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trace element

Philippe Glorennec, Jean-Paul Lucas, Anne-Camille Mercat, Alain-Claude Roudot, Barbara Le Bot
Children are exposed to toxic metals and metalloids via their diet and environment. Our objective was to assess the aggregate chronic exposure of children aged 3-6years, living in France, to As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sb, Sr, and V present in diet, tap water, air, soil and floor dust in the years 2007-2009. Dietary data came from the French Total Diet Study, while concentrations in residential tap water, soil and indoor floor dust came from the 'Plomb-Habitat' nationwide representative survey on children's lead exposure at home...
October 19, 2016: Environment International
Sílvia S Monteiro, Andreia T Pereira, Élia Costa, Jordi Torres, Isabel Oliveira, Jorge Bastos-Santos, Helder Araújo, Marisa Ferreira, José Vingada, Catarina Eira
The common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) is one of the most abundant species in Atlantic Iberia, representing a potentially important tool to assess the bioaccumulation of trace elements in the Iberian marine ecosystem. Nine elements (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) were evaluated in 36 dolphins stranded in continental Portugal. Dolphins had increasing Hg concentrations (16.72μg·g(-1) ww, liver) compared with previous studies in Atlantic Iberia, whereas Cd concentrations (2.26μg·g(-1) ww, kidney) fell within reported ranges...
October 19, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Alex Virgilio, Daniela Schiavo, Letícia M Costa, Joaquim A Nóbrega, Bradley T Jones, George L Donati
This work describes a procedure using the recently proposed standard dilution analysis (SDA) calibration method for the determination of As, Cr and Ni in concentrated HNO3 and HCl by inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS). Because of the low contaminant levels, and consequently low limits of detection required for these reagents (commonly used in trace element analysis and the semiconductor industry), samples were minimally diluted. The analysis of concentrated acids can result in matrix/transport effects, which may compromise accuracy in ICP-MS determinations...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Yong Zhang, Meng Mei, Tong Ouyang, Xiaojia Huang
In this work, a new polymeric ionic liquid (PIL)-based sorbent was prepared by in-situ polymerization of 3-(1-ethyl imidazolium-3-yl) propyl-methacrylamido bromide and ethylene dimethacrylate and was used as medium for stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE) of trace antimony in environmental water samples. The sorbent EPBED was characterized with infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. A method for determination of trace antimony in water samples was developed based on the combination of SCSE/EPBED and hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS)...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Edimar Olegário de Campos Júnior, Rosiane Gomes da Silva Oliveira, Boscolli Barbosa Pereira, Henrique Nazareth Souto, Carlos Fernando Campos, Júlio Cesar Nepomuceno, Sandra Morelli
Exposure to certain pollutants induces a series of alterations in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that may result in genotoxic/mutagenic effects in exposed individuals. The present study aimed to monitor genotoxic, mutagenic, and recombinogenic potential and consequently water quality in two streams in the Paranaíba River basin in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using two bioindicator fish (Rhamdia quelen and Geophagus brasiliensis). The micronucleus (MN) test and somatic recombination and mutation test (SMART) were employed to assess DNA damage...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Rosamaria Lappano, Roberta Malaguarnera, Antonino Belfiore, Marcello Maggiolini
Certain environmental chemicals may accumulate in human serum and tissues eliciting estrogenic and/or carcinogenic effects. Therefore, there is heightened interest in determining whether environmental chemicals may increase the risk for endocrine-related tumors like breast cancer. For instance, metals as cadmium, zinc, copper, iron, nickel and aluminum have been shown to mimic estrogen action. Moreover, the exposure to these chemicals has been reported to stimulate diverse malignancies including breast cancer, which is the most common tumor in women worldwide...
October 17, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
P D Austin, K S Hand, M Elia
BACKGROUND: As lipid in parenteral nutrition (PN) purportedly enhances microbial growth, recommendations limit infusion of lipid PN (or lipid emulsion) from a single container to 24h (48h for lipid-free PN). However, the associated evidence base is ambiguous. AIM: To examine factors affecting microbial growth in PN. METHODS: A systematic review with meta-analyses examined effects of nutrients on microbial growth in PN infusates over a 48-h period using the growth ratio {GR=log10[colony-forming units (cfu)/mL at 48h/cfu/mL at time zero]}...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Mauro Esposito, Stefania Cavallo, Guido Rosato, Eugenio Chiaravalle, Oto Miedico, Roberta Pellicanò, Vittorio Soprano, Loredana Baldi
INTRODUZIONE: una vasta area compresa tra le province di Napoli e Caserta nella regione Campania ha negli ultimi anni attirato l'attenzione dei mass media a causa degli interramenti illeciti di rifiuti di varia origine nei campi o del loro abbandono lungo le strade. A tali pratiche illecite si aggiunge il fenomeno dei roghi incontrollati di questo materiale, motivo per il quale la zona è stata soprannominata "Terra dei fuochi". OBIETTIVI: ricerca di elementi in tracce presenti nei prodotti alimentari di origine vegetale prodotti nella Terra dei fuochi...
September 2016: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Xuemin Cheng, Yikang Yang, Qun Hao
The thermal environment is an important factor in the design of optical systems. This study investigated the thermal analysis technology of optical systems for navigation guidance and control in supersonic aircraft by developing empirical equations for the front temperature gradient and rear thermal diffusion distance, and for basic factors such as flying parameters and the structure of the optical system. Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to study the relationship between flying and front dome parameters and the system temperature field...
October 17, 2016: Sensors
Zafar Iqbal Khan, Kafeel Ahmad, Sidrah Rehman, Samra Siddique, Humayun Bashir, Asma Zafar, Muhammad Sohail, Salem Alhajj Ali, Eugenio Cazzato, Giuseppe De Mastro
In the recent years, the use of sewage water for irrigation has attracted the attention of arid and semi-arid countries where the availability of fresh water is poor. Despite the potential use of sewage water in crop irrigation as effective and sustainable strategy, the environmental and human risks behind this use need to be deeply investigated. In this regard, an experiment was carried out under field conditions in Nursery, University College of Agriculture Sargodha, to evaluate the possible health risks of undesirable metals in wheat grains...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Anatoly V Skalny, Elena V Zhukovskaya, Galina N Kireeva, Margarita G Skalnaya, Andrey R Grabeklis, Ivan V Radysh, Rosa A Shakieva, Alexandr A Nikonorov, Alexey A Tinkov
The primary aim of the study is assessment of hair and whole blood trace element and mineral levels in children living in a polluted area near a copper smelter (Karabash) and two control locations (Varna, Tomino) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained data indicates that both blood and hair As, Pb, and Fe levels in children living in Karabash significantly exceeded the control values. Whole blood levels of copper in children living in Varna exceeded that in Tomino (p = 0.155) and Karabash (p < 0...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yanhan Liu, Pan Hao, Xiao Zhang, Xiaona Zhao, Yongxia Liu, Jianzhu Liu
This study aimed to investigate the effects of chromic chloride (CrCl3) on Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn contents in the brain and serum of chicken. Seventy-two chickens were randomly divided into four groups and treated with different doses of CrCl3 via drinking water: 0, 1/8, 1/4, and 1/2 LD50 for 42 days. The contents of the elements were evaluated through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results showed that Cr contents in the brain and serum were higher than those in the control groups, although no significant dose-dependent changes (P > 0...
October 19, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Somayeh Atari-Hajipirloo, Neda Valizadeh, Mohammad-Hassan Khadem-Ansari, Yousef Rasmi, Fatemeh Kheradmand
BACKGROUND: The altered levels of some essential trace elements and antioxidant minerals have been observed in diabetic patients. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to compare the concentrations of essential trace elements, copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) in the serum of patients who have type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with those of their non-diabetic first-degree relatives (FDR) and control subjects. The association between glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and levels of metals was also evaluated...
April 2016: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Steve Plogsted, Stephen C Adams, Karen Allen, M Petrea Cober, June Greaves, Kris M Mogensen, Amy Ralph, Daniel Robinson, Ceressa Ward, Joe Ybarra, Beverly Holcombe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Ivan Ezquerra-Romano, Angel Ezquerra
Temperature maintenance and detection are essential for the survival and perpetuation of any species. This review is focused on thermosensation; thus a detailed and traced explanation of the anatomical and physiological characteristics of each component of this sensation is given. First, the proteins that react to temperature changes are identified; next, the nature of the neurons involved in thermosensation is described; and then, the pathways from the skin through the spinal cord to the brain are outlined...
October 18, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Carol Stewart, Nick D Kim, David M Johnston, Mostafa Nayyerloo
The greater Wellington region, New Zealand, is highly vulnerable to large earthquakes because it is cut by active faults. Bulk water supply pipelines cross the Wellington Fault at several different locations, and there is considerable concern about severe disruption of the provision of reticulated water supplies to households and businesses in the aftermath of a large earthquake. A number of policy initiatives have been launched encouraging householders to install rainwater tanks to increase post-disaster resilience...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Margarita G Skalnaya, Anatoly V Skalny, Vasily V Yurasov, Vasily A Demidov, Andrei R Grabeklis, Ivan V Radysh, Alexey A Tinkov
The primary aim of the research was to assess the level of trace elements and electrolytes in serum of postmenopausal diabetic women. Sixty-four postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and 64 age- and body mass index-matched controls were examined. Serum trace elements were assessed using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were evaluated using Randox kits. The obtained data demonstrate that DM2 patients were characterized by 42 and 34 % higher FPG and HbA1c levels, respectively (p < 0...
October 18, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Afsin A Kundak, Ayhan Pektas, Aysegul Zenciroglu, Semra Ozdemir, Umit B Barutcu, Utku A Orun, Nurullah Okumus
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the role of toxic elements and trace elements in the pathogenesis of conotruncal heart defects by measuring their concentrations in the first meconium specimens of the affected newborns. METHODS: Concentrations of lead, cadmium, iron, zinc, and copper were measured in 1st-day meconium specimens that were collected from 60 newborns with conotruncal heart defects (Group I) and 72 healthy newborns (Group II)...
October 18, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
Yue Cai, Zhengyu Huang, Michelle Hoi Ching Cheung, Vincent Motto-Ros, Po-Chun Chu, Yuanwei Wang, Haoyi Zhong, Ronald Yuen, Kelvin Sze-Yin Leung, Judy T S Lum, Sut Kam Phoebe Ho, Nai Ho H Cheung
Chemical analysis of Chinese black ink on xuan paper is useful for the authentication of Asian artwork. The analysis has to be non-destructive and has to accommodate artworks of all sizes. We apply three analytical techniques, ArF laser-induced plume fluorescence, Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) to analyze five commercial Chinese black inks on two kinds of xuan paper. The FTIR signal is found to be interfered by the substrate which is inevitable because the pigments diffuse extensively into the xuan fiber network...
October 18, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Y Cedeño, M López-Alonso, M Miranda
OBJECTIVES: Defects in copper metabolism have been described in several dog breeds, and recently, it has been suggested that changes in other essential trace elements could be involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic disease. This study measured hepatic copper accumulation and its interactions with other essential trace and toxic metals in dogs diagnosed with chronic hepatitis. METHODS: Liver samples of 20 chronic hepatitis and 20 healthy dogs were collected. Samples were acid digested, and essential metals (cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molibdenum, selenium and zinc) and toxic metals (arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead) were analysed by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Small Animal Practice
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