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DNA screening

Sukanya Luang, Pradeep Sornaraj, Natalia Bazanova, Wei Jia, Omid Eini, Syed Sarfraz Hussain, Nataliya Kovalchuk, Pradeep K Agarwal, Maria Hrmova, Sergiy Lopato
The understanding of roles of bZIP factors in biological processes during plant development and under abiotic stresses requires the detailed mechanistic knowledge of behaviour of TFs. Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors (TFs) play key roles in the regulation of grain development and plant responses to abiotic stresses. We investigated the role and molecular mechanisms of function of the TabZIP2 gene isolated from drought-stressed wheat plants. Molecular characterisation of TabZIP2 and derived protein included analyses of gene expression and its target promoter, and the influence of interacting partners on the target promoter activation...
March 21, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Giulia F Del Gobbo, E Magda Price, Courtney W Hanna, Wendy P Robinson
Background: 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in one-carbon metabolism that ensures the availability of methyl groups for methylation reactions. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MTHFR gene, 677C>T and 1298A>C, result in a thermolabile enzyme with reduced function. These variants, in both the maternal and/or fetal genes, have been associated with pregnancy complications including miscarriage, neural tube defects (NTDs), and preeclampsia (PE), perhaps due to altered capacity for DNA methylation (DNAm)...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
Nora Kariche, Montserrat Torres Hortal, Samir Benyahia, Laia Alemany, Nabila Moulaï, Omar Clavero, Marleny Muñoz, Wahiba Ouahioune, Djamel Djennaoui, Chafia Touil-Boukoffa, Silvia de Sanjosé, Mehdi Bourouba
Background: Despite the increasing incidence of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) in Algeria, scarce information is available on the importance of the preventable etiological factors which may drive the disease. Remarkably, a significant number of cases occur in nonsmoker and nondrinker patients; hence, suggesting that alternative risk factors, like Human papillomavirus (HPV), might be etiologically involved. To gain more insight on the risk factors associated with the disease in the country, we evaluated the etiological fraction of HPV in comparison to tobacco and alcohol intake in LSCC patients...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Hang Yang, Yanfang Zhong, Juncheng Wang, Qinghong Zhang, Xiulan Li, Sumei Ling, Shihua Wang, Rongzhi Wang
Interferon gamma (IFN-γ), a signal proinflammatory cytokine secreted by immune cell, and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis and progression of many diseases. It has been regarded as an important marker for determination of disease-specific immune responses. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a feasible and accurate method to detect IFN-γ in clinic real blood samples. Until now, the immunoassay based on singe chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody for human IFN-γ is still not reported. In the present study, an scFv antibody named scFv-A8 with high specificity was obtained by phage display and biopanning, with the affinity 2...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Harita Gogri, Sabita Ray, Snehal Agrawal, S Aruna, Kanjaksha Ghosh, Ajit Gorakshakar
BACKGROUND: Molecular genotyping of ABO blood group system has identified more than 60 "O" group alleles based on the single-nucleotide polymorphisms present in the ABO gene. Heterogeneity of O group alleles has been observed in various countries from South America, Europe, Middle East, and Asia. India is a vast country with more than 1300 million population which is divided into various ethnic and tribal groups. However, very little is known about the heterogeneity of O alleles in Indians...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
Guillermo Senisterra, Hugh Y Zhu, Xiao Luo, Hailong Zhang, Guoliang Xun, Chunliang Lu, Wen Xiao, Taraneh Hajian, Peter Loppnau, Irene Chau, Fengling Li, Abdellah Allali-Hassani, Peter Atadja, Counde Oyang, En Li, Peter J Brown, Cheryl H Arrowsmith, Kehao Zhao, Zhengtian Yu, Masoud Vedadi
Ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING finger domains 1 (UHRF1) is a multidomain protein that plays a critical role in maintaining DNA methylation patterns through concurrent recognition of hemimethylated DNA and histone marks by various domains, and recruitment of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). UHRF1 is overexpressed in various cancers, including breast cancer. The tandem tudor domain (TTD) of UHRF1 specifically and tightly binds to histone H3 di- or trimethylated at lysine 9 (H3K9me2 or H3K9me3, respectively), and this binding is essential for UHRF1 function...
March 1, 2018: SLAS Discovery
Xue Cao, Qiuqiong Tang, Tim Holland-Letz, Melanie Gündert, Katarina Cuk, Sarah Schott, Jörg Heil, Michael Golatta, Christof Sohn, Andreas Schneeweiss, Barbara Burwinkel
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women and has high mortality rates. Early detection is supposed to be critical for the patient's prognosis. In recent years, several studies have investigated global DNA methylation profiles and gene-specific DNA methylation in blood-based DNA to develop putative screening markers for cancer. However, most of the studies have not yet been validated. In our study, we analyzed the promoter methylation of RASSF1A and ATM in peripheral blood DNA of 229 sporadic patients and 151 healthy controls by the MassARRAY EpiTYPER assay...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Oksana V Salomatina, Irina I Popadyuk, Alexandra L Zakharenko, Olga D Zakharova, Dmitriy S Fadeev, Nina I Komarova, Jóhannes Reynisson, H John Arabshahi, Raina Chand, Konstantin P Volcho, Nariman F Salakhutdinov, Olga I Lavrik
An Important task in the treatment of oncological and neurodegenerative diseases is the search for new inhibitors of DNA repair system enzymes. Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (Tdp1) is one of the DNA repair system enzymes involved in the removal of DNA damages caused by topoisomerase I inhibitors. Thus, reducing the activity of Tdp1 can increase the effectiveness of currently used anticancer drugs. We describe here a new class of semisynthetic small molecule Tdp1 inhibitors based on the bile acid scaffold that were originally identified by virtual screening...
March 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Liaoyuan Wang, Qing Wang, Yue Zhou, Qian Xue, Xiao Sun, Zhinong Wang, Guangyu Ji
RATIONALE: Carney complex (CNC) accounts for up to two-thirds of familial cardiac myxoma, which is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple mucocutaneous lesions and endocrine tumors. Mutation in the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory (R) subunit 1 (PRKAR1A) gene has been identified as a cause of CNC. In this article, we report 3 first-degree relatives with cardiac myxoma who were diagnosed with CNC and underwent surgical resection. PRESENTING CONCERNS: The recurrence of cardiac myxoma was detected in a 45-year-old male by echocardiography 5 years after the resection was carried out, without any additional symptoms...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Silke Wemmert, Maximilian Linxweiler, Cornelia Lerner, Florian Bochen, Philipp Kulas, Johannes Linxweiler, Sigrun Smola, Steffi Urbschat, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Bernhard Schick
PURPOSE: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common human cancer types with a very poor prognosis despite improvements in therapeutic modalities. The major known risk factors are tobacco use and alcohol consumption or infection with high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPV), especially in oropharyngeal tumors. The current management based on the assessment of a variety of clinical and pathological parameters does not sufficiently predict outcome. METHODS: Chromosomal alterations detected in HNSCCs were characterized by metaphase comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and correlated with clinical parameters as well as survival time...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Joel K Annor-Gyamfi, John M Jarrett, Joseph O Osazee, Dobrusia Bialonska, Crystal Whitted, Victoria E Palau, Abbas G Shilabin
Cancer remains the second major cause of death in the world. Thus, there is a pressing need to identify potential synthetic route for the development of novel anticancer agents which will serve as lead compounds to effectively combat this life-threatening epidemic. Pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepines (PBDs) have sparked a great interest as lead compounds because of their cancerostatic and anti-infective properties. The twisted molecular structure of PBD analogs provides both helical and chiral elements. In an effort to expand novel PBDs that interact with the key exocyclic amino group of the DNA-guanine base, we hypothesized that construction of a fused cyclic active system, would likely serve as an electrophilic site when compared to traditional electrophilic C11-N10 imine group...
February 2018: Heliyon
Peng Cui, Hongxia Niu, Wanliang Shi, Shuo Zhang, Wenhong Zhang, Ying Zhang
Persister cells are metabolically quiescent multi-drug tolerant fraction of a genetically sensitive bacterial population and are thought to be responsible for relapse of many persistent infections. Persisters can be formed naturally in the stationary phase culture, and also can be induced by bacteriostatic antibiotics. However, the molecular basis of bacteriostatic antibiotic induced persister formation is unknown. Here, we established a bacteriostatic antibiotic induced persister model and screened the Escherichia coli single gene deletion mutant library for mutants with defect in rifampin or tetracycline induced persistence to ofloxacin...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Marilia N N Lima, Cleber C Melo-Filho, Gustavo C Cassiano, Bruno J Neves, Vinicius M Alves, Rodolpho C Braga, Pedro V L Cravo, Eugene N Muratov, Juliana Calit, Daniel Y Bargieri, Fabio T M Costa, Carolina H Andrade
Malaria is a life-threatening infectious disease caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium , affecting more than 200 million people worldwide every year and leading to about a half million deaths. Malaria parasites of humans have evolved resistance to all current antimalarial drugs, urging for the discovery of new effective compounds. Given that the inhibition of deoxyuridine triphosphatase of Plasmodium falciparum ( Pf dUTPase) induces wrong insertions in plasmodial DNA and consequently leading the parasite to death, this enzyme is considered an attractive antimalarial drug target...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Xiang Li, Erchang Shang, Qiang Dong, Yingfeng Li, Jing Zhang, Shaohua Xu, Zuodong Zhao, Wei Shao, Cong Lv, Yong Zheng, Hailin Wang, Xiaoguang Lei, Bing Zhu, Zhuqiang Zhang
Regulation of gene expression by epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation is crucial for developmental and disease processes, including cell differentiation and cancer development. Genes repressed by DNA methylation can be derepressed by various compounds that target DNA methyltransferases, histone deacetylases, and other regulatory factors. However, some additional, unknown mechanisms that promote DNA methylation-mediated gene silencing may exist. Chemical agents that can counteract the effects of epigenetic repression that is not regulated by DNA methyltransferases or histone deacetylases therefore may be of research interest...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Michela Iacobellis, Cecilia Violante, Gabriella Notarachille, Angela Simone, Rosa Scarfì, Giuseppe Giuffrè
BACKGROUND: According to international guidelines, HPV DNA tests represent a valid alternative to Pap Test for primary cervical cancer screening, provided that they guarantee balanced clinical sensitivity and specificity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more severe lesions. The aim of this study was to assess whether REALQUALITY RQ-HPV Screen, a new assay based on real time PCR that targets the E6-E7 region of 14 high-risk human papillomaviruses, meets the criteria for primary cervical cancer screening...
March 20, 2018: Virology Journal
Modi Wang, Moloud A Sooreshjani, Clinton Mikek, Clement Opoku-Temeng, Herman O Sintim
AIM: Persistent activation of STING pathway is the basis for several autoimmune diseases. STING is activated by cGAMP, which is produced by cGAS in the presence of DNA. Results/methodology: HPLC-based medium throughput screening for inhibitors of cGAS identified suramin as a potent inhibitor. Unlike other reported cGAS inhibitors, which bind to the ATP/GTP binding site, suramin displaced the bound DNA from cGAS. Addition of suramin to THP1 cells reduced the levels of IFN-β mRNA and protein...
March 21, 2018: Future Medicinal Chemistry
Yoshio Okiyama, Tatsuya Nakano, Chiduru Watanabe, Kaori Fukuzawa, Shigenori Tanaka
In this study, an ab initio fragment molecular orbital (FMO) methodology was developed to evaluate the solvent effects on electrostatic interactions, which make a significant contribution to the physical and chemical processes occurring in biological systems. Here, a fully polarizable solute consisting of the FMO electron density was electrostatically coupled with an implicit solvent based on the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation; in addition, the nonpolar contributions empirically obtained from the molecular surface area (SA) were added...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Nigani Willie, Rajeev K Mehlotra, Rosalind E Howes, Tovonahary A Rakotomanga, Stephanie Ramboarina, Arsène C Ratsimbasoa, Peter A Zimmerman
Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) forms the basis of many current malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). However, the parasites lacking part or all of the pfhrp2 gene do not express the PfHRP2 protein and are, therefore, not identifiable by PfHRP2-detecting RDTs. We evaluated the performance of the SD Bioline Malaria Ag P.f/Pan RDT together with pfhrp2 variation in Madagascar. Genomic DNA isolated from 260 patient blood samples were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified for the parasite 18S rRNA and pfhrp2 genes...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jiang-Kai Dong, Hui-Min Lei, Qian Liang, Ya-Bin Tang, Ye Zhou, Yang Wang, Shengzhe Zhang, Wen-Bin Li, Yunguang Tong, Guanglei Zhuang, Liang Zhang, Hong-Zhuan Chen, Liang Zhu, Ying Shen
How to improve the efficacy and reverse the resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), such as erlotinib, remains a major challenge in the targeted therapy of lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR-activating mutation. Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) is the key enzyme of de novo serine biosynthesis over-expressed in various types of cancer including lung cancer. Elevated PHGDH expression is correlated with a worse overall survival in clinical lung adenocarcinoma patients...
2018: Theranostics
Ilaria J Chicca, Michael R Milward, Iain Leslie C Chapple, Gareth Griffiths, Rod Benson, Thomas Dietrich, Paul R Cooper
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are DNA-based antimicrobial web-like structures whose release is predominantly mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS); their purpose is to combat infections. However, unbalanced NET production and clearance is involved in tissue injury, circulation of auto-antibodies and development of several chronic diseases. Currently, there is lack of agreement regarding the high-throughput methods available for NET investigation. This study, therefore, aimed to develop and optimize a high-content analysis (HCA) approach, which can be applied for the assay of NET production and for the screening of compounds involved in the modulation of NET release...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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