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undescended testes

Romina P Grinspon, Silvia Gottlieb, Patricia Bedecarrás, Rodolfo A Rey
Introduction: The functional capacity of the testes in prepubertal boys with cryptorchidism before treatment has received very little attention. The assessment of testicular function at diagnosis could be helpful in the understanding of the pathophysiology of cryptorchidism and in the evaluation of the effect of treatment. Anti-Müllerian hormone is a well-accepted Sertoli cell biomarker to evaluate testicular function during childhood without the need for stimulation tests. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess testicular function in prepubertal children with cryptorchidism before orchiopexy, by determining serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Linn Håkonsen Arendt, Tine Brink Henriksen, Morten Søndergaard Lindhard, Erik T Parner, Jørn Olsen, Cecilia Høst Ramlau-Hansen
BACKGROUND: Although congenital abnormalities in the male reproductive tract are common, their causes remain poorly understood. We studied associations between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (pre-gestational hypertension, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia) and the genital anomalies, cryptorchidism (undescended testes), and hypospadias (ventrally displaced urethral meatus). METHODS: We established a population of 1,073,026 Danish boys born alive between 1 January 1978 and 31 December 2012...
June 14, 2018: Epidemiology
V M Orlov, M I Kogan, V V Sizonov, I M Kagantsov
AIM: Given the need to reduce the number of unnecessary laparoscopies, this study aimed to calculate the threshold values of contralateral testicular volume in unilateral non-palpable cryptorchidism to optimize diagnosis and surgical strategy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2010 to 2016, contralateral testicular volume was prospectively evaluated in 78 patients aged under nine years with unilateral non-palpable cryptorchidism. The volume of healthy testes was calculated by multiplying length * width * height * 0...
May 2018: Urologii︠a︡
Verena Ellerkamp, Andreas Schmid, Gunnar Blumenstock, Georg Hrivatakis, Wolfgang Astfalk, Steffan Loff, Joerg Jörg Fuchs, Sabine Zundel
BACKGROUND: Early orchidopexy (OP) around the age of 1 year is recommended in boys with congenital undescended testis (UDT) worldwide since decades. Former retrospectives studies did not distinguish congenital from acquired UDT with a consecutive negative bias concerning the age at surgery. METHODS: In a retrospective analysis, data of all boys who underwent OP in eight pediatric surgery institutions from 2009 to 2015 were analyzed. Congenital or acquired UDT were differentiated...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Bindu Kulshreshtha, Smit Rajput, Scienthia Sanjeevani
We recently came across an interesting article by Dixon et al entitled "Prolonged human chorionic gonadotrophin stimulation as a tool for investigating and managing undescended testes" published in 2007 in your journal(1). The authors showed that around 30% of cryptorchid males had peak rise in testosterone at day 22 after a prolonged HCG stimulation for 2 weeks. While there are no set protocols, HCG therapy for undescended testes (UDT)in varying doses is usually given for a period of 2-6 weeks. This article is protected by copyright...
June 7, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
J Niedzielski, P Kucharski, J Slowikowska-Hilczer
The aim of the study was to compare the effects of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) therapy with those of surgical or combined therapy on testicular volume (TV) in boys at different ages with unilateral canalicular undescended testis (UDT). In total, 155 boys aged 1 to 12 years were treated: either surgically (ST), or by 50 IU/kg body weight hCG administration every three days for five weeks (HT), or by a combination of the two. The patients underwent ultrasound examination of TV before the treatment, 9-12 (median 10) and 24-39 months (median 32) after therapy...
June 4, 2018: Andrology
Zlatan Zvizdic, Dragana Zivkovic, Jasmin Sabanovic, Emir Milisic
Objective: The presence of testicular appendices was prospectively evaluated in 89 boys with 96 undescended testes who underwent orchidopexy over the period of 4 years. Results: The patients were divided into two groups. Group A included 42 boys with 49 undescended testes positioned close to the internal inguinal ring, and Group B included 47 boys with 47 undescended testes close to the external inguinal ring. The incidence of appendix testis (AT) in Group A was 57...
2018: BioMed Research International
Mohamed Essam Noureldin, Ahmed Mohamed Tawfik, Hassan S Shaker
Background: Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is not a common form of disorder of sex development in which Müllerian duct derivatives (fallopian tubes, uterus, and the proximal vagina) are present in an otherwise normally differentiated 46 XY male. In most of cases, the challenge comes in the procedure of orchiopexy. Case Presentation: We report a case of a 26-year-old man with PMDS. It was accidentally discovered when the patient presented to our outpatient clinic concerning about his empty scrotum as a premarital check...
2018: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
J Suleiman, A M Al Hashem, B Tabarki, K Al-Thihli, W Bi, A W El-Hattab
We present three children with homozygous null variants in the PPP1R21 gene. A 3-year-old girl had profound developmental delay, hypotonia and weakness, poor feeding, recurrent chest infections and respiratory failure, rotatory nystagmus, absent reflexes, and a homozygous nonsense variant c.2089C>T (p.Arg697*). A 2-year-old boy had profound developmental delay, weakness and hypotonia, recurrent chest infections and respiratory distress, undescended testes, rotatory nystagmus, hyporeflexia, and a homozygous nonsense variant c...
May 28, 2018: Clinical Genetics
Jaewook Chung, Xia Zhang, Bruce Collins, Renan B Sper, Katherine Gleason, Sean Simpson, Sehwon Koh, Jeffrey Sommer, William L Flowers, Robert M Petters, Jorge A Piedrahita
Expression of HMGA2 is strongly associated with body size and growth in mice and humans. In mice, inactivation of one or both alleles of Hmga2 results in body-size reductions of 20% and 60%, respectively. In humans, microdeletions involving the HMGA2 locus result in short stature, suggesting the function of the HMGA2 protein is conserved among mammals. To test this hypothesis, we generated HMGA2-deficient pigs via gene editing and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Examination of growth parameters revealed that HMGA2 -/+ male and female pigs were on average 20% lighter and smaller than HMGA2 +/+ matched controls ( P < 0...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
C Kocaoglu, M S Durmaz, M Sivri
INTRODUCTION: Shear wave elastography (SWE) is a new technology and non-invasive ultrasound device that can measure tissue rigidity and elasticity. OBJECTIVE: This controlled prospective study aimed to demonstrate using SWE whether there was a difference between the elasticity of testes with non-communicating (NC) hydrocele in infants and toddlers and elasticity of controls' testes without hydrocele, and to reveal quantitative values of elasticity reflecting histological findings...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Julia Spencer Barthold, Anton Wintner, Jennifer A Hagerty, Kenneth J Rogers, Md Jobayer Hossain
Background: Cryptorchidism is reported in 40-50% of small case series of cerebral palsy (CP) and attributed to hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis abnormalities, intellectual disability (ID), or cremaster spasticity. We collected demographic and clinical data to define the frequency of cryptorchidism and clinical comorbidities in a large CP population. Methods: Electronic health record data were collected for all male patients ≥7 years of age seen in a large, multidisciplinary CP clinic between 2000 and 2016...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Edip Unal, Ruken Yıldırım, Suat Tekin, Vasfiye Demir, Hüseyin Onay, Yusuf Kenan Haspolat
Persistent Müllerian Duct syndrome (PMDS) develops due to deficiency of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) or insensitivity of target organs to AMH in people with 46, XY karyotype. PMDS is characterized with normal male phenotype of external genital associated with persistence of Müllerian structures. The 2.5 years old male patient presented due to bilateral undescended testis. Karyotype was 46, XY. The amount of increase in testosterone following human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation test was normal...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Drew C Baird, Garrett J Meyers, Jocelyn S Hu
Testicular cancer is the most common solid tumor among males 15 to 34 years of age, with an estimated 8,850 new cases and 410 deaths during 2017 in the United States. With effective treatment, the overall five-year survival rate is 97%. Risk factors for testicular cancer include undescended testis (cryptorchidism), personal or family history of testicular cancer, age, ethnicity, and infertility. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine screening in asymptomatic men. Men with symptoms should receive a complete history and physical examination...
February 15, 2018: American Family Physician
Yanping Wang, Dione R Gray, Alan K Robbins, Erin L Crowgey, Stephen J Chanock, Mark H Greene, Katherine A McGlynn, Katherine Nathanson, Clare Turnbull, Zhaoming Wang, Marcella Devoto, Julia Spencer Barthold
STUDY QUESTION: Can subphenotype analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from subjects with testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) provide insight into cryptorchidism (undescended testis, UDT) susceptibility? SUMMARY ANSWER: Suggestive intragenic GWAS signals common to UDT, TGCT case-case and TGCT case-control analyses occur in genes encoding RBFOX RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and their neurodevelopmental targets. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: UDT is a strong risk factor for TGCT, but while genetic risk factors for TGCT are well-known, genetic susceptibility to UDT is poorly understood and appears to be more complex...
May 1, 2018: Human Reproduction
Zahi Arnon, Hosari Hanan, Jorge Mogilner
Presurgical stress and its negative influences on postsurgical recovery and pain are well documented in the medical literature. Hence, the reduction of stress is advisable. The present study aimed to reduce stress using a hypnotic-based animated video. Thirty children aged 3 to 16 years hospitalized for ambulatory surgery for undescended testes or umbilical/inguinal hernia were recruited for the study. They watched the video 1 time prior to surgery in the presence of their parents and reported their anxiety and pain pre- and postvideo watching on a visual analogue scale...
April 2018: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
E Kohva, P J Miettinen, S Taskinen, M Hero, A Tarkkanen, T Raivio
BACKGROUND: We describe the phenotypic spectrum and timing of diagnosis and management in a large series of patients with disorders of sexual development (DSD) treated in a single pediatric tertiary center. METHODS: DSD patients who had visited our tertiary center during the survey period (between 2004 and 2014) were identified based on an ICD-10 inquiry, and their phenotypic and molecular genetic findings were recorded from patient charts. RESULTS: Among the 550 DSD patients, 53...
April 2018: Endocrine Connections
Yun-Jung Lim, Hyun-Jin Jo, Mi Lim Chung
Prenatal ultrasonography (US) in a 39 year-old woman revealed massive fetal ascites. A fetal abdomino-amniotic shunting procedure was performed. Subsequently, plain radiographs demonstrated diffuse gaseous distention of the bowel and multiple punctate calcifications in the left upper abdomen. Postnatal US examination showed multiple echogenic foci in the liver and the left upper abdomen, bowel wall thickening in the right-sided abdomen, and undescended testes. There was no intra-abdominal free air or loculated fluid collections...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
Serpil Sancar, Esra Özçakır, Mete Kaya
Objective: Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a rare congenital disease characterized by the presence of rudimentary Müllerian structures within an intra-abdominal or hernial sac in a virilized male, often presenting as undescended testes. In this study, we aim to present a series of the PMDS patients who were managed by orchiopexy without removal of Müllerian remnants (MR). Material and methods: Between May 2010 and June 2017, we treated six cases diagnosed as PMDS in our department...
March 2018: Turkish Journal of Urology
Turki Z Al Harbi, Kareem Ayman Azzam, Ayman Azzam, Tarek Amin, Nasir Bakshi
INTRODUCTION: Persistent Müllerian Duct Syndrome (PMDS) is a rare sexual disease. It is characterized by the presence of female reproductive structures such as uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes and upper part of vagina in a normal genotypically and phenotypically male. The diagnosis is usually incidental since the patients will present with normal external genitalia and secondary sexual characteristics. Imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) scan, or ultrasound (US) could help in the diagnosis...
2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
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