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Passing out

Jeevan K Pant, Sridhar Krishnan
OBJECTIVE: To present a new compressive sensing (CS)-based method for the acquisition of ECG signals and for robust estimation of heart-rate variability (HRV) parameters from compressively sensed measurements with high compression ratio. APPROACH: CS is used in the biosensor to compress the ECG signal. Estimation of the locations of QRS segments is carried out by applying two algorithms on the compressed measurements. The first algorithm reconstructs the ECG signal by enforcing a block-sparse structure on the first-order difference of the signal, so the transient QRS segments are significantly emphasized on the first-order difference of the signal...
March 15, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Gretchen Hackett, Jodi Brady, Robert P Olympia
Students presenting with syncope and/or seizure occur occasionally in the school setting. Several studies have shown that seizures as well as respiratory distress are the most common medical emergencies that prompt school nurses and staff to contact emergency medical services (EMS) to transport students to the closest emergency department (Knight 1999, Olympia 2005). It is important to develop a differential diagnosis for syncope, to initiate stabilization of the student with life-threatening symptoms, and to triage these students to an appropriate level of care (back to the classroom, home with their guardian with follow-up at their primary health care provider's office, or directly to the closest emergency department via EMS)...
March 1, 2018: NASN School Nurse
Xiaofeng Yi, Jian Zhang, Tiehu Fan, Baofeng Tian, Chuandong Jiang
Magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) is a novel geophysical method to detect groundwater directly. By applying this method to underground projects in mines and tunnels, warning information can be provided on water bodies that are hidden in front prior to excavation and thus reduce the risk of casualties and accidents. However, unlike its application to ground surfaces, the application of MRS to underground environments is constrained by the narrow space, quite weak MRS signal, and complex electromagnetic interferences with high intensities in mines...
March 13, 2018: Sensors
Josep Saurí, Wolfgang Bermel, Teodor Parella, R Thomas Williamson, Gary E Martin
1,n-ADEQUATE is a powerful NMR technique for elucidating the structure of proton-deficient small molecules that can help to establish the carbon skeleton of a given molecule by providing long-range three-bond13 C-13 C correlations. Care must be taken when using the experiment to identify the simultaneous presence of one-bond13 C-13 C correlations that are not filtered out, unlike the HMBC experiment that has a low-pass J-filter to filter1 JCH responses out. Dual-optimized, inverted1 JCC 1,n-ADEQUATE is an improved variant of the experiment that affords broadband inversion of direct responses, obviating the need to take additional steps to identify these correlations...
March 13, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
Michael Strupp, Ludwig Kraus, Franz Schautzer, Dan Rujescu
OBJECTIVES: Since oral betahistine has a very high first-pass effect (ca. 99%), metabolized by monoamine oxidases (MAO), the benefits of a high-dosage betahistine monotherapy were compared with those of a lower dosage of betahistine in combination with the MAO-B inhibitor (MAO-B) selegiline on the frequency of acute attacks of vertigo in patients with Menière's disease (MD). METHODS: Thirteen adults aged 40-75 years (mean 58.9 years; six females) had initially been treated with a high dosage of betahistine dihydrochloride for at least 1 year...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Karl Messlinger
BACKGROUND: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has long been a focus of migraine research, since it turned out that inhibition of CGRP or CGRP receptors by antagonists or monoclonal IgG antibodies was therapeutic in frequent and chronic migraine. This contribution deals with the questions, from which sites CGRP is released, where it is drained and where it acts to cause its headache proliferating effects in the trigeminovascular system. RESULTS: The available literature suggests that the bulk of CGRP is released from trigeminal afferents both in meningeal tissues and at the first synapse in the spinal trigeminal nucleus...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
Jeffrey L Jarvis, John Gonzales, Danny Johns, Lauren Sager
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Peri-intubation hypoxia is an important adverse event of out-of-hospital rapid sequence intubation. The aim of this project is to determine whether a clinical bundle encompassing positioning, apneic oxygenation, delayed sequence intubation, and goal-directed preoxygenation is associated with decreased peri-intubation hypoxia compared with standard out-of-hospital rapid sequence intubation. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, before-after study using data from a suburban emergency medical services (EMS) system in central Texas...
March 9, 2018: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Timothy C Bates, Brion S Maher, Sarah E Medland, Kerrie McAloney, Margaret J Wright, Narelle K Hansell, Kenneth S Kendler, Nicholas G Martin, Nathan A Gillespie
Research on environmental and genetic pathways to complex traits such as educational attainment (EA) is confounded by uncertainty over whether correlations reflect effects of transmitted parental genes, causal family environments, or some, possibly interactive, mixture of both. Thus, an aggregate of thousands of alleles associated with EA (a polygenic risk score; PRS) may tap parental behaviors and home environments promoting EA in the offspring. New methods for unpicking and determining these causal pathways are required...
March 13, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Giorgina B Piccoli, Bernard G Jaar, Hayley Henderson
This editorial introduces a series of interviews with the pioneers of Nephrology. It's a story that speaks by itself, given the thousands of people that are now alive thanks to the remarkable advances in renal replacement therapies such as dialysis, and kidney transplantation but also the many scientific advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of kidney diseases worldwide.The interviews that we have selected for this series are, however, not dealing with their achievements, and their success; they try to pass on to future generations the idea of how they were, why they were passionate, what they loved, and, not last, where they found poetry in our profession...
March 12, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Nobuya Sato, Chihiro Fujishita, Atsuhito Yamagishi
To examine the flexibility of rats' spatial behaviour, we required rats to navigate to one of four boxes on the corners of a lattice maze. The maze consisted of five vertical and five horizontal corridors on a plane parallel to the ground and allowed us to design diverse routes. One box was set as goal and the other three were set as starting points. Both the time to arrive at the goal and the number of errors at the intersections on the route decreased, suggesting that the rats learned the route. As the goal boxes were successively changed, the decrease in the errors and the time to reach the goal became faster...
March 8, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Yu-Qing Guo, Xin-Hong Liao, Zhi-Xian Li, Yuan-Yuan Chen, Si-Da Wang, Ji-Han Wang, Xian-Shan Liao, Yuan Luo
A retrospective study was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and the factors influencing the diagnostic accuracy of 648 procedures of ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle biopsy (PNB) for peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs). We reviewed the histopathology results, the clinical records and the procedure reports of these 648 biopsies and the final diagnoses of 637 PPLs to determine the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound-guided PNB. Factors that influenced the diagnostic accuracy were assessed by analysis of the biopsy procedures, which were classified as diagnostic cases (true-positive and true-negative) and non-diagnostic cases (false-positive, false-negative and indeterminate)...
March 8, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Kimberly Y Won, Keri Robinson, Katy L Hamlin, Joseph Tufa, Margaret Seespesara, Ryan E Wiegand, Katherine Gass, Joseph Kubofcik, Thomas B Nutman, Patrick J Lammie, Saipale Fuimaono
BACKGROUND: Current WHO recommendations for lymphatic filariasis (LF) surveillance advise programs to implement activities to monitor for new foci of transmission after stopping mass drug administration (MDA). A current need in the global effort to eliminate LF is to standardize diagnostic tools and surveillance activities beyond the recommended transmission assessment survey (TAS). METHODOLOGY: TAS was first conducted in American Samoa in 2011 (TAS 1) and a repeat TAS was carried out in 2015 (TAS 2)...
March 9, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Rajesh Dabur, Amey Shirolkar, Vijender Mishra, Baljeet Singh Yadav
BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol consumption damages the intestine and liver cells directly as well as through unbalancing the gut microbiota. OBJECTIVE: The current study was undertaken to correlate the alcohol consumption and change in urinary metabolites profile linked with gut microbiota. METHOD: Non-alcoholic (control) healthy (n=22) and moderate alcoholic (n=26) males with an average age of 39.3±1.83 years subjected to alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) were considered for study...
March 7, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Christopher J Udell, Julie L Ruddy, Philip M Procento
Introduction: US Navy recruits who have injuries preventing them from participating in intense physical conditioning are pulled out of boot camp training and receive treatment that includes daily physical therapy, pain medications, and psychoeducational groups. Graduation from boot camp for these recruits requires not only recovering from their injuries but also passing a required Physical Fitness Assessment consisting of a timed 1.5-mile run, curl-ups, and push-ups. About 50-60% of these recruits will eventually be separated out and sent home...
March 6, 2018: Military Medicine
Jie Li, Guohai Qi, Yuan Qin, Pei Wang
Objective: The objective of this study is to preliminarily evaluate the feasibility of brass compensator-based intensity-modulated radiation therapy (CB-IMRT). Materials and Methods: Ten patients (three cases of nasopharyngeal cancer, four of esophageal cancer, and three of rectal cancer) who underwent an IMRT treatment planning were selected for this study. The transmission coefficient of brass plates with different thicknesses was measured under a 6 MV photon beam used in the treatment planning system, and the equation for thickness computation was fitted out...
January 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Vanessa Romotzky, Julia Strupp, Alexander Hayn, Jens Ulrich Rüffer, Judith Grümmer, Raymond Voltz
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to elucidate the views on life as narrated by patients in palliative care (PC) to find out what patients deem to be essential in their life, whether something has changed concerning their view of life in light of the disease, and whether interviewees would like to give others something to take with them. METHOD: Data were collected from narrative audio and video interviews with 18 inpatients in a specialized PC unit. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative content analysis applying MAXQDA software...
March 8, 2018: Palliative & Supportive Care
A M Ardi Handojoseno, Ganesh R Naik, Moran Gilat, James M Shine, Tuan N Nguyen, Quynh T Ly, Simon J G Lewis, Hung T Nguyen
Freezing of gait (FOG) is an episodic gait disturbance affecting initiation and continuation of locomotion in many Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, causing falls and a poor quality of life. FOG can be experienced on turning and start hesitation, passing through doorways or crowded areas dual tasking, and in stressful situations. Electroencephalography (EEG) offers an innovative technique that may be able to effectively foresee an impending FOG. From data of 16 PD patients, using directed transfer function (DTF) and independent component analysis (ICA) as data pre-processing, and an optimal Bayesian neural network as a predictor of a transition of 5 seconds before the impending FOG occurs in 11 in-group PD patients, we achieved sensitivity and specificity of 85...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Cristina Lazzarini, Krupanandan Haranahalli, Robert Rieger, Hari Krishna Ananthula, Pankaj B Desai, Alan Ashbaugh, Michael J Linke, Melanie T Cushion, Bela Ruzsicska, John Haley, Iwao Ojima, Maurizio Del Poeta
The incidence of invasive fungal infections has risen dramatically in the past decades. Current antifungal drugs are either toxic, likely to interact with other drugs, have a narrow spectrum of activity or induce fungal resistance. Hence, there is a great need for new antifungals, possibly with novel mechanisms of action. Previously our group reported an acylhydrazone called BHBM that targeted the sphingolipid pathway, and showed strong antifungal activity against several fungi. In this study, we screened 19 derivatives of BHBM...
March 5, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Michiko Yamamoto
 While expectations for the benefits of pharmaceuticals are high, the occurrence of health damage from adverse drug reactions remains a problem. One of the reasons for this seems to be insufficient risk communication among stakeholders. Healthcare professionals (HCPs), relevant agencies, and pharmaceutical companies have responsibilities to communicate useful information on the risks/benefits of the pharmaceuticals they provide in addition to basic policies and services. Four years have passed since the risk management plan system was introduced in Japan...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Pietro Francia, Matteo Ziacchi, Paolo De Filippo, Stefano Viani, Antonio D'Onofrio, Vincenzo Russo, Carmen Adduci, Mauro Biffi, Paola Ferrari, Valter Bianchi, Ernesto Ammendola, Francesca Palano, Jessica Frisoni, Sergio Valsecchi, Mariolina Lovecchio, Maria Grazia Bongiorni
PURPOSE: Since subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (S-ICD) introduction, the pre-implant screening based on a dedicated manual ECG tool (MST) was required to assure adequate sensing by the S-ICD. A novel automated screening tool (AST) has been recently developed. We assessed and compared the pass rate with AST and MST, and we measured the agreement between screening tools. METHODS: Three electrodes were positioned at locations mimicking the placement of the S-ICD, and ECG recordings were collected in the supine and standing postures at rest...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
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