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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431457/precision-medicine-and-pharmacogenetics-what-does-oncology-have-that-addiction-medicine-does-not
#1
Henry R Kranzler, Rachel V Smith, Robert Schnoll, Afaf Moustafa, Emma Greenstreet-Akman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Precision, personalized or stratified medicine, which promises to deliver the right treatment to the right patient, is a topic of international interest in both the lay press and the scientific literature. A key aspect of precision medicine is the identification of biomarkers that predict the response to medications (i.e. pharmacogenetics). We examined why, despite the great strides that have been made in biomarker identification in many areas of medicine, only in oncology has there been substantial progress in their clinical implementation...
April 21, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431456/substance-and-behavioral-addictions-may-share-a-similar-underlying-process-of-dysregulation
#2
Steve Sussman, Dmitri Rozgonjuk, Regina J J M van den Eijnden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430368/proteomic-data-in-morphine-addiction-versus-real-protein-activity-metabolic-enzymes
#3
Anna Antolak, Anna Bodzoń-Kułakowska, Ewa Cetnarska, Monika Pietruszka, Marta Marszałek-Grabska, Jolanta Kotlińska, Piotr Suder
Drug dependence is an escalating problem worldwide and many efforts are being made to understand the molecular basis of addiction. The morphine model is widely used in these investigations. To date, at least 29 studies exploring the influence of morphine on mammals' proteomes have been published. Among various proteins indicated as up- or down-regulated, the expression changes of enzymes engaged in energy metabolism pathways have often been confirmed. To verify whether proteomics-indicated alterations in enzyme levels reflect changes in their activity, four enzymes: PK, MDH, Complex I, and Complex V were investigated in morphine addiction and abstinence models...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429885/intravenous-self-administration-of-benzydamine-a-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-with-a-central-cannabinoidergic-mechanism-of-action
#4
Riccardo Avvisati, Maria Meringolo, Emiliana Stendardo, Elisa Malavasi, Silvia Marinelli, Aldo Badiani
Benzydamine (BZY) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for the topical treatment of inflammations of the oral and vaginal mucosae. Virtually nothing is known about the central pharmacological actions of BZY. Yet there are reports of voluntary systemic overdosage of BZY in drug addicts, resulting in a euphoric, hallucinatory state. In the present study, we investigated the reinforcing properties of BZY in a rat self-administration paradigm. We found that BZY has a powerful reinforcing effect and that this effect is greatly facilitated in animals that already had substance experience, having previously self-administered heroin and cocaine, indicating cross sensitization between BZY and other common drugs of abuse...
April 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429835/levodopa-prevents-the-reinstatement-of-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats-via-potentiation-of-dopamine-release-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#5
Silvia Antinori, Liana Fattore, Pierluigi Saba, Walter Fratta, Gian Luigi Gessa, Paola Devoto
Dopamine agonists have been proposed as therapeutic tools for cocaine addiction. We have recently demonstrated that indirect dopamine agonists, including levodopa (L-DOPA), markedly increase cocaine-induced dopamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats leading to the suppression of cocaine-seeking behavior. This study was aimed to understand the behavioral and neurochemical effects of L-DOPA on cocaine-taking and cocaine-seeking in rats. After reaching a stable pattern of intravenous cocaine self-administration under a continuous fixed ratio (FR-1) schedule of reinforcement, male rats were treated with L-DOPA at different steps of the self-administration protocol...
April 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429737/the-glutamate-cystine-xct-antiporter-antagonizes-glutamine-metabolism-and-reduces-nutrient-flexibility
#6
Chun-Shik Shin, Prashant Mishra, Jeramie D Watrous, Valerio Carelli, Marilena D'Aurelio, Mohit Jain, David C Chan
As noted by Warburg, many cancer cells depend on the consumption of glucose. We performed a genetic screen to identify factors responsible for glucose addiction and recovered the two subunits of the xCT antiporter (system xc(-)), which plays an antioxidant role by exporting glutamate for cystine. Disruption of the xCT antiporter greatly improves cell viability after glucose withdrawal, because conservation of glutamate enables cells to maintain mitochondrial respiration. In some breast cancer cells, xCT antiporter expression is upregulated through the antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2 and contributes to their requirement for glucose as a carbon source...
April 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429582/obesity-and-addiction-can-a-complication-of-surgery-help-us-understand-the-connection
#7
REVIEW
V Ivezaj, L E Stoeckel, N M Avena, S C Benoit, A Conason, J F Davis, A N Gearhardt, R Goldman, J E Mitchell, C N Ochner, K K Saules, K J Steffen, E Stice, S Sogg
Obesity is a multifactorial, chronic disease that has proven difficult to treat. An increased understanding of aetiological mechanisms is critical to the development of more effective obesity prevention and treatment strategies. A growing body of empirical evidence has demonstrated parallels between obesity, overeating and substance abuse, including shared behavioural, psychological and neurophysiological factors implicated in the excessive intake of both food and substances of abuse. Several different lines of research have recently emerged that hold the potential to shed light on the connection between obesity, food reward and addiction, with studies examining changes in alcohol use/misuse after weight loss surgery providing a particularly interesting perspective on these interrelationships...
April 21, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429068/nicotine-deprivation-elevates-neural-representation-of-smoking-related-cues-in-object-sensitive-visual-cortex-a-proof-of-concept-study
#8
Anne Havermans, Onno C P van Schayck, Eric F P M Vuurman, Wim J Riedel, Job van den Hurk
OBJECTIVE: In the current study, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to investigate whether tobacco addiction biases basic visual processing in favour of smoking-related images. We hypothesize that the neural representation of smoking-related stimuli in the lateral occipital complex (LOC) is elevated after a period of nicotine deprivation compared to a satiated state, but that this is not the case for object categories unrelated to smoking...
April 21, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428763/adhd-lifestyles-and-comorbidities-a-call-for-an-holistic-perspective-from-medical-to-societal-intervening-factors
#9
REVIEW
Simon Weissenberger, Radek Ptacek, Martina Klicperova-Baker, Andreja Erman, Katerina Schonova, Jiri Raboch, Michal Goetz
The review examines Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in its Child and Adult form) and its various presentations (Hyperactive Impulsive, Inattentive, and Combined) with a particular focus on environmental (incl. social factors), lifestyles and comorbidities. It is argued that ADHD is best understood in a holistic and interactive context and a vast empirical literature is presented to illustrate the point: Environmental factors include stress in general as well as exposure to toxins (phthalates, bisphenol A)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428748/resting-state-neuroimaging-and-neuropsychological-findings-in-opioid-use-disorder-during-abstinence-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Hada Fong-Ha Ieong, Zhen Yuan
Dependence to opiates, including illicit heroin and prescription pain killers, and treatment of the opioid use disorder (OUD) have been longstanding problems over the world. Despite intense efforts to scientific investigation and public health care, treatment outcomes have not significantly improved for the past 50 years. One reason behind the continuing use of heroin worldwide despite such efforts is its highly addictive nature. Brain imaging studies over the past two decades have made significant contribution to the understanding of the addictive properties as to be due in part to biological processes, specifically those in the brain structure and function...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428274/egfr-mediates-responses-to-small-molecule-drugs-targeting-oncogenic-fusion-kinases
#11
Aria Vaishnavi, Laura Schubert, Uwe Rix, Lindsay A Marek, Anh T Le, Stephen Keysar, Magdalena J Glogowska, Matthew A Smith, Severine L Kako, Natalia J Sumi, Kurtis D Davies, Kathryn E Ware, Marileila Varella-Garcia, Eric B Haura, Antonio Jimeno, Lynn E Heasley, Dara L Aisner, Robert C Doebele
Oncogenic kinase fusions of ALK, ROS1, RET and NTRK1 act as drivers in human lung and other cancers. Residual tumor burden following treatment of ALK or ROS1+ lung cancer patients with oncogene-targeted therapy ultimately enables the emergence of drug-resistant clones, limiting the long-term effectiveness of these therapies. To determine the signaling mechanisms underlying incomplete tumor cell killing in oncogene-addicted cancer cells, we investigated the role of EGFR signaling in drug-naive cancer cells harboring these oncogene fusions...
April 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428171/treat-addictions-with-evidence-not-ideology
#12
EDITORIAL
Fiona Godlee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427996/no-evidence-that-environmental-enrichment-during-rearing-protects-against-cocaine-behavioral-effects-but-as-an-intervention-reduces-an-already-established-cocaine-conditioned-place-preference
#13
E Galaj, A Shukur, M Manuszak, K Newman, R Ranaldi
OBJECTIVES: Environmental enrichment (EE) produces differential effects on psychostimulant-related behaviors. Therefore, we investigated whether EE introduced during rearing and before cocaine exposure versus in adulthood and after cocaine exposure might be a determinant. METHODS: In Experiment 1, rats reared with EE or not (non-EE) were conditioned with cocaine (5, 10 or 20mg/kg) in one compartment of a CPP apparatus and saline in the other, and later tested for cocaine CPP...
April 17, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427995/conditioned-taste-avoidance-conditioned-place-preference-and-hyperthermia-induced-by-the-second-generation-bath-salt-%C3%AE-pyrrolidinopentiophenone-%C3%AE-pvp
#14
Katharine H Nelson, Briana J Hempel, Matthew M Clasen, Kenner C Rice, Anthony L Riley
BACKGROUND: α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP) has been reported to be rewarding in a variety of pre-clinical models. Given that a number of drugs of abuse have both rewarding and aversive effects, the balance of which influences addiction potential, the present study examined the aversive properties of α-PVP by assessing its ability to induce taste avoidance. This assessment was made in a combined taste avoidance/place conditioning design that also allowed an evaluation of the relationship between α-PVP's aversive and rewarding effects...
April 17, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427930/the-relative-prevalence-of-schizophrenia-among-cannabis-and-cocaine-users-attending-addiction-services
#15
Nicolás Libuy, Valeria de Angel, Carlos Ibáñez, Robin M Murray, Adrian P Mundt
BACKGROUND: Cannabis and cocaine are the most common illicit drugs for which people are treated in addiction services in Latin America. Much research has suggested that the use of cannabis increases the risk of schizophrenia; there is less evidence concerning cocaine. The aim of the present study was to establish the relative prevalence of schizophrenia in people treated for cannabis use and cocaine use disorders in Chile. METHODS: A sample of 22,615 people treated for illicit drug use disorders was obtained from a national registry of addiction service users in Chile...
April 18, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426875/bisphenol-a-activates-egfr-and-erk-promoting-proliferation-tumor-spheroid-formation-and-resistance-to-egfr-pathway-inhibition-in-estrogen-receptor-negative-inflammatory-breast-cancer-cells
#16
Scott J Sauer, Michael Tarpley, Imran Shah, Akshay V Save, H Kim Lyerly, Steven R Patierno, Kevin P Williams, Gayathri R Devi
Emerging evidence from epidemiological studies suggests a link between environmental chemical exposure and progression of aggressive breast cancer subtypes. Of all clinically distinct types of breast cancers, the most lethal phenotypic variant is inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR/HER2) along with estrogen receptor (ER) negativity is common in IBC tumor cells, which instead of a solid mass present as rapidly proliferating diffuse tumor cell clusters. Our previous studies have demonstrated a role of an adaptive response of increased antioxidants in acquired resistance to EGFR-targeting drugs in IBC...
March 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426439/high-mortality-among-patients-with-opioid-use-disorder-in-a-large-healthcare-system
#17
Yih-Ing Hser, Larissa J Mooney, Andrew J Saxon, Karen Miotto, Douglas S Bell, Yuhui Zhu, Di Liang, David Huang
OBJECTIVES: Elevated mortality has been observed among individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) treated in addiction specialty clinics or programs. Information about OUD patients in general healthcare settings is needed in light of the current effort to integrate addiction services into primary healthcare systems. This study examined mortality rates, causes of death, and associated risk factors among patients with OUD in a large general healthcare system. METHODS: Mortality data were linked with electronic health records of 2576 OUD patients cared for in a large university health system from 2006 to 2014...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426355/income-levels-and-response-to-contingency-management-for-smoking-cessation
#18
Carla López-Núñez, Roberto Secades-Villa, Elsa Peña-Suárez, Sergio Fernández-Artamendi, Sara Weidberg
BACKGROUND: Contingency management (CM) has demonstrated its efficacy in treating many drug addictions, including nicotine. However, one of the most commonly perceived limitations with regard to its dissemination into community settings is whether this protocol could be equally effective for treating patients across different income levels. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine whether individuals' income levels affect treatment success in a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) that included a voucher-based CM protocol for smoking cessation...
June 7, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426146/the-influence-of-substance-use-on-depressive-symptoms-among-young-adult-black-men-the-sensitizing-effect-of-early-adversity
#19
Steven M Kogan, Junhan Cho, Assaf Oshri, James MacKillop
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Depressive symptoms have been identified as an important consequence of substance use. Both heavy drinking and marijuana use have acute and short-term effects on systems that regulate emotion, increasing the potential for substance use to induce problems with negative affect and irritability. We investigated the effects of alcohol and marijuana use on depressive symptoms among a sample of young Black men. We also tested the stress sensitization hypothesis that exposure to adverse childhood experiences would amplify the influence of substance use on men's depressive symptoms...
April 20, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426098/targeting-chromatin-defects-in-selected-solid-tumors-based-on-oncogene-addiction-synthetic-lethality-and-epigenetic-antagonism
#20
D Morel, G Almouzni, J-C Soria, S Postel-Vinay
Background: Although the role of epigenetic abnormalities has been studied for several years in cancer genesis and development, epigenetic-targeting drugs have historically failed to demonstrate efficacy in solid malignancies. However, successful targeting of chromatin remodeling deficiencies, histone writers and histone reader alterations has been achieved very recently using biomarker-driven and mechanism-based approaches. Epigenetic targeting is now one of the most active areas in drug development and could represent novel therapeutic opportunity for up to 25% of all solid tumors...
February 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
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