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Photo sensitivity

Hui-Hsu Gavin Tsai, Jia-Cheng Hu, Chun-Jui Tan, Yung-Ching Sheng, Chih-Chiang Chiu
The loading of dye sensitizers on a semiconductor is crucial for determining the light harvesting efficiency of dye-sensitizer solar cells (DSSCs). The interfacial properties of dyes adsorbed on TiO2 film such as adsorption configurations and adsorption energy can influence the total amount of dye sensitizers that loads and the stability of a DSSC device. Therefore, it is important to characterize the adsorption properties of dye sensitizers on TiO2 film atomically and electronically to ensure rational structure-based dye design for high-performance DSSCs...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Carlo Barnaba, Maria Teresa Rodríguez-Estrada, Giovanni Lercker, Hugo Sergio García, Ilce Gabriela Medina-Meza
In this work we studied the effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) methyl esters on cholesterol photo-induced oxidation. The oxidative routes were modeled with a chemical reaction network (CRN), which represents the first application of CRN to the oxidative degradation of a food-related lipid matrix. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, T-I), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, T-II) and a mixture of both (T-III) were added to cholesterol using hematoporphyrin as sensitizer, and were exposed to a fluorescent lamp for 48h...
October 15, 2016: Steroids
Wenjin Yang, Baodan Liu, Tao Fang, Weimmerskirch-Aubatin Jennifer, Labbé Christophe, Zhaosheng Li, Xinglai Zhang, Xin Jiang
Two-dimensional semiconductors with layer thicknesses of a few nanometers to tens of nanometers have attracted tremendous research interest due to their fascinating electrical, optical, and optoelectronic properties and technologically important applications. In this work, two dimensional ternary ZnIn2S4 nanosheets which self-assemble into microflowers have been synthesized through a feasible chemical vapour deposition process. High-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) analysis reveals that the ZnIn2S4 nanostructure exhibits an extremely high phase purity and a single crystal nature free of dislocations, stacking faults or twins...
October 18, 2016: Nanoscale
Natalia Miękus, Ilona Olędzka, Alina Plenis, Piotr Kowalski, Ewa Bień, Aleksandra Miękus, Małgorzata Anna Krawczyk, Elżbieta Adamkiewicz-Drożyńska, Tomasz Bączek
The unbalanced secretion of biogenic amines (BAs) is considered to be a relevant biochemical biomarker in the screening for neuroendocrine tumors, such as: neuroblastoma and pheochromocytoma. However, there is still a need to improve the bioanalytical procedures for BA determination in biological samples due to their instability (photo- and thermosensitivity, easy oxidation) and low concentration in the body fluids. In this study, the primary analytical challenge was to optimize the method of extraction of seven compounds from among BAs and their precursors from urine samples...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Jongha Lee, Byeongjun Yoo, Hakyong Lee, Gi Doo Cha, Hee-Su Lee, Youngho Cho, Sang Yeon Kim, Hyunseon Seo, Woongchan Lee, Donghee Son, Myungjoo Kang, Hyung Min Kim, Yong Il Park, Taeghwan Hyeon, Dae-Hyeong Kim
Multi-dye-sensitized upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs), which harvest photons of wide wavelength range (450-975 nm) are designed and synthesized. The UCNPs embedded in photo-acid generating layer are integrated on destructible nonvolatile resistive memory device. Upon illumination of the light, the system permanently erases stored data, achieving enhanced information security.
October 17, 2016: Advanced Materials
Heike Hevekerl, Johan Tornmalm, Jerker Widengren
Tryptophan fluorescence is extensively used for label-free protein characterization. Here, we show that by analyzing how the average tryptophan fluorescence intensity varies with excitation modulation, kinetics of tryptophan dark transient states can be determined in a simple, robust and reliable manner. Thereby, highly environment-, protein conformation- and interaction-sensitive information can be recorded, inaccessible via traditional protein fluorescence readouts. For verification, tryptophan transient state kinetics were determined under different environmental conditions, and compared to literature data...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Patrick C Sanger, Vlad V Simianu, Cameron E Gaskill, Cheryl Al Armstrong, Andrea L Hartzler, Ross J Lordon, William B Lober, Heather L Evans
BACKGROUND: Postoperative surgical site infections (SSI) are common and costly. Most occur post-discharge, and may result in potentially preventable readmission and/or unnecessary urgent evaluation. Mobile health approaches incorporating patient-generated wound photos are being implemented in an attempt to optimize triage and management. We assessed how adding wound photos to existing data sources modifies provider decision-making. STUDY DESIGN: Web-based simulation survey using convenience sample of providers with expertise in surgical infections...
October 13, 2016: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Wen-Liang Gong, Jie Yan, Ling-Xi Zhao, Chong Li, Zhen-Li Huang, Ben Zhong Tang, Ming-Qiang Zhu
Photoswitchable fluorophores are promising in single-molecule optical devices and super-resolution fluorescence imaging, especially in single-molecule photo-activated localization microscopy (PALM) or stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM). However, the scarcity of current photoswitchable fluorophores stimulates researchers to develop complicated optical systems and processing software, in accordance with the limited photoswitchable fluorescent proteins and organic fluorophores. Previous efforts to develop synthetic photoswitchable fluorophores have exhibited their promising potential in super-resolution fluorescence imaging...
October 14, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Erik Hedman, Mats Lekander, Bianka Karshikoff, Brjánn Ljótsson, Erland Axelsson, John Axelsson
Severe health anxiety is characterized by a debilitating fear of somatic illness, and avoidance of disease-related stimuli plays a key role in the maintenance of the disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate severe health anxiety within an evolutionary disease-avoidance framework. We hypothesized that, compared to healthy controls, participants with severe health anxiety would perceive others as sicker, more contagious, and less attractive. We also expected individuals with severe health anxiety to be more prone to avoid interaction with persons who appeared sick, as well as to respond with more health-related worry, more disgust, and more anxiety when confronting such individuals...
October 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Zubin J Daruwalla, Jing L Loh, Chaoyan Dong
BACKGROUND: The Personal Data Protection Act (PDPA) of Singapore was first passed in 2012, with subsequent enforcement regulations effective in 2014. Although medical education via digital platforms is not often used in medical schools in Singapore as of yet, many current means of communication at all levels in the medical community from medical schools to clinics to hospitals are unsecure and noncompliant with the PDPA. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study will assess the effectiveness of MyDoc, a secure, mobile telehealth application and messaging platform, as an educational tool, secure communications tool, and a tool to raise awareness of the PDPA...
August 9, 2016: JMIR Med Educ
Poul Erik Hansen, Torben Lund, Jacob Krake, Jens Spanget-Larsen, Soren Hvidt
The complex between diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA) and formic acid has been reinvestigated. Mixing the compounds in the ratio 1:1 leads to a phase separation in which the upper phase is DIPEA, the lower phase is the "ionic liquid" named DIPEF. A combined NMR and DFT study shows that the lower phase primarily is formic acid:formate and diisopropylammonium ions in the ratio 2:1 (acid:base) plus the formic acid dimer. Addition of more acid leads to more and more of the acid dimer. The proton transfer in the system is ~ 0...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Bryson E Finch, Emily S Stefansson, Chris J Langdon, Suzanne M Pargee, Susanna M Blunt, Susan J Gage, William A Stubblefield
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been reported to absorb ultraviolet (UV) light, resulting in enhanced toxicity. Early developmental stages of bivalves may be particularly susceptible to photo-enhanced toxicity during oil spills. In the current study, toxicity tests were conducted with sperm and three larval ages of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) to evaluate the photo-enhanced toxicity of low-energy water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of two weathered Macondo crude oils collected from the Deepwater Horizon incident...
October 7, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Wei-Chao Song, Xun-Zhe Cui, Zhong-Yi Liu, En-Cui Yang, Xiao-Jun Zhao
A self-catenated Zn(II)-organic framework formulated as [Zn2(3,3'-bpeab)(oba)2]·DMF (1) exhibiting a six-connected 4(4)·6(10)·8 topology has been successfully synthesized through the mixed-ligand of kinked 3,3'-bis[2-(4-pyridyl)ethenyl]azobenzene (3,3'-bpeab) and 4,4'-oxybis-benzoic acid (H2oba) under solvothermal condition. UV light triggers isomerization of complex 1 in a single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) manner, giving rise to a conformational supramolecular isomer 1_UV through the pedal motion of photoresponsive double bonds...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xi-Zhi Niu, Francesco Busetti, Markus Langsa, Jean-Philippe Croué
Many fluoroquinolone (FLQ) antibiotics undergo rapid photodegradation in sunlit waters and form multifaceted photo-products. The high photodegradation rate is primarily ascribed to their photosensitizing properties. Though widely studied, the photo-reaction pathways are not completely revealed; photo-products mediated by different reactive oxygen species are not identified. In our study, photo-degradation of fluoroquinolone norfloxacin was investigated. A rapid degradation in buffered water was observed with a first-order rate constant of 2...
October 4, 2016: Water Research
Selina Schimka, Nino Lomadze, Maren Rabe, Alexey Kopyshev, Maren Lehmann, Regine von Klitzing, Artem M Rumyantsev, Elena Yu Kramarenko, Svetlana Santer
We report on light sensitive microgel particles that can change their volume reversibly in response to illumination with light of different wavelengths. To make the anionic microgels photosensitive we add surfactants with a positively charged polyamine head group and an azobenzene containing tail. Upon illumination, azobenzene undergoes a reversible photo-isomerization reaction from a trans- to a cis-state accompanied by a change in the hydrophobicity of the surfactant. Depending on the isomerization state, the surfactant molecules are either accommodated within the microgel (trans-state) resulting in its shrinkage or desorbed back into water (cis-isomer) letting the microgel swell...
October 10, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Martin Claassen, Chunjing Jia, Brian Moritz, Thomas P Devereaux
Monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides are novel materials which at low energies constitute a condensed-matter realization of massive relativistic fermions in two dimensions. Here, we show that this picture breaks for optical pumping-instead, the added complexity of a realistic materials description leads to a new mechanism to optically induce topologically protected chiral edge modes, facilitating optically switchable conduction channels that are insensitive to disorder. In contrast to graphene and previously discussed toy models, the underlying mechanism relies on the intrinsic three-band nature of transition-metal dichalcogenide monolayers near the band edges...
October 10, 2016: Nature Communications
Susan Taylor, Marianne E Walsh, Julie B Becher, David B Ringelberg, Philip Z Mannes, Gordon W Gribble
The US military is developing insensitive munitions (IM) that are less sensitive to shock and high temperatures to minimize unintentional detonations. DNAN (2,4-dinitroanisole) is one of the main ingredients of these IM formulations. During live-fire training, chunks of IM formulations are scattered by partial detonations and, once on the soil, they weather and dissolve. DNAN changes color when exposed to sunlight suggesting that it photodegrades into other compounds. We investigated the photo-degradation of DNAN both as a pure solid and as part of solid IM formulations, IMX101, IMX104 and PAX21...
October 6, 2016: Chemosphere
Gaurav Chauhan, Vianni Chopra, Amit Tyagi, Goutam Rath, Rakesh K Sharma, Amit K Goyal
Nano-graphene oxide (GO) nanometal composite (specifically nanogold and nanosilver) have shown to be a promising material for anticancer therapeutics. Owing to their high drug loading capacity, photothermal and synergizing effects, it is very important to exploit them for targeted chemo-thermal cancer therapeutics. In this work, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were selected as the composite metal, folic acid (FA) was taken as GO surface functionalization moiety for active tumor targeting of model anticancer drug Doxorubicin (Dox)...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Mei Yan, Guilian Li, Chongshen Guo, Wei Guo, DanDan Ding, Shouhao Zhang, Shaoqin Liu
To make full use of solar energy for photocatalytic reactions, in this work, we developed full-spectrum-responsive photocatalysts with noteworthy photocatalytic activities under either UV, visible or even near infrared irradiation for the photodegradation of methylene blue. The core-shell structure of TiO2@WO3-x is designed from the consideration of combining the full-spectrum photo-absorption properties of WO3-x with the excellent semiconductor properties of TiO2. As expected, the WO3-x sensitized TiO2 sphere gives rise to a prominently strong optical absorption in the whole region of 300-2500 nm and thus displays desired photocatalytic properties for the full utilization of all solar energy, especially in the unexploited NIR part, which accounts for most of the sunlight...
October 6, 2016: Nanoscale
Xinglai Zhang, Baodan Liu, Wenjin Yang, Wenbo Jia, Jing Li, Chunhai Jiang, Xin Jiang
The ultra-sensitive photodetection of different wavelengths holds promising applications in high-performance optoelectronic devices and it requires an efficient and suitable semiconductor unit. Herein, we demonstrated the designable synthesis of 3D-branched hierarchical 3C-SiC/ZnO heterostructures by a three-step process and their assembling into an ultrasensitive photodetector. Microstructure analyses using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that the hierarchical 3C-SiC/ZnO heterostructure is composed of single-crystal 3C-SiC nanowires as a central stem and numerous well-aligned single-crystalline ZnO nanorods as branch shells...
October 14, 2016: Nanoscale
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