-combination-of-geometry-and-landmarks
#8
Alessandro O Caffò, Antonella Lopez, Giuseppina Spano, Silvia Serino, Pietro Cipresso, Fabrizio Stasolla, Michelina Savino, Giulio E Lancioni, Giuseppe Riva, Andrea Bosco
OBJECTIVES: The study is focused on the assessment of reorientation skills in a sample of community-dwelling elderly people, manipulating landmarks and geometric (layout) information. METHOD: A neuropsychological assessment was administered to 286 elderly participants, divided into six groups (healthy controls, HC; four subgroups of participants with mild cognitive impairment, MCI; participants with probable dementia, Prob_D) and tested with the Virtual Reorientation Test (VReoT)...
July 20, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726252/central-amygdala-relaxin-3-rxfp3-signalling-modulates-alcohol-seeking-in-rats
#9
Leigh C Walker, Hanna E Kastman, Elena Krstew, Andrew L Gundlach, Andrew J Lawrence
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Alcohol use disorders are a leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide and stress is a major trigger of relapse. The neuropeptide relaxin-3 and its cognate receptor, relaxin family peptide receptor 3 (RXFP3), modulate stress-induced relapse to alcohol seeking in rats and while the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis has been implicated in this regard, the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) also receives a relaxin-3 innervation and CeA neurons densely express RXFP3 mRNA...
July 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726177/the-reliability-paradox-why-robust-cognitive-tasks-do-not-produce-reliable-individual-differences
#10
Craig Hedge, Georgina Powell, Petroc Sumner
Individual differences in cognitive paradigms are increasingly employed to relate cognition to brain structure, chemistry, and function. However, such efforts are often unfruitful, even with the most well established tasks. Here we offer an explanation for failures in the application of robust cognitive paradigms to the study of individual differences. Experimental effects become well established - and thus those tasks become popular - when between-subject variability is low. However, low between-subject variability causes low reliability for individual differences, destroying replicable correlations with other factors and potentially undermining published conclusions drawn from correlational relationships...
July 19, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725452/mapmysmoke-feasibility-of-a-new-quit-cigarette-smoking-mobile-phone-application-using-integrated-geo-positioning-technology-and-motivational-messaging-within-a-primary-care-setting
#11
Robert S Schick, Thomas W Kelsey, John Marston, Kay Samson, Gerald W Humphris
BACKGROUND: Approximately 11,000 people die in Scotland each year as a result of smoking-related causes. Quitting smoking is relatively easy; maintaining a quit attempt is a very difficult task with success rates for unaided quit attempts stubbornly remaining in the single digits. Pharmaceutical treatment can improve these rates by lowering the overall reward factor of nicotine. However, these and related nicotine replacement therapies do not operate on, or address, the spatial and contextual aspects of smoking behaviour...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725368/prospects-of-herbivore-egg-killing-plant-defenses-for-sustainable-crop-protection
#12
REVIEW
Nina E Fatouros, Antonino Cusumano, Etienne G J Danchin, Stefano Colazza
Due to a growing demand of food production worldwide, new strategies are suggested to allow for sustainable production of food with minimal effects on natural resources. A promising alternative to the application of chemical pesticides is the implementation of crops resistant to insect pests. Plants produce compounds that are harmful to a wide range of attackers, including insect pests; thus, exploitation of their natural defense system can be the key for the development of pest-resistant crops. Interestingly, some plants possess a unique first line of defense that eliminates the enemy before it becomes destructive: egg-killing...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724982/primary-phonological-planning-units-in-spoken-word-production-are-language-specific-evidence-from-an-erp-study
#13
Jie Wang, Andus Wing-Kuen Wong, Suiping Wang, Hsuan-Chih Chen
It is widely acknowledged in Germanic languages that segments are the primary planning units at the phonological encoding stage of spoken word production. Mixed results, however, have been found in Chinese, and it is still unclear what roles syllables and segments play in planning Chinese spoken word production. In the current study, participants were asked to first prepare and later produce disyllabic Mandarin words upon picture prompts and a response cue while electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724770/rgs-cam-detects-and-counteracts-viral-rna-silencing-suppressors-in-plant-immune-priming
#14
Eun Jin Jeon, Kazuki Tadamura, Taiki Murakami, Jun-Ichi Inaba, Bo Min Kim, Masako Sato, Go Atsumi, Kazuyuki Kuchitsu, Chikara Masuta, Kenji S Nakahara
Primary infection of a plant with a pathogen that causes high accumulation of salicylic acid in the plant typically via a hypersensitive response confers enhanced resistance against secondary infection with a broad spectrum of pathogens, including viruses. This phenomenon is called systemic acquired resistance (SAR), which is a plant-priming for adaption to repeated biotic stress. However, the molecular mechanisms of SAR-mediated enhanced inhibition, especially of virus infection, remain unclear. Here, we show that SAR against cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum) involves a calmodulin-like protein, rgs-CaM...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724755/trim33-tif1-%C3%AE-is-essential-for-macrophage-and-neutrophil-mobilisation-to-developmental-or-inflammatory-cues
#15
Doris Lou Demy, Muriel Tauzin, Mylène Lancino, Véronique le Cabec, Michael Redd, Emi Murayama, Isabelle Maridonneau-Parini, Nikolaus Trede, Philippe Herbomel
Macrophages infiltrate and establish in developing organs from an early stage, often before these have become vascularised. Similarly, leukocytes in general can quickly migrate through tissues to any site of wounding. This unique capacity is rooted in their characteristic amoeboid motility, the genetic basis of which is poorly known. Trim33 (Tif1-γ), a nuclear protein that associates with specific DNA binding transcription factors to modulate gene expression, has been found mainly involved in hematopoiesis and gene regulation by TGF-ß...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724751/tomo-seq-identifies-sox9-as-a-key-regulator-of-cardiac-fibrosis-during-ischemic-injury
#16
Grégory P A Lacraz, Jan Philipp Junker, Monika M Gladka, Bas Molenaar, Koen T Scholman, Marta Vigil-Garcia, Danielle Versteeg, Hesther de Ruiter, Marit W Vermunt, Menno P Creyghton, Manon M H Huibers, Nicolaas de Jonge, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Eva van Rooij
Background -Cardiac ischemic injury induces a pathological remodeling response, which can ultimately lead to heart failure. Detailed mechanistic insights into molecular signaling pathways relevant for different aspects of cardiac remodeling will support the identification of novel therapeutic targets. Methods -While genome-wide transcriptome analysis on diseased tissues has greatly advanced our understanding of the regulatory networks that drive pathological changes in the heart, this approach has been disadvantaged by the fact that the signals are derived from tissue homogenates...
July 19, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724689/california-scrub-jays-reduce-visual-cues-available-to-potential-pilferers-by-matching-food-colour-to-caching-substrate
#17
Laura A Kelley, Nicola S Clayton
Some animals hide food to consume later; however, these caches are susceptible to theft by conspecifics and heterospecifics. Caching animals can use protective strategies to minimize sensory cues available to potential pilferers, such as caching in shaded areas and in quiet substrate. Background matching (where object patterning matches the visual background) is commonly seen in prey animals to reduce conspicuousness, and caching animals may also use this tactic to hide caches, for example, by hiding coloured food in a similar coloured substrate...
July 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724577/in-situ-expansion-of-engineered-human-liver-tissue-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-liver-disease
#18
Kelly R Stevens, Margaret A Scull, Vyas Ramanan, Chelsea L Fortin, Ritika R Chaturvedi, Kristin A Knouse, Jing W Xiao, Canny Fung, Teodelinda Mirabella, Amanda X Chen, Margaret G McCue, Michael T Yang, Heather E Fleming, Kwanghun Chung, Ype P de Jong, Christopher S Chen, Charles M Rice, Sangeeta N Bhatia
Control of both tissue architecture and scale is a fundamental translational roadblock in tissue engineering. An experimental framework that enables investigation into how architecture and scaling may be coupled is needed. We fabricated a structurally organized engineered tissue unit that expanded in response to regenerative cues after implantation into mice with liver injury. Specifically, we found that tissues containing patterned human primary hepatocytes, endothelial cells, and stromal cells in a degradable hydrogel expanded more than 50-fold over the course of 11 weeks in mice with injured livers...
July 19, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724574/the-microvascular-niche-instructs-t-cells-in-large-vessel-vasculitis-via-the-vegf-jagged1-notch-pathway
#19
Zhenke Wen, Yi Shen, Gerald Berry, Farhad Shahram, Yinyin Li, Ryu Watanabe, Yaping Joyce Liao, Jörg J Goronzy, Cornelia M Weyand
Microvascular networks in the adventitia of large arteries control access of inflammatory cells to the inner wall layers (media and intima) and thus protect the immune privilege of the aorta and its major branches. In autoimmune vasculitis giant cell arteritis (GCA), CD4 T helper 1 (TH1) and TH17 cells invade into the wall of the aorta and large elastic arteries to form tissue-destructive granulomas. Whether the disease microenvironment provides instructive cues for vasculitogenic T cells is unknown. We report that adventitial microvascular endothelial cells (mvECs) perform immunoregulatory functions by up-regulating the expression of the Notch ligand Jagged1...
July 19, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723550/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-primitive-macrophages-provide-a-platform-for-modeling-tissue-resident-macrophage-differentiation-and-function
#20
Kazuyuki Takata, Tatsuya Kozaki, Christopher Zhe Wei Lee, Morgane Sonia Thion, Masayuki Otsuka, Shawn Lim, Kagistia Hana Utami, Kerem Fidan, Dong Shin Park, Benoit Malleret, Svetoslav Chakarov, Peter See, Donovan Low, Gillian Low, Marta Garcia-Miralles, Ruizhu Zeng, Jinqiu Zhang, Chi Ching Goh, Ahmet Gul, Sandra Hubert, Bernett Lee, Jinmiao Chen, Ivy Low, Nurhidaya Binte Shadan, Josephine Lum, Tay Seok Wei, Esther Mok, Shohei Kawanishi, Yoshihisa Kitamura, Anis Larbi, Michael Poidinger, Laurent Renia, Lai Guan Ng, Yochai Wolf, Steffen Jung, Tamer Önder, Evan Newell, Tara Huber, Eishi Ashihara, Sonia Garel, Mahmoud A Pouladi, Florent Ginhoux
Tissue macrophages arise during embryogenesis from yolk-sac (YS) progenitors that give rise to primitive YS macrophages. Until recently, it has been impossible to isolate or derive sufficient numbers of YS-derived macrophages for further study, but data now suggest that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be driven to undergo a process reminiscent of YS-hematopoiesis in vitro. We asked whether iPSC-derived primitive macrophages (iMacs) can terminally differentiate into specialized macrophages with the help of growth factors and organ-specific cues...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
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