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Low fat diet

C Kaewpila, K Sommart, M Mitsumori
The mitigation of enteric methane emission in beef cattle production is important for reducing feed energy loss and increasing environmental sustainability. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different oilseeds included in fermented total mixed rations (whole soyabean seed (SBS, control), whole kapok seed (KPS) and cracked oil palm fruit (OPF)) on feed intake, digestibility, rumen microbial populations, energy partition and methane emissions in different cattle genotypes (Charolais crossbred v...
March 20, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Dario Giugliano, Maria Ida Maiorino, Giuseppe Bellastella, Katherine Esposito
In the past decades, dietary guidelines focused on reducing saturated fat as the primary strategy for cardiovascular disease prevention, neglecting the many other potential effects of diet on health, in particular the harmful effects of sugar. A greater intake of soft drinks (sugar-sweetened beverages), for example, is associated with a 44% increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome, a higher risk of obesity, and a 26% increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus. Carbohydrates comprise around 55% of the typical western diet, ranging from 200 to 350 g/day in relation to a person's overall caloric intake...
March 19, 2018: Endocrine
Yuan Luo, Parinaz Abiri, Shell Zhang, Chih-Chiang Chang, Amir H Kaboodrangi, Rongsong Li, Ashish K Sahib, Alex Bui, Rajesh Kumar, Mary Woo, Zhaoping Li, René R Sevag Packard, Yu-Chong Tai, Tzung K Hsiai
Introduction: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). While Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive gold standard to detect fatty liver, we demonstrate a low-cost and portable electrical impedance tomography (EIT) approach with circumferential abdominal electrodes for liver conductivity measurements. Methods and Results: A finite element model (FEM) was established to simulate decremental liver conductivity in response to incremental liver lipid content...
2018: Theranostics
Wang Chengji, Fan Xianjin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the biological mechanism of the effect of different intensity exercises on diabetic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: 87 male SPF 6-wks old male S-D rats, after 6 weeks high fat diet, diabetic model was established, randomly selected 43 divided into diabetic control group (DCG, n=10), low intensity group (LIG, n=11), moderate intensity group (MIG, n=11), and high-intensity group (HIG, n=11).The rats in LIG were forced to run on a motorized treadmill, the exercise load consisted of running at a speed of 10 meters/min, MIG were running 15 meters/min, HIG were running 20 meters/min, one hour a day for 6 weeks...
March 19, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Francesca Pistollato, Ruben Calderón Iglesias, Roberto Ruiz, Silvia Aparicio, Jorge Crespo, Luis Dzul Lopez, Piera Pia Manna, Francesca Giampieri, Maurizio Battino
Ample epidemiological evidence suggests a strong correlation among diet, lifestyle factors and the onset and consolidation of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been demonstrated that AD, diabetes, obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease are strongly interconnected pathologies. Preventive strategies and nutritional interventions seem to be promising approaches to delay neurocognitive decline and reduce the risk of AD and other non-psychiatric co-morbidities. In this regard, healthy dietary patterns, characterized by high intake of plant-based foods, probiotics, antioxidants, soy beans, nuts, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a low intake of saturated fats, animal-derived proteins, and refined sugars, have been shown to decrease the risk of neurocognitive impairments and eventually the onset of AD...
March 16, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Jacqueline H Parilla, Rebecca L Hull, Sakeneh Zraika
Neprilysin (NEP) is an endopeptidase known to modulate nervous, cardiovascular, and immune systems via inactivation of regulatory peptides. In addition, it may also contribute to impaired glucose homeostasis as observed in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Specifically, we and others have shown that NEP is upregulated under conditions associated with T2D, whereas NEP deficiency and/or inhibition improves glucose homeostasis via enhanced glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and pancreatic β-cell function. Whether increased β-cell mass also occurs with lack of NEP activity is unknown...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
Na Xu, Jun Chu, Min Wang, Ling Chen, Liang Zhang, Zhongwen Xie, Jinsong Zhang, Chi-Tang Ho, Daxiang Li, Xiaochun Wan
Large yellow tea is a traditional beverage in China with unique toasty flavor. Preliminary study using 3T3-L1 cells indicted that large yellow tea, possessed more potent lipid-lowering efficacy than green, black, dark and white teas. In the present study we further investigated its influence on metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet (HFD) mouse model with an emphasis on dose response. Thirty-two C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: low-fat diet (LFD), HFD, HFD+2.5% large yellow tea hot-water extract (YT, equivalent to 10 cups of tea daily for humans), HFD+0...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Thomas Laeger, Teresa Castaño-Martinez, Martin W Werno, Lukasz Japtok, Christian Baumeier, Wenke Jonas, Burkhard Kleuser, Annette Schürmann
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Low-protein diets are well known to improve glucose tolerance and increase energy expenditure. Increases in circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) have been implicated as a potential underlying mechanism. METHODS: We aimed to test whether low-protein diets in the context of a high-carbohydrate or high-fat regimen would also protect against type 2 diabetes in New Zealand Obese (NZO) mice used as a model of polygenetic obesity and type 2 diabetes...
March 17, 2018: Diabetologia
Hongliang Zhang, Xiaoqin Zou, Qiuyan Huang, Xiaobin Zhong, Zhenguang Huang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The herbal medicine Kudingcha has a bitter taste and low bioavailability for lipid reduction. To improve the bioavailability and ameliorate the compliance, we prepared Kudingcha nanoparticles and investigated their effect in hyperlipidaemic rats. In addition, the safety and lipid-lowering mechanism of the Kudingcha nanoparticles were examined. METHODS: Kudingcha nanoparticles were prepared by ionotropic gelation and spray-drying. Seventy rats were randomly assigned into eight groups: a normal fat diet group (NF), a high-fat group (HF), a spontaneous recovery group (SR), a Kudingcha group (KDC), a blank nanoparticle group (B-N), and a Kudingcha nanoparticle groups (low, medium and high doses)...
March 10, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Yifei Chen, Mengmeng Li, Yu Zhang, Mingxue Di, Weijia Chen, Xiaolin Liu, Fangpu Yu, Han Wang, Xi Zhen, Mei Zhang
In advanced atherosclerosis, a large number of necrotic core increases plaque vulnerability, which leads to the occurrence of acute atherothrombotic cardiovascular events. Macrophage apoptosis plays an important role in secondary necrosis. The present study aimed to examine and describe the effect of the traditional Chinese medication Tongxinluo (TXL) on macrophage apoptosis in advanced atherosclerotic plaques and to explore its mechanism. By observing the effect of TXL on ox-LDL-stimulated macrophage apoptosis, it was shown that TXL significantly inhibited ox-LDL-induced apoptosis of macrophages by enhancing autophagy...
March 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yanmao Wang, Yu Zhu, Shengdi Lu, Chengfang Hu, Wanrun Zhong, Yimin Chai
Osteoporosis is linked to reduced bone mineral density (BMD) as a major risk factor for fragility fractures. Recent studies indicated an association between BMD and abnormally elevated lipid levels in blood as common indicators for hyperlipidemia. In this study, we assessed the protective effect of paeoniflorin, a phytochemical compound with multiple pharmacological activities, against hyperlipidemia-induced osteoporosis in rats fed a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (HCHF). The special diet-fed rats were subjected to an 8-week treatment with either paeoniflorin (20 mg/kg, daily) or vehicle...
March 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Leah J Mische, Ellen M Mowry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to critically evaluate published studies examining diets and nutritional supplements (excepting vitamin D) for the impact on prevention and prognosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). RECENT FINDINGS: There is a negative relationship between the Mediterranean diet and vascular disease, and vascular co-morbidities are associated with a worse MS prognosis. Low-fat, fish-based diets, sodium-restricted diets, calorie restriction, the paleo diet, and gluten-free diets have been examined, mostly in observational studies; results are inconclusive...
March 17, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Sherly X Li, Fumiaki Imamura, Matthias B Schulze, Jusheng Zheng, Zheng Ye, Antonio Agudo, Eva Ardanaz, Dagfinn Aune, Heiner Boeing, Miren Dorronsoro, Courtney Dow, Guy Fagherazzi, Sara Grioni, Marc J Gunter, José María Huerta, Daniel B Ibsen, Marianne Uhre Jakobsen, Rudolf Kaaks, Timothy J Key, Kay-Tee Khaw, Cecilie Kyrø, Francesca Romana Mancini, Elena Molina-Portillo, Neil Murphy, Peter M Nilsson, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Domenico Palli, Salvatore Panico, Alaitz Poveda, J Ramón Quirós, Fulvio Ricceri, Ivonne Sluijs, Annemieke M W Spijkerman, Anne Tjonneland, Rosario Tumino, Anna Winkvist, Claudia Langenberg, Stephen J Sharp, Elio Riboli, Robert A Scott, Nita G Forouhi, Nicholas J Wareham
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Gene-macronutrient interactions may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes but research evidence to date is inconclusive. We aimed to increase our understanding of the aetiology of type 2 diabetes by investigating potential interactions between genes and macronutrient intake and their association with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We investigated the influence of interactions between genetic risk scores (GRSs) for type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and BMI and macronutrient intake on the development of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct, a prospective case-cohort study across eight European countries (N = 21,900 with 9742 incident type 2 diabetes cases)...
March 17, 2018: Diabetologia
Hayley E Billingsley, Salvatore Carbone
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading global cause of death. Diet is known to be important in the prevention of CVD. The PREDIMED trial tested a relatively low-fat diet versus a high-fat Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) for the primary prevention of CVD. The resulting reduction of the CV composite outcome resulted in a paradigm shift in CV nutrition. Though many dietary factors likely contributed to this effect, this review focuses on the influence of the MedDiet on endogenous antioxidant systems and the effect of dietary polyphenols...
March 9, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Tian-Xing Chen, Xiao-Ying Cheng, Yun Wang, Wu Yin
Toosendanin (TSN), a triterpenoid extracted from Melia toosendan, has been reported to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-arthritic activities. However, its anti-adipogenic effect remains unknown. Here, we found that TSN dose-dependently attenuated lipid accumulation in preadipocytes 3T3-L1 as evidenced by Oil Red O staining. TSN also significantly downregulated mRNA and protein levels of adipocytokines (adiponectin and leptin), CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins α (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ), fatty acid synthase, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in adipocytes...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chien Wen Su, Chih-Yu Chen, Yali Li, Shao Rong Long, William Massey, Deepak Vijaya Kumar, W Allan Walker, Hai Ning Shi
Epidemiological studies indicate an inverse correlation between the prevalence of the so-called western diseases, such as obesity and metabolic syndrome, and the exposure to helminths. Obesity, a key risk factor for many chronic health problems, is rising globally and is accompanied by low-grade inflammation in adipose tissues. The precise mechanism by which helminths modulate metabolic syndrome and obesity is not fully understood. We infected high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice with the intestinal nematode parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus and observed that helminth infection resulted in significantly attenuated obesity...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nina Zupanič, Maša Hribar, Urška Pivk Kupirovič, Anita Kušar, Katja Žmitek, Igor Pravst
Consumption of industrially produced trans -fatty acids (TFAs) is a well-established health risk factor that correlates with the increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The recommended TFA intake is as low as possible, within the context of a nutritionally adequate diet. Different countries have introduced different measures to minimize the exposure of their population to TFAs. Previous data have shown that TFA content has significantly decreased in Western European countries, while this was not the case in many Central-Eastern European countries, including Slovenia...
March 15, 2018: Nutrients
Mads Rosenkilde, Lisbeth Rygaard, Pernille Nordby, Lars Bo Nielsen, Bente Stallknecht
Exercise training and weight loss both reduce cardiovascular risk, but the independent importance of the two strategies is unclear. We aimed to investigate independent and combined effects of exercise training and weight loss on lipoproteins and dyslipidemia in overweight sedentary men. Sixty individuals were randomized to 12 weeks of endurance training (T), energy-reduced diet (D), training and energy increased diet (T-iD), or control (C). Equal energetic deficits (-600 kcal/day) were prescribed by exercise for T and caloric restriction for D...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Fred Brouns
In the past, different types of diet with a generally low-carbohydrate content (< 50-< 20 g/day) have been promoted, for weight loss and diabetes, and the effectiveness of a very low dietary carbohydrate content has always been a matter of debate. A significant reduction in the amount of carbohydrates in the diet is usually accompanied by an increase in the amount of fat and to a lesser extent, also protein. Accordingly, using the term "low carb-high fat" (LCHF) diet is most appropriate...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Natalya Cherno, Sophya Osolina, Oleksandra Nikitina
One of the methods for curing obesity is the inclusion of some substances with the antilipase activity in the diet and thus reducing the uptake of fat components from food. The aim of this research is to provide a stabilized form of lipase inhibitor by immobilization of enzyme on the biopolymers from Agaricus bisporus cell walls. The phenolic compounds extracted from the rapeseed were considered as the lipase inhibitor. The activity of the inhibitor was considerably reduced in the gastric juice, as well as at temperatures above 37 °C and during its storage, which determined the suitability of the inhibitor for stabilization on the matrix...
December 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
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