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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930973/intracortical-inhibition-within-the-primary-motor-cortex-can-be-modulated-by-changing-the-focus-of-attention
#1
Yves-Alain Kuhn, Martin Keller, Jan Ruffieux, Wolfgang Taube
It is well recognized that an external focus (EF) compared with an internal focus (IF) of attention improves motor learning and performance. Studies have indicated benefits in accuracy, balance, force production, jumping performance, movement speed, oxygen consumption, and fatiguing task. Although behavioral outcomes of using an EF strategy are well explored, the underlying neural mechanisms remain unknown. A recent TMS study compared the activity of the primary motor cortex (M1) between an EF and an IF. More precisely, this study showed that, when adopting an EF, the activity of intracortical inhibitory circuits is enhanced...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930789/intracranial-penetration-during-temporal-soft-tissue-filler-injection-is-it-possible
#2
Wolfgang G Philipp-Dormston, Lara Bieler, Mathias Hessenberger, Thilo L Schenck, Konstantin Frank, Johann Fierlbeck, Sebastian Cotofana
BACKGROUND: Treating temporal volume loss for aesthetic and reconstructive purposes can be achieved by superficial or deep injections of soft tissue fillers into the temples. The latter is performed with bone contact that can lead to intracranial penetration when the bone is accidentally penetrated. OBJECTIVE: Based on a clinical case, the potential risk of accidental intracranial penetration was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty fresh-frozen hemi-faces (all Caucasian ethnicity, 10 women, 10 men, mean age 72...
September 19, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930145/to-wnt-or-lose-the-missing-non-coding-linc-in-colorectal-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Peng Shen, Martin Pichler, Meng Chen, George A Calin, Hui Ling
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent cancer and one of the leading causes for cancer-related mortality. Aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling is an essential initiating factor in colon carcinogenesis, and a driving force of CRC progression. Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as significant players in CRC pathogenesis through diversified mechanisms. Although both Wnt signaling and lncRNAs represent interesting research areas for CRC, an effort of directly connecting these two areas is lacking...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929556/high-temperature-formed-protective-film-at-cathode-electrolyte-interface-a-functional-layer-in-lithium-sulfur-batteries
#4
Shuang-Yan Lang, Yang Shi, Yu-Guo Guo, Rui Wen, Li-Jun Wan
Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have been attracting wide attention due to their promising high specific capacity. Deep understanding of Li-S interfacial mechanism including the temperature (T) effect is increasingly required to meet the burgeoning demands for battery modification and systematic researches. Herein, interfacial behavior during discharge/charge is investigated at high temperature (HT) of 60 ̊C in electrolyte based on lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl) imide (LiFSI). By in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic evolution of insoluble Li2S2 and Li2S is studied at the nanoscale...
September 20, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929512/systematic-design-of-a-magnetically-levitated-brushless-dc-motor-for-a-reversible-rotary-intra-aortic-blood-pump
#5
Yaxin Wang, Thomas G Logan, P Alex Smith, Po-Lin Hsu, William E Cohn, Liping Xu, Richard A McMahon
The IntraVAD is a miniature intra-aortic ventricular assist device (VAD) designed to work in series with the compromised left ventricle. A reverse-rotation control (RRc) mode has been developed to increase myocardial perfusion and reduce ventricular volume. The RRc mode includes forward rotation in systole and reverse rotation in diastole, which requires the IntraVAD to periodically reverse its rotational direction in synchrony with the cardiac cycle. This periodic reversal leads to changes in pressure force over the impeller, which makes the entire system less stable...
September 20, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929235/comparative-studies-on-structures-mechanical-properties-sensitivity-stabilities-and-detonation-performance-of-cl-20-tnt-cocrystal-and-composite-explosives-by-molecular-dynamics-simulation
#6
Gui-Yun Hang, Wen-Li Yu, Tao Wang, Jin-Tao Wang, Zhen Li
To investigate and compare the differences of structures and properties of CL-20/TNT cocrystal and composite explosives, the CL-20/TNT cocrystal and composite models were established. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the structures, mechanical properties, sensitivity, stabilities and detonation performance of cocrystal and composite models with COMPASS force field in NPT ensemble. The lattice parameters, mechanical properties, binding energies, interaction energy of trigger bond, cohesive energy density and detonation parameters were determined and compared...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929194/adapting-secretory-proteostasis-and-function-through-the-unfolded-protein-response
#7
Madeline Y Wong, Andrew S DiChiara, Patreece H Suen, Kenny Chen, Ngoc-Duc Doan, Matthew D Shoulders
Cells address challenges to protein folding in the secretory pathway by engaging endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized protective mechanisms that are collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). By the action of the transmembrane signal transducers IRE1, PERK, and ATF6, the UPR induces networks of genes whose products alleviate the burden of protein misfolding. The UPR also plays instructive roles in cell differentiation and development, aids in the response to pathogens, and coordinates the output of professional secretory cells...
September 20, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929133/assembling-oppositely-charged-lock-and-key-responsive-colloids-a-mesoscale-analog-of-adaptive-chemistry
#8
Adriana M Mihut, Björn Stenqvist, Mikael Lund, Peter Schurtenberger, Jérôme J Crassous
We have seen a considerable effort in colloid sciences to copy Nature's successful strategies to fabricate complex functional structures through self-assembly. This includes attempts to design colloidal building blocks and their intermolecular interactions, such as creating the colloidal analogs of directional molecular interactions, molecular recognition, host-guest systems, and specific binding. We show that we can use oppositely charged thermoresponsive particles with complementary shapes, such as spherical and bowl-shaped particles, to implement an externally controllable lock-and-key self-assembly mechanism...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928801/ginsenoside-rb1-inhibits-hypoxia-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-ovarian-cancer-cells-by-regulating-microrna-25
#9
Dan Liu, Ting Liu, Yue Teng, Wei Chen, Le Zhao, Xu Li
Metastasis frequently occurs in advanced ovarian cancer, which not only leads to substantial mortality but also becomes a major challenge to effective treatment. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key mechanism facilitating cancer metastasis. Targeting the EMT process with more efficacious and less toxic agents to prevent metastasis is of significant therapeutic value for ovarian cancer treatment. The anti-EMT function and mechanism of ginsenoside Rb1, a monomer composition extracted from the traditional Chinese herb Panax ginseng or P...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928779/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-three-mouthwashes-on-the-mechanical-properties-and-surface-morphology-of-several-orthodontic-wires-an-in-vitro-study
#10
Hossein Aghili, Sogra Yassaei, Farzaneh Eslami
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the changes in the mechanical properties and surface morphology of different orthodontic wires after immersion in three mouthwash solutions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this in vitro study, five specimens of each of 0.016 inch nickel titanium (NiTi), coated NiTi, and stainless steel orthodontic wires were selected. The specimens were immersed in 0.05% sodium fluoride (NaF), 0.2% chlorhexidine, Zataria multiflora extract, and distilled water (control) for 1...
July 2017: Dental Research Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926769/experimental-study-of-time-response-of-bending-deformation-of-bone-cantilevers-in-an-electric-field
#11
Huimin Kang, Zhende Hou, Qing-Hua Qin
Bone is a complex composite material with hierarchical structures and anisotropic mechanical properties. Bone also processes electromechanical properties, such as piezoelectricity and streaming potentials, which termed as stress generated potentials. Furthermore, the electrostrictive effect and flexoelectric effect can also affect electromechanical properties of the bone. In the present work, time responses of bending deflections of bone cantilever in an external electric field are measured experimentally to investigate bone's electromechanical behavior...
September 13, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926713/phase-separation-kinetics-of-dynamically-self-assembling-nanoparticles-with-toggled-interactions
#12
Zachary M Sherman, Helen Rosenthal, James W Swan
Ordered materials passively self-assembled from dispersions of nanoparticles with steady interactions are subject to thermodynamic constraints on their phase separation kinetics forcing a tradeoff between throughput and quality. Dynamically self-assembling dispersions whose interactions vary in a controlled way with time do not have these constraints and can rapidly form ordered structures while avoiding kinetic arrest. These out-of-equilibrium processes cannot be understood in terms of equilibrium thermodynamics or kinetic models derived from equilibrium thermodynamics, so new theories must be developed before dynamic self-assembly can be used to reliably fabricate nanomaterials...
September 19, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926703/effect-of-non-ionic-surfactants-on-dispersion-and-polar-interactions-in-the-adsorption-of-cellulases-onto-lignin
#13
Feng Jiang, Chen Qian, Alan R Esker, Maren Roman
Residual lignin in pretreated biomass impedes enzymatic hydrolysis. Non-ionic surfactants are known to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass but their mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. This study investigates the effect of a non-ionic surfactant, Tween 80, on the adsorption of cellulases onto model lignin substrates. Lignin substrates were prepared by spin coating of flat substrates with three different types of lignin: organosolv lignin, kraft lignin, and milled wood lignin...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926635/a-comparison-of-running-kinetics-in-children-with-and-without-genu-varus-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Amir Ali Jafarnezhadgero, Morteza Madadi Shad, Mahdi Majlesi, Urs Granacher
INTRODUCTION: Varus knee alignment has been identified as a risk factor for the progression of medial knee osteoarthritis. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated yet in children. Thus, the aims of the present study were to examine differences in ground reaction forces, loading rate, impulses, and free moment values during running in children with and without genu varus. METHODS: Thirty-six boys aged 9-14 volunteered to participate in this study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926260/the-effect-of-thickness-and-chemical-reduction-of-graphene-oxide-on-nanoscale-friction
#15
Sangku Kwon, Kyung Eun Lee, Hyunsoo Lee, Sang Joon Koh, Jae-Hyeon Ko, Yong-Hyun Kim, Sang Ouk Kim, Jeong Young Park
The tribological properties of two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers are quite different from three-dimensional (3D) continuum materials because of the unique mechanical responses of 2D layers. It is known that friction on graphene shows a remarkable decreasing behavior as the number of layers increases, which is caused by the puckering effect. On other graphene derivatives, such as graphene oxide (GO) or reduced graphene oxide (rGO), the thickness dependence of friction is important because of the possibilities for technical applications...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925710/highly-localized-strain-in-a-mos2-au-heterostructure-revealed-by-tip-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy
#16
Mahfujur Rahaman, Raul D Rodriguez, Gerd Plechinger, Stefan Moras, Christian Schüller, Tobias Korn, Dietrich R T Zahn
Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) has been rapidly improved over the last decade and opened up opportunities to study phonon properties of materials at the nanometer scale. In this contribution we report on tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) of an ultra-thin MoS2 flake on a nanostructured Au on silicon surface forming a two-dimensional (2D) crystal/plasmonic heterostructure. Au nanostructures (shaped in triangles) are prepared by nanosphere lithography and then MoS2 is mechanically exfoliated on top of them...
September 19, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925690/fiber-alignment-and-liquid-crystal-orientation-of-cellulose-nanocrystals-in-the-electrospun-nanofibrous-mats
#17
Weiguang Song, Dagang Liu, Nana Prempeh, Renjie Song
Sulfate cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) dispersions always present specific self-assembled cholesteric mesophases which is easily affected by the inherent properties of particle size, surface charge and repulsion or affinity interaction, and external field force generated from ionic potential of added electrolytes, magnetic, electric, and/or mechanical shearing or stretching. Aiming at understanding the liquid crystal orientation and fiber alignment under high-voltage electric field, randomly distributed, uniform-aligned, or core-sheath nanofibrous mats involving PVA and charged CNCs were electrospun; and amongst them, specific straight arrayed fine nanofibers wi...
September 19, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925539/expression-and-functional-proteomic-analyses-of-osteocytes-from-xenopus-laevis-tested-under-mechanical-stress-conditions-preliminary-observations-on-an-appropriate-new-animal-model
#18
Jessika Bertacchini, Marta Benincasa, Marta Checchi, Francesco Cavani, Alberto Smargiassi, Marzia Ferretti, Carla Palumbo
Hitherto, the role of the osteocyte as transducer of mechanical stimuli into biological signals is far from settled. In this study, we used an appropriate model represented by the cortex of Xenopus laevis long bone diaphysis lacking (unlike the mammalian one) of vascular structures and containing only osteocytes inside the bone matrix. These structural features allow any change of protein profile that might be observed upon different experimental conditions, such as bone adaptation to stress/mechanical loading, to be ascribed specifically to osteocytes...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924624/nano-mechanics-of-ionic-liquids-at-dielectric-and-metallic-interfaces
#19
Léo Garcia, Léa Jacquot, Elisabeth Charlaix, Benjamin Cross
Using a dynamic surface force apparatus, we investigate the nano-mechanics and the nano-rheology of an ionic liquid at dielectric and metallic solid surfaces. On smooth dielectric Pyrex surfaces, we find an ordered interfacial phase extending over less than 3 nm away from the top of the layer, with a compression modulus of 15 MPa extracted from the profile of the oscillatory forces. We discuss the boundary flow of the Newtonian bulk phase on this ordered interfacial layer. On metallic platinum surfaces, our hydrodynamic measurements evidence an interfacial soft solid layer extending up to 20 nm away from the top of the layer...
September 19, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924219/mesoscopic-model-for-dna-g-quadruplex-unfolding
#20
A E Bergues-Pupo, I Gutiérrez, J R Arias-Gonzalez, F Falo, A Fiasconaro
Genomes contain rare guanine-rich sequences capable of assembling into four-stranded helical structures, termed G-quadruplexes, with potential roles in gene regulation and chromosome stability. Their mechanical unfolding has only been reported to date by all-atom simulations, which cannot dissect the major physical interactions responsible for their cohesion. Here, we propose a mesoscopic model to describe both the mechanical and thermal stability of DNA G-quadruplexes, where each nucleotide of the structure, as well as each central cation located at the inner channel, is mapped onto a single bead...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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