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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092740/temporal-variations-in-early-developmental-decisions-an-engine-of-forebrain-evolution
#1
REVIEW
H Bielen, S Pal, S Tole, C Houart
Tight control of developmental timing is pivotal to many major processes in developmental biology, such as patterning, fate specification, cell cycle dynamics, cell migration and connectivity. Temporal change in these ontogenetic sequences is known as heterochrony, a major force in the evolution of body plans and organogenesis. In the last 5 years, studies in fish and rodents indicate that heterochrony in signaling during early development generates diversity in forebrain size and complexity. Here, we summarize these findings and propose that, additionally to spatio-temporal tuning of neurogenesis, temporal and quantitative modulation of signaling events drive pivotal changes in shape, size and complexity of the forebrain across evolution, participating to the generation of diversity in animal behavior and emergence of cognition...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092450/preintervention-profiles-of-information-motivational-and-behavioral-self-efficacy-for-methamphetamine-use-and-hiv-medication-adherence-among-gay-and-bisexual-men
#2
Tyrel J Starks, Brett M Millar, Jonathan M Lassiter, Jeffrey T Parsons
Although rates of crystal methamphetamine use in the United States have fallen from their peak in the mid-2000s, use remains a major public health concern, which disproportionately affects gay and bisexual men (GBM). It poses a particular challenge for HIV-positive men, for whom it has been linked to medication adherence problems as well as compromised immune function. Although the information, motivation, and behavioral skills (IMB) model has been widely used to conceptualize health behavior, little is known about GBM's initial levels of information, motivation, and behavioral self-efficacy to improve HIV medication adherence and to reduce crystal methamphetamine use at the outset of treatment...
January 16, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092362/the-role-of-endothelial-hif-1-%C3%AE-in-the-response-to-sublethal-hypoxia-in-c57bl-6-mouse-pups
#3
Qi Li, Michael Michaud, Chan Park, Yan Huang, Rachael Couture, Frank Girodano, Michael L Schwartz, Joseph A Madri
Chronic sublethal hypoxia, a complication of premature birth, is associated with cognitive and motor handicaps. Responsiveness to and recovery from this hypoxic environment is dependent on induction of HIF-1 α in the cells affected. Microvascular endothelial-glial and microvascular endothelial-neuronal precursor interactions have been found to be dynamic and reciprocal, involving autocrine and paracrine signaling, with response and recovery correlated with baseline levels and levels of induction of HIF-1 α...
January 16, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091977/a-cross-sectional-snapshot-of-sleep-quality-and-quantity-among-us-medical-students
#4
Erin E Ayala, Rani Berry, Jeffrey S Winseman, Hyacinth Rc Mason
OBJECTIVE: Fatigue is a well-known risk factor for mood disturbances, decreased cognitive acuity, and impaired judgment. Sleep research in medical students typically focuses on sleep quantity, but less is known about the quality of a student's sleep. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the subjective sleep quality and quantity of US medical students and to identify differences in sleep characteristics across demographic groups. METHODS: Medical students (N = 860) representing 49 medical colleges completed the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale and a demographic questionnaire between December 2015 and March 2016...
January 13, 2017: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091281/satiety-and-memory-enhancing-effects-of-a-high-protein-meal-depend-on-the-source-of-protein
#5
Kristy Du, Edward Markus, Mariel Fecych, Justin S Rhodes, J Lee Beverly
OBJECTIVE: High- protein diets have become increasingly popular with various touted benefits. However, the extent to which protein quantity and source affects cognitive functioning through altering postprandial amino acid profiles has not been investigated. Further, whether all protein sources are similarly anorexigenic is uncertain. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of protein level and source on Barnes maze performance, satiety and plasma amino acid levels in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
January 16, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091178/behavioral-assessment-of-listening-effort-using-a-dual-task-paradigm
#6
Jean-Pierre Gagné, Jana Besser, Ulrike Lemke
Published investigations ( n = 29) in which a dual-task experimental paradigm was employed to measure listening effort during speech understanding in younger and older adults were reviewed. A summary of the main findings reported in the articles is provided with respect to the participants' age-group and hearing status. Effects of different signal characteristics, such as the test modality, on dual-task outcomes are evaluated, and associations with cognitive abilities and self-report measures of listening effort are described...
January 2017: Trends in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089854/effects-of-adolescent-methamphetamine-and-nicotine-exposure-on-behavioral-performance-and-map-2-immunoreactivity-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-adolescent-mice
#7
Jordan M Buck, Alysse S Morris, Sydney J Weber, Jacob Raber, Jessica A Siegel
The neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine (MA) exposure in the developing and adult brain can lead to behavioral alterations and cognitive deficits in adults. Previous increases in the rates of adolescent MA use necessitate that we understand the behavioral and cognitive effects of MA exposure during adolescence on the adolescent brain. Adolescents using MA exhibit high rates of nicotine (NIC) use, but the effects of concurrent MA and NIC in the adolescent brain have not been examined, and it is unknown if NIC mediates any of the effects of MA in the adolescent...
January 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089766/males-with-mecp2-c-terminal-related-atypical-rett-syndromes-and-their-carrier-mothers
#8
Gabriel M Ronen, Lauren I Brady, Mark A Tarnopolsky
BACKGROUND: This communication examines the expanding phenotypes of the MECP2 C-terminal atypical Rett syndromes in males and their affected carrier mothers. DESCRIPTIONS: We describe three males with normal karyotypes who presented with congenital evolving complex neurodevelopmental encephalopathies with multifaceted symptomatology of hypotonia, epilepsy, ataxia, spasticity, movement disorders, behavioral issues, severe intellectual impairment, and communication skills, and a protracted regression phase followed by stabilization...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089759/using-pupil-size-and-heart-rate-to-infer-affective-states-during-behavioral-neurophysiology-and-neuropsychology-experiments
#9
Andrew R Mitz, Ravi V Chacko, Philip T Putnam, Peter H Rudebeck, Elisabeth A Murray
BACKGROUND: Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are a valuable research model because of their behavioral, physiological and neuroanatomical similarities to humans. In the absence of language, autonomic activity can provide crucial information about cognitive and affective states during single-unit recording, inactivation and lesion studies. Methods standardized for use in humans are not easily adapted to NHPs and detailed guidance has been lacking. NEW METHOD: We provide guidance for monitoring heart rate and pupil size in the behavioral neurophysiology setting by addressing the methodological issues, pitfalls and solutions for NHP studies...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089695/the-pharmacology-of-tacrine-at-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors
#10
REVIEW
Martin Horak, Kristina Holubova, Eugenie Nepovimova, Jan Krusek, Martina Kaniakova, Jan Korabecny, Ladislav Vyklicky, Kamil Kuca, Ales Stuchlik, Jan Ricny, Karel Vales, Ondrej Soukup
The mechanism of tacrine as a precognitive drug has been considered to be complex and not fully understood. It has been reported to involve a wide spectrum of targets involving cholinergic, gabaergic, nitrinergic and glutamatergic pathways. Here, we review the effect of tacrine and its derivatives on the NMDA receptors (NMDAR) with a focus on the mechanism of action and biological consequences related to the Alzheimer's disease treatment. Our findings indicate that effect of tacrine on glutamatergic neurons is both direct and indirect...
January 13, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089560/critical-role-of-p2x7-receptors-in-the-neuroinflammation-and-cognitive-dysfunction-after-surgery
#11
Bin Zheng, Renchun Lai, Jun Li, Zhiyi Zuo
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction worsens patient outcome after surgery. Neuroinflammation is a critical neuropathological process for it. We determined the role of P2X7 receptors, proteins that participate in inflammatory response, in the neuroinflammation induction after surgery, and whether the choice of volatile anesthetics affects its occurrence. Eight-week old C57BL/6J or P2X7 receptor knockout male mice were subjected to right carotid arterial exposure under anesthesia with 1.8% isoflurane, 2.5% sevoflurane or 10% desflurane...
January 9, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089516/environmental-geometry-aligns-the-hippocampal-map-during-spatial-reorientation
#12
Alex T Keinath, Joshua B Julian, Russell A Epstein, Isabel A Muzzio
When a navigator's internal sense of direction is disrupted, she must rely on external cues to regain her bearings, a process termed spatial reorientation. Extensive research has demonstrated that the geometric shape of the environment exerts powerful control over reorientation behavior, but the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. Whereas some theories claim that geometry controls behavior through an allocentric mechanism potentially tied to the hippocampus, others postulate that disoriented navigators reach their goals by using an egocentric view-matching strategy...
January 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089108/-knowledge-and-attitudes-of-primary-care-nurses-about-the-management-of-patients-with-insomnia
#13
María Clara Vidal-Thomàs, Beatriz Yañez-Amoros, Isabel Torrens, Elena Torres-Solera, Magdalena Esteva
OBJECTIVE: To describe the knowledge, attitudes, and performance of primary care nurses in the management of patients with insomnia. METHODS: Descriptive study. An online questionnaire was sent to all primary care nurses of the Majorca Primary Care Department between June-July 2014. MEASUREMENTS: sociodemographic variables, professional characteristics, tuition, usual clinical practice in the management of patients with insomnia. RESULTS: 138 nurses answered the questionnaire (47%)...
January 6, 2017: Enfermería Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088652/convergence-of-interoception-emotion-and-social-cognition-a-twofold-fmri-meta-analysis-and-lesion-approach
#14
Federico Adolfi, Blas Couto, Fabian Richter, Jean Decety, Jessica Lopez, Mariano Sigman, Facundo Manes, Agustín Ibáñez
Guided by indirect evidence, recent approaches propose a tripartite crosstalk among interoceptive signaling, emotional regulation, and low-level social cognition. Here we examined the neurocognitive convergence of such domains. First, we performed three meta-analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies to identify which areas are consistently coactivated by these three systems. Multi-level Kernel Density Analysis (MKDA) revealed major overlaps in the right anterior insular and frontotemporal regions (viz...
December 29, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088641/pathophysiological-and-behavioral-effects-of-systemic-inflammation-in-aged-and-diseased-rodents-with-relevance-to-delirium-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Leroy Schreuder, Bart J L Eggen, Knut P H Biber, Regien G Schoemaker, Jon D Laman, Sophia E de Rooij
Delirium is a frequent outcome for aged and demented patients that suffer a systemic inflammatory insult. Animal models that reconstruct these etiological processes have potential to provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of delirium. Therefore, we systematically reviewed animal studies in which systemic inflammation was superimposed on aged or diseased animal models. In total, 77 studies were identified. Aged animals were challenged with a bacterial endotoxin in 29 studies, 25 studies superimposed surgery on aged animals, and in 6 studies a bacterial infection, Escherichia coli (E...
January 11, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088506/linguistic-indicators-of-pain-catastrophizing-in-patients-with-chronic-musculoskeletal-pain
#16
Doerte U Junghaenel, Stefan Schneider, Joan E Broderick
: The present study examined markers of pain catastrophizing in the word use of patients with chronic pain. Patients (n = 71) completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and wrote about their life with pain. Quantitative word count analysis examined whether the essays contained linguistic indicators of catastrophizing. Bivariate correlations showed that catastrophizing was associated with greater use of first person singular pronouns, such as "I" (r = .27, p≤ .05) and pronouns referencing other people (r = 28, p≤ ...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088501/a-review-of-reproductive-and-developmental-toxicity-of-silver-nanoparticles-in-laboratory-animals
#17
REVIEW
Makoto Ema, Hirokazu Okuda, Masashi Gamo, Kazumasa Honda
We summarized significant effects reported in the literature on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in laboratory animals. AgNPs showed testicular/sperm toxicity in males and ovarian and embryonic toxicity in females. Maternal injection of AgNPs delayed physical development and impaired cognitive behavior in offspring. Ag was accumulated in the testes after administration of AgNPs. AgNPs were identified in the visceral yolk sac after administration during early gestation in mice...
January 11, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088312/dementia-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Hasmet A Hanagasi, Zeynep Tufekcioglu, Murat Emre
Dementia can occur in a substantial number of patients with Parkinson's disease with a point prevalence close to 30%. The cognitive profile is characterized by predominant deficits in executive, visuospatial functions, attention and memory. Behavioral symptoms are frequent such as apathy, visual hallucinations and delusions. The most prominent associated pathology is Lewy body-type and biochemical deficit is cholinergic. Placebo-controlled randomized trials with cholinesterase inhibitors demonstrated modest but significant benefits in cognition, behavioral symptoms and global functions...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088063/verbal-and-musical-short-term-memory-variety-of-auditory-disorders-after-stroke
#19
Catherine Hirel, Norbert Nighoghossian, Yohana Lévêque, Salem Hannoun, Lesly Fornoni, Sébastien Daligault, Patrick Bouchet, Julien Jung, Barbara Tillmann, Anne Caclin
Auditory cognitive deficits after stroke may concern language and/or music processing, resulting in aphasia and/or amusia. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential deficits of auditory short-term memory for verbal and musical material after stroke and their underlying cerebral correlates with a Voxel-based Lesion Symptom Mapping approach (VLSM). Patients with an ischemic stroke in the right (N=10) or left (N=10) middle cerebral artery territory and matched control participants (N=14) were tested with a detailed neuropsychological assessment including global cognitive functions, music perception and language tasks...
January 11, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087735/relationships-linking-emotional-motor-cognitive-and-gabaergic-dysfunctions-in-dystrophin-deficient-mdx-mice
#20
Cyrille Vaillend, Rémi Chaussenot
Alterations in the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene have been associated with enhanced stress reactivity in vertebrate species, suggesting a role for brain dystrophin in fear-related behavioral and cognitive processes. Because the loss of dystrophin (Dp427) reduces clustering of central GABAA receptors, it is suspected that local inhibitory tuning and modulation of neuronal excitability are perturbed in a distributed brain circuit that normally controls such critical behavioral functions. In this study we undertook a large-scale behavioral study to evaluate fear-related behavioral disturbances in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice...
January 13, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
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