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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918603/tumor-markers-of-uterine-cervical-cancer-a-new-scenario-to-guide-surgical-practice
#1
REVIEW
Gaetano Valenti, Salvatore Giovanni Vitale, Alessandro Tropea, Antonio Biondi, Antonio Simone Laganà
Since the introduction of Pap smear screening, the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer (CC) have been reduced drastically in USA and in other western states. Nevertheless, CC still remains the main cause of death from gynecological cancer in developing countries where screening programs are scant or inexistent. This evidence highlights the efficacy of screening, and the wide use of Human Papilloma Viruses (HPV) vaccines in developed countries. More and more people are, consequentially, undergoing a screening procedure, usually combined with HPV DNA test, increasing the early diagnosis of intraepithelial HPV-related lesions...
September 16, 2017: Updates in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918480/sgs1-helicase-is-required-for-efficient-pcna-monoubiquitination-and-translesion-dna-synthesis-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#2
Fangfang Li, Lindsay G Ball, Li Fan, Michelle Hanna, Wei Xiao
DNA-damage tolerance (DDT) is employed by eukaryotes to deal with replication blocks on the template strand, and is divided into two parallel pathways that are activated by sequential ubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) at the Lys164 residue. Rad6-Rad18-mediated PCNA monoubiquitination promotes translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) and the monoubiquitinated PCNA can be further polyubiquitinated by an Mms2-Ubc13-Rad5 complex, leading to error-free lesion bypass. We previously reported that the DNA helicase Sgs1 is required for error-free lesion bypass, probably through the double-Holliday junction migration and subsequent resolution...
September 16, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918099/role-of-hpv-dna-testing-in-modern-gynaecological-practice
#3
REVIEW
Guglielmo Ronco, Paolo Giorgi Rossi
The identification of some types of human papillomavirus (HPV) as necessary, but not sufficient, cause of cervical cancer has suggested the use of HPV testing in cervical cancer prevention. A large number of studies has provided evidence supporting its application (1) as primary screening test, (2) for triaging borderline cytology, (3) for follow-up after positive primary test but no abnormal histology and (4) as a test of cure. They also allowed a reasonably good definition of the appropriate policies and protocols, leading to the delivery of evidence-based guidelines resulting from a systematic review of the literature...
August 12, 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916850/expression-of-membrane-bound-dehydrogenases-from-a-mother-of-vinegar-metagenome-in-gluconobacter-oxydans
#4
Björn Peters, Markus Mientus, David Kostner, Rolf Daniel, Wolfgang Liebl, Armin Ehrenreich
Acetic acid bacteria are well-known for their membrane-bound dehydrogenases rapidly oxidizing a variety of substrates in the periplasm. Since many acetic acid bacteria have not been successfully cultured in the laboratory yet, studying membrane-bound dehydrogenases directly from a metagenome of vinegar microbiota seems to be a promising way to identify novel variants of these enzymes. To this end, DNA from a mother of vinegar was isolated, sequenced, and screened for membrane-bound dehydrogenases using an in silico approach...
September 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916481/identification-of-2-4-dihydroxy-5-pyrimidinyl-imidothiocarbomate-as-a-novel-inhibitor-to-y-box-binding-protein-1-yb-1-and-its-therapeutic-actions-against-breast-cancer
#5
Vinoth Prasanna Gunasekaran, Kumari Nishi, Dakshinamurthy Sivakumar, Thirunavukkarasu Sivaraman, Ganeshan Mathan
In spite of advances in breast cancer treatment and early diagnosis, drug toxicity, cancer relapse, multidrug resistance and metastasis are the major impediment to the developments of efficient drugs. However, unique druggable targets of cancer cells distinct from the normal cells provide new rationale in cancer treatment. Previous reports clearly emphasize the differential expression and localization of Y box binding protein-1 (YB-1) between normal breast tissues and different stages of breast cancer. Y box binding protein-1 is DNA as well as RNA binding protein involved in transcription and translation regulation of various proteins involved in cancer progression, apoptosis, cell cycle, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and drug resistance...
September 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916034/colorimetric-biosensor-based-on-a-dnazyme-primer-and-its-application-in-logic-gate-operations-for-dna-screening
#6
Chenguang Wang, Nan Cheng, Longjiao Zhu, Yuancong Xu, Kunlun Huang, Pengyu Zhu, Shuifang Zhu, Wei Fu, Wentao Xu
A colorimetric biosensor for DNA screening was designed based on the conformational changes of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking DNAzyme. The scheme of DNA biosensing was designed based on the base pairing of DNAzyme sequence to inhibit the formation of HRP-mimicking hemin/G-quadruplex structures in the process of amplification. DNA could be amplified via the universal primer multiplex polymerase chain reaction (UP-M-PCR) and innovatively detected as color disappear in the reaction visible to the naked eye...
September 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915237/dna-replication-stress-restricts-ribosomal-dna-copy-number
#7
Devika Salim, William D Bradford, Amy Freeland, Gillian Cady, Jianmin Wang, Steven C Pruitt, Jennifer L Gerton
Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) in budding yeast are encoded by ~100-200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how "normal" copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen the yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes...
September 15, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915003/the-evolution-of-dna-templated-synthesis-as-a-tool-for-materials-discovery
#8
Rachel K O'Reilly, Andrew J Turberfield, Thomas R Wilks
Precise control over reactivity and molecular structure is a fundamental goal of the chemical sciences. Billions of years of evolution by natural selection have resulted in chemical systems capable of information storage, self-replication, catalysis, capture and production of light, and even cognition. In all these cases, control over molecular structure is required to achieve a particular function: without structural control, function may be impaired, unpredictable, or impossible. The search for molecules with a desired function is often achieved by synthesizing a combinatorial library, which contains many or all possible combinations of a set of chemical building blocks (BBs), and then screening this library to identify "successful" structures...
September 15, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914776/worldwide-occurrence-and-investigations-of-contamination-of-herbal-medicines-by-tropane-alkaloids
#9
REVIEW
Thomas Y K Chan
Tropane alkaloids occur mainly in Solanaceae plants. In the present review, the main objective is to describe the worldwide occurrence and investigations of anticholinergic poisoning due to the contamination of herbal teas and herbs by tropane alkaloids. Tropane alkaloid poisoning can occur after consumption of any medicinal plant if Solanaceae plants or plant parts are present as contaminants. Globally, almost all reports in 1978-2014 involve herbal teas and one of the prescribed herbs in composite formulae...
September 15, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912669/identification-of-novel-mutations-in-congenital-afibrinogenemia-patients-and-molecular-modeling-of-missense-mutations-in-pakistani-population
#10
Arshi Naz, Arijit Biswas, Tehmina Nafees Khan, Anne Goodeve, Nisar Ahmed, Nazish Saqlain, Shariq Ahmed, Ikram Din Ujjan, Tahir S Shamsi, Johannes Oldenburg
BACKGROUND: Congenital afibrinogenemia (OMIM #202400) is a rare coagulation disorder that was first described in 1920. It is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait that is characterized by absent levels of fibrinogen (factor I) in plasma. Consanguinity in Pakistan and its neighboring countries has resulted in a higher number of cases of congenital fibrinogen deficiency in their respective populations. This study focused on the detection of mutations in fibrinogen genes using DNA sequencing and molecular modeling of missense mutations in all three genes [Fibrinogen gene alpha (FGA), beta (FGB) and gamma (FGG)] in Pakistani patients...
2017: Thrombosis Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912524/precise-insertion-and-guided-editing-of-higher-plant-genomes-using-cpf1-crispr-nucleases
#11
Matthew B Begemann, Benjamin N Gray, Emma January, Gina C Gordon, Yonghua He, Haijun Liu, Xingrong Wu, Thomas P Brutnell, Todd C Mockler, Mohammed Oufattole
Precise genome editing of plants has the potential to reshape global agriculture through the targeted engineering of endogenous pathways or the introduction of new traits. To develop a CRISPR nuclease-based platform that would enable higher efficiencies of precise gene insertion or replacement, we screened the Cpf1 nucleases from Francisella novicida and Lachnospiraceae bacterium ND2006 for their capability to induce targeted gene insertion via homology directed repair. Both nucleases, in the presence of a guide RNA and repairing DNA template flanked by homology DNA fragments to the target site, were demonstrated to generate precise gene insertions as well as indel mutations at the target site in the rice genome...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912018/association-between-germline-mutations-in-brf1-a-subunit-of-the-rna-polymerase-iii-transcription-complex-and-hereditary-colorectal-cancer
#12
Fernando Bellido, Nadine Sowada, Pilar Mur, Conxi Lázaro, Tirso Pons, Rafael Valdés-Mas, Marta Pineda, Gemma Aiza, Silvia Iglesias, José Luís Soto, Miguel Urioste, Trinidad Caldés, Milagros Balbín, Pilar Blay, Daniel Rueda, Mercedes Durán, Alfonso Valencia, Victor Moreno, Joan Brunet, Ignacio Blanco, Matilde Navarro, George A Calin, Guntram Borck, Xose S Puente, Gabriel Capellá, Laura Valle
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although there is a genetic predisposition to colorectal cancer (CRC), few of the genes that affect risk have been identified. We performed whole-exome sequence analysis of individuals in a high-risk family without mutations in genes previously associated with CRC risk to identify variants associated with inherited CRC. METHODS: We collected blood samples from 3 relatives with CRC in Spain (65, 62 and 40 years old at diagnosis) and perfomed whole-exome sequence analyses...
September 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911234/mucopolysaccharidosis-iiib-sanfilippo-syndrome-b-in-a-commercial-emu-dromaius-novaehollandiae-flock
#13
Seiche C Genger, Keijiro Mizukami, Michael P Martin, Jeffrey R Applegate, H John Barnes, Urs Giger
Clinicopathological diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPS IIIB; Sanfilippo syndrome B), an inherited autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease, as a cause of losses in a commercial emu flock and screening breeders using a mutation specific DNA test are described. Between 2012 and 2015, ∼5-10 juvenile emus from a few weeks to several months of age developed progressive neurological signs and died while others in the flock remained healthy. Necropsy of two affected siblings revealed multiple sites of haemorrhage, cytoplasmic periodic acid-Schiff and Luxol fast blue positive inclusions in neurons, and aggregates of foamy macrophages in visceral organs...
September 15, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911227/a-fluorescence-assay-for-ribonuclease-h-based-on-non-labeled-substrate-and-dnazyme-assisted-cascade-amplification
#14
Lanbo Wang, Hongyan Zhou, Bin Liu, Chuan Zhao, Jialong Fan, Wei Wang, Chunyi Tong
As a highly conserved damage repair protein, RNase H can specifically hydrolyze RNA in DNA-RNA chimeric strands. DNAzyme, a synthetic single-stranded DNA consisting of binding and catalytic sites, can cleave RNA in the presence of cofactors. In this study, we establish a highly sensitive RNase H assay assisted with DNAzyme's cleavage property. A DNA-RNA chimeric strand, which contains DNAzyme sequences, is used as the hydrolysis substrate of RNase H. The RNase H hydrolysis of the chimeric substrate results in the release of DNAzyme...
September 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911203/mutations-of-conserved-non-coding-elements-of-pitx2-in-patients-with-ocular-dysgenesis-and-developmental-glaucoma
#15
Meredith E Protas, Eric Weh, Tim Footz, Jay Kasberger, Scott C Baraban, Alex V Levin, L Jay Katz, Robert Ritch, Michael A Walter, Elena V Semina, Douglas B Gould
Mutations in FOXC1 and PITX2 constitute the most common causes of ocular anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD), and confer a high risk for secondary glaucoma. The genetic causes underlying ASD in approximately half of patients remain unknown, despite many of them being screened by whole exome sequencing. Here, we performed whole genome sequencing on DNA from two affected individuals from a family with dominantly inherited ASD and glaucoma to identify a 748-kb deletion in a gene desert that contains conserved putative PITX2 regulatory elements...
September 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911121/engineering-human-primpol-into-an-efficient-rna-dependent-dna-primase-polymerase
#16
Rubén Agudo, Patricia A Calvo, María I Martínez-Jiménez, Luis Blanco
We have developed a straightforward fluorometric assay to measure primase-polymerase activity of human PrimPol (HsPrimPol). The sensitivity of this procedure uncovered a novel RNA-dependent DNA priming-polymerization activity (RdDP) of this enzyme. In an attempt to enhance HsPrimPol RdDP activity, we constructed a smart mutant library guided by prior sequence-function analysis, and tested this library in an adapted screening platform of our fluorometric assay. After screening less than 500 variants, we found a specific HsPrimPol mutant, Y89R, which displays 10-fold higher RdDP activity than the wild-type enzyme...
September 6, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911086/large-scale-prospective-screening-of-egfr-mutations-in-the-blood-of-advanced-nsclc-patients-to-guide-treatment-decisions
#17
C Mayo-de-Las-Casas, N Jordana-Ariza, M Garzón-Ibañez, A Balada-Bel, J Bertrán-Alamillo, S Viteri-Ramírez, N Reguart, M A Muñoz-Quintana, P Lianes-Barragan, C Camps, E Jantús, J Remon-Massip, S Calabuig, D Aguiar, M L Gil, N Viñolas, A K Santos-Rodríguez, M Majem, B García-Peláez, S Villatoro, A Pérez-Rosado, J C Monasterio, E Ovalle, M J Catalán, R Campos, D Morales-Espinosa, A Martínez-Bueno, M González-Cao, X González, I Moya-Horno, A E Sosa, N Karachaliou, R Rosell, M A Molina-Vila
Background: In a significant percentage of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, tumor tissue is unavailable or insufficient for genetic analyses. We prospectively analyzed if circulating-free DNA (cfDNA) purified from blood can be used as a surrogate in this setting to select patients for treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). Patients and methods: Blood samples were collected in 119 hospitals from 1138 advanced NSCLC patients at presentation (n = 1033) or at progression to EGFR-TKIs (n = 105) with no biopsy or insufficient tumor tissue...
September 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910860/isolation-of-probiotic-piliated-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-strains-from-human-faecal-microbiota-using-spaaantiserum-based-colony-immunoblotting
#18
Zhen-Quan Yang, Yu Xue, Mi Zhang, Sheng-Qi Rao, Lu Gao, Yong-Qi Yin, Da-Wei Chen, Xiao-Hui Zhou, Xin-An Jiao
Piliated Lactobacillus rhamnosus (pLR) strains possess higher adherent capacity than non-piliated strains. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterise probiotic pLR strains in human faecal samples. To this end, mouse polyclonal antiserum (anti-SpaA) against the recombinant pilus protein (SpaA) of L. rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) was prepared and tested for its reactivity and specificity. With the anti-SpaA, a method combining the de Man Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar plating separation and colony immunoblotting (CIB) was developed to isolate pLR from 124 human faecal samples...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905983/-occurrence-of-ehrlichia-canis-in-dogs-living-in-germany-and-comparison-of-direct-and-indirect-diagnostic-methods
#19
Jacqueline Csokai, Eva Maria Klas, Anton Heusinger, Elisabeth Müller
OBJECTIVE: To study the occurrence of Ehrlichia (E.) canis in dogs living in Germany and evaluate the possibilities and limits of direct and indirect diagnostic methods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The first part of the study was a retrospective analysis of routine samples, which had been examined for E. canis antibodies using an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). The examination was part of a laboratory profile for the detection of travel-related diseases (travel disease profile) or was performed on an individual basis...
September 13, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905216/slowly-progressing-varicella-zoster-brainstem-encephalitis-complicating-ramsay-hunt-syndrome-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Vito A G Ricigliano, Lorenzo Saraceno, Michele Cavalli, Mariaemma Rodegher, Giovanni Meola
A 56-year-old immunocompetent male developed brainstem encephalitis complicating Ramsay Hunt syndrome. The disease had a slowly progressing course of months after the triggering infection, much longer than previously reported. Furthermore, magnetic resonance imaging, physical-chemical, and cell count analyses on cerebrospinal fluid were normal, whereas polymerase chain reaction for varicella zoster virus DNA was positive. The simultaneous negativity of both imaging and basic CSF exams is very rare, although possible event which confirms the irreplaceable role of viral screening on CSF...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
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