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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905864/determining-friction-and-effective-loading-for-sled-sprinting
#1
Matt R Cross, Farhan Tinwala, Seth Lenetsky, Pierre Samozino, Matt Brughelli, Jean-Benoit Morin
Understanding the impact of friction in sled sprinting allows the quantification of kinetic outputs and the effective loading experienced by the athlete. This study assessed changes in the coefficient of friction (µk) of a sled sprint-training device with changing mass and speed to provide a means of quantifying effective loading for athletes. A common sled equipped with a load cell was towed across an athletics track using a motorised winch under variable sled mass (33.1-99.6 kg) with constant speeds (0...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537409/salivary-lymphocyte-responses-follwing-acute-anaerobic-exercise-in-a-cool-environment
#2
Lara A Carlson, Michael A Lawrence, Kaylee LeCavalier, Alexander J Koch
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of anaerobic training on salivary lymphocytes (s-LYMPH), and further determine whether these responses differ between cool vs. thermoneutral environments. Nine lightly clothed (∼0.3 clo) volunteers (7/2 women/men: age 21 ± 1 y; height 168.7 ± 7.3 cm; weight 66.4 ± 8.4 kg; body fat 20.6 ± 7.6%) completed speed, agility, and quickness (SAQ) sessions in both warm (18.9°C, Biddeford, Maine, USA) and cool (10.4°C, Thorsmörk, Iceland) temperatures. SAQ sessions consisted of three trials of 20 m sprints, 40 m sprints, t-tests, and box drills, and two 300-yd shuttle runs in both conditions...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27467516/physical-and-physiological-demands-of-experienced-male-basketball-players-during-a-competitive-game
#3
Carlos Puente, Javier Abián-Vicén, Francisco Areces, Roberto López, Juan Del Coso
The aim of this investigation was to analyze the physical and physiological demands of experienced basketball players during a real and competitive game. Twenty-five well-trained basketball players (8 guards, 8 forwards, 9 centers) played a competitive game on an outdoor court. Instantaneous running speeds, the number of body-impacts above 5-g as well as the number of accelerations and decelerations were assessed by means of a 15 Hz GPS accelerometer unit. Individual heart rate was also recorded using heart rate monitors...
July 26, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27339377/how-much-does-lower-body-strength-impact-paralympic-running-performance
#4
E M Beckman, M J Connick, S M Tweedy
OBJECTIVES: Development of evidence-based methods of Paralympic classification requires research quantifying the relative strength of association between ratio-scaled measures of impairment and athletic performance. The purpose of this study was to quantify the extent to which muscle strength affects running performance in runners with and without brain impairment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Participants were 41 male runners: 13 with brain impairments (RBI) and 28 non-disabled (NDR)...
September 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334280/factors-that-influence-the-performance-of-elite-sprint-cross-country-skiers
#5
Kim Hébert-Losier, Christoph Zinner, Simon Platt, Thomas Stöggl, Hans-Christer Holmberg
BACKGROUND: Sprint events in cross-country skiing are unique not only with respect to their length (0.8-1.8 km), but also in involving four high-intensity heats of ~3 min in duration, separated by a relatively short recovery period (15-60 min). OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to systematically review the scientific literature to identify factors related to the performance of elite sprint cross-country skiers. METHODS: Four electronic databases were searched using relevant medical subject headings and keywords, as were reference lists, relevant journals, and key authors in the field...
June 22, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27082723/consequences-of-fatherhood-in-the-biparental-california-mouse-peromyscus-californicus-locomotor-performance-metabolic-rate-and-organ-masses
#6
Jacob R Andrew, Wendy Saltzman, Mark A Chappell, Theodore Garland
Although effects of motherhood on mothers have been well documented in mammals, the effects of fatherhood on fathers are not well known. We evaluated effects of being a father on key metabolic and performance measures in the California mouse, Peromyscus californicus. California mice are genetically monogamous in the wild, and fathers show similar parental behavior to mothers, with the exception of lactation. To investigate the impact of fatherhood on fathers, focal males were paired with an intact female (breeding males), a tubally ligated female (nonbreeding males), or another male (virgins)...
March 2016: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26677258/skeletal-muscle-contractile-function-predicts-activity-and-behaviour-in-zebrafish
#7
Frank Seebacher, Alexander G Little, Rob S James
Locomotion facilitates behaviour and its underlying physiological mechanisms may therefore impact behavioural phenotypes. Metabolism is often thought to modulate locomotion and behaviour, but empirical support for this suggestion is equivocal. Muscle contractile function is directly associated with locomotion. Here, we test the hypotheses that muscle mechanics determine locomotor performance and activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and thereby also affect risk-taking behaviour. We show that there is a mechanistic link between muscle performance and behaviour by manipulating muscle contractile properties, which caused proportional changes in critical sustained swimming performance and, in an open arena, voluntary swimming speed, the proportion of time fish were active, and the latency to move...
December 2015: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26553494/carbohydrate-nutrition-and-team-sport-performance
#8
REVIEW
Clyde Williams, Ian Rollo
The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition...
November 2015: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26544848/physical-fitness-percentiles-of-german-children-aged-9-12-years-findings-from-a-longitudinal-study
#9
Kathleen Golle, Thomas Muehlbauer, Ditmar Wick, Urs Granacher
BACKGROUND: Generating percentile values is helpful for the identification of children with specific fitness characteristics (i.e., low or high fitness level) to set appropriate fitness goals (i.e., fitness/health promotion and/or long-term youth athlete development). Thus, the aim of this longitudinal study was to assess physical fitness development in healthy children aged 9-12 years and to compute sex- and age-specific percentile values. METHODS: Two-hundred and forty children (88 girls, 152 boys) participated in this study and were tested for their physical fitness...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26523630/the-influence-of-soccer-match-play-on-physiological-and-physical-performance-measures-in-soccer-referees-and-assistant-referees
#10
Daniel Castillo, Javier Yanci, Jesús Cámara, Matthew Weston
The aim of this study was to quantify the acute impact of soccer match officiating on selected physiological and physical performance measures. Twenty-four officials from the Spanish National 3rd Division participated in this study. External global positioning system and internal (heart rate) load data were collected for each match official during 8 official matches. Pre- and post-matches, the referees were assessed for tympanic temperature, blood lactate, 15- and 30-m sprint speeds and unilateral (dominant and non-dominant legs) and bilateral vertical jump performances...
2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26456391/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-petroleum-production-activities-on-the-western-fence-lizard-sceloporus-occidentalis-as-a-surrogate-for-the-dunes-sagebrush-lizard-sceloporus-arenicolus
#11
Scott M Weir, Ami Knox, Larry G Talent, Todd A Anderson, Christopher J Salice
The dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus) is a habitat specialist of conservation concern limited to shin oak sand dune systems of New Mexico and Texas (USA). Because much of the dunes sagebrush lizard's habitat occurs in areas of high oil and gas production, there may be direct and indirect effects of these activities. The congeneric Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) was used as a surrogate species to determine direct effects of 2 contaminants associated with oil and gas drilling activities in the Permian Basin (NM and TX, USA): herbicide formulations (Krovar and Quest) and hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S)...
May 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26368285/season-long-increases-in-perceived-muscle-soreness-in-professional-rugby-league-players-role-of-player-position-match-characteristics-and-playing-surface
#12
Ben D Fletcher, Craig Twist, Julian D Haigh, Clive Brewer, James P Morton, Graeme L Close
Rugby League (RL) is a high-impact collision sport characterised by repeated sprints and numerous high-speed impacts and consequently players often report immediate and prolonged muscle soreness in the days after a match. We examined muscle soreness after matches during a full season to understand the extent to which match characteristics influence soreness. Thirty-one elite Super League players provided daily measures of muscle soreness after each of the 26 competitive fixtures of the 2012 season. Playing position, phase of the season, playing surface and match characteristics were recorded from each match...
2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26202776/sprint-sensitivity-and-locomotor-trade-offs-in-green-anole-anolis-carolinensis-lizards
#13
Erik A Sathe, Jerry F Husak
How well an organism completes an ecologically relevant task - its performance - is often considered a key factor in determining individual fitness. Historically, ecomorphological studies have examined how morphological traits determine individual performance in a static manner, assuming that differential fitness in a population is due indirectly to differences in morphological traits that determine a simple measure of performance. This assumption, however, ignores many ecological factors that can constrain performance in nature, such as substrate variation and individual behavior...
July 2015: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26184303/acute-effects-of-carbohydrate-supplementation-on-intermittent-sports-performance
#14
REVIEW
Lindsay B Baker, Ian Rollo, Kimberly W Stein, Asker E Jeukendrup
Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1-2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence...
July 14, 2015: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25789549/typical-weekly-workload-of-under-15-under-17-and-under-19-elite-portuguese-football-players
#15
Diogo Coutinho, Bruno Gonçalves, Bruno Figueira, Eduardo Abade, Rui Marcelino, Jaime Sampaio
This study aims to describe the time-motion and physiological performance profiles of footballers whose ages are under 15 (U15), under 17 (U17), and under 19 (U19) during a typical week of a competitive season. A total of 151 elite Portuguese players U15 (age 14.0 ± 0.2; n = 56), U17 (age 15.8 ± 0.4; n = 66), and U19 (age 17.8 ± 0.6; n = 19) were monitored during 33 training sessions (TSs) (U15 n = 12; U17 n = 11; and U19 n = 10 TSs). The TS data were captured at 15 Hz by global positioning systems devices and divided into post-match (session after the match), prematch (session before the match), and middle week (average of remaining sessions)...
2015: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25761523/impact-of-limited-hamstring-flexibility-on-vertical-jump-kicking-speed-sprint-and-agility-in-young-football-players
#16
F García-Pinillos, A Ruiz-Ariza, R Moreno del Castillo, P Á Latorre-Román
This study aims to analyse the impact of limited hamstring flexibility (HF) on specific football skills, such as sprinting and jumping ability, agility, and kicking speed in young football players. Forty-three male football players (aged 14-18) from a semi-professional football academy participated voluntarily in this study. Data about anthropometric measurements, HF (unilateral passive straight-leg raise test: PSLR), vertical jumping ability (countermovement jump: CMJ), sprinting ability (5, 10, 20 m: S5 m, S10 m, S20 m), agility (Balsom agility test: BAT), and kicking speed in terms of ball speed (dominant and non-dominant leg: KSdom and KSnon-dom) were collected...
2015: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25729149/a-preliminary-investigation-into-the-relationship-between-functional-movement-screen-scores-and-athletic-physical-performance-in-female-team-sport-athletes
#17
Rg Lockie, Ab Schultz, Sj Callaghan, Ca Jordan, Tm Luczo, Md Jeffriess
There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power])...
March 2015: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25710259/consecutive-days-of-prolonged-tennis-match-play-performance-physical-and-perceptual-responses-in-trained-players
#18
Danielle T Gescheit, Stuart J Cormack, Machar Reid, Rob Duffield
PURPOSE: To determine how consecutive days of prolonged tennis match play affect performance, physiological, and perceptual responses. METHODS: Seven well-trained male tennis players completed 4-h tennis matches on 4 consecutive days. Pre- and postmatch measures involved tennis-specific (serve speed and accuracy), physical (20-m sprint, countermovement jump [CMJ], shoulder-rotation maximal voluntary contraction, isometric midthigh pull), perceptual (Training Distress Scale, soreness), and physiological (creatine kinase [CK]) responses...
October 2015: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25706295/how-much-do-range-of-movement-and-coordination-affect-paralympic-sprint-performance
#19
Mark J Connick, Emma Beckman, Jemima Spathis, Rebecca Deuble, Sean M Tweedy
INTRODUCTION: Development of evidence-based methods of paralympic classification requires research quantifying the relative strength of association between ratio-scaled measures of impairment and sports performance. To date, no such research has been conducted. The purpose of this study was to quantify the extent to which range of movement (ROM) and coordination affect running performance in runners with and without brain impairment. METHODS: Participants were 41 male runners, 13 with brain impairments (RBI) and 28 nondisabled (NDR)...
October 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25635606/effects-of-plyometric-and-sprint-training-on-physical-and-technical-skill-performance-in-adolescent-soccer-players
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Eduardo Sáez de Villarreal, Luis Suarez-Arrones, Bernardo Requena, Gregory G Haff, Carlos Ferrete
To determine the influence of a short-term combined plyometric and sprint training (9 weeks) within regular soccer practice on explosive and technical actions of pubertal soccer players during the in-season. Twenty-six players were randomly assigned to 2 groups: control group (CG) (soccer training only) and combined group (CombG) (plyometric + acceleration + dribbling + shooting). All players trained soccer 4 times per week and the experimental groups supplemented the soccer training with a proposed plyometric-sprint training program for 40 minutes (2 days per weeks)...
July 2015: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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