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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249083/effects-of-strength-training-on-the-physiological-determinants-of-middle-and-long-distance-running-performance-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Richard C Blagrove, Glyn Howatson, Philip R Hayes
BACKGROUND: Middle- and long-distance running performance is constrained by several important aerobic and anaerobic parameters. The efficacy of strength training (ST) for distance runners has received considerable attention in the literature. However, to date, the results of these studies have not been fully synthesized in a review on the topic. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aimed to provide a comprehensive critical commentary on the current literature that has examined the effects of ST modalities on the physiological determinants and performance of middle- and long-distance runners, and offer recommendations for best practice...
December 16, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176387/effects-of-plyometric-and-directional-training-on-speed-and-jump-performance-in-elite-youth-soccer-players
#2
Marco Beato, Mattia Bianchi, Giuseppe Coratella, Michele Merlini, Barry Drust
Soccer players perform approximately 1350 activities (every 4-6 s), such as accelerations/decelerations, and changes of direction (COD) during matches. It is well established that COD and plyometric training have a positive impact on fitness parameters in football players. This study analyzed the effect of a complex COD and plyometric protocol (CODJ-G) compared to an isolated COD protocol (COD-G) training on elite football players.A randomized pre-post parallel group trial was used in this study. Twenty-one youth players were enrolled in this study (mean ± SDs; age 17 ± 0...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859419/complex-reproductive-traits-and-whole-organism-performance
#3
T J Orr, Theodore Garland
Arnold's 1983 path-analytic paradigm, considering "morphology, performance, and fitness," has been elaborated in several ways. For example, current versions recognize the level of "behavior" (including aspects of motivation) as a filter between performance abilities (only measurable if motivation is maximal) and fitness components. Performance abilities constrain behavior, but behavioral choices may shield performance from selection. Conceptual and empirical issues remain, such as the extent to which individual variation in lower-level subordinate traits (e...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623425/effects-of-a-20-week-high-intensity-strength-and-sprint-training-program-on-tibial-bone-structure-and-strength-in-middle-aged-and-older-male-sprint-athletes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
T H Suominen, M T Korhonen, M Alén, A Heinonen, A Mero, T Törmäkangas, H Suominen
This randomized, controlled, high-intensity strength and sprint training trial in middle-aged and older male sprint athletes showed significant improvements in mid-tibial structure and strength. The study reveals the adaptability of aging bone, suggesting that through a novel, intensive training stimulus it is possible to strengthen bones during aging. INTRODUCTION: High-load, high-speed and impact-type exercise may be an efficient way of improving bone strength even in old age. We evaluated the effects of combined strength and sprint training on indices of bone health in competitive masters athletes, who serve as a group of older people who are likely to be able to participate in vigorous exercise of this kind...
June 16, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595870/high-speed-running-and-sprinting-as-an-injury-risk-factor-in-soccer-can-well-developed-physical-qualities-reduce-the-risk
#5
Shane Malone, Adam Owen, Bruno Mendes, Brian Hughes, Kieran Collins, Tim J Gabbett
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the association between high-speed running (HSR) and sprint running (SR) and injuries within elite soccer players. The impact of intermittent aerobic fitness as measured by the end speed of the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (30-15VIFT) and high chronic workloads (average 21-day) as potential mediators of injury risk were also investigated. DESIGN: Observational Cohort Study. METHODS: 37 elite soccer players from one elite squad were involved in a one-season study...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557851/decrements-in-neuromuscular-performance-and-increases-in-creatine-kinase-impact-training-outputs-in-elite-soccer-players
#6
Shane Malone, Bruno Mendes, Brian Hughes, Mark Roe, Simon Devenney, Kieran Collins, Adam Owen
The aim of the current investigation was to understand the impact of pre-training neuromuscular performance and creatine kinase status on subsequent training performance in elite soccer players. Thirty soccer players (age: 25.3 ± 3.1 years; height: 183 ± 7 cm; mass: 72 ± 7 kg) were involved in this observational study. Each morning prior to training, players completed assessments for neuromuscular performance (countermovement jump; CMJ) and creatine kinase (CK) levels. Global positioning technology provided external load: total distance, high-speed distance, sprint distance, accelerations, decelerations, average metabolic power, explosive distance, high metabolic power distance (>25...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486330/the-impact-of-dry-land-sprint-start-training-on-the-short-track-speed-skating-start
#7
William B Haug, Eric J Drinkwater, Nicholas J Cicero, J Anthony Barthell, Dale W Chapman
This investigation sought to determine the effects of dry-land sprint start training on short track speed skating (STSS) start performance. Nine highly trained short track athletes completed a control period of normal STSS training followed by a four-week training intervention. Before and after the control and intervention periods, athletes performed three electronically timed dry-land and on-ice 14.43 m maximal sprint start efforts. The intervention consisted of two sprint sessions per week consisting of nine electronically timed 14...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406104/institutionalized-physical-activity-curriculum-benefits-of-medical-students-in-colombia
#8
Gustavo Tovar, Gabriel López, Milcíades Ibáñez, Ricardo Alvarado, Felipe Lobelo, John Duperly
BACKGROUND: Health authorities internationally have recommended implementing physical activity and exercise for health training programs within the curriculum of medical schools. The purpose of this evaluation was to determine the changes in physical fitness and health (Fitnessgram criteria) of a sports medicine and physical activity course implemented for 3rd year students in a private medical school in Bogotá, Colombia. METHODS: Intervention was targeted to 13 medical student cohorts...
September 2016: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387540/n-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-during-4-weeks-of-training-leads-to-improved-anaerobic-endurance-capacity-but-not-maximal-strength-speed-or-power-in-soccer-players
#9
Leyre Gravina, Frankie F Brown, Lee Alexander, James Dick, Gordon Bell, Oliver C Witard, Stuart D R Galloway
Omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) supplementation could promote adaptation to soccer-specific training. We examined the impact of a 4-week period of n-3 FA supplementation during training on adaptations in 1RM knee extensor strength, 20-m sprint speed, vertical jump power, and anaerobic endurance capacity (Yo-Yo test) in competitive soccer players. Twenty six soccer players were randomly assigned to one of two groups: n-3 FA supplementation (n-3 FA; n = 13) or placebo (n = 13). Both groups performed two experimental trial days...
August 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103523/anthropogenic-chemical-cues-can-alter-the-swimming-behaviour-of-juvenile-stages-of-a-temperate-fish
#10
Carlos Díaz-Gil, Lucy Cotgrove, Sarah Louise Smee, David Simón-Otegui, Hilmar Hinz, Amalia Grau, Miquel Palmer, Ignacio A Catalán
Human pressure on coastal areas is affecting essential ecosystems including fish nursery habitats. Among these anthropogenic uses, the seasonal increment in the pressure due to leisure activities such as coastal tourism and yachting is an important environmental stressor in many coastal zones. These pressures may elicit understudied impacts due to, for example, sunscreens or other seasonal pollutants. The island of Majorca, northwest Mediterranean Sea, experiences one of the highest number of tourist visits per capita in the world, thus the surrounding coastal habitat is subject to high anthropogenic seasonal stress...
April 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004133/tail-autotomy-affects-bipedalism-but-not-sprint-performance-in-a-cursorial-mediterranean-lizard
#11
Pantelis Savvides, Maria Stavrou, Panayiotis Pafilis, Spyros Sfenthourakis
Running is essential in all terrestrial animals mainly for finding food and mates and escaping from predators. Lizards employ running in all their everyday functions, among which defense stands out. Besides flight, tail autotomy is another very common antipredatory strategy within most lizard families. The impact of tail loss to sprint performance seems to be species dependent. In some lizard species, tail shedding reduces sprint speed, in other species, increases it, and, in a few species, speed is not affected at all...
February 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992260/a-three-week-unexpected-disturbance-program-improves-physical-performance-of-elite-female-athletes
#12
Joerg Teichmann, Edin K Suwarganda, C Martyn Beaven, Kim Hébert-Losier, Jin Wei Lee, Florencio Tenllado Vallejo, Phillip Chung Foong Lew, Ramlan Abdul Aziz, Wee-Kian Yeo, Dietmar Schmidtbleicher
CONTEXT: Sensorimotor training is commonly used in a rehabilitative setting; however, the effectiveness of an unexpected disturbance program (UDP) to enhance performance measures in uninjured elite athletes is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of a three-week UDP program onstrength, power, and proprioceptive measures. DESIGN: Matched-group, pre- post design. SETTING: National Sports Institute. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-one international-level female field hockey athletes...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918679/movement-patterns-and-metabolic-responses-during-an-international-rugby-sevens-tournament
#13
Anthony Couderc, Claire Thomas, Mathieu Lacome, Julien Piscione, Julien Robineau, Rémi Delfour-Peyrethon, Rachel Borne, Christine Hanon
PURPOSE: To investigate the running demands and associated metabolic perturbations during an official rugby sevens tournament. METHODS: Twelve elite players participated in 7 matches wearing GPS units. Maximal sprinting speed (MSS) and maximal aerobic speed (MAS) were measured. High-intensity threshold was individualized relative to MAS (>100% of MAS), and very-high-intensity distance was reported relative to both MAS and MSS. Blood samples were taken at rest and after each match...
August 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905864/determining-friction-and-effective-loading-for-sled-sprinting
#14
Matt R Cross, Farhan Tinwala, Seth Lenetsky, Pierre Samozino, Matt Brughelli, Jean-Benoit Morin
Understanding the impact of friction in sled sprinting allows the quantification of kinetic outputs and the effective loading experienced by the athlete. This study assessed changes in the coefficient of friction (µk) of a sled sprint-training device with changing mass and speed to provide a means of quantifying effective loading for athletes. A common sled equipped with a load cell was towed across an athletics track using a motorised winch under variable sled mass (33.1-99.6 kg) with constant speeds (0...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537409/salivary-lymphocyte-responses-following-acute-anaerobic-exercise-in-a-cool-environment
#15
Lara A Carlson, Michael A Lawrence, Kaylee LeCavalier, Alexander J Koch
Carlson, LA, Lawrence, MA, LeCavalier, K, and Koch, AJ. Salivary lymphocyte responses following acute anaerobic exercise in a cool environment. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1236-1240, 2017-The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of anaerobic training on salivary lymphocytes (s-LYMPH), and further determine whether these responses differ between cool vs. thermoneutral environments. Nine lightly clothed (∼0.3 clo) volunteers (7/2 women/men: age, 21 ± 1 years; height, 168.7 ± 7.3 cm; weight, 66.4 ± 8...
May 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27467516/physical-and-physiological-demands-of-experienced-male-basketball-players-during-a-competitive-game
#16
Carlos Puente, Javier Abián-Vicén, Francisco Areces, Roberto López, Juan Del Coso
Puente, C, Abián-Vicén, J, Areces, F, López, R, and Del Coso, J. Physical and physiological demands of experienced male basketball players during a competitive game. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 956-962, 2017-The aim of this investigation was to analyze the physical and physiological demands of experienced basketball players during a real and competitive game. Twenty-five well-trained basketball players (8 guards, 8 forwards, and 9 centers) played a competitive game on an outdoor court. Instantaneous running speeds, the number of body impacts above 5 g, and the number of accelerations and decelerations were assessed by means of a 15-Hz global Positioning System accelerometer unit...
April 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27339377/how-much-does-lower-body-strength-impact-paralympic-running-performance
#17
E M Beckman, M J Connick, S M Tweedy
OBJECTIVES: Development of evidence-based methods of Paralympic classification requires research quantifying the relative strength of association between ratio-scaled measures of impairment and athletic performance. The purpose of this study was to quantify the extent to which muscle strength affects running performance in runners with and without brain impairment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Participants were 41 male runners: 13 with brain impairments (RBI) and 28 non-disabled (NDR)...
September 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334280/factors-that-influence-the-performance-of-elite-sprint-cross-country-skiers
#18
REVIEW
Kim Hébert-Losier, Christoph Zinner, Simon Platt, Thomas Stöggl, Hans-Christer Holmberg
BACKGROUND: Sprint events in cross-country skiing are unique not only with respect to their length (0.8-1.8 km), but also in involving four high-intensity heats of ~3 min in duration, separated by a relatively short recovery period (15-60 min). OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to systematically review the scientific literature to identify factors related to the performance of elite sprint cross-country skiers. METHODS: Four electronic databases were searched using relevant medical subject headings and keywords, as were reference lists, relevant journals, and key authors in the field...
February 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27082723/consequences-of-fatherhood-in-the-biparental-california-mouse-peromyscus-californicus-locomotor-performance-metabolic-rate-and-organ-masses
#19
Jacob R Andrew, Wendy Saltzman, Mark A Chappell, Theodore Garland
Although effects of motherhood on mothers have been well documented in mammals, the effects of fatherhood on fathers are not well known. We evaluated effects of being a father on key metabolic and performance measures in the California mouse, Peromyscus californicus. California mice are genetically monogamous in the wild, and fathers show similar parental behavior to mothers, with the exception of lactation. To investigate the impact of fatherhood on fathers, focal males were paired with an intact female (breeding males), a tubally ligated female (nonbreeding males), or another male (virgins)...
March 2016: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26677258/skeletal-muscle-contractile-function-predicts-activity-and-behaviour-in-zebrafish
#20
Frank Seebacher, Alexander G Little, Rob S James
Locomotion facilitates behaviour and its underlying physiological mechanisms may therefore impact behavioural phenotypes. Metabolism is often thought to modulate locomotion and behaviour, but empirical support for this suggestion is equivocal. Muscle contractile function is directly associated with locomotion. Here, we test the hypotheses that muscle mechanics determine locomotor performance and activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and thereby also affect risk-taking behaviour. We show that there is a mechanistic link between muscle performance and behaviour by manipulating muscle contractile properties, which caused proportional changes in critical sustained swimming performance and, in an open arena, voluntary swimming speed, the proportion of time fish were active, and the latency to move...
December 2015: Journal of Experimental Biology
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