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Mechanical force

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915392/sediment-suspension-and-the-dynamic-mechanism-during-storms-in-the-yellow-river-delta
#1
Shuhua Bian, Zjian Hu, Jianqiang Liu, Zichen Zhu
The suspension and hydrodynamic characteristics of the Yellow River Delta during storms were analyzed based on suspended samples obtained using automatic samplers during a storm event in the Yellow River Delta. Synchronous data for winds, waves, and tides were also collected from a nearby station. The results show that under wind speeds of 5-15 m/s and wave heights of 50-150 cm, the suspended content reached 5.7-49.6 kg/m(3), which is 10-100 times higher than that under normal weather conditions. The medium diameter of suspended particles was 1...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915220/stability-maneuverability-trade-offs-during-lateral-steps
#2
Julian Acasio, Mengnan/Mary Wu, Nicholas P Fey, Keith E Gordon
Selecting a specific foot placement strategy to perform walking maneuvers requires the management of several competing factors, including: maintaining stability, positioning oneself to actively generate impulses, and minimizing mechanical energy requirements. These requirements are unlikely to be independent. Our purpose was to determine the impact of lateral foot placement on stability, maneuverability, and energetics during walking maneuvers. Ten able-bodied adults performed laterally-directed walking maneuvers...
November 23, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914790/sarcoplasmic-reticulum-ca-2-mg-2-k-and-cl-concentrations-adjust-quickly-as-heart-rate-changes
#3
Claudio Berti, Vilmos Zsolnay, Thomas R Shannon, Michael Fill, Dirk Gillespie
During systole, Ca(2+) is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) through ryanodine receptors (RyRs) while, simultaneously, other ions (specifically K(+), Mg(2+), and Cl(-)) provide counter-ion flux. These ions move back into the SR during diastole through the SERCA pump and SR K(+) and Cl(-) channels. In homeostasis, all ion concentrations in different cellular regions (e.g., junctional and non-junctional SR, dyadic cleft, and cytosol) are the same at the beginning and end of the cardiac cycle. Here, we used an equivalent circuit compartment model of the SR and the surrounding cytoplasm to understand the heart rate dependence of SR ion homeostasis...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914339/burstable-nanostructured-micro-raspberries-towards-redispersible-nanoparticles-from-dry-powders
#4
Claudia Stauch, Thomas Ballweg, Werner Stracke, Robert Luxenhofer, Karl Mandel
Despite immense progress in nanoscience and technology, one of the yet unsolved challenges is the redispersion of nanoparticles from dry powders back to the individual, primary particles. Herein, an easy to handle powder consisting of nanostructured micron sized raspberry-like particles is presented. These nanostructured micro-raspberries are composed of individual nanoparticles which are equipped with molecules that introduce a separating effect or "spring" functionality. Thereby, a powder system is obtained that allows for an easy and complete redispersibility of the agglomerates down to the level of individual nanoparticles in solvents and polymers...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914310/electrical-potentials-measured-on-the-surface-of-the-knee-reflect-the-changes-of-the-contact-force-in-the-knee-joint-produced-by-postural-sway
#5
Lin Zhu, Martin Garon, Éric Quenneville, Michael D Buschmann, Pierre Savard
Electroarthrography (EAG) is a novel technique for recording potentials on the knee surface that are generated by the compression of articular cartilage and that reflect both compression force and cartilage quality. The mechanical loading of the knee is achieved by transferring the subject's body weight from a bipedal stance to a unipedal stance. We hypothesized that EAG potentials change with postural sway. The study was performed on 20 normal subjects (10 male, 10 female; age 29±10.5 yrs.; mass 68.8±14...
October 18, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914012/biomechanical-investigation-of-titanium-elastic-nail-prebending-for-treating-diaphyseal-long-bone-fractures
#6
Yen-Nien Chen, Pei-Yuan Lee, Chih-Wei Chang, Yi-Hung Ho, Yao-Te Peng, Chih-Han Chang, Chun-Ting Li
This study numerically investigated the deformation of titanium elastic nails prebent at various degrees during implantation into the intramedullary canal of fractured bones and the mechanism by which this prebending influenced the stability of the fractured bone. Three degrees of prebending the implanted portions of the nails were used: equal to, two times, and three times the diameter of the intramedullary canal. Furthermore, a simulated diaphyseal fracture with a 5-mm gap was created in the middle shaft portion of the bone fixed with two elastic nails in a double C-type configuration...
December 2, 2016: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914000/from-transformation-to-metastasis-deconstructing-the-extracellular-matrix-in-breast-cancer
#7
Shelly Kaushik, Michael W Pickup, Valerie M Weaver
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a guiding force that regulates various developmental stages of the breast. In addition to providing structural support for the cells, it mediates epithelial-stromal communication and provides cues for cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Perturbations in ECM architecture profoundly influence breast tumor progression and metastasis. Understanding how a dysregulated ECM can facilitate malignant transformation is crucial to designing treatments to effectively target the tumor microenvironment...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913689/how-is-low-parental-socioeconomic-status-associated-with-future-smoking-and-nicotine-dependence-in-offspring-a-population-based-longitudinal-13-year-follow-up
#8
Willy Pedersen, Tilmann Von Soest
AIMS: Low socioeconomic status (SES) characterizes smoking and nicotine dependence in adult samples. However, less is known about how parental SES is linked to smoking in offspring and the potential mechanisms at work. METHODS: A population-based longitudinal study (n=1380) from Norway was used. Participants were followed from their mid-teens until their late 20s using survey and register data. Data were collected on parental education, parental smoking, educational aspirations and expectations, school grades and school-related conduct problems...
December 1, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913354/a-novel-elastic-force-field-to-influence-mediolateral-foot-placement-during-walking
#9
Elizabeth Nyberg, Jordan Broadway, Christian Finetto, Jesse Dean
Bipedal gait can be stabilized through mechanically-appropriate mediolateral foot placement, although this strategy is disrupted in a subset of neurologically injured individuals with balance deficits. The goal of the present work was to develop a device to influence mediolateral foot placement during treadmill walking. We created a novel force-field using a combination of passive elasticity and active control; wires in series with extension springs run parallel to the treadmill belts and can be rapidly repositioned to exert mediolateral forces on the legs of users...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913119/mechanical-forces-during-muscle-development
#10
REVIEW
Sandra B Lemke, Frank Schnorrer
Muscles are the major force producing tissue in the human body. While certain muscle types specialise in producing maximum forces, others are very enduring. An extreme example is the heart, which continuously beats for the entire life. Despite being specialised, all body muscles share similar contractile mini-machines called sarcomeres that are organised into regular higher order structures called myofibrils. The major sarcomeric components and their organisational principles are conserved throughout most of the animal kingdom...
November 29, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913118/forces-controlling-organ-growth-and-size
#11
REVIEW
Dominik Eder, Christof Aegerter, Konrad Basler
One of the fundamental questions in developmental biology is what determines the final size and shape of an organ. Recent research strongly emphasizes that besides cell-cell communication, biophysical principals govern organ development. The architecture and mechanics of a tissue guide cellular processes such as movement, growth or differentiation. Furthermore, mechanical cues do not only regulate processes at a cellular level but also provide constant feedback about size and shape on a tissue scale. Here we review several models and experimental systems which are contributing to our understanding of the roles mechanical forces play during organ development...
November 29, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913116/multiple-conformations-of-gal3-protein-drive-the-galactose-induced-allosteric-activation-of-the-gal-genetic-switch-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#12
Rajesh Kumar Kar, Hungyo Kharerin, Ranjith Padinhateeri, Paike Jayadeva Bhat
Gal3p is an allosteric monomeric protein which activates the GAL genetic switch of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to galactose. Expression of constitutive mutant of Gal3p or overexpression of wild-type Gal3p activates the GAL switch in the absence of galactose. These data suggest that Gal3p exists as an ensemble of active and inactive conformations. Structural data has indicated that Gal3p exists in open (inactive) and closed (active) conformations. However, mutant of Gal3p that predominantly exists in inactive conformation and yet capable of responding to galactose has not been isolated...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911998/tropical-forest-loss-and-its-multitrophic-effects-on-insect-herbivory
#13
José Carlos Morante-Filho, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Madelon Lohbeck, Teja Tscharntke, Deborah Faria
Forest loss threatens biodiversity, but its potential effects on multitrophic ecological interactions are poorly understood. Insect herbivory depends on complex bottom-up (e.g., resource availability and plant antiherbivore defenses) and top-down forces (e.g., abundance of predators and herbivorous), but its determinants in human-altered tropical landscapes are largely unknown. Using structural equation models, we assessed the direct and indirect effects of forest loss on insect herbivory in 40 landscapes (115 ha each) from two regions with contrasting land-use change trajectories in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911957/tristetraprolin-down-regulation-contributes-to-persistent-tnf-alpha-expression-induced-by-cigarette-smoke-extract-through-a-post-transcriptional-mechanism
#14
Xue-Ke Zhao, Pulin Che, Ming-Liang Cheng, Quan Zhang, Mao Mu, Hong Li, Yuan Luo, Yue-Dong Liang, Xin-Hua Luo, Chang-Qing Gao, Patricia L Jackson, J Michael Wells, Yong Zhou, Meng Hu, Guoqiang Cai, Victor J Thannickal, Chad Steele, J Edwin Blalock, Xiaosi Han, Ching-Yi Chen, Qiang Ding
RATIONALE: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a potent pro-inflammatory mediator and its expression is up-regulated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Tristetraprolin (TTP) is implicated in regulation of TNF-α expression; however, whether TTP is involved in cigarette smoke-induced TNF-α expression has not been determined. METHODS: TTP expression was examined by western blot analysis in murine alveolar macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells challenged without or with cigarette smoke extract (CSE)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911881/low-energy-ne-ion-beam-induced-modifications-of-magnetic-properties-in-mnas-thin-films
#15
M Trassinelli, L Bernard Carlsson, S Cervera, M Eddrief, V H Etgens, E V Gafton, E Lacaze, E Lamour, A Lévy, S Macé, C Prigent, J-P Rozet, S Steydli, M Marangolo, D Vernhet
Investigations of the complex behavior of the magnetization of manganese arsenide thin films due to defects induced by irradiation of slow heavy ions are presented. In addition to the thermal hysteresis suppression already highlighted in Trassinelli et al (2014 Appl. Phys. Lett. 104 081906), we report here on new local magnetic features recorded by a magnetic force microscope at different temperatures close to the characteristic sample phase transition. Complementary measurements of the global magnetization in different conditions (applied magnetic field and temperatures) enable the film characterization to be completed...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911784/%C3%AE-arrestin-mediates-the-frank-starling-mechanism-of-cardiac-contractility
#16
Dennis M Abraham, Robert T Davis, Chad M Warren, Lan Mao, Beata M Wolska, R John Solaro, Howard A Rockman
The Frank-Starling law of the heart is a physiological phenomenon that describes an intrinsic property of heart muscle in which increased cardiac filling leads to enhanced cardiac contractility. Identified more than a century ago, the Frank-Starling relationship is currently known to involve length-dependent enhancement of cardiac myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity. However, the upstream molecular events that link cellular stretch to the length-dependent myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity are poorly understood. Because the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and the multifunctional transducer protein β-arrestin have been shown to mediate mechanosensitive cellular signaling, we tested the hypothesis that these two proteins are involved in the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911778/enhanced-stochastic-fluctuations-to-measure-steep-adhesive-energy-landscapes
#17
Ahmad Haider, Daniel Potter, Todd A Sulchek
Free-energy landscapes govern the behavior of all interactions in the presence of thermal fluctuations in the fields of physical chemistry, materials sciences, and the biological sciences. From the energy landscape, critical information about an interaction, such as the reaction kinetic rates, bond lifetimes, and the presence of intermediate states, can be determined. Despite the importance of energy landscapes to understanding reaction mechanisms, most experiments do not directly measure energy landscapes, particularly for interactions with steep force gradients that lead to premature jump to contact of the probe and insufficient sampling of transition regions...
November 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911771/stability-folding-dynamics-and-long-range-conformational-transition-of-the-synaptic-t-snare-complex
#18
Xinming Zhang, Aleksander A Rebane, Lu Ma, Feng Li, Junyi Jiao, Hong Qu, Frederic Pincet, James E Rothman, Yongli Zhang
Synaptic soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) couple their stepwise folding to fusion of synaptic vesicles with plasma membranes. In this process, three SNAREs assemble into a stable four-helix bundle. Arguably, the first and rate-limiting step of SNARE assembly is the formation of an activated binary target (t)-SNARE complex on the target plasma membrane, which then zippers with the vesicle (v)-SNARE on the vesicle to drive membrane fusion. However, the t-SNARE complex readily misfolds, and its structure, stability, and dynamics are elusive...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911759/neurotransmitter-release-can-be-stabilized-by-a-mechanism-that-prevents-voltage-changes-near-the-end-of-action-potentials-from-affecting-calcium-currents
#19
Stephen G Clarke, Matthew S Scarnati, Kenneth G Paradiso
: At chemical synapses, presynaptic action potentials (APs) activate voltage-gated calcium channels, allowing calcium to enter and trigger neurotransmitter release. The duration, peak amplitude, and shape of the AP falling phase alter calcium entry, which can affect neurotransmitter release significantly. In many neurons, APs do not immediately return to the resting potential, but instead exhibit a period of depolarization or hyperpolarization referred to as an afterpotential. We hypothesized that presynaptic afterpotentials should alter neurotransmitter release by affecting the electrical driving force for calcium entry and calcium channel gating...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911738/can-the-drosophila-model-help-in-paving-the-way-for-translational-medicine-in-heart-failure
#20
REVIEW
Lisha Ma
Chronic heart failure is a common consequence of various heart diseases. Mechanical force is known to play a key role in heart failure development through regulating cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In order to understand the complex disease mechanism, this article discussed a multi-disciplinary approach that may aid the illustration of heart failure molecular process.
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
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