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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747725/echinomycin-inhibits-adipogenesis-in-3t3-l1-cells-in-a-hif-independent-manner
#1
Junna Yamaguchi, Tetsuhiro Tanaka, Hisako Saito, Seitaro Nomura, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Hironori Waki, Takashi Kadowaki, Masaomi Nangaku
Obesity is a risk factor for many diseases including diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. Obesity is characterized by the expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT). Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of adipocytes cause tissue hypoxia followed by inflammation and fibrosis. Its trigger, preadipocyte differentiation into mature adipocytes, is finely regulated by transcription factors, signal molecules, and cofactors. We found that echinomycin, a potent HIF-1 inhibitor, completely inhibited adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 WAT preadipocytes by affecting the early phase of mitotic clonal expansion...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747469/alpha-motoneurons-maintain-biophysical-heterogeneity-in-obesity-and-diabetes-in-zucker-rats
#2
Christopher W MacDonell, Jeremy W Chopek, Kalan R Gardiner, Phillip F Gardiner
Small diameter sensory dysfunction resulting from diabetes has received much attention in the literature, while the impact of diabetes on alpha-motoneurons (MN) has not. In addition to this, the chance of developing insulin resistance and diabetes is increased in obesity. No study has examined the impact of obesity or diabetes on the biophysical properties of MN. Lean Zucker rats and Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats were separated into Lean, Obese (ZDF fed standard chow) and Diabetic (ZDF fed high fat diet that led to diabetes) groups...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746163/the-potential-contribution-of-dietary-factors-to-breast-cancer-prevention
#3
Niva Shapira
Breast cancer (BC), the leading cancer in women, is increasing in prevalence worldwide, concurrent with western metabolic epidemics, that is, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes, and shares major risk factors with these diseases. The corresponding potential for nutritional contributions toward BC prevention is reviewed and related to critical stages in the life cycle and their implications for carcinogenic and pathometabolic trajectories. BC initiation potentially involves diet-related pro-oxidative, inflammatory, and procarcinogenic processes, that interact through combined lipid/fatty acid peroxidation, estrogen metabolism, and related DNA-adduct/depurination/mutation formation...
July 25, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745686/-effects-of-keto-amino-acids-and-a-low-protein-diet-on-the-nutritional-status-of-patients-with-stages-3b-4-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
S Yu Milovanova, Yu S Milovanov, M V Taranova, I A Dobrosmyslov
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of keto/amino acids in maintaining protein balance and preventing mineral metabolic disturbances and the development of uremic hyperparathyroidism in the long-term use of a low-protein diet (LPD) in patients with Stages 3B-4 chronic kidney disease (CKD). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ninety patients with CKD caused by chronic latent glomerulonephritis in 65 patients and chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis of various etiologies (gout, drug-induced, and infection) in 25 were examined...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745498/curcumin-and-salsalate-suppresses-colonic-inflammation-and-pro-carcinogenic-signaling-in-high-fat-fed-azoxymethane-treated-mice
#5
Xian Wu, Anna C Pfalzer, Gar Yee Koh, Sanyuan Tang, Jimmy W Crott, Michael J Thomas, Mohsen Meydani, Joel B Mason
High fat diets (HFD) and excess adiposity increase pro-inflammatory cytokines in the colon, altering gene expression in a manner that promotes the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Thus, compounds that reduce this biochemical inflammation are potential chemopreventive agents. Curcumin (CUR), a dietary polyphenol, and salsalate (SAL), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, are both anti-inflammatory. We investigated the inhibitory effects of CUR with or without SAL on inflammatory cytokines and pro-carcinogenic signaling in azoxymethane (AOM)-treated A/J mice...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745333/breakfast-quality-and-cardiometabolic-risk-profiles-in-an-upper-middle-aged-german-population
#6
K Iqbal, L Schwingshackl, M Gottschald, S Knüppel, M Stelmach-Mardas, K Aleksandrova, H Boeing
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Little is known about relation of overall breakfast quality with cardiometabolic risk factors. Therefore, this study aimed to explore sex-specific associations between breakfast quality and cardiometabolic risk profiles in a sample of an upper middle-aged German population. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Cardiometabolic profiles of 339 men and 329 women were cross-sectionally assessed using an overall biomarker score (BScore), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), blood pressure, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)...
July 26, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743992/endotoxemia-mediated-activation-of-acetyltransferase-p300-impairs-insulin-signaling-in-obesity
#7
Jia Cao, Jinghua Peng, Hongying An, Qiyi He, Tatiana Boronina, Shaodong Guo, Morris F White, Philip A Cole, Ling He
Diabetes and obesity are characterized by insulin resistance and chronic low-grade inflammation. An elevated plasma concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) caused by increased intestinal permeability during diet-induced obesity promotes insulin resistance in mice. Here, we show that LPS induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and protein levels of P300, an acetyltransferase involved in glucose production. In high-fat diet fed and genetically obese ob/ob mice, P300 translocates from the nucleus into the cytoplasm of hepatocytes...
July 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743670/xuefu-zhuyu-decoction-ameliorates-obesity-hepatic-steatosis-neuroinflammation-amyloid-deposition-and-cognition-impairment-in-metabolically-stressed-appswe-ps1de9-mice
#8
Chi-Wen Yeh, Hui-Kang Liu, Lie-Chwen Lin, Kou-Tong Liou, Yung-Cheng Huang, Chien-Hung Lin, Tsai-Teng Tzeng, Feng-Shiun Shie, Huey-Jen Tsay, Young-Ji Shiao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Metabolic syndrome and vascular dysfunction was suggested to be the risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Xuefu Zhuyu decoction (XZD) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat metabolic syndrome and cardiac-cerebral vascular disease. The effects of XZD on ameliorating metabolic syndrome, amyloid-related pathologies and cognitive impairment in an animal model of AD with metabolic stress was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The animal model of AD with metabolic stress was created by administrating high-fat diet and a low-dose injection of streptozotocin prior to the appearance of senile plaques in APP/PS1 transgenic mice...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742010/bacterial-communities-in-the-small-intestine-respond-differently-to-those-in-the-caecum-and-colon-in-mice-fed-low-and-high-fat-diets
#9
Janet C Onishi, Sara Campbell, Michael Moreau, Falshruti Patel, Andrew I Brooks, Yin Xiu Zhou, Max M Häggblom, Judith Storch
Bacterial communities in the mouse caecum and faeces are known to be altered by changes in dietary fat. The microbiota of the mouse small intestine, by contrast, has not been extensively profiled and it is unclear whether small intestinal bacterial communities shift with dietary fat levels. We compared the microbiota in the small intestine, caecum and colon in mice fed a low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diet using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The relative abundance of major phyla in the small intestine, Bacteriodetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, was similar to that in the caecum and colon; the relative abundance of Verrucomicrobia was significantly reduced in the small intestine compared to the large intestine...
July 26, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740245/fish-oil-diet-may-reduce-inflammatory-levels-in-the-liver-of-middle-aged-rats
#10
Yingqiu Li, Fan Zhao, Qiayu Wu, Mengjie Li, Yingying Zhu, Shangxin Song, Jing Zhu, Yafang Ma, He Li, Xuebin Shi, Xinglian Xu, Guanghong Zhou, Chunbao Li
The impact of dietary soybean oil, lard and fish oil on physiological responses in middle age is little studied. In this study, we investigated the changes of oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, telomere length, and age-related gene expression in the liver of middle-aged rats in response to the above three fat diets. Male Sprague Dawley rats (12 months old) were fed AIN-93M diets for 3 months, in which soybean oil was equivalently replaced by lard or fish oil. As compared to the lard diet, intake of fish oil diet significantly decreased body weight gain, white blood cell count, and levels of hepatic triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, fat accumulation, low-density lipoprotein, oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines (P < 0...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739053/glucomannan-consumption-elevates-colonic-alkaline-phosphatase-activity-by-up-regulating-the-expression-of-iap-i-which-is-associated-with-increased-production-of-protective-factors-for-gut-epithelial-homeostasis-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#11
Yukako Okazaki, Tetsuyuki Katayama
We previously reported that consumption of glucomannan-containing food (lily bulb) modulates gut microbiota and increases gut immunoglobulin A (IgA, index of intestinal immune function), mucins (index of intestinal barrier function), and colonic alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Small intestinal ALP has an established protective effect in inflammatory diseases, whereas little is known about the function of colonic ALP activity. We hypothesized that dietary glucomannan would increase colonic ALP activity and the gene expression in rats fed an HF diet...
July 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737708/functional-comparison-for-lipid-metabolism-and-intestinal-and-fecal-microflora-enzyme-activities-between-low-molecular-weight-chitosan-and-chitosan-oligosaccharide-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#12
Chen-Yuan Chiu, Shih-An Feng, Shing-Hwa Liu, Meng-Tsan Chiang
The present study investigated and compared the regulatory effects on the lipid-related metabolism and intestinal disaccharidase/fecal bacterial enzyme activities between low molecular weight chitosan and chitosan oligosaccharide in high-fat-diet-fed rats. Diet supplementation of low molecular weight chitosan showed greater efficiency than chitosan oligosaccharide in suppressing the increased weights in body and in liver and adipose tissues of high-fat-diet-fed rats. Supplementation of low molecular weight chitosan also showed a greater improvement than chitosan oligosaccharide in imbalance of plasma, hepatic, and fecal lipid profiles, and intestinal disaccharidase activities in high-fat-diet-fed rats...
July 24, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737568/systematic-review-nutrition-and-physical-activity-in-the-management-of-paediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
Philippa S Gibson, Sarah Lang, Anil Dhawan, Emer Fitzpatrick, Michelle L Blumfield, Helen Truby, Kathryn H Hart, J Bernadette Moore
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate efficacy of nutrition and physical activity interventions in the clinical management of paediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The prevalence of paediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease continues to rise alongside childhood obesity. Weight loss through lifestyle modification is currently first-line treatment, although supplementation of specific dietary components may be beneficial. METHODS: Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, and Cochrane Libraries were systematically searched to identify randomized controlled trials assessing nutritional and physical activity interventions...
August 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736203/oral-administration-of-visceral-adipose-tissue-antigens-ameliorates-metabolic-disorders-in-mice-and-elevates-visceral-adipose-tissue-resident-cd4-cd25-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells
#14
Xiangyu Chen, Dali Zhang, Xiaoling Chen, Gang Meng, Qian Zheng, Wenli Mai, Yuzhang Wu, Lilin Ye, Li Wang
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are linked with chronic, low-grade inflammation in visceral adipose tissue (VAT). A unique population of VAT-resident CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs plays a crucial role in regulating VAT inflammation and metabolic homeostasis. VAT-resident Tregs display a highly restricted TCR repertoire, suggesting they recognize certain autoantigen(s) in VAT. A dramatic reduction of VAT-resident Tregs has been shown to closely correlate with obesity-related VAT chronic inflammation and metabolic disorders...
July 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735575/negotiating-the-complexities-of-exocrine-and-endocrine-dysfunction-in-chronic-pancreatitis
#15
Sinead N Duggan
Chronic pancreatitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pancreas characterised by irreversible morphological change and typically causing pain and/or permanent loss of function. This progressive, irreversible disease results in destruction of healthy pancreatic tissue and the development of fibrous scar tissue. Gradual loss of exocrine and endocrine function follows, along with clinical manifestations such as steatorrhoea, abdominal pain and diabetes. Nutrition in chronic pancreatitis has been described as a problem area and, until recently, there was little research on the topic...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734203/exenatide-mitigated-diet-induced-vascular-aging-and-atherosclerotic-plaque-growth-in-apoe-deficient-mice-under-chronic-stress
#16
Guang Yang, Yanna Lei, Aiko Inoue, Limei Piao, Lina Hu, Haiying Jiang, Takeshi Sasaki, Hongxian Wu, Wenhu Xu, Chenglin Yu, Guangxian Zhao, Shinyu Ogasawara, Kenji Okumura, Masafumi Kuzuya, Xian-Wu Cheng
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Exposure to psychosocial stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. Because the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) agonist prevents cardiovascular injury, we investigated the beneficial effects and mechanism of the GLP-1 analogue exenatide on stress-related vascular senescence and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. METHODS: ApoE(-/-) mice fed the HF diet were assigned to non-stressed and immobilized-stress groups for 12 weeks...
July 13, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733520/the-ketogenic-diet-is-not-feasible-as-a-therapy-in-a-cd-1-nu-nu-mouse-model-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-with-features-of-stauffer-s-syndrome
#17
Silvia Vidali, Sepideh Aminzadeh-Gohari, René Günther Feichtinger, Renaud Vatrinet, Andreas Koller, Felix Locker, Tricia Rutherford, Maura O'Donnell, Andrea Stöger-Kleiber, Bridget Lambert, Thomas Klaus Felder, Wolfgang Sperl, Barbara Kofler
The ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat low-carbohydrate diet, has shown some efficacy in the treatment of certain types of tumors such as brain tumors and neuroblastoma. These tumors are characterized by the Warburg effect. Because renal cell carcinoma (RCC) presents similar energetic features as neuroblastoma, KD might also be effective in the treatment of RCC. To test this, we established xenografts with RCC 786-O cells in CD-1 nu/nu mice and then randomized them to a control diet or to KDs with different triglyceride contents...
July 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733207/uplc-q-tof-ms-based-urine-and-plasma-metabonomics-study-on-the-ameliorative-effects-of-aspirin-eugenol-ester-in-hyperlipidemia-rats
#18
Ning Ma, Xi-Wang Liu, Xiao-Jun Kong, Zhe Qin, Shi-Hong Li, Zeng-Hua Jiao, Peng-Cheng Dong, Ya-Jun Yang, Jian-Yong Li
The main objective of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effects of aspirin eugenol ester (AEE) in hyperlipidemic rat. After five-week oral administration of AEE in high fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemic rats, the impact of AEE on plasma and urine metabonomics was investigated to explore the underlying mechanism by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS analysis. Blood lipid levels and histopathological changes of liver, stomach and duodenum were also evaluated after AEE treatment. Without obvious gastrointestinal (GI) side effects, AEE significantly relieved fatty degeneration of liver and reduced triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol (TCH) (P<0...
July 18, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731171/protective-role-of-pollen-typhae-total-flavone-against-the-palmitic-acid-induced-impairment-of-glucose-stimulated-insulin-secretion-involving-gpr40-signaling-in-ins-1-cells
#19
Xiao-Tao Feng, Hui-Ming Duan, Shuang-Lei Li
Prolonged elevated levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) contribute to the impairment of insulin secretion function of pancreatic β cells, a hallmark of type 2 diabetes, which is partly attributed to the dysfunction of G-protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) signaling. Pollen Typhae total flavone (PTF), an extract from a Chinese herbal medicine named Pollen Typhae, has been reported to effectively treat type 2 diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, palmitic acid (PA), a saturated fatty acid, severely impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in a time-dependent manner in INS-1 cells, and PTF treatment prevented the impairment in a dose-dependent manner...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729394/body-fat-of-rats-of-different-age-groups-and-nutritional-states-assessment-by-micro-ct-and-skinfold-thickness
#20
Eva Tekus, Alexandra Miko, Nora Furedi, Ildiko Rostas, Judit Tenk, Tamas Kiss, István Szitter, Marta Balasko, Zsuzsanna Helyes, Marta Wilhelm, Erika Petervari
Obesity presents a growing public health problem. Therefore, the analysis of body composition is important in clinical practice as well as in animal research models of obesity, hence precise methods for the assessment of body fat would be essential. We aimed to evaluate in vivo abdominal micro-computed tomography scan restricted to the L1-L3 region (micro-CT(L1-L3)), a skinfold thickness-based method (STM) and post mortem body composition analysis (PMA) with regard to whole-body micro-CT scan in rats. Male Wistar rats of different age-groups (from 3 to 24 months) and nutritional states (normally fed, high-fat diet-induced obese, calorie-restricted) were used...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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