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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914352/searching-for-novel-modes-of-toxic-actions-of-oil-spill-using-e-%C3%A2-coli-live-cell-array-reporter-system-a-hebei-spirit-oil-spill-study
#1
Dawoon Jung, Miao Guan, Sangwoo Lee, Cheolmin Kim, Hyesoo Shin, Seongjin Hong, Un Hyuk Yim, Won Joon Shim, John P Giesy, Jong Seong Khim, Xiaowei Zhang, Kyungho Choi
Oil is a complex mixture of numerous compounds. Therefore, oil spills near shore can cause various adverse effects on coastal ecosystems. However, most toxicological assessments conducted on oil spill sites have focused on limited modes of toxic actions. In the present study, we utilized the Escherichia coli (E. coli) live cell array system (LCA) to identify novel modes of toxicities of the oil spill-affected sediments. For this purpose, sediment samples were collected from an area heavily polluted by Hebei Spirit oil spill (HSOS) incident of 2007...
November 30, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913878/piroplasms-in-brown-hyaenas-parahyaena-brunnea-and-spotted-hyaenas-crocuta-crocuta-in-namibia-and-south-africa-are-closely-related-to-babesia-lengau
#2
Richard E J Burroughs, Barend L Penzhorn, Ingrid Wiesel, Nancy Barker, Ilse Vorster, Marinda C Oosthuizen
The objective of our study was identification and molecular characterization of piroplasms and rickettsias occurring in brown (Parahyaena brunnea) and spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta) from various localities in Namibia and South Africa. Whole blood (n = 59) and skin (n = 3) specimens from brown (n = 15) and spotted hyaenas (n = 47) were screened for the presence of Babesia, Theileria, Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species using the reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization technique. PCR products of 52/62 (83...
December 2, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913609/ap2s1-and-gna11-mutations-not-a-common-cause-of-familial-hypocalciuric-hypercalcemia
#3
Silje Hovden, Lars Rejnmark, Søren A Ladefoged, Peter H Nissen
OBJECTIVE: Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) type 1 is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR). Recently, mutations affecting codon 15 in the gene AP2S1 have been shown to cause FHH type 3 in up to 26% of CASR-negative FHH patients. Similarly, mutations in the gene GNA11 have been shown to cause FHH type 2. We hypothesized that mutations in AP2S1 and GNA11 are causative in Danish patients with suspected FHH and that these mutations are not found in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), which is the main differential diagnostic disorder...
February 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913567/drug-repositioning-screens-identify-triamterene-as-a-selective-drug-for-the-treatment-of-dna-mismatch-repair-deficient-cells
#4
Delphine Guillotin, Philip Austin, Rumena Begum, Marta O Freitas, Ashirwad Merve, Tim Brend, Susan C Short, Silvia Marino, Sarah A Martin
PURPOSE: The DNA Mismatch repair (MMR) pathway is required for the maintenance of genome stability. Unsurprisingly, mutations in MMR genes occur in a wide range of different cancers. Studies thus far have largely focused on specific tumor types or MMR mutations, however it is becoming increasingly clear that a therapy targeting MMR-deficiency in general would be clinically very beneficial. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Based on a drug-repositioning approach, we screened a large panel of cell lines with various MMR deficiencies from a range of different tumor types with a compound drug library of previously approved drugs...
December 2, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913194/genetic-screening-of-thap1-in-primary-dystonia-patients-of-india
#5
Subhajit Giri, Tufan Naiya, Zaffar Equbal, Charulata Savant Sankhla, Shyamal Kumar Das, Kunal Ray, Jharna Ray
BACKGROUND: Primary Dystonia is a common movement disorder manifested by dystonic symptoms only. DYT6, a major genetic factor, plays a significant role in primary pure dystonia pathogenesis. In this study we analyzed THAP1 (DYT 6) gene in primary pure dystonia patients, which has been widely studied in other populations but not in Indians. METHODS: The study cohort contained 227 index primary pure dystonia patients with the involvement of cervical region and 254 neurologically control individuals collected from East Indian population...
November 29, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912786/circulation-of-dirofilaria-repens-and-dirofilaria-immitis-in-moldova
#6
Tatiana Șuleșco, Heidrun von Thien, Lidia Toderaș, Ion Toderaș, Renke Lühken, Egbert Tannich
BACKGROUND: Over the last two decades, a significant spread of dirofilariasis has been observed in eastern and central Europe. However, data on the circulation of Dirofilaria spp. in Moldova were absent although direct neighbor states reported high incidence rates of human dirofilariasis. METHODS: Daily mean temperature data were used to calculate Dirofilaria spp. development units, which were used to estimate the potential for complete extrinsic development in the mosquitoes (= sum of potential Dirofilaria spp...
December 3, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911980/cell-based-dna-demethylation-detection-system-for-screening-of-epigenetic-drugs-in-2d-3d-and-xenograft-models
#7
Khushboo Agrawal, Viswanath Das, Miroslav Otmar, Marcela Krečmerová, Petr Džubák, Marián Hajdúch
Aberrant DNA methylation that results in silencing of genes has remained a significant interest in cancer research. Despite major advances, the success of epigenetic therapy is elusive due to narrow therapeutic window. A wide variety of naturally occurring epigenetic agents and synthetic molecules that can alter methylation patterns exist, however, their usefulness in epigenetic therapy remains unknown. This underlines the need for effective tumor models for large-scale screening of drug candidates with potent hypomethylation activity...
December 2, 2016: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911912/comprehensive-genetic-analysis-of-japanese-autosomal-dominant-sensorineural-hearing-loss-patients
#8
Yoh-Ichiro Iwasa, Shin-Ya Nishio, Shin-Ichi Usami
BACKGROUND: In general, autosomal dominant inherited hearing loss does not have a founder mutation, with the causative mutation different in each family. For this reason, there has been a strong need for efficient diagnosis methods for autosomal dominant sensorineural hearing loss (ADSNHL) patients. This study sought to verify the effectiveness of our analysis algorithm for the screening of ADSNHL patients as well as the usefulness of the massively parallel DNA sequencing (MPS). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Seventy-five Japanese ADSNHL patients from 53 ENT departments nationwide participated in this study...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911822/urban-park-soil-microbiomes-are-a-rich-reservoir-of-natural-product-biosynthetic-diversity
#9
Zachary Charlop-Powers, Clara C Pregitzer, Christophe Lemetre, Melinda A Ternei, Jeffrey Maniko, Bradley M Hover, Paula Y Calle, Krista L McGuire, Jeanne Garbarino, Helen M Forgione, Sarah Charlop-Powers, Sean F Brady
Numerous therapeutically relevant small molecules have been identified from the screening of natural products (NPs) produced by environmental bacteria. These discovery efforts have principally focused on culturing bacteria from natural environments rich in biodiversity. We sought to assess the biosynthetic capacity of urban soil environments using a phylogenetic analysis of conserved NP biosynthetic genes amplified directly from DNA isolated from New York City park soils. By sequencing genes involved in the biosynthesis of nonribosomal peptides and polyketides, we found that urban park soil microbiomes are both rich in biosynthetic diversity and distinct from nonurban samples in their biosynthetic gene composition...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911392/optogenetic-random-mutagenesis-using-histone-minisog-in-c-elegans
#10
Kentaro Noma, Yishi Jin
Forward genetic screening in model organisms is the workhorse to discover functionally important genes and pathways in many biological processes. In most mutagenesis-based screens, researchers have relied on the use of toxic chemicals, carcinogens, or irradiation, which requires designated equipment, safety setup, and/or disposal of hazardous materials. We have developed a simple approach to induce heritable mutations in C. elegans using germline-expressed histone-miniSOG, a light-inducible potent generator of reactive oxygen species...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911388/high-throughput-real-time-dual-readout-testing-of-intracellular-antimicrobial-activity-and-eukaryotic-cell-cytotoxicity
#11
Lucius Chiaraviglio, Yoon-Suk Kang, James E Kirby
Traditional measures of intracellular antimicrobial activity and eukaryotic cell cytotoxicity rely on endpoint assays. Such endpoint assays require several additional experimental steps prior to readout, such as cell lysis, colony forming unit determination, or reagent addition. When performing thousands of assays, for example, during high-throughput screening, the downstream effort required for these types of assays is considerable. Therefore, to facilitate high-throughput antimicrobial discovery, we developed a real-time assay to simultaneously identify inhibitors of intracellular bacterial growth and assess eukaryotic cell cytotoxicity...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910105/molecular-screening-of-leishmania-spp-infection-and-bloodmeals-in-sandflies-from-a-leishmaniasis-focus-in-southwestern-turkey
#12
M Karaku Ş, M Pekağ Irba Ş, S Demir, H Eren, S Töz, Y Özbel
Leishmaniasis is an arthropod-borne disease that affects approximately 2 million people worldwide annually. The aims of this study were to detect the presence of Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) DNA and the feeding preferences of probable vector species in an endemic focus of Leishmania infantum in Turkey. Entomological sampling was performed in August and October 2015 in Aydın province, where cases of human and canine leishmaniasis have been reported previously. A total of 1059 sandfly specimens comprising nine species belonging to two genera, Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia (both: Diptera: Psychodidae), and five subgenera of the Phlebotomus genus (Phlebotomus, Paraphlebotomus, Larroussius, Adlerius and Transphlebotomus) were collected in five villages...
December 2, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909234/a-high-throughput-screening-strategy-for-development-of-rnf8-ubc13-protein-protein-interaction-inhibitors
#13
Elisabeth Weber, Ina Rothenaigner, Stefanie Brandner, Kamyar Hadian, Kenji Schorpp
The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays an essential role in a broad range of cellular signaling pathways. Ubiquitination is a posttranslational protein modification that involves the action of an enzymatic cascade (E1, E2, and E3 enzymes) for the covalent attachment of ubiquitin to target proteins. The emerging knowledge of the molecular mechanisms and correlation of deregulation of the ubiquitin system in human diseases is uncovering new opportunities for therapeutics development. The E3 ligase RNF8 acts in cooperation with the heterodimeric E2 enzyme Ubc13/Uev1a to generate ubiquitin conjugates at the sides of DNA double-strand breaks, and recent findings suggest RNF8 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908247/knockdown-of-minichromosome-maintenance-proteins-inhibits-foci-forming-of-mediator-of-dna-damage-checkpoint-1-in-response-to-dna-damage-in-human-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-te-1-cells
#14
Jinzhong Yu, Ruijie Wang, Jinfeng Wu, Zhongqin Dang, Qinsheng Zhang, Bo Li
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has a high morbidity in China and its treatment depends greatly on adjuvant chemotherapy. However, DNA damage repair in cancer cells severely affects the outcome of treatment. This study investigated the potential mechanism regarding mediator of DNA-damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1) and minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCMs) during DNA damage in ESCC. Recombinant vectors of MDC1 and MCMs with tags were constructed and transfected into human ESCC cell line TE-1. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry were performed to screen the MCMs interacting with MDC1, and direct interaction was confirmed by glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assay in vitro...
October 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907920/aneuploidy-detection-and-mtdna-quantification-in-bovine-embryos-with-different-cleavage-onset-using-a-next-generation-sequencing-based-protocol
#15
Miroslav Hornak, David Kubicek, Petr Broz, Pavlina Hulinska, Katerina Hanzalova, Darren Griffin, Marie Machatkova, Jiri Rubes
Bovine embryos are now routinely used in agricultural systems as a means of disseminating superior genetics worldwide, ultimately with the aim of feeding an ever-growing population. Further investigations, common for human IVF embryos, thus have priority to improve cattle IVF, as has screening for aneuploidy (abnormal chromosome number). Although the incidence and consequences of aneuploidy are well documented in human preimplantation embryos, they are less well known for the embryos of other animals. To address this, we assessed aneuploidy levels in thirty-one 2-cell bovine embryos derived from early- and late-cleaving zygotes...
December 2, 2016: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907810/prediction-of-autosomal-str-typing-success-in-ancient-and-second-world-war-bone-samples
#16
Irena Zupanič Pajnič, Tomaž Zupanc, Jože Balažic, Živa Miriam Geršak, Oliver Stojković, Ivan Skadrić, Matija Črešnar
Human-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) has been developed for forensic use in the last 10 years and is the preferred DNA quantification technique since it is very accurate, sensitive, objective, time-effective and automatable. The amount of information that can be gleaned from a single quantification reaction using commercially available quantification kits has increased from the quantity of nuclear DNA to the amount of male DNA, presence of inhibitors and, most recently, to the degree of DNA degradation. In skeletal remains samples from disaster victims, missing persons and war conflict victims, the DNA is usually degraded...
November 19, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907066/b-cell-based-seamless-engineering-of-antibody-fc-domains
#17
Koji Hashimoto, Kohei Kurosawa, Akiho Murayama, Hidetaka Seo, Kunihiro Ohta
Engineering of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) enables us to obtain mAbs with additional functions. In particular, modifications in antibody's Fc (fragment, crystallizable) region can provide multiple benefits such as added toxicity by drug conjugation, higher affinity to Fc receptors on immunocytes, or the addition of functional modules. However, the generation of recombinant antibodies requires multiple laborious bioengineering steps. We previously developed a technology that enables rapid in vitro screening and isolation of specific mAb-expressing cells from the libraries constructed with chicken B-cell line DT40 (referred to as the 'ADLib system')...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906860/liquid-biopsy-for-early-detection-of-lung-cancer
#18
Paul Hofman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The possibility of complete recovery for a lung cancer patient depends on very early diagnosis, as it allows total surgical resection. Screening for this cancer in a high-risk population can be performed using a radiological approach, but this holds a certain number of limitations. Liquid biopsy could become an alternative and complementary screening approach to chest imaging for early diagnosis of lung cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Several circulating biomarkers indicative of lung cancer can be investigated in blood, such as circulating tumor cells, circulating free nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) and proteins...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906628/role-of-genomic-factors-beyond-thymidylate-synthase-in-the-prediction-of-response-to-5-fluorouracil
#19
Godefridus J Peters, K Smid, E Meijer, C J van Groeningen, L G Leon
5-Fluorouracil (5FU) is still a major drug in combinations regimens for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) both in the adjuvant and palliative setting. 5FU or its oral prodrug capecitabine is usually combined with irinotecan/oxaliplatin and the novel agents bevacizumab/cetuximab. Although this improved the outcome, the overall prognosis in patients with metastasized disease is still relatively poor. Although the target for 5FU, thymidylate synthase was shown to have a predictive value, this could only predict response in a subset of patients...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905473/carcinogenic-human-papillomavirus-infection
#20
Mark Schiffman, John Doorbar, Nicolas Wentzensen, Silvia de Sanjosé, Carole Fakhry, Bradley J Monk, Margaret A Stanley, Silvia Franceschi
Infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) are common and transmitted by direct contact. Although the great majority of infections resolve within 2 years, 13 phylogenetically related, sexually transmitted HPV genotypes, notably HPV16, cause - if not controlled immunologically or by screening - virtually all cervical cancers worldwide, a large fraction of other anogenital cancers and an increasing proportion of oropharyngeal cancers. The carcinogenicity of these HPV types results primarily from the activity of the oncoproteins E6 and E7, which impair growth regulatory pathways...
December 1, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
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