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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940343/mitochondrial-replacement-techniques-scientific-tourism-and-the-global-politics-of-science
#1
Sarah Chan, César Palacios-González, María De Jesús Medina Arellano
The United Kingdom is the first and so far only country to pass explicit legislation allowing for the licensed use of the new reproductive technology known as mitochondrial replacement therapy. The techniques used in this technology may prevent the transmission of mitochondrial DNA diseases, but they are controversial because they involve the manipulation of oocytes or embryos and the transfer of genetic material. Some commentators have even suggested that MRT constitutes germline genome modification. All eyes were on the United Kingdom as the most likely location for the first MRT birth, so it was a shock when, on September 27, 2016, an announcement went out that the first baby to result from use of the intervention had already been born...
September 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939939/cognitive-performance-change-of-pediatric-patients-after-conducting-frontal-transcortical-approach-to-treat-lateral-ventricular-tumor
#2
Wanchun Zhu, Jintao He, Xiang Li, Lei Wang, Zheng Lu, Chunde Li, Jian Gong
OBJECTIVE: Applying frontal transcortical approach to treat lateral ventricular tumor is one of the most common neurosurgical manipulations. The frontal transcortical approach generally passes through the middle frontal gyrus in which there is no major function involved in the traditional sense. However, current researches have suggested that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a central role in the whole network of the brain cognitive frame. In addition, cognitive function is crucial in growing and developmental stages and essential for the educational achievement, especially for children...
September 22, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938053/persistent-hotspots-of-lymphatic-filariasis-microfilaraemia-despite-14-years-of-mass-drug-administration-in-ghana
#3
Nana-Kwadwo Biritwum, Paul Yikpotey, Benjamin K Marfo, Samuel Odoom, Ernest O Mensah, Odame Asiedu, Bright Alomatu, Edward T Hervie, Abednego Yeboah, Serge Ade, Sven G Hinderaker, Anthony Reid, Kudakwashe C Takarinda, Benjamin Koudou, Joseph B Koroma
Background: Among the 216 districts in Ghana, 98 were declared endemic for lymphatic filariasis in 1999 after mapping. Pursuing the goal of elimination, WHO recommends annual treatment using mass drugs administration (MDA) for at least 5 years. MDA was started in the country in 2001 and reached national coverage in 2006. By 2014, 69 districts had 'stopped-MDA' (after passing the transmission assessment survey) while 29 others remained with persistent microfilaraemia (mf) prevalence (≥1%) despite more than 11 years of MDA and were classified as 'hotspots'...
December 1, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935374/solidification-stabilization-of-asr-fly-ash-using-thiomer-material-optimization-of-compressive-strength-and-heavy-metals-leaching
#4
Jin Woong Baek, Angelo Earvin Sy Choi, Hung Suck Park
Optimization studies of a novel and eco-friendly construction material, Thiomer, was investigated in the solidification/stabilization of automobile shredded residue (ASR) fly ash. A D-optimal mixture design was used to evaluate and optimize maximum compressive strength and heavy metals leaching by varying Thiomer (20-40wt%), ASR fly ash (30-50wt%) and sand (20-40wt%). The analysis of variance was utilized to determine the level of significance of each process parameters and interactions. The microstructure of the solidified materials was taken from a field emission-scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy that confirmed successful Thiomer solidified ASR fly ash due to reduced pores and gaps in comparison with an untreated ASR fly ash...
September 18, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934592/getting-nervous-an-evolutionary-overhaul-for-communication
#5
Frederique Varoqueaux, Dirk Fasshauer
The evolution of a nervous system as a control system of the body's functions is a key innovation of animals. Its fundamental units are neurons, highly specialized cells dedicated to fast cell-cell communication. Neurons pass signals to other neurons, muscle cells, or gland cells at specialized junctions, the synapses, where transmitters are released from vesicles in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion to activate receptors in the membrane of the target cell. Reconstructing the origins of neuronal communication out of a more simple process remains a central challenge in biology...
September 20, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934105/an-architecture-for-on-line-measurement-of-the-tip-clearance-and-time-of-arrival-of-a-bladed-disk-of-an-aircraft-engine
#6
José Miguel Gil-García, Alejandro Solís, Gerardo Aranguren, Joseba Zubia
Safety and performance of the turbo-engine in an aircraft is directly affected by the health of its blades. In recent years, several improvements to the sensors have taken place to monitor the blades in a non-intrusive way. The parameters that are usually measured are the distance between the blade tip and the casing, and the passing time at a given point. Simultaneously, several techniques have been developed that allow for the inference-from those parameters and under certain conditions-of the amplitude and frequency of the blade vibration...
September 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933198/iatrogenic-injuries-in-percutaneous-pinning-techniques-for-fifth-metacarpal-neck-fractures
#7
Sheriff D Akinleye, Garret Garofolo-Gonzalez, Maya Deza Culbertson, Jack Choueka
BACKGROUND: There is little information regarding anatomic structures at risk during closed percutaneous treatment of fifth metacarpal neck fractures. This study evaluates a variety of common percutaneous techniques with the hypothesis that each approach presents unique risks to tendons and neurovascular structures. METHODS: Seven cadaveric hands were used for this study. The senior author, a board-certified hand surgeon with more than 20 years of experience, used a mini-C arm to pass 1...
September 1, 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932729/a-novel-and-simple-method-using-a-transanal-intestinal-long-tube-for-protecting-intestinal-anastomosis-and-decompressing-the-small-bowel
#8
So Hyun Nam
PURPOSE: I introduce the use of transanal intestinal long tube (TILT) using nasogastric tube. TILT passes from anus to the anastomosis, helping to decompress a dilated bowel loop. METHODS: TILT procedure was limited to those patients predicting a severe luminal size discrepancy after intestinal anastomosis, and who had postoperative prolonged ileus. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 10 infants (7 male an 3 female patients) who were treated using the TILT procedure between 2012 and 2016...
September 2017: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929866/culture-and-food-practices-of-african-american-women-with-type-2-diabetes
#9
Lisa L Sumlin, Sharon A Brown
Purpose The goals of this descriptive ethnographic study were to (1) describe the day-to-day selection, preparation, and consumption of food among African American women (AAW) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); (2) identify their typical food selections and consumption practices when dining out at restaurants and at social gatherings (ie, church functions, holidays); (3) highlight the valued behaviors and beliefs that influence these women's food practices; and (4) determine how social interactions influence those food practices...
September 1, 2017: Diabetes Educator
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928295/real-time-human-respiration-carbon-dioxide-measurement-device-for-cardiorespiratory-assessment
#10
Om Prakash Singh, Teo Aik Howe, Malarvili Balakrishnan
Development of a human respiration carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement device remains a demanding research to evaluate the cardio-respiratory status of human beings since last decades in and out of hospital. Hence, we report a real time, user operable CO2 measurement device using infrared CO2 sensor, Arduino Mega2560, and thin film transistor (TFT, 3.5"), incorporated with low pass (cut-off frequency,10Hz) and moving average (span,8) filters. The proposed device measures features such as partial end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2), respiratory rate (RR), inspired carbon dioxide (ICO2) and newly proposed feature, Hjorth Activity that annotated with a date and time received from real-time clock and stores into the secure digital (SD) card...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926782/enterprise-stent-in-recanalizing-non-acute-atherosclerotic-intracranial-internal-carotid-artery-occlusion
#11
Xiaofei Wang, Zhigang Wang, Yong Ji, Xuan Ding, Yizheng Zang, Chengwei Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the safety and effectiveness of recanalization in non-acute occlusion of intracranial internal carotid arteries using the flexible Enterprise self-expanding stent. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From June 2014 to June 2016, 12 consecutive patients with non-acute occlusion of intracranial internal carotid arteries received endovascular recanalization with Enterprise stenting. All patients received medication for anti-platelet aggregation therapy before and after the operation...
June 27, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919821/prevalence-of-fertility-desire-and-its-associated-factors-among-15-to-49-year-old-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study-design
#12
Takele Menna Adilo, Hirut Megerssa Wordofa
BACKGROUND: The magnitude of unprotected sex to satisfy the desire for fertility among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) may rise more due to the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in most HIV-affected countries. This could, however, have the risk of passing on HIV to sexual partners and children. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the magnitude and factors associated with the fertility desire of reproductive-age PLHIV in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, for research-based and timely actions...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918616/trainee-associated-factors-and-proficiency-at-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy
#13
Seyed Mohammad Kazem Aghamir, Negar Behtash, Morteza Hamidi, Hasan Farahmand, Alborz Salavati, Sara Mortaz Hejri
Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is a complicated procedure for urology trainees. This study was designed to investigate the effect of trainees' ages and previous experience, as well as the number of operated cases, on proficiency at PNL by using patient outcomes. A cross sectional observational study was designed during a five-year period. Trainees in PNL fellowship programs were included. At the end of the program, the trainees' performance in PNL was assessed regarding five competencies and scored 1-5...
July 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917561/cardiac-rhythm-analysis-during-ongoing-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-using-the-analysis-during-compressions-with-fast-reconfirmation-adc-fr-technology
#14
Francesca Fumagalli, Annemarie E Silver, Qing Tan, Naveed Zaidi, Giuseppe Ristagno
BACKGROUND: Pauses in chest compressions (CCs) have a negative association with survival from cardiac arrest (CA). ECG rhythm analysis and defibrillator charging are significant contributors to CC pauses. OBJECTIVE: Accuracy of the "Analysis During Compressions with Fast Reconfirmation" (ADC-FR) algorithm, which features automated rhythm analysis and charging during CCs to reduce CC pauses, was retrospectively determined in a large database of ECGs from 2,701 out-of-hospital CAs...
September 13, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917180/learning-from-the-operation-pathology-and-maintenance-of-a-bioretention-system-to-optimize-urban-drainage-practices
#15
Marina Batalini de Macedo, Altair Rosa, César Ambrogi Ferreira do Lago, Eduardo Mario Mendiondo, Vladimir Caramori Borges de Souza
LID practices for runoff control are increasingly being used as an integrated solution in urban drainage, helping to achieve hydrological balance close to the pre-urbanized period and decrease the diffuse pollution transported to urban rivers. Regarding bioretention, there is already broad knowledge about the detention of peak flows and their treatment capacity for many pollutants. However, there are still few field studies in microdrainage scale, which analyze the actual operation of these devices and raise common problems found, especially in subtropical climate...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914355/nasal-injury-and-comfort-with-jet-versus-bubble-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-delivery-systems-in-preterm-infants-with-respiratory-distress
#16
Jafar Khan, Venkataseshan Sundaram, Srinivas Murki, Anuj Bhatti, Shiv Sajan Saini, Praveen Kumar
Nasal injuries with use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) range from blanching of nasal tip to septal necrosis and septal drop. This analysis was done in preterm neonates of < 34-week gestation, who received nasal CPAP as primary support as part of a randomized trial comparing Jet device with Bubble device for delivery of CPAP, both through nasal prongs of different structure, make and fixation methods. Nasal injury was assessed using a validated nasal injury score. Out of 170 neonates enrolled, 103 (61%) had nasal injuries; moderate and severe injuries were observed in 18 (11%) and 8 (5%) infants, respectively...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911328/devolution-and-its-effects-on-health-workforce-and-commodities-management-early-implementation-experiences-in-kilifi-county-kenya
#17
Benjamin Tsofa, Catherine Goodman, Lucy Gilson, Sassy Molyneux
BACKGROUND: Decentralisation is argued to promote community participation, accountability, technical efficiency, and equity in the management of resources, and has been a recurring theme in health system reforms for several decades. In 2010, Kenya passed a new constitution that introduced 47 semi-autonomous county governments, with substantial transfer of responsibility for health service delivery from the central government to these counties. Focusing on two key elements of the health system, Human Resources for Health (HRH) and Essential Medicines and Medical Supplies (EMMS) management, we analysed the early implementation experiences of this major governance reform at county level...
September 15, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910764/efficient-message-passing-methods-with-fully-connected-models-for-early-vision
#18
Xiao Tan, Changming Sun, Fumin Shen, Kwan-Yee K Wong
Fully connected Markov random fields and conditional random fields have recently been shown to be advantageous in many early vision tasks being formulated as multi-labeling problems, such as stereo matching and image segmentation. The maximum posterior marginal (MPM) inference method in solving fully connected models uses a hybrid framework of mean-field (MF) method and a filtering like approach, and yields excellent results. In this paper, we extend this framework in several aspects. First, we provide an alternative inference method employing a fractional belief propagation based method instead of MF...
September 8, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906357/ercp-related-complication-is-not-the-only-cause-of-gi-bleeding-in-post-liver-transplantation-patients-a-case-report
#19
Zhen Ding, Xue-Lian Tang, Rong Lin, Chaoqun Han, Jun Liu
RATIONALE: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the treatment of choice for biliary complications in liver transplantation (LT) recipients as it is both diagnostic and therapeutic. The specific risks following ERCP among LT recipients have not been well studied. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 56-year-old man with a history of orthotopic LT underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) as a treatment of biliary strictures, whereby a plastic stent was implanted...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906155/the-role-of-tapentadol-as-a-strong-opioid-in-cancer-pain-management-a-systematic-and-critical-review
#20
Sebastiano Mercadante
AIM: The aim of this review was to assess the role of tapentadol given at medium-high doses in opioid-tolerant patients for cancer pain management in place of step-3 analgesics. METHODS AND RESULTS: A systematic literature search was performed out of which six studies and one secondary analysis provided data regarding tapentadol used as a step-3 analgesic for this review. Tapentadol, when used at ≥60 mg of oral morphine equivalents in opioid-tolerant patients with cancer pain, or passing from step-2 doses to ≥60 mg of oral morphine equivalents, was well tolerated and effective and could be considered as a flexible drug to be used for the management of moderate-to-severe cancer pain...
September 21, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
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