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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141185/increased-cross-bridge-recruitment-contributes-to-transient-increase-in-force-generation-beyond-maximal-capacity-in-human-myocardium
#1
Nima Milani-Nejad, Jae-Hoon Chung, Benjamin D Canan, Vadim V Fedorov, Bryan A Whitson, Ahmet Kilic, Peter J Mohler, Paul M L Janssen
Cross-bridge attachment allows force generation to occur, and rate of tension redevelopment (ktr) is a commonly used index of cross-bridge cycling rate. Tension overshoots have been observed briefly after a slack-restretch ktr maneuver in various species of animal models and humans. In this study, we set out to determine the properties of these overshoots and their possible underlying mechanism. Utilizing human cardiac trabeculae, we have found that tension overshoots are temperature-dependent and that they do not occur at resting states...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140713/direct-observation-of-plasmon-induced-interfacial-charge-separation-in-metal-semiconductor-hybrid-nanostructures-by-measuring-surface-potentials
#2
Seung-Hoon Lee, Seung Woo Lee, Taegon Oh, Sarah Hurst Petrosko, Chad A Mirkin, Jae-Won Jang
Plasmon-induced interfacial charge separation (PICS) is one of the key processes responsible for the improved conversion efficiencies of energy-harvesting devices that incorporate metal nanostructures. In this letter, we reveal a mechanism of PICS by visualizing (with nanometer-scale resolution) and characterizing plasmon-exciton coupling between p-type poly(pyrrole) (PPy) nanowires (NWs) and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) using light-irradiated Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Under blue-light irradiation, the Ag NPs are expected to donate electrons to the PPy NWs via a hot electron injection process...
November 15, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140704/direct-observation-of-splitting-in-oil-in-water-in-oil-emulsion-droplets-via-a-microchannel-mimicking-membrane-pores
#3
Kazuki Akamatsu, Koki Minezaki, Masumi Yamada, Minoru Seki, Shin-Ichi Nakao
Direct observation of double emulsion droplet permeation through a microchannel that mimicked 100-μm membrane pores with a porosity of 66.7% provided insights regarding splitting mechanisms in porous membranes. The microchannel was fabricated by standard soft lithography, and the oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsion droplets were prepared with a glass capillary device. By changing the flow rate from 0.5 to 5.0×10(-2) m s(-1), three characteristic behaviors were observed: (a) passage into one channel without splitting; (b) division into two smaller components; and (c) stripping of the middle water phase of the double emulsion droplets into a smaller double emulsion droplet and a smaller water-in-oil single emulsion droplet...
November 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140466/transcription-induced-supercoiling-as-the-driving-force-of-chromatin-loop-extrusion-during-formation-of-tads-in-interphase-chromosomes
#4
Dusan Racko, Fabrizio Benedetti, Julien Dorier, Andrzej Stasiak
Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show here that growing plectonemes resulting from transcription-induced supercoiling have the ability to actively push cohesin rings along chromatin fibres. The pushing direction is such that within each topologically associating domain (TAD) cohesin rings forming handcuffs move from the source of supercoiling, constituted by RNA polymerase with associated DNA topoisomerase TOP1, towards borders of TADs, where supercoiling is released by topoisomerase TOPIIB. Cohesin handcuffs are pushed by continuous flux of supercoiling that is generated by transcription and is then progressively released by action of TOPIIB located at TADs borders...
November 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140377/influence-of-the-prosthetic-index-on-fracture-resistance-of-morse-taper-dental-implants
#5
Karla Zancopé, Caio César Dias Resende, Carolina Guimarães Castro, Rafael Calixto Salatti, Flávio Domingues das Neves
PURPOSE: Manufacturers have inserted a prosthetic index, an internal hexagon to guide prosthetic components inside Morse taper implants. However, it is still unclear if this mechanism could decrease the mechanical strength of Morse taper implants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the prosthetic index inside Morse taper implants on fracture resistance compared with nonindexed implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-seven Morse taper implants, with 11...
November 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140284/crack-propagation-calculations-for-optical-fibers-under-static-bending-and-tensile-loads-using-continuum-damage-mechanics
#6
Yunxia Chen, Yuxuan Cui, Wenjun Gong
Static fatigue behavior is the main failure mode of optical fibers applied in sensors. In this paper, a computational framework based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM) is presented to calculate the crack propagation process and failure time of optical fibers subjected to static bending and tensile loads. For this purpose, the static fatigue crack propagation in the glass core of the optical fiber is studied. Combining a finite element method (FEM), we use the continuum damage mechanics for the glass core to calculate the crack propagation path and corresponding failure time...
November 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140147/sprint-running-performance-and-technique-changes-in-athletes-during-periodized-training-an-elite-training-group-case-study
#7
Ian N Bezodis, David G Kerwin, Stephen-Mark Cooper, Aki I T Salo
PURPOSE: To understand how training periodization influences sprint performance and key step characteristics over an extended training period in an elite sprint training group. METHODS: Four sprinters were studied during five months of training. Step velocities, step lengths and step frequencies were measured from video of the maximum velocity phase of training sprints. Bootstrapped mean values were calculated for each athlete for each session and 139 within-athlete, between-session comparisons were made with a repeated measures ANOVA...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139324/molecular-dynamics-simulations-and-novel-drug-discovery
#8
Xuewei Liu, Danfeng Shi, Shuangyan Zhou, Hongli Liu, Huanxiang Liu, Xiaojun Yao
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can provide not only plentiful dynamical structural information on biomacromolecules but also a wealth of energetic information about protein and ligand interactions. Such information is very important to understanding the structure-function relationship of the target and the essence of protein-ligand interactions and to guiding the drug discovery and design process. Thus, MD simulations have been applied widely and successfully in each step of modern drug discovery. Areas covered: In this review, the authors review the applications of MD simulations in novel drug discovery, including the pathogenic mechanisms of amyloidosis diseases, virtual screening and the interaction mechanisms between drugs and targets...
November 15, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139033/relationship-between-airflow-obstruction-and-coronary-atherosclerosis-in-asymptomatic-individuals-evaluation-by-coronary-ct-angiography
#9
Jin-Jin Kim, Dong-Bin Kim, Sung-Won Jang, Eun Joo Cho, Kiyuk Chang, Sang Hong Baek, Ho-Joong Youn, Wook Sung Chung, Ki-Bae Seung, Tai-Ho Rho, Jung Im Jung, Byung-Hee Hwang
Airflow obstruction is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the causal mechanisms linking airflow obstruction with higher incidence of cardiovascular events remain elusive. We evaluated the relationship between airflow obstruction, a key feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and prevalence, extent, and severity of coronary atherosclerosis in a large cohort of asymptomatic subjects. Participants were recruited from those undergoing spirometry and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) as part of a general health evaluation from March 2009 to February 2011...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138908/amine-modified-magnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticle-as-a-promising-carrier-for-application-in-bio-self-healing-concrete
#10
Mostafa Seifan, Alireza Ebrahiminezhad, Younes Ghasemi, Ali Khajeh Samani, Aydin Berenjian
Self-healing mechanisms are a promising solution to address the concrete cracking issue. Among the investigated self-healing strategies, the biotechnological approach is distinguished itself by inducing the most compatible material with concrete composition. In this method, the potent bacteria and nutrients are incorporated into the concrete matrix. Once cracking occurs, the bacteria will be activated, and the induced CaCO3 crystals will seal the concrete cracks. However, the effectiveness of a bio self-healing concrete strictly depends on the viability of bacteria...
November 14, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138567/resveratrol-ameliorates-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-depression-like-behavior-involvement-of-the-hpa-axis-inflammatory-markers-bdnf-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-rats
#11
Xin-Hua Yang, Su-Qi Song, Yun Xu
Classic antidepressant drugs are modestly effective across the population and most are associated with intolerable side effects. Recently, numerous lines of evidence suggest that resveratrol (RES), a natural polyphenol, possesses beneficial therapeutic activity for depression. The aim of the present study was to explore whether RES exhibits an antidepressant-like effect in a depression model and to explore the possible mechanism. A depression model was established via chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), after which the model rats in the RES and fluoxetine groups received a daily injection of RES or fluoxetine, respectively...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138496/designing-ecofriendly-bionanocomposite-assembly-with-improved-antimicrobial-and-potent-on-site-zika-virus-vector-larvicidal-activities-with-its-mode-of-action
#12
Pramod C Mane, Ravindra D Chaudhari, Manish D Shinde, Deepali D Kadam, Chung Kil Song, Dinesh P Amalnerkar, Haiwon Lee
Dialyzed natural polymer, fibroin, from Bombyx mori was used to synthesize biocompatible silver and gold nanoparticles in-situ in dispersion form. The films of pure fibroin (PF), fibroin-silver nanocomposite (FSNC) and fibroin-gold nanocomposite (FGNC) were fabricated by drop casting method. The characterization of the resultant dispersion and films was performed by visual color change, UV-Vis spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The dispersions of PF, FSNC and FGNC were tested for antibacterial activity against E...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138418/spiral-modes-and-the-observation-of-quantized-conductance-in-the-surface-bands-of-bismuth-nanowires
#13
Tito E Huber, Scott Johnson, Leonid Konopko, Albina Nikolaeva, Anna Kobylianskaya, Michael J Graf
When electrons are confined in two-dimensional materials, quantum-mechanical transport phenomena and high mobility can be observed. Few demonstrations of these behaviours in surface spin-orbit bands exist. Here, we report the observation of quantized conductance in the surface bands of 50-nm Bi nanowires. With increasing magnetic fields oriented along the wire axis, the wires exhibit a stepwise increase in conductance and oscillatory thermopower, possibly due to an increased number of high-mobility spiral surface modes based on spin-split bands...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138312/correlating-cell-shape-and-cellular-stress-in-motile-confluent-tissues
#14
Xingbo Yang, Dapeng Bi, Michael Czajkowski, Matthias Merkel, M Lisa Manning, M Cristina Marchetti
Collective cell migration is a highly regulated process involved in wound healing, cancer metastasis, and morphogenesis. Mechanical interactions among cells provide an important regulatory mechanism to coordinate such collective motion. Using a self-propelled Voronoi (SPV) model that links cell mechanics to cell shape and cell motility, we formulate a generalized mechanical inference method to obtain the spatiotemporal distribution of cellular stresses from measured traction forces in motile tissues and show that such traction-based stresses match those calculated from instantaneous cell shapes...
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137889/modeling-of-the-transport-and-deposition-of-polydispersed-particles-effects-of-hydrodynamics-and-spatiotemporal-evolution-of-the-deposition-rate
#15
Enze Ma, Tariq Ouahbi, Huaqing Wang, Nasre-Dine Ahfir, Abdellah Alem, Ahmed Hammadi
A time-distance-dependent deposition model is built to investigate the effects of hydrodynamic forces on the transport and deposition of polydispersed particles and the evolution of deposition rates with time and distance. Straining and the heterogeneity of the particle population are considered to play important roles in the decreasing distribution of deposition rates. Numerical simulations were applied in a series of sand column experiments at different fluid velocities for three different porous media. The effects of hydrodynamics forces are elaborated with the systematic variations of deposition dynamic parameters of the proposed model...
November 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137792/effects-of-radiator-shapes-on-the-bubble-diving-and-dispersion-of-ultrasonic-argon-process
#16
Xuan Liu, Jilai Xue, Qiang Zhao, Qichi Le, Zhiqiang Zhang
In this work, three ultrasonic radiators in different shapes have been designed in order to investigate the effects of radiator shapes on the argon bubble dispersion and diving as well as the degassing efficiency on magnesium melt. The radiator shape has a strong influence on the bubble diving and dispersion by ultrasound. A massive argon bubble slowly flows out from the radiator with the hemispherical cap, due to the covering hemispherical cap. Using a concave radiator can intensively crush the argon bubbles and drive them much deep into the water/melt, depending on the competition between the argon flow and opposite joint shear force from the concave surface...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137624/compression-rate-dependent-nonlinear-mechanics-of-normal-and-impaired-porcine-knee-joints
#17
Marcel Leonardo Rodriguez, LePing Li
BACKGROUND: The knee joint performs mechanical functions with various loading and unloading processes. Past studies have focused on the kinematics and elastic response of the joint with less understanding of the rate-dependent load response associated with viscoelastic and poromechanical behaviors. METHODS: Forty-five fresh porcine knee joints were used in the present study to determine the loading-rate-dependent force-compression relationship, creep and relaxation of normal, dehydrated and meniscectomized joints...
November 14, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137527/binding-modes-of-bcl-2-homology-3-bh3-peptides-with-anti-apoptotic-protein-a1-and-redesign-of-peptide-inhibitors-a-computational-study
#18
Yantao Chen, Jun Wang, Jian Zhang, Wei Wang
The interaction between protein and peptide ligand is a challenging problem in molecular biology and drug design. The binding of the Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3) peptide to the anti-apoptotic protein A1 was revealed as a critical step in the regulation of apoptosis. These BH3 peptides hold high structural similarity, but are diverse in their regulation abilities. Based on molecular simulations and MM-P(G)BSA methods, this work presented a detailed analysis on binding mechanism of the BH3 peptides derived from PUMA and BMF...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136638/a-free-boundary-model-of-a-motile-cell-explains-turning-behavior
#19
Masoud Nickaeen, Igor L Novak, Stephanie Pulford, Aaron Rumack, Jamie Brandon, Boris M Slepchenko, Alex Mogilner
To understand shapes and movements of cells undergoing lamellipodial motility, we systematically explore minimal free-boundary models of actin-myosin contractility consisting of the force-balance and myosin transport equations. The models account for isotropic contraction proportional to myosin density, viscous stresses in the actin network, and constant-strength viscous-like adhesion. The contraction generates a spatially graded centripetal actin flow, which in turn reinforces the contraction via myosin redistribution and causes retraction of the lamellipodial boundary...
November 14, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136539/an-examination-of-lower-limb-asymmetry-in-ankle-isometric-force-control
#20
Sheng-Che Yen, Laura C Olsavsky, Caitlin M Cloonan, Amelia R Llanos, Kara J Dwyer, Mohsen Nabian, Amir Bahador Farjadian
While asymmetries have been observed between the dominant and non-dominant legs, it is unclear whether they have different abilities in isometric force control (IFC). The purpose of this study was to compare ankle IFC between the legs. IFC is important for stabilization rather than object manipulation, and people typically use their non-dominant leg for stabilization tasks. Additionally, studies suggested that a limb can better acquire a motor task when the control mechanism of the task is related to what the limb is specialized for...
November 11, 2017: Human Movement Science
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