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trace element

Joaquim Rovira, Martí Nadal, Marta Schuhmacher, José L Domingo
Previously to the modernization of the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) of Campdorà (Girona, Catalonia, Spain) two sampling campaigns (2015 and 2016) were conducted. In each campaign, 8 soil and 4 air samples (PM10 and total particle phase and gas phase) were collected. The levels of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Tl and V, and PCDD/Fs were analysed at different distances and wind directions around the MSWI. Environmental levels of trace elements and PCDD/Fs were used to assess exposure and health risks (carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic) for the population living around the facility...
February 19, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Shadi Foroughi, Nasrin Ziamajidi, Saman Javid, Roghayeh Abbasalipourkabir, Reza Aflatoonian, Mahnaz Ashrafi, Alireza Nourian
BACKGROUND: An in vivo study was carried out to study of telomerase reverse transcriptase and Uterine-Ovarian-specific genes expression in the endometrial tissue of ovariectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 4 groups of six rats. The first and second groups were ovariectomized and given tamoxifen and tamoxifen-loaded SLN respectively for six days continuously. Group 3 served as the untreated ovariectomized control group and group 4 was made up of untreated normal healthy rats...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Andreas Türke, Bénédicte Ménez, Wolfgang Bach
Microbial life can leave various traces (or biosignatures) in rocks, including biotic alteration textures, biominerals, enrichments of certain elements, organic molecules, or remnants of DNA. In basalt glass from the ocean floor, microbial alteration textures as well as chemical and isotopic biosignatures have been used to trace microbial activity. However, little is known about the relationship between the physical and chemical nature of the habitat and the prevalent types of biosignatures. Here, we report and compare strongly variable biosignatures from two different oceanic study sites...
2018: PloS One
Chuanhua Wang, Lingfeng Gu, Shimei Ge, Xiaoyan Liu, Xinying Zhang, Xiao Chen
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) soil contamination have become areas of concern. Bioaugmentation is regarded as an effective bioremediation method, however it is difficult to simultaneously degrade organic compounds and remove PTEs with individual microbial strains. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using immobilized microbial consortia, including two PAH-degrading bacterial strains (W1 and W2) and a Cr(VI)-reducing bacterium (Y2), for the remediation of pyrene-Cr(VI) co-contaminated soil...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Technology
Nicola Brown, Johanna Güttler, Andy Shilton
Manure is often added to stabilise anaerobic digesters especially when co-digesting high energy substrates such as whey. While different researchers have attributed its beneficial effect to various components including alkalinity, nutrients or trace elements this research instead aimed to determine whether microorganisms, such as lactic acid bacteria which are naturally present in the feedstocks, were having a notable beneficial effect on biogas production. Casein whey and cow manure were co-digested with primary sludge and produced 151...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Technology
Ke-Xun Lian, Xiao-Qing Zhu, Jie Chen, Gang Liu, Xin-Li Gu
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for human beings and many other forms of life. Organic selenium from natural foods has greater bioavailability and is safer than inorganic selenium species. In this article, the structural properties and antioxidant activities of a Glycyrrhiza uralensis polysaccharide (GUP) after selenylation modification were investigated. The GUP was extracted by water decoction and ethanol precipitation and purified via protein elimination using the trichloroacetic acid method and column chromatography...
February 20, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Wishal D Ramdas
PURPOSE: A common question of patients to their physician is what they can do themselves against glaucoma, except taking their daily medication. However, for ophthalmologists, it is often hard to give their patients an advice on their dietary intake. To help ophthalmologists in answering this question, an overview of the current scientific literature on the association of nutrients with glaucoma is presented. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic review was conducted in which articles published up to September 2017 were identified in PubMed and reference lists...
February 20, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Faiz Ahmed Ansari, Mahmoud Nasr, Mayuri Chabukdhara, Faizal Bux
This study presented a comprehensive analysis of heavy metal contents in foodstuffs and the associated health risk for the residential population in Durban, South Africa. The concentrations of elements in fruits and vegetables, respectively, were (in mg kg-1 dry weight) Cu, 0.52-1.47 and 0.27-2.25; Zn, 0.30-3.05 and 0.56-6.24, Fe, 1.70-22.60 and 0.73-44.90; Mn, 0.37-28.50 and 0.67-13.70; Cr, 0.47-1.47 and 0.37-3.06; Ni 0.03-1.14 and 0.11-2.5;, and Pb, 1.52-3.45 and 1.57-4.52. Multivariate analysis revealed that pineapple in fruits and turnip and carrot in vegetables contained remarkable components of trace metals...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Rafael André Lourenço, Eleine Francioni, Antonio Henrique M F T da Silva, Caio Augusto Magalhães, Fabiana Dias Costa Gallotta, Fabio Francisco de Oliveira, João Maximino de Souza, Leandro Franco Macena de Araújo, Liliane Pequeno de Araújo, Marcus Antonio G de Araújo Júnior, Maria de Fátima Guadalupe Meniconi, Monica Aparecida Ferreira de Souza Bindes Gomes Lopes
The main effluent of oil and gas production is the discharge of produced water (PW). Despite the potential environmental impact, the structure of oil and gas platforms can act as artificial reefs. Two species of fish, Caranx crysos and Tylosurus acus, were captured under two discharging platforms at Campos Basin, P19 and P40. A nondischarging platform, P25, was taken as reference. The highest median concentration of PAH in muscle tissue was observed for C. Crysos at P40 (219.38 ng g-1 ) followed by P19 (68...
February 20, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Muhammad Usman Farid, Sanghyun Jeong, Dong Han Seo, Rafay Ahmed, Condon Lau, Nirmal Kumar Gali, Zhi Ning, Alicia Kyoungjin An
While the cytotoxicity of graphene oxide (GO) has been well established, its bactericidal mechanism, however, has yet to be elucidated to advance GO-based biomedical and environmental applications. In an attempt to better understand the bactericidal action of GO, herein we studied the interactions of GO with Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus cells using physical techniques and chemical probes, respectively. In particular, a novel laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) based elemental fingerprint analysis revealed notable differences between viable and non-viable cells based on the difference in the concentration of trace inorganic elements in complex bacterial systems, which reflect cellular membrane integrity...
February 20, 2018: Nanoscale
Felix Lampert, Shima Kadkhodazadeh, Takeshi Kasama, Kristian Vinter Dahl, Alexander Bruun Christiansen, Per Møller
Hydrogen silsesquioxane ([HSiO3/2]n) based "spin-on-glass" has been deposited on 316L substrate and cured in Ar/H2 gas atmosphere at 600 ºC to form a continuous surface coating with sub-micrometer thickness. The coating functionality depends primarily on the adhesion to the substrate, which is largely affected by the chemical interaction at the interface between the coating and the substrate. We have investigated this interface by transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy...
February 19, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Tarun Sen Gupta, Peter Johnson, Roy Rasalam, Richard Hays
BACKGROUND: James Cook University (JCU) enrolled its first cohort of 64 in 2000 into a 6-year undergraduate medical program aimed at producing graduates capable of meeting the needs of North Queensland, Australia, with a focus on rural, remote, Indigenous and tropical health. The school's 1465 graduates over 13 cohorts who have a pattern of practice likely to meet the region's health needs. The JCU course was the first new Australian medical program for 25 years. The number of Australian medical schools has since doubled, while enrollments have almost tripled...
February 19, 2018: Medical Teacher
Chengbin Zheng, Ligang Hu, Xiandeng Hou, Bin He, Guibin Jiang
Despite increased interest in microplasma atomic spectrometry over the past several years, its applications to field analysis of real samples still remain limited due to its low sensitivity. In this work, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) using PDMS/DVB fiber was used as a sample introduction method to improve the sensitivity of a miniature (6.0 cm length × 5.0 cm width × 2.8 cm height) low power (<10 W) microplasma point discharge optical emission spectrometer (PD-OES) for the determination of Hg and Pb after their derivatization with sodium tetraethylborate (NaBEt4)...
February 19, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Belén Herce-Sesa, José A López-López, Carlos Moreno
Transition metals Cd, Pd and Ag are toxic even at very low concentration. Cd is considered a priority substance; while, Pd and Ag are emerging pollutants. Membrane technologies have been applied for their extraction; however, they require important amounts of reagents, time and energy. Additionally, effective reagents for metal extraction in saline natural waters are limited. In this case, hollow fiber liquid phase micro-extraction with a configuration of solvent bar (SBME) using the ionic liquid Cyphos® 101 as extractant is proposed...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Anna Baranik, Rafal Sitko, Anna Gagor, Ignasi Queralt, Eva Margui, Beata Zawisza
Graphene oxide decorated with cerium (IV) oxide (GO/CeO2) was synthesized and applied in adsorption of several metal ions such as As(III), As(V), Se(IV), Cu(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous samples. The important feature of GO/CeO2 nanocomposite is also its selectivity towards selenite in the presence of selenate. The structure of GO/CeO2 has been proven by microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. The maximum adsorption capacities of GO/CeO2 calculated by Langmuir model towards arsenic, selenium, copper and lead ions are between 6 and 30 mg g-1...
February 18, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Arjun L Khandare, Vakdevi Validandi, Naveen Boiroju
The present study aimed to determine the serum trace elements (copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg)) along with erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity and effect of intervention with safe drinking water for 5 years in the school children of fluorosis endemic area. For this purpose, three categories of villages were selected based on drinking water fluoride (F): Category I (control, F = 1.68 mg/L), category II (affected F = 3.77 mg/L), and category III (intervention village) where initial drinking water F was 4...
February 17, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Sina Taghvaee, Mohammad H Sowlat, Amirhosein Mousavi, Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand, Masud Yunesian, Kazem Naddafi, Constantinos Sioutas
In this study, the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was used for source apportionment of ambient PM2.5 in two locations in the central Tehran from May 2012 through June 2013. The average PM2.5 mass concentrations were 30.9 and 33.2μg/m3 in Tohid retirement home and the school dormitory, respectively. Metals and trace elements, water-soluble ions, and PM2.5 mass concentrations were used as inputs to the model. Concentrations of elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC), and meteorological data were also used as auxiliary variables to help with the factor identification and interpretation...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Lathika Varanasi, Erica Coscarelli, Maryam Khaksari, Lynn R Mazzoleni, Daisuke Minakata
Considering the increasing identification of trace organic contaminants in natural aquatic environments, the removal of trace organic contaminants from water or wastewater discharge is an urgent task. Ultraviolet (UV) and UV-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as UV/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H 2 O 2 ), UV/free chlorine and UV/persulfate, are attractive and promising approaches for the removal of these contaminants due to the high reactivity of active radical species produced in these UV-AOPs with a wide variety of organic contaminants...
February 8, 2018: Water Research
Božidar Rašković, Vesna Poleksić, Stefan Skorić, Katarina Jovičić, Slađana Spasić, Aleksandar Hegediš, Nebojša Vasić, Mirjana Lenhardt
Chub (Squalius cephalus) specimens were collected in Korenita River seven months after spillover from the waste water of antimony mine tailing pond and compared with chub living in Kruščica reservoir (intended for water supply) and Međuvršje reservoir (influenced by intense emission of industrial, urban and rural wastewater). Concentrations of 15 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Si, Sr, Zn) were determined in muscle, liver and gills of chub by inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry (ICP-OES) and histopathological alterations in liver and gills were assessed...
February 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Margaret P Rayman, Kristian Hillert Winther, Roberto Pastor-Barriuso, Frederick Cold, Marianne Thvilum, Saverio Stranges, Eliseo Guallar, Søren Cold
BACKGROUND: Selenium, an essential trace element, is incorporated into selenoproteins with a wide range of health effects. Selenoproteins may reach repletion at a plasma selenium concentration of ~125µg/L, at which point the concentration of selenoprotein P reaches a plateau; whether sustained concentrations higher than this are beneficial, or indeed detrimental, is unknown. OBJECTIVE: In a population of relatively low selenium status, we aimed to determine the effect on mortality of long-term selenium supplementation at different dose levels...
February 14, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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