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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335211/noise-removal-with-maintained-spatial-resolution-in-raman-images-of-cells-exposed-to-submicron-polystyrene-particles
#1
Linnea Ahlinder, Susanne Wiklund Lindström, Christian Lejon, Paul Geladi, Lars Österlund
The biodistribution of 300 nm polystyrene particles in A549 lung epithelial cells has been studied with confocal Raman spectroscopy. This is a label-free method in which particles and cells can be imaged without using dyes or fluorescent labels. The main drawback with Raman imaging is the comparatively low spatial resolution, which is aggravated in heterogeneous systems such as biological samples, which in addition often require long measurement times because of their weak Raman signal. Long measurement times may however induce laser-induced damage...
April 29, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335199/highly-efficient-plasmon-enhanced-dye-sensitized-solar-cells-created-by-means-of-dry-plasma-reduction
#2
Van-Duong Dao, Ho-Suk Choi
Plasmon-assisted energy conversion is investigated in a comparative study of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) equipped with photo-anodes, which are fabricated by forming gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) on an fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass surface by means of dry plasma reduction (DPR) and coating TiO₂ paste onto the modified FTO glass through a screen printing method. As a result, the FTO/Ag-NPs/TiO₂ photo-anode showed an enhancement of its photocurrent, whereas the FTO/Au-NPs/TiO₂ photo-anode showed less photocurrent than even a standard photo-anode fabricated by simply coating TiO₂ paste onto the modified FTO glass through screen printing...
April 14, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334627/a-novel-versatile-microbiosensor-for-local-hydrogen-detection-by-means-of-scanning-photoelectrochemical-microscopy
#3
Fangyuan Zhao, Felipe Conzuelo, Volker Hartmann, Huaiguang Li, Stefanie Stapf, Marc M Nowaczyk, Matthias Rögner, Nicolas Plumeré, Wolfgang Lubitz, Wolfgang Schuhmann
The development of a versatile microbiosensor for hydrogen detection is reported. Carbon-based microelectrodes were modified with a [NiFe]-hydrogenase embedded in a viologen-modified redox hydrogel for the fabrication of a sensitive hydrogen biosensor By integrating the microbiosensor in a scanning photoelectrochemical microscope, it was capable of serving simultaneously as local light source to initiate photo(bio)electrochemical reactions while acting as sensitive biosensor for the detection of hydrogen. A hydrogen evolution biocatalyst based on photosystem 1-platinum nanoparticle biocomplexes embedded into a specifically designed redox polymer was used as a model for proving the capability of the developed hydrogen biosensor for the detection of hydrogen upon localized illumination...
March 18, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322053/development-of-a-novel-lysosome-targeted-ruthenium-ii-complex-for-phosphorescence-time-gated-luminescence-assay-of-biothiols
#4
Quankun Gao, Wenzhu Zhang, Bo Song, Run Zhang, Weihua Guo, Jingli Yuan
Considering the important roles of biothiols in lysosomes of live organisms, and unique photophysical/photochemical prop-erties of ruthenium(II) complexes, a novel ruthenium(II) complex, Ru-2, has been developed as a molecular probe for phosphorescence and time-gated luminescence assay of biothiols in human sera, live cells and in vivo. Ru-2 is weakly lumi-nescent due to the effective photo-induced electron transfer (PET) from Ru(II) luminophore to electron acceptor, 2,4-dinitrobenzene-sulfonyl (DNBS). In the presence of biothiols, such as glutathione (GSH), cysteine (Cys) and homocysteine (Hcy), the emission of Ru-2 solution was switched ON, as the result of the cleavage of quencher to form the production, Ru-1...
March 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320482/pressure-relieving-support-surfaces-a-randomised-evaluation-2-pressure-2-photographic-validation-sub-study-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Elizabeth McGinnis, Sarah Brown, Howard Collier, Phil Faulks, Rachael Gilberts, Clare Greenwood, Valerie Henderson, Delia Muir, Andrea Nelson, Jane Nixon, Isabelle Smith, Nikki Stubbs, Kay Walker, Lyn Wilson, Susanne Coleman
BACKGROUND: PRESSURE 2 is a randomised evaluation of the clinical and cost effectiveness of two types of pressure relieving mattress for the prevention of pressure ulcers. The primary endpoint is the time to development of a Category ≥2 pressure ulcer. The current 'gold standard' for the identification of a Category ≥2 pressure ulcer is expert clinical assessment. Due to the appearance of the bed, it is not possible to achieve blinding of the endpoint. This therefore poses a risk to the internal validity of the study...
March 20, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320327/metabolomics-analysis-reveals-the-metabolic-and-functional-roles-of-flavonoids-in-light-sensitive-tea-leaves
#6
Qunfeng Zhang, Meiya Liu, Jianyun Ruan
BACKGROUND: As the predominant secondary metabolic pathway in tea plants, flavonoid biosynthesis increases with increasing temperature and illumination. However, the concentration of most flavonoids decreases greatly in light-sensitive tea leaves when they are exposed to light, which further improves tea quality. To reveal the metabolism and potential functions of flavonoids in tea leaves, a natural light-sensitive tea mutant (Huangjinya) cultivated under different light conditions was subjected to metabolomics analysis...
March 20, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320313/retention-of-duplicated-long-wavelength-opsins-in-mosquito-lineages-by-positive-selection-and-differential-expression
#7
Gloria I Giraldo-Calderón, Michael J Zanis, Catherine A Hill
BACKGROUND: Opsins are light sensitive receptors associated with visual processes. Insects typically possess opsins that are stimulated by ultraviolet, short and long wavelength (LW) radiation. Six putative LW-sensitive opsins predicted in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti and malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and eight in the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, suggest gene expansion in the Family Culicidae (mosquitoes) relative to other insects. Here we report the first detailed molecular and evolutionary analyses of LW opsins in three mosquito vectors, with a goal to understanding the molecular basis of opsin-mediated visual processes that could be exploited for mosquito control...
March 21, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319525/crowdsourcing-to-evaluate-fundus-photographs-for-the-presence-of-glaucoma
#8
Xueyang Wang, Lucy I Mudie, Mani Baskaran, Ching-Yu Cheng, Wallace L Alward, David S Friedman, Christopher J Brady
PURPOSE: To assess the accuracy of crowdsourcing for grading optic nerve images for glaucoma using Amazon Mechanical Turk before and after training modules. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Images (n=60) from 2 large population studies were graded for glaucoma status and vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR). In the baseline trial, users on Amazon Mechanical Turk (Turkers) graded fundus photos for glaucoma and VCDR after reviewing annotated example images. In 2 additional trials, Turkers viewed a 26-slide PowerPoint training or a 10-minute video training and passed a quiz before being permitted to grade the same 60 images...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319224/surface-photo-charge-effect-in-doped-zno-nanorods-for-high-performance-self-powered-ultraviolet-photodetectors
#9
Buddha Deka Boruah, Shanmukh Naidu Majji, Abha Misra
The unique photo-charge characteristics of chlorine-doped zinc oxide nanorods (Cl-ZnO NRs) are explored for the first time in ultraviolet (UV) photodetector (PD) that offers an outstanding self-powered photoresponse towards low UV illumination signals. A self-powered Cl-ZnO NRs PD exhibits superior photon detection speed of the order of a few ms with high sensitivity and photoelasticity. Therefore, the presented PD opens up a novel route to fabricate highly efficient self-powered PDs on a large scale without employing complex multilayer systems...
March 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317268/enhanced-surface-charge-transport-and-stability-of-cds-1d-zr-fe2o3-nanorod-arrays-with-al2o3-passivation-layer-for-photoelectrochemical-solar-hydrogen-generation
#10
Jum Suk Jang, Mahadeo A Mahadik, Arunprabaharan Subramanian, Min Cho, Hee-Suk Chung
CdS sensitized 1D Zr:Fe2O3 nanorod arrays have been synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates via a two-step hydrothermal method. The photoelectrochemical results demonstrate that the current density (4.2 mA.cm-2 at 0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) recorded under illumination for the CdS/1D Zr:Fe2O3 photoanodes is 2.8 time higher than the bare 1D Zr:Fe2O3. The extended absorbance spectrum, the reduced recombination, and the effective transport of photogenerated holes in CdS to the electrolyte facilitate enhancement in photoelectrochemical performance...
March 20, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300363/activation-of-hip-prostheses-in-high-energy-radiotherapy-and-resultant-dose-to-nearby-tissue
#11
Stephanie Keehan, Ryan L Smith, Jeremy Millar, Max Esser, Michael L Taylor, Peta Lonski, Tomas Kron, Rick D Franich
High energy radiotherapy can produce contaminant neutrons through the photonuclear effect. Patients receiving external beam radiation therapy to the pelvis may have high-density hip prostheses. Metallic materials such as those in hip prostheses, often have high cross-sections for neutron interaction. In this study, Thackray (UK) prosthetic hips have been irradiated by 18 MV radiotherapy beams to evaluate the additional dose to patients from the activation products. Hips were irradiated in- and out-of field at various distances from the beam isocenter to assess activation caused in-field by photo-activation, and neutron activation which occurs both in and out-of-field...
March 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296083/immobilization-of-pt-nanoparticles-via-rapid-and-reusable-electropolymerization-of-dopamine-on-tio2-nanotube-arrays-for-reversible-sers-substrates-and-nonenzymatic-glucose-sensors
#12
Jingsheng Cai, Jianying Huang, Mingzheng Ge, James Iocozzia, Zhiqun Lin, Ke-Qin Zhang, Yuekun Lai
Inspired by mussel-adhesion phenomena in nature, polydopamine (PDA) coatings are a promising route to multifunctional platforms for decorating various materials. The typical self-polymerization process of dopamine is time-consuming and the coatings of PDA are not reusable. Herein, a reusable and time-saving strategy for the electrochemical polymerization of dopamine (EPD) is reported. The PDA layer is deposited on vertically aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs). Owing to the abundant catechol and amine groups in the PDA layer, uniform Pt nanoparticles (NPs) are deposited onto the TiO2 NTAs and can effectively prevent the recombination of electron-hole pairs generated from photo-electrocatalysis and transfer the captured electrons to participate in the photo-electrocatalytic reaction process...
March 10, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294437/near-infrared-photo-induced-reactions-assisted-by-upconverting-nanoparticles
#13
Si Wu, James Blinco, Christopher Barner-Kowollik
The majority of photoreactions reported in the literature rely on wavelength within the UV and - to a lesser extent - visible regime for activation, either by directly triggering the reaction or by photocatalysis. However, photoreactions induced by near-infrared (NIR) light are highly attractive for biomedical applications as NIR light can penetrate deeper into tissue and causes less damage to photosensitive biological systems. Recently, upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) have been employed by us and others to assist NIR photo-induced reactions...
March 15, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294246/reversible-photo-gated-transmembrane-channel-assembled-from-an-acylhydrazone-containing-crown-ether-triad
#14
Yan Zhou, Yong Chen, Ping-Ping Zhu, Wen Si, Jun-Li Hou, Yu Liu
We have prepared a crown ether triad containing acylhydrazone units. In solution, the triad can self-assemble linearly to form an organogel. UV light-induced E/Z isomerization of the C[double bond, length as m-dash]N bond of the acylhydrazone unit endows the assembly with photo-sensitivity. The triad was able to insert into the lipid bilayer to form a supramolecular transmembrane channel which showed transport selectivity for NH4(+) over K(+). The channel exhibited photo-gating properties under microscopic and macroscopic conditions...
March 15, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294128/a-cross-functional-nanostructured-platform-based-on-carbon-nanotube-si-hybrid-junctions-where-photon-harvesting-meets-gas-sensing
#15
F Rigoni, C Pintossi, G Drera, S Pagliara, G Lanti, P Castrucci, M De Crescenzi, L Sangaletti
A combination of the functionalities of carbon nanotube (CNT)-Si hybrid heterojunctions is presented as a novel method to steer the efficiency of the photovoltaic (PV) cell based on these junctions, and to increase the selectivity and sensitivity of the chemiresistor gas sensor operated with the p-doped CNT layer. The electrical characteristics of the junctions have been tracked by exposing the devices to oxidizing (NO2) and reducing (NH3) molecules. It is shown that when used as PV cells, the cell efficiency can be reversibly steered by gas adsorption, providing a tool to selectively dope the p-type layer through molecular adsorption...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293836/plant-ethylene-detection-using-laser-based-photo-acoustic-spectroscopy
#16
Bram Van de Poel, Dominique Van Der Straeten
Analytical detection of the plant hormone ethylene is an important prerequisite in physiological studies. Real-time and super sensitive detection of trace amounts of ethylene gas is possible using laser-based photo-acoustic spectroscopy. This Chapter will provide some background on the technique, compare it with conventional gas chromatography, and provide a detailed user-friendly hand-out on how to operate the machine and the software. In addition, this Chapter provides some tips and tricks for designing and performing physiological experiments suited for ethylene detection with laser-based photo-acoustic spectroscopy...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288465/atlas-of-illustrative-cases-of-tattoo-complications
#17
Jørgen Serup
Tattoos, and tattoo complications as well, are colorful and visually flashy. A clinical outlook provides important clues to diagnosis by pattern recognition. This atlas,which is a report of 79 case illustrations, is made as a practical tool and vade mecum for the clinician. The atlas can be used in the office and as a bedside tool. It includes characteristic photos, and each case is accompanied with a brief medical history, a comment with learning points, the final diagnosis, and a review of therapeutic options...
2017: Current Problems in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287568/recombination-dynamics-in-thin-film-photovoltaic-materials-via-time-resolved-microwave-conductivity
#18
Joanna A Guse, Timothy W Jones, Andrew Danos, Dane R McCamey
A method for investigating recombination dynamics of photo-induced charge carriers in thin film semiconductors, specifically in photovoltaic materials such as organo-lead halide perovskites is presented. The perovskite film thickness and absorption coefficient are initially characterized by profilometry and UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy. Calibration of both laser power and cavity sensitivity is described in detail. A protocol for performing Flash-photolysis Time Resolved Microwave Conductivity (TRMC) experiments, a non-contact method of determining the conductivity of a material, is presented...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276684/ultrasound-induced-magnetic-imaging-of-tumors-targeted-by-biofunctional-magnetic-nanoparticles
#19
Kai-Wen Huang, Jen-Jie Chieh, Chih-Kuang Yeh, Shu-Hsien Liao, Yi-Yan Lee, Pei-Yi Hsiao, Wen-Chun Wei, Hong-Chang Yang, Herng-Er Horng
Biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been widely applied in biomedical engineering. MNPs are used as a contrast medium in magnetic imaging. Current methods of magnetic imaging, such as magnetic particle imaging and magnetic relaxometry, use small amounts of MNPs at target points far from the surface of the patient's body; these methods always consume considerable power to produce magnetic fields of high uniformity or gradient excitations. Some drawbacks, such as a limited imaging region, imaging system shielding, and complex algorithms based on assumptions of MNP properties or environmental factors, also limit the application of MNP methods in clinics...
March 9, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276551/organic-inorganic-hybrid-photocatalyst-for-carbon-dioxide-reduction
#20
Dong-Il Won, Jong-Su Lee, Ha-Yeon Cheong, Minji Cho, Won-Jo Jung, Ho-Jin Son, Chyongjin Pac, Sang Ook Kang
Efficient hybrid photocatalysts for carbon dioxide reduction were developed from dye-sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles and their catalytic performance was optimized by ternary organic/inorganic components. Thus, the hybrid system consists of (E)-2-cyano-3-(5'-(5''-(p-(diphenylamino)phenyl)thiophen-2''-yl)thiophen-2'-yl)-acrylic acid as a sensitizer and fac-[Re(4,4'-bis(diethoxyphosphorylmethyl)-2,2'-bipyridine)(CO)3Cl] as a reduction catalyst (ReP), both of which have been fixed onto TiO2 semiconductors (s-TiO2, h-TiO2, d-TiO2)...
March 9, 2017: Faraday Discussions
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