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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738599/development-of-a-chemiluminescent-dna-fibre-optic-genosensor-to-hepatitis-a-virus-hav
#1
Kehan Ye, Marisa Manzano, Riccardo Muzzi, Karina Yew-Hoong Gin, Nazanin Saeidi, Shin Giek Goh, Alfred Iing Yoong Tok, Robert S Marks
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection has caused substantial morbidity and economic losses to human society, presenting a major public health problem in many parts of the world. Despite the capability for low-concentration detection, current PCR-based techniques are limited by the requirement of specialized lab equipment, trained personnel and a relatively large time-commitment. The need for a prompt in-field quantitative identification of HAV in real samples has led us to develop a chemiluminescent fibre optic genosensor system...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736873/standardised-molecular-diagnostic-tool-for-the-identification-of-cryptic-species-within-the-bemisia-tabaci-complex
#2
S Elfekih, W T Tay, K Gordon, L Court, P De Barro
BACKGROUND: The whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex harbours over 40 cryptic species that have been placed in 11 phylogenetically distinct clades based on the molecular characterisation of partial mitochondrial DNA COI (mtCOI) gene region. Four cryptic species are currently within the invasive clade i.e. 'MED', 'MEAM1', 'MEAM2' and IO'. Correct identification of these species is a critical step towards implementing reliable measures for plant biosecurity and border protection, however no standardised B...
July 23, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736810/the-effects-of-bacterial-infection-on-human-sperm-nuclear-protamine-p1-p2-ratio-and-dna-integrity
#3
A Zeyad, M F Hamad, M E Hammadeh
The purpose of this study was to detect the effects of bacterial infection on human sperm nuclear protamines and DNA fragmentation. In this study, 120 semen samples were collected from unselected male partners of couples consulting for infertility in infertility and obstetrics clinic. All the samples were screened bacteriologically according to World Health Organization guidelines, and also sperm parameters and DNA fragmentation were evaluated. The concentrations of protamines P1 and P2 were quantified using acid urea acrylamide gel electrophoresis...
July 23, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736296/a-new-targeted-cftr-mutation-panel-based-on-next-generation-sequencing-technology
#4
Marco Lucarelli, Luigi Porcaro, Alice Biffignandi, Lucy Costantino, Valentina Giannone, Luisella Alberti, Sabina Maria Bruno, Carlo Corbetta, Erminio Torresani, Carla Colombo, Manuela Seia
Searching for mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) is a key step in the diagnosis of and neonatal and carrier screening for cystic fibrosis (CF), and it has implications for prognosis and personalized therapy. The large number of mutations and genetic and phenotypic variability make this search a complex task. Herein, we tested the clinical and laboratory validity of an extended search for mutations in CFTR using a next-generation sequencing-based method, with a panel of 188 CFTR mutations customized for the Italian population...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735743/exposure-to-meat-derived-carcinogens-and-bulky-dna-adduct-levels-in-normal-appearing-colon-mucosa
#5
Vikki Ho, Vanessa Brunetti, Sarah Peacock, Thomas E Massey, Roger W L Godschalk, Frederik J van Schooten, Janet E Ashbury, Stephen J Vanner, Will D King
INTRODUCTION: Meat consumption is a risk factor for colorectal cancer. This research investigated the relationship between meat-derived carcinogen exposure and bulky DNA adduct levels, a biomarker of DNA damage, in colon mucosa. METHODS: Least squares regression was used to examine the relationship between meat-derived carcinogen exposure (PhIP and meat mutagenicity) and bulky DNA adduct levels in normal-appearing colon tissue measured using (32)P-postlabelling among 202 patients undergoing a screening colonoscopy...
September 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735739/genome-wide-bisulfite-sensitivity-profiling-of-yeast-suggests-bisulfite-inhibits-transcription
#6
Romulo Segovia, Veena Mathew, Annie S Tam, Peter C Stirling
Bisulfite, in the form of sodium bisulfite or metabisulfite, is used commercially as a food preservative. Bisulfite is used in the laboratory as a single-stranded DNA mutagen in epigenomic analyses of DNA methylation. Recently it has also been used on whole yeast cells to induce mutations in exposed single-stranded regions in vivo. To understand the effects of bisulfite on live cells we conducted a genome-wide screen for bisulfite sensitive mutants in yeast. Screening the deletion mutant array, and collections of essential gene mutants we define a genetic network of bisulfite sensitive mutants...
September 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735058/prevalence-of-pmqr-genes-in-e-coli-and-klebsiella-spp-isolated-from-north-west-of-morocco
#7
Houda Benaicha, Said Barrijal, Fatima Ezzakkioui, Fatima Elmalki
OBJECTIVES: Plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes are increasingly detected worldwide. However, in Morocco a few studies have been carried out. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of these determinants among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp isolated from North-West of Morocco. METHODS: The prevalence of PMQR genes was investigated among 398 E. coli and 118 Klebsiella spp clinical isolates collected between 2012 and 2015 from North-West of Morocco...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734895/a-sensitive-and-convenient-method-for-clinical-detection-of-non-syndromic-hearing-loss-associated-common-mutations
#8
Er-Feng Yuan, Wei Xia, Jing-Tao Huang, Ling Hu, Xing Liao, Xiang Dai, Song-Mei Liu
BACKGROUND: The majority of non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL) patients result from causative mutations in GJB2, SLC26A4 and mitochondrial 12S rRNA genes. Accurate detection of these genetic mutations is increasingly recognized for its clinical significance to reduce incidence and guide individual treatment of NSHL. Current methods for clinical practice are labor intensive, expensive or of low sensitivity. METHODS: Genomic DNA from 7 newborns not passing the hearing screening and 94 newborns passing the hearing screening were analyzed for the common mutations using high resolution melting analysis (HRMA) and Sanger sequencing...
July 19, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734728/a-new-ppar%C3%AE-dna-origami-biochromatography-and-offline-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-method-for-screening-ppar%C3%AE-receptor-antagonists-from-ginsenosides
#9
Jie Zhou, Chong Sun, Lingchang Meng, Weiran Ye, Pei Luo, Fang Sun, Shanshan Chen, Xia Xu
To rapidly identify novel PPARγ ligands, a robust binding assay amenable to high-efficiency screening toward PPARγ would be desirable. In this study, a new PPARγ assembled on DNA origami (PPARγ/DNA origami) biochromatography drug screening model was constructed and evaluated. The method was used to screen active ingredients acted on PPARγ from the total ginsenosides. The total ginsenosides were handled on this biochromatography column by HPLC. The collected retention fraction from the biochromatography column was analyzed by HPLC and HPLC/MS...
July 19, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733530/presence-of-embryonic-dna-in-culture-medium
#10
Linlin Yang, Qiaoying Lv, Wei Chen, Jian Sun, Yu Wu, Yiying Wang, Xiong Chen, Xiaojun Chen, Zhenbo Zhang
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) has successfully assisted couples with genetic diseases to conceive healthy babies during the past decades. However, biopsy of the blastomere has potential lesion to the embryos which commonly results in abortion. Thus, a noninvasive PGD is needed. In the past, the presence of genetic materials in maternal plasma or serum has triggered a great innovation of noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. Nevertheless, it is not clear whether embryonic DNA is also present in embryonic culture medium...
June 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733327/cenp-a-and-topoisomerase-ii-antagonistically-affect-chromosome-length
#11
A-M Ladouceur, Rajesh Ranjan, Lydia Smith, Tanner Fadero, Jennifer Heppert, Bob Goldstein, Amy Shaub Maddox, Paul S Maddox
The size of mitotic chromosomes is coordinated with cell size in a manner dependent on nuclear trafficking. In this study, we conducted an RNA interference screen of the Caenorhabditis elegans nucleome in a strain carrying an exceptionally long chromosome and identified the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A and the DNA decatenizing enzyme topoisomerase-II (topo-II) as candidate modulators of chromosome size. In the holocentric organism C. elegans, CENP-A is positioned periodically along the entire length of chromosomes, and in mitosis, these genomic regions come together linearly to form the base of kinetochores...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733089/a-computational-protocol-for-the-discovery-of-lead-molecules-targeting-dna-unique-to-pathogens
#12
Akhilesh Mishra, Pradeep Pant, Nirotpal Mrinal, B Jayaram
With the rapid emergence of drug resistant pathogens, it has become imperative to develop alternative medications as well as find new drug targets to overcome this crisis. Hence, this has become prime focus of several academic laboratories and pharmaceutical companies. Here, we report a computational protocol for identifying unique DNA sequence(s) in the pathogen which is absent in human and related non-pathogenic strains of the microbe. In order to use the unique sequence as drug target, the protocol, in the second step, uses virtual screening against a million compound library to identify candidate small molecules which can bind to these unique DNA targets in the pathogen only...
July 18, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732697/cytological-study-of-dna-content-and-nuclear-morphometric-analysis-for-aid-in-the-diagnosis-of-high-grade-dysplasia-within-oral-leukoplakia
#13
Xi Yang, Xuan Xiao, Wenyan Wu, Xuemin Shen, Zengtong Zhou, Wei Liu, Linjun Shi
OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively examine the DNA content and nuclear morphometric status of oral leukoplakia (OL) and investigate its association with the degree of dysplasia in a cytologic study. STUDY DESIGN: Oral cytobrush biopsy was carried out to obtain exfoliative epithelial cells from lesions before scalpel biopsy at the same location in a blinded series of 70 patients with OL. Analysis of nuclear morphometry and DNA content status using image cytometry was performed with oral smears stained with the Feulgen-thionin method...
July 18, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732364/a-novel-heterozygous-germline-deletion-in-msh2-gene-in-a-five-generation-chinese-family-with-lynch-syndrome
#14
Bin Wu, Wuyang Ji, Shengran Liang, Chao Ling, Yan You, Lai Xu, Min-Er Zhong, Yi Xiao, Hui-Zhong Qiu, Jun-Yang Lu, Santasree Banerjee
Lynch syndrome (LS) is one of the most common familial forms of colorectal cancer predisposing syndrome with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. LS is caused by the germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes including MSH2, MLH1, MSH6and PMS2. Clinically, LS is characterized by high incidence of early-onset colorectal cancer as well as endometrial, small intestinal and urinary tract cancers, usually occur in the third to fourth decade of the life. Here we describe a five generation Chinese family with LS clinically diagnosed according to the Amsterdam II criteria...
July 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732343/an-ultrasensitive-electrochemical-biosensor-for-polynucleotide-kinase-assay-based-on-gold-nanoparticle-mediated-lambda-exonuclease-cleavage-induced-signal-amplification
#15
Lin Cui, Yueying Li, Mengfei Lu, Bo Tang, Chun-Yang Zhang
Polynucleotide kinase (PNK) plays an essential role in cellular nucleic acid metabolism and the cellular response to DNA damage. However, conventional methods for PNK assay suffer from low sensitivity and involve multiple steps. Herein, we develop a simply electrochemical method for sensitive detection of PNK activity on the basis of Au nanoparticle (AuNP)-mediated lambda exonuclease cleavage-induced signal amplification. We use [Ru(NH3)6](3+) as the electrochemically active indicator and design two DNA strands (i...
July 13, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732085/point-of-care-screening-for-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-pregnant-women-at-an-antenatal-clinic-a-south-african-experience
#16
Nafiisah Chotun, Wolfgang Preiser, Christoffel Johannes van Rensburg, Pedro Fernandez, Gerhard Barnard Theron, Dieter Glebe, Monique Ingrid Andersson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Elimination of HIV and syphilis mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) has received much attention but little consideration has been given to the possibility of elimination of HBV MTCT. In sub-Saharan Africa, HBV vertical transmission continues to be reported and it remains an important public health problem. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of screening pregnant women for HBV using a point-of-care (POC) test and implementing interventions to prevent HBV MTCT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731353/altering-dna-programmable-colloidal-crystallization-paths-by-modulating-particle-repulsion
#17
Mary X Wang, Jeffrey D Brodin, Jaime A Millan, Soyoung E Seo, Martin Girard, Monica Olvera de la Cruz, Byeongdu Lee, Chad A Mirkin
Colloidal crystal engineering with DNA can be used to realize precise control over nanoparticle (NP) arrangement. Here, we investigate a case of DNA-based assembly where the properties of DNA as a polyelectrolyte brush are employed to alter a hybridization-driven NP crystallization pathway. Using the coassembly of DNA-conjugated proteins and spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a model system, we explore how steric repulsion between noncomplementary, neighboring NPs due to overlapping DNA shells can influence their ligand-directed behavior...
July 21, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731107/a-fluorescent-turn-on-nanoprobe-for-simultaneous-visualization-of-dual-targets-involved-in-cell-apoptosis-and-drug-screening-in-living-cells
#18
Xiaolong Zhang, Naishun Liao, Geng Chen, Aixian Zheng, Yongyi Zeng, Xiaolong Liu, Jingfeng Liu
Herein, a novel dual-responsive two-color fluorescent nanoprobe has been designed for the fluorescence activation imaging of cell apoptosis in living cells. The nanoprobe consists of a gold nanoparticle core functionalized with a dense layer of DNA aptamers and peptides, which shows high affinity and specific response to cytochrome c (Cyt c) and caspase-3, respectively. The formation of the aptamer-Cyt c complex and the cleavage of the specific peptide by caspase-3 can liberate the dye labelled aptamers and peptides from the surface of gold nanoparticles, and then recover their fluorescence...
July 21, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730505/stool-based-testing-for-colorectal-cancer-an-overview-of-available-evidence
#19
REVIEW
Kevin M Rank, Aasma Shaukat
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to summarize stool-based testing for colorectal cancer (CRC). The key questions answered in this review were the advantages and limitations of each available stool-based test for CRC and to examine their comparative efficacy. RECENT FINDINGS: Guaiac-based fecal occult blood testing (gFOBT) is no longer a relevant test for CRC screening. fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) tests, especially quantitative assays, are clearly a reliable stool-based test...
August 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730458/generation-and-screening-of-t-dna-insertion-mutants-mediated-by-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-in-the-garden-asparagus-stem-blight-pathogen-phomopsis-asparagi
#20
Yueping Zhang, Huaxiang Qu, Ping Zhao, Yongping Tang, Jingsong Zhou, Shaochun Luo, Yuling Yin, Guangyu Chen
The garden asparagus stem blight caused by filamentous fungus Phomopsis asparagi exposes a serious threat on asparagus production globally. However, to present, we understand poorly about the molecular mechanisms of fungal pathogenicity. To facilitate functional genomics research of P. asparagi, here we developed a highly efficient and stable Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation approach which yielded 150-200 transformants per 1 × 10(6) conidia. Our results indicated that 25 °C, acetosyringone concentration of 150 μmol/L, and 72 h were recommended as optimal co-cultivation conditions for the transformation...
July 20, 2017: Current Microbiology
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