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trace element

Memduh Sahin, Fahri Karayakar, Ali Riza Koksal, Aylin Yetim, Mehmet Sinan İyisoy, İlker Şen, Hüseyin Alkım, Canan Alkım, Tahsin Colak
Approximately 350-400 million people in the world have Hbs Ag (hepatitis B virus surface antigen) positivity. In the international guidelines, the permanent suppression of replication in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection therapy is reported as the primary therapeutic goal. Trace elements play a key role in liver diseases. The aim of our study is to determine some trace element concentrations in the liver during HBV treatment periods. The measurement of 11 trace elements (manganese, lead, nickel, chromium, cadmium, iron, copper, zinc, silver, cobalt, and aluminum) was carried out by the method of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in liver biopsy materials (before starting treatment and at the sixth month of the treatment period)...
June 20, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Erin K Crowley, Caitriona M Long-Smith, Amy Murphy, Elaine Patterson, Kiera Murphy, Denise M O'Gorman, Catherine Stanton, Yvonne M Nolan
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that dietary supplementation with functional food ingredients play a role in systemic and brain health as well as in healthy ageing. Conversely, deficiencies in calcium and magnesium as a result of the increasing prevalence of a high fat/high sugar "Western diet" have been associated with health problems such as obesity, inflammatory bowel diseases, and cardiovascular diseases, as well as metabolic, immune, and psychiatric disorders. It is now recognized that modulating the diversity of gut microbiota, the population of intestinal bacteria, through dietary intervention can significantly impact upon gut health as well as systemic and brain health...
June 20, 2018: Marine Drugs
Lindsay N Kohler, Ana Florea, Connor P Kelley, Sherry Chow, Paul Hsu, Ken Batai, Kathylynn Saboda, Peter Lance, Elizabeth T Jacobs
Background: Selenium, an essential trace element, has been investigated as a potential cancer prevention agent. However, several studies have indicated that selenium supplementation may be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), although an equivocal relation of this nature requires confirmation. Objective: We examined the association between baseline plasma concentrations of selenium and the prevalence of T2D, as well as whether participant characteristics or intake of other antioxidant nutrients modified this relation...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Cassio Henrique Taques Martins, Catarina De Marchi Assunção
It is a fundamental element in both research and clinical applications of electroencephalography to know the frequency composition of brain electrical activity. The quantitative analysis of brain electrical activity uses computer resources to evaluate the electroencephalography and allows quantification of the data. The contribution of the quantitative perspective is unique, since conventional electroencephalography based on the visual examination of the tracing is not as objective. A systematic review was performed on the MEDLINE database in October 2017...
2018: Neurodiagnostic Journal
Arash Panahifar, L Dean Chapman, Lynn Weber, Nazanin Samadi, David M L Cooper
Bone acts as a reservoir for many trace elements. Understanding the extent and pattern of elemental accumulation in the skeleton is important from diagnostic, therapeutic, and toxicological perspectives. Some elements are simply adsorbed to bone surfaces by electric force and are buried under bone mineral, while others can replace calcium atoms in the hydroxyapatite structure. In this article, we investigated the extent and pattern of skeletal uptake of barium and strontium in two different age groups, growing, and skeletally mature, in healthy rats...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Bowen Liang, Tengteng Gao, Qi Zhao, Changqing Ma, Qi Chen, Zhiwei Wei, Cuiying Li, Chao Li, Fengwang Ma
The frequency and intensity of water deficits is expected to increase because of global warming. Drought stress is often one of the most limiting factors for plant growth. We conducted greenhouse pot experiments to address how dopamine affects the drought-resistance traits of apple trees at the physiological and molecular levels. Our factorial design consisted of dopamine and no-dopamine applications combined with well-watered and moderate-drought conditions. Seedling biomass, photosynthesis rates, chlorophyll concentrations, and stomatal apertures were markedly reduced under stress but dopamine treatment mitigated the inhibiting effects of drought on plant growth and helped maintain strong photosynthesis, chlorophyll levels, and stomatal functioning...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Estefanía Tarifeño-Saldivia, Andrea Aguilar, David Contreras, Luis Mercado, Byron Morales-Lange, Katherine Márquez, Adolfo Henríquez, Camila Riquelme-Vidal, Sebastian Boltana
Iron is a trace element, essential to support life due to its inherent ability to exchange electrons with a variety of molecules. The use of iron as a cofactor in basic metabolic pathways is essential to both pathogenic microorganisms and their hosts. During evolution, the shared requirement of micro- and macro-organisms for this important nutrient has shaped the pathogen-host relationship. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNv) affects salmonids constituting a sanitary problem for this industry as it has an important impact on post-smolt survival...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Richard M Kostrzewa, Karolina Wydra, Malgorzata Filip, Cynthia Crawford, Sanders A McDougall, Russell W Brown, Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Kjell Fuxe, Raul R Gainetdinov
Abnormality of dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) function, often observed as D2R supersensitivity (D2RSS), is a commonality of schizophrenia and related psychiatric disorders in humans. Moreover, virtually all psychotherapeutic agents for schizophrenia target D2R in brain. Permanent D2RSS as a feature of a new animal model of schizophrenia was first reported in 1991, then behaviorally and biochemically characterized over the next 15-20 years. In this model of schizophrenia characterized by production of D2RSS in ontogeny, there are demonstrated alterations of signaling processes; as well as functional links between the biologic template of the animal model; and ability of pharmacotherapeutics to modulate or reverse biological and behavioral modalities towards normality...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Kristen M Craven, William R Kochen, Carlos M Hernandez, Jane M Flinn
Hyperphosphorylated tau protein is a key pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and Parkinson's disease. The essential trace element zinc exacerbates tauopathy in vitro as well as in a Drosophila model of AD. However, the interaction has never been assessed behaviorally or biochemically in mammals. Zinc supplementation is prevalent in society, finding use as a treatment for macular degeneration and cataracts, and is also taken as an immune system booster with high levels appearing in multivitamins marketed toward the elderly...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Dongqi Shi, Xinwei Lu
Finer urban dusts have more serious environmental detriment and health risk than coarser urban dusts. The trace metals Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, Ba, Mn, Ni, V, Y, Rb, Ga, Hf, and Zr were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry in smaller than 63 μm road dust collected from the areas with different land use types and human activities in Xi'an city. The purposes of this study were to reveal the impact of human activities on the environment through element enrichment factor, and to determine the sources of trace metals measured by multivariate statistical analysis and multiple liner regression of absolute principal component scores...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Valeria Memoli, Enrique Eymar, Carlos García-Delgado, Francesco Esposito, Speranza Claudia Panico, Anna De Marco, Rossella Barile, Giulia Maisto
Soil quality is strongly affected by microbial biomass that is involved in organic matter mineralization and the supply of nutrients to plants. The effects of trace elements on soil microbial biomass and activity are still controversial, and the contents of the elements in different forms, more than the total amounts, may affect soil microbial community. Volcanic soils are peculiar environments because of their chemical characteristics. Therefore, the aims of this research were to evaluate in volcanic soils: i) the elemental composition; ii) the elemental availability; and iii) the effects of elemental fractions on soil microbial biomass and activity...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sylwia Siebielec, Grzegorz Siebielec, Tomasz Stuczyński, Piotr Sugier, Emilia Grzęda, Jarosław Grządziel
Smelter wastelands containing high amounts of zinc, lead, cadmium, and arsenic constitute a major problem worldwide. Serious hazards for human health and ecosystem functioning are related to a lack of vegetative cover, causing fugitive dust fluxes, runoff and leaching of metals, affecting post-industrial ecosystems, often in heavily populated areas. Previous studies demonstrated the short term effectiveness of assisted phytostabilisation of zinc and lead smelter slags, using biosolids and liming. However, a long term persistence of plant communities introduced for remediation and risk reduction has not been adequately evaluated...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Najmeh Karimian, Angela Maria Stortini, Ligia Maria Moretto, Claudio Costantino, Sara Bogialli, Paolo Ugo
This work is aimed at developing an electrochemical sensor for the sensitive and selective detection of trace levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in water. Contamination of waters by perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) is a problem of global concern due to their suspected toxicity and ability to bioaccumulate. PFOS is the perfluorinated compound of major concern, as it has the lowest suggested control concentrations. The sensor reported here is based on a gold electrode modified with a thin coating of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), prepared by anodic electropolymerization of o-phenylenediamine (o-PD) in the presence of PFOS as the template...
June 18, 2018: ACS Sensors
Namrata Sanjeevi, Jeanne Freeland-Graves, S Natasha Beretvas, Prageet K Sachdev
Introduction: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that has been associated with alterations in the status of trace elements, including zinc, copper, iron and manganese. However, clinical studies reporting statuses of these trace elements in type 2 diabetes patients compared to controls have shown conflicting results. Objective: This meta-analysis aimed to summarize the existing literature on the statuses of zinc, copper, iron, and manganese in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Rongwang Yang, Yanyi Zhang, Weijia Gao, Nannan Lin, Rong Li, Zhengyan Zhao
Some trace elements may participate in the pathogenesis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to investigate the trace element status of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), and lead (Pb) in children with ADHD, and to compare them with normal controls. Associations between examined elements and SNAP-IV rating scores of ADHD symptoms were also assessed. Four hundred nineteen children with ADHD (8.8 ± 2.1 years) and 395 matched normal controls (8.9 ± 1.7 years) were recruited in the study...
June 16, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Mihaela Badea, Octavio P Luzardo, Ana González-Antuña, Manuel Zumbado, Liliana Rogozea, Laura Floroian, Dana Alexandrescu, Marius Moga, Laura Gaman, Mariana Radoi, Luis D Boada, Luis Alberto Henríquez-Hernández
Smoking is considered an important source for inorganic elements, most of them toxic for human health. During the last years, there has been a significant increase in the use of e-cigarettes, although the role of them as source of inorganic elements has not been well established. A cross-sectional study including a total of 150 subjects from Brasov (Romania), divided into three groups (non-smokers, cigarette smokers and electronic cigarettes smokers) were recruited to disclose the role of smoking on the human exposure to inorganic elements...
June 13, 2018: Environmental Research
Katie Coleborn, Andy Baker, Pauline C Treble, Martin S Andersen, Andrew Baker, Carol V Tadros, Mark Tozer, Ian J Fairchild, Andy Spate, Sophia Meehan
Fire dramatically modifies the surface environment by combusting vegetation and changing soil properties. Despite this well-documented impact on the surface environment, there has been limited research into the impact of fire events on karst, caves and speleothems. Here we report the first experiment designed to investigate the short-term impacts of a prescribed fire on speleothem-forming cave drip water geochemistry. Before and after the fire, water was collected on a bi-monthly basis from 18 drip sites in South Glory Cave, New South Wales, Australia...
June 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Zirong Lei, Luqiong Chen, Kan Hu, Shengchun Yang, Xiaodong Wen
Cold vapor generation (CVG) of cadmium was firstly accomplished in non-aqueous media by using solid reductant of potassium borohydride (KBH4 ) as a derivation reagent. The mixture of surfactant Triton X-114 micelle and octanol was innovatively used as the non-aqueous media for the CVG and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) was used for the elemental determination. The analyte ions were firstly extracted into the non-aqueous media from the bulk aqueous phase of analyte/sample solution via a novelly established ultrasound-assisted rapidly synergistic cloud point extraction (UARS-CPE) process and then directly mixed with the solid redcutant KBH4 to generate volatile elemental state cadmium in a specially designed reactor, which was then rapidly transported to a commercial atomic fluorescence spectrometer for detection...
June 5, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Claire Bougrier, Delphine Dognin, Cécile Laroche, Jesús Andrés Cacho Rivero
The brewery industry generates a large amount of by-products and notably Brewer's Spent Grain (BSG) which seems an attractive substrate for anaerobic digestion. Nevertheless, previous studies have shown risk of inhibition in the mono-digestion of lignocellulosic substrates. One way to stabilize the reaction is the addition of trace elements. The current study evaluates and compares the stability of BSG anaerobic mono-digestion with and without addition of trace elements for several BSG samples. Based on the average composition of the BSG, two levels of nutrients addition were defined and tested on 4 different BSG samples...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Claudia Sosa-Montes de Oca, Gert J de Lange, Francisca Martínez-Ruiz, Francisco J Rodríguez-Tovar
A high-resolution analysis of the distribution of major and trace elements across the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary (KPgB) in the distal section of Agost (SE Spain) was performed. The KPgB sediments were drilled to recover a 22 cm-long core; the lower 5 cm corresponding to the uppermost Maastrichtian and the upper 17 cm to the lowermost Danian. The unconsolidated sediments were resin-embedded under O2 -free conditions, cut and polished. Laser Ablation-Inductivity Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses were conducted at 10 µm increments and a laser-beam of 80 µm...
June 2018: Data in Brief
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