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trace element

Zhiguo Cao, Qiaoying Chen, Xiaoying Wang, Yajie Zhang, Shihua Wang, Mengmeng Wang, Leicheng Zhao, Guangxuan Yan, Xin Zhang, Ziyang Zhang, Tianfang Yang, Mohai Shen, Jianhui Sun
Concentrations of eight trace metals (TMs) in road dust (RD) (particles < 25 μm) from urban areas of Xinxiang, China, were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The geometric mean concentrations of Zn, Mn, Pb, As, Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd were 489, 350, 114, 101, 60.0, 39.7, 31.6, and 5.1 mg kg-1 , respectively. When compared with TM levels in background soil, the samples generally display elevated TM concentrations, except for Cr and Mn, and for Cd the enrichment value was 69.6. Spatial variations indicated TMs in RD from park path would have similar sources with main roads, collector streets and bypasses...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Qin Yu, Yuan-Zhong Zhou
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease. Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element in the human body. It can enter the brain through the blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Excessive accumulation of Mn in the brain may disturb the homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS) microenvironment and cause severe neuronal damage. The most recent data suggest that excessive Mn is associated with impaired learning and memory in animal models, and may lead to irreversible and progressive mild cognitive impairment and AD...
April 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Silke Neu, Ingo Müller, Rolf Herzig, E Gert Dudel
Multielement-contaminated agricultural land requires the adaptation of agronomic practices to meet legal requirements for safe biomass production. The incorporation of bioenergy plants with, at least, moderate phytoextraction capacity into crop rotations with cereals can affect trace elements (TE) phytoavailability and, simultaneously, constitute economic revenues for farmers outside the food or forage sector. Hence, in a crop rotation pot study sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), modified for high biomass and TE accumulation by chemical mutagenesis, was compared to winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Albert Van de Wiel, Menno Blaauw
Low concentrations of elements in food can be measured with various techniques, mostly in small samples (mg). These techniques provide only reliable data when the element is distributed homogeneously in the material to be analysed either naturally or after a homogenisation procedure. When this is not the case or homogenisation fails, a technique should be applied that is able to measure in samples up to grams and even kilograms and regardless of the distribution of the element. An adaptation of neutron activation analysis (NAA), called large-sample NAA, has been developed and proven accurate and may be an attractive alternative in food research and mass balance studies...
2018: Journal of Nutritional Science
Z Chang, H Zhang, H Dong, K Mehmood, M Ijaz, H I Ahmad, M A Naeem, Q Wu, F Nabi, H Zhu
Copper is the most essential trace element in the animal body. Nano-sized copper particles have been widely used in a number of different animal species in modern medicinal practice. The present study was designed to examine the effect of dietary copper sulfate/(CuSO4) and nano copper supplementation on serum antioxidant capacity of weaning piglets. A total of 28 Duroc piglets (21 days, and weighing ~7 kg) were randomly divided into three equal groups. The control group (n=4) was administered with a normal standard diet; however the CuSO4 (n=12) and nano copper (n=12) groups were treated with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day body weight, respectively...
March 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
C V Z Cipro, P Bustamante, M V Petry, R C Montone
Global distillation is classically pointed as the biggest responsible for contaminant inputs in Polar ecosystems. Mercury (Hg) and other trace elements (TEs) also present natural sources, whereas the biologically mediated input is typically ignored. However, bioaccumulation and biomagnification combined with the fact that seabirds gather in large numbers into large colonies and excrete on land might represent an important local TEs input. A previous work suggested these colonies as sources of not only nutrients, but also organic contaminants...
March 24, 2018: Chemosphere
Amany A Sayed, Osama A Abbas, Mona A Saad, Mohamed-Assem S Marie
Ionized radiations trigger thoughtful adverse hazards through multiple organ dysfunctions. Recently, antioxidant-based biodrugs are used to prevent and treat ionizing radiation hazards. The present study aimed to investigate the prospective ameliorative effect of Cicer arietinum extract (CAE) against γ-irradiation and the pathway of this amelioration in male albino rats. Twenty four rats were allocated into four groups; (i) control group, (ii) CAE group in which rats treated with a dosage of 500 mg CAE/kg b...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Chengcheng Yin, Xiaoshi Jia, Richard J Miron, Qiaoyun Long, Hudi Xu, Yan Wei, Min Wu, Yufeng Zhang, Zubing Li
Boron (B), a trace element found in the human body, plays an important role for health of bone by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Our research group previously fabricated B-mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) scaffolds, which successfully promoted osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts when compared to pure MBG scaffolds without boron. However, the mechanisms of the positive effect of B-MBG scaffolds on osteogenesis remains unknown. Therefore, we performed in-vivo experiments in an OVX rat models with pure MBG scaffolds and compared them to B-MBG scaffold...
April 20, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Ricardo Roque
This essay traces the connected histories of Portuguese and French anthropology in the late nineteenth century. By looking at a Portuguese scientific institution, the Carlos Ribeiro Society, it considers how French race science, known as anthropologie, was adopted and adapted across the European Latin world as a type of "stranger-science." That is: as an authoritative outsider scientific formation, installed into national terrain in accordance with insider strategies for turning foreign elements into native forms of scientific sovereignty and modernity...
April 1, 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
Shannon B Hill, Nadir S Faradzhev, Cedric J Powell
We discuss the problem of quantifying common sources of statistical uncertainties for analyses of trace levels of surface contamination using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We examine the propagation of error for peak-area measurements using common forms of linear and polynomial background subtraction including the correlation of points used to determine both background and peak areas. This correlation has been neglected in previous analyses, but we show that it contributes significantly to the peak-area uncertainty near the detection limit...
December 2017: Surface and Interface Analysis: SIA
Othmar Müntener, Tanya Ewing, Lukas P Baumgartner, Mélina Manzini, Thibaud Roux, Pierre Pellaud, Luc Allemann
The subduction system in southern Patagonia provides direct evidence for the variability of the position of an active continental arc with respect to the subducting plate through time, but the consequences on the arc magmatic record are less well studied. Here we present a geochemical and geochronological study on small plutons and dykes from the upper crust of the southern Patagonian Andes at ~ 51°S, which formed as a result of the subduction of the Nazca and Antarctic plates beneath the South American continent...
2018: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. Beiträge Zur Mineralogie und Petrologie
S Papamarkou, D Christopoulos, P E Tsakiridis, G Bartzas, K Tsakalakis
The present investigation focuses on the utilization of medical wastes incineration bottom ash (MBA), vitrified with soda lime recycled glass (SLRG), as an alternative raw material in cement clinkerization. Bottom ash is recovered from the bottom of the medical wastes incineration chamber, after being cooled down through quenching. It corresponds to 10-15 wt% of the initial medical wastes weight and since it has been classified in the category of hazardous wastes, its safe management has become a major environmental concern worldwide...
April 19, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
V Gopal, B Nithya, N S Magesh, M Jayaprakash
Twenty four surface sediments were gathered from the Uppanar river estuary, southern India to evaluate the trace element contamination risk in the sediments. The circulation of organic matter and calcium carbonate were controlled by algal blooms and shell fragments. Moreover, the concentrations of iron and manganese in the estuarine sediments were possibly contributed by riverine sources and geogenic processes. The geoaccumulation index, enrichment factor and contamination factor reveals that the sediments were contaminated by copper and chromium...
April 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
S Ternengo, M Marengo, O El Idrissi, J Yepka, V Pasqualini, S Gobert
A study on Trace Elements (TE) from sea urchin gonads has been conducted in the western Mediterranean Sea. Contamination data were used to determine a Trace Method Pollution Index (TEPI). TE concentrations varied considerably depending on the location of the sampling stations. The results showed that five trace elements (Zn, Fe, As, Al, Cu) are ubiquitous. The geographical area considered (Corsica) represents an important range of environmental conditions and types of pressure that can be found in the western Mediterranean Sea...
April 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Fengxia Zhou, Xuelu Gao, Huamao Yuan, Jinming Song, Fajin Chen
We sampled the surface sediments of the East China Sea shelf (ECSS) in spring and autumn, 2014, and analyzed the biogenic element concentrations and stable carbon (δ13 C) and nitrogen (δ15 N) isotopic compositions to study the distribution and seasonal variations of sedimentary organic matter (OM). The average concentrations of TOC, TN and OP in autumn decreased obviously compared with those in spring. The increase of δ15 N values in autumn indicated the priority utilization of 14 N by bacterial decomposition activity...
April 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Hongjun Li, Xuelu Gao, Yanbin Gu, Ruirui Wang, Pengfei Xie, Miao Liang, Hongxia Ming, Jie Su
The Bohai Sea is characterized as a semi-closed sea with limited water exchange ability, which has been regarded as one of the most contaminated regions in China and has attracted public attention over the past decades. In recent years, the rapid industrialization and urbanization around the coastal region has resulted in a severe pollution pressure in the Bohai Sea. Although efforts from official government and scientific experts have been made to protect and restore the marine ecosystem, satisfactory achievements were not gained...
April 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Pierre Hofstee, Daniel McKeating, Anthony V Perkins, James S M Cuffe
Poor nutrition during pregnancy is known to impair foetal development and increase the risk of chronic disease in offspring. Both macronutrients and micronutrients are required for a healthy pregnancy although significantly less is understood about the role of micronutrients in the programming of chronic disease. This is despite the fact that modern calorie rich diets are often also deficient in key micronutrients. The importance of micronutrients in gestational disorders is clearly understood but how they impact long term disease in humans requires further investigation...
April 21, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Ewelina Chajduk, Marta Pyszynska, Halina Polkowska-Motrenko
The aim of this study was to assess the levels of 13 essential and toxic elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, V, Zn) in the infant formulas, available on Polish market. Selected food samples were of animal (cow- and goat-based milks) and plant (soy-based milk, hypoallergic products, grain porridges) origin. Two analytical techniques, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA), have been complementarily applied to analyze elemental content of 16 formulas dedicated for infants between 0 and 8 months...
April 21, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Suwalee Worakhunpiset
This review summarizes the findings from studies of trace element levels in marine sediment and organisms in the Gulf of Thailand. Spatial and temporal variations in trace element concentrations were observed. Although trace element contamination levels were low, the increased urbanization and agricultural and industrial activities may adversely affect ecosystems and human health. The periodic monitoring of marine environments is recommended in order to minimize human health risks from the consumption of contaminated marine organisms...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Astrid S Pechstein, Joachim Schöberl
The tangential-displacement normal-normal-stress (TDNNS) method is a finite element method for mixed elasticity. As the name suggests, the tangential component of the displacement vector as well as the normal-normal component of the stress are the degrees of freedom of the finite elements. The TDNNS method was shown to converge of optimal order, and to be robust with respect to shear and volume locking. However, the method is slightly nonconforming, and an analysis with respect to the natural norms of the arising spaces was still missing...
2018: Numerische Mathematik
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