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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166564/optical-control-of-dopamine-receptors-using-a-photoswitchable-tethered-inverse-agonist
#1
Prashant Donthamsetti, Nils Winter, Matthias Schönberger, Joshua Levitz, Cherise Stanley, Jonathan A Javitch, Ehud Y Isacoff, Dirk Trauner
Family A G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) control diverse biological processes and are of great clinical relevance. Their archetype rhodopsin becomes naturally light sensitive by binding covalently to the photoswitchable tethered ligand (PTL) retinal. Other GPCRs, however, neither bind covalently to ligands nor are light sensitive. We sought to impart the logic of rhodopsin to light-insensitive Family A GPCRs in order to enable their remote control in a receptor-specific, cell-type-specific and spatio-temporally precise manner...
November 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166482/abortion-and-sex-related-conditions-in-substance-dependent-brazilian-patients
#2
Alessandra Diehl, Sandra Cristina Pillon, Manoel Antonio Dos Santos, Ronaldo Laranjeira
Abortion is a very sensitive issue with relevance to public health; however few clinical or population-based studies have examined induced abortion among drug users. The study aims to evaluate the prevalence of induced abortion and sex-related conditions in an inpatient drug user sample. A cross-sectional design study was conducted in an inpatient addiction treatment unit in São Paulo, Brazil, with a sample of 616 patients, aged 18-75. Sociodemographic data, sexual behavior, and dependence severity were evaluated in relation to induced abortion...
November 21, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165852/capturing-and-missing-the-patient-s-story-through-outcome-measures-a-thematic-comparison-of-patient-generated-items-in-psychlops-with-core-om-and-phq-9
#3
Célia Md Sales, Inês Td Neves, Paula G Alves, Mark Ashworth
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in individualized patient-reported outcome measures (I-PROMS), where patients themselves indicate the specific problems they want to address in therapy and these problems are used as items within the outcome measurement tool. OBJECTIVE: This paper examined the extent to which 279 items reported in an I-PROM (PSYCHLOPS) added qualitative information which was not captured by two well-established outcome measures (CORE-OM and PHQ-9)...
November 22, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165617/selective-activation-of-striatal-ngf-trka-p75ntr-mapk-intracellular-signaling-in-rats-that-show-suppression-of-methamphetamine-intake-30-days-following-drug-abstinence
#4
Oscar V Torres, Subramanian Jayanthi, Michael T McCoy, Jean Lud Cadet
Background: The continuing epidemic of methamphetamine (METH) addiction has prompted research aimed at understanding striatal dysfunctions potentially associated with long-term METH use. Methods: Here, we investigated transcriptional and translational alterations in the expression of neurotrophic factors in the rat striatum at 30 days following METH SA and footshock punishment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer METH (0.1 mg/kg/injection, i...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165112/influence-of-a-50bp-ins-del-polymorphism-at-promoter-of-the-superoxide-dismutase-1-on-gene-expression-and-risk-of-heroin-dependency
#5
Khyber Saify, Mostafa Saadat
OBJECTIVE: Superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1, OMIM: 147450) is one of the major antioxidant enzymes, which plays a vital role in clearance of reactive oxygen species. A genetic polymorphism of 50 bp insertion/deletion (Ins/Del) in the promoter region of the SOD1 was reported. The aims of the present study are to evaluate the influence of this polymorphism on the SOD1 mRNA levels in human peripheral blood cells and its association with risk of heroin dependency. METHODS: The present study consisted of 47 healthy students of Shiraz University (south-west Iran) for investigating the association between the Ins/Del polymorphism on expression level of SOD1, also a total of 442 heroin dependent and 799 healthy controls were included in a case-control study investigating the association between the study polymorphism and risk of dependency to heroin...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164740/of-moral-judgments-and-sexual-addictions
#6
EDITORIAL
Keith Humphreys
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164494/betel-quid-use-and-oral-cancer-in-a-high-risk-refugee-community-in-the-usa-the-effectiveness-of-an-awareness-initiative
#7
Lucy L Shi, Ella Bradford, Danielle E Depalo, Amy Y Chen
Betel nut (BN) is a psychoactive oral carcinogen that is commonly used among Asian communities. This study aims to investigate BN usage patterns and the effectiveness of a visually guided educational initiative in a high-risk refugee population. All adult patients presenting to a private practice clinic, free community clinic, or health fair in the refugee community of Clarkston, Georgia during days when survey staff were present were approached for the study. Participants were first categorized into a familiar and unfamiliar cohort depending on participant-reported familiarity with BN...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163267/binge-eating-but-not-other-disordered-eating-symptoms-is-a-significant-contributor-of-binge-drinking-severity-findings-from-a-cross-sectional-study-among-french-students
#8
Benjamin Rolland, Mickael Naassila, Céline Duffau, Hakim Houchi, Fabien Gierski, Judith André
Many studies have suggested the co-occurrence of eating disorders and alcohol use disorders but in which extent binge eating (BE) and other disordered eating symptoms (DES) are associated with the severity of binge drinking (BD) remains unknown. We conducted a online cross-sectional study among 1,872 French students. Participants were asked their age, gender, tobacco and cannabis use status. They completed the Alcohol Use Questionnaire (AUQ), Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), and UPPS impulsive behavior questionnaire...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163257/free-will-and-the-brain-disease-model-of-addiction-the-not-so-seductive-allure-of-neuroscience-and-its-modest-impact-on-the-attribution-of-free-will-to-people-with-an-addiction
#9
Eric Racine, Sebastian Sattler, Alice Escande
Free will has been the object of debate in the context of addiction given that addiction could compromise an individual's ability to choose freely between alternative courses of action. Proponents of the brain-disease model of addiction have argued that a neuroscience perspective on addiction reduces the attribution of free will because it relocates the cause of the disorder to the brain rather than to the person, thereby diminishing the blame attributed to the person with an addiction. Others have worried that such displacement of free will attribution would make the person with a drug addiction less responsible...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163237/-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-in-rats-with-prolonged-cocaine-self-administration-suggests-potential-brain-biomarkers-for-addictive-behavior
#10
Nazzareno Cannella, Alejandro Cosa-Linan, Mareike Roscher, Tatiane T Takahashi, Nils Vogler, Björn Wängler, Rainer Spanagel
The DSM5-based dimensional diagnostic approach defines substance use disorders on a continuum from recreational drug use to habitual and ultimately addicted behavior. Biomarkers that are indicative of recreational drug use and addicted behavior are lacking. We performed a translational [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) study in the multi-dimensional 0/3crit model of cocaine addiction. Addict-like (3crit) and non-addict-like (0crit) rats, which shared identical life conditions and levels of cocaine self-administration, were acquired for FDG-PET under baseline conditions and following cocaine and yohimbine challenges...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163234/a-comparison-of-treatment-seeking-behavioral-addiction-patients-with-and-without-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Anne Sauvaget, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Fernando Fernández-Aranda, Roser Granero, Marie Grall-Bronnec, Caroline Victorri-Vigneau, Samuel Bulteau, Pascal Derkinderen, Jean M Vanelle, Anders Hakansson, Gemma Mestre-Bach, Trevor Steward, José M Menchón
The administration of dopaminergic medication to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with addictive behaviors and impulse control disorders. Little is known, however, on how PD patients differ from other patients seeking treatments for behavioral addictions. The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of behavioral addiction patients with and without PD. N = 2,460 treatment-seeking men diagnosed with a behavioral addiction were recruited from a university hospital. Sociodemographic, impulsivity [Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11)], and personality [Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R)] measures were taken upon admission to outpatient treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163080/behavioral-and-neurochemical-phenotyping-of-mice-incapable-of-homer1a-induction
#12
Michael C Datko, Jia-Hua Hu, Melanie Williams, Cindy M Reyes, Kevin D Lominac, Georg von Jonquieres, Matthias Klugmann, Paul F Worley, Karen K Szumlinski
Immediate early and constitutively expressed products of the Homer1 gene regulate the functional assembly of post-synaptic density proteins at glutamatergic synapses to influence excitatory neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Earlier studies of Homer1 gene knock-out (KO) mice indicated active, but distinct, roles for IEG and constitutively expressed Homer1 gene products in regulating cognitive, emotional, motivational and sensorimotor processing, as well as behavioral and neurochemical sensitivity to cocaine...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162499/metabolic-strategies-for-the-degradation-of-the-neuromodulator-agmatine-in-mammals
#13
REVIEW
José Benítez, David García, Nicol Romero, Arlette González, José Martinez, Maximiliano Figueroa, Mónica Salas, Vasthi López, Peter R Dodd, Gerhard Schenk, Nelson Carvajal, Elena Uribe
Agmatine (1-amino-4-guanidinobutane), a precursor for polyamine biosynthesis, has been identified as an important neuromodulator with anticonvulsant, antineurotoxic and antidepressant actions in the brain. In this context it has emerged as an important mediator of addiction/satiety pathways associated with alcohol misuse. Consequently, the regulation of the activity of key enzymes in agmatine metabolism is an attractive strategy to combat alcoholism and related addiction disorders. Agmatine results from the decarboxylation of L-arginine in a reaction catalyzed by arginine decarboxylase (ADC), and can be converted to either guanidine butyraldehyde by diamine oxidase (DAO) or putrescine and urea by the enzyme agmatinase (AGM) or the more recently identified AGM-like protein (ALP)...
November 18, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162112/continuity-of-care-as-experienced-by-mental-health-service-users-a-qualitative-study
#14
Eva Biringer, Miriam Hartveit, Bengt Sundfør, Torleif Ruud, Marit Borg
BACKGROUND: People who struggle with mental health problems can provide valuable insight into understanding and improving the coordination of mental health and welfare services. The aims of the study were to explore service users' experiences and perceptions of continuity of care within and across services relevant to personal recovery, to elicit which dimensions of continuity of care are most essential to service users, and to generate ideas for improving service users' experiences of continuity of care...
November 21, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161174/the-telescoping-phenomenon-origins-in-gender-bias-and-implications-for-contemporary-scientific-inquiry
#15
Katherine R Marks, Claire D Clark
BACKGROUND: In an article published in International Journal of the Addictions in 1989, Nick Piazza and his coauthors described "telescoping," an accelerated progression through "landmark symptoms" of alcoholism, among a sample of recovering women. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this critical analysis is to apply a feminist philosophy of science to examine the origins of the framework of telescoping research and its implications for contemporary scientific inquiry. METHODS: A feminist philosophy of science framework is outlined and applied to key source publications of telescoping literature drawn from international and United States-based peer-reviewed journals published beginning in 1952...
November 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161171/at-the-expense-of-a-life-race-class-and-the-meaning-of-buprenorphine-in-pharmaceuticalized-care
#16
Alexandrea E Hatcher, Sonia Mendoza, Helena Hansen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Office-based buprenorphine maintenance has been legalized and promoted as a treatment approach that not only expands access to care, but also reduces the stigma of addiction treatment by placing it in a mainstream clinical setting. At the same time, there are differences in buprenorphine treatment utilization by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. METHODS: This article draws on qualitative data from interviews with 77 diverse patients receiving buprenorphine in a primary care clinic and two outpatient substance dependence clinics to examine differences in patients' experiences of stigma in relation their need for psychosocial supports and services...
November 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161023/in-vivo-neurochemical-profile-of-selectively-bred-high-responder-and-low-responder-rats-reveals-baseline-cocaine-and-novelty-evoked-differences-in-monoaminergic-systems
#17
Omar S Mabrouk, John L Han, Jenny-Marie T Wong, Huda Akil, Robert T Kennedy, Shelly B Flagel
Relative to bred low-responder (bLR) rats, bred high-responder (bHR) rats have an exaggerated locomotor response to a novel environment, are more risk-taking, more impulsive, and more likely to exhibit compulsive drug-seeking behaviors. These phenotypic differences in addiction-related behaviors and temperament have previously been associated with differences in neurotransmitter signaling, including the mesolimbic dopamine system. In the current study, we applied advanced in vivo microdialysis sampling in the nucleus accumbens of bHRs/bLRs to assess differences in basal and stimulated neurochemical efflux more broadly...
November 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160606/the-relationship-between-hazardous-alcohol-use-and-violence-among-street-involved-youth
#18
Nadia Fairbairn, Evan Wood, Sabina Dobrer, Huiru Dong, Thomas Kerr, Kora Debeck
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Alcohol is a major contributor to premature disability and death among youth, often due to physical trauma, violence, and suicide. The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine the association between hazardous alcohol use and experiences of violence among a cohort of street-involved youth. METHODS: Data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective cohort of street-involved youth who use illicit substances in Vancouver, Canada...
December 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160596/chronic-pain-and-opioid-abuse-factors-associated-with-health-related-quality-of-life
#19
Jermaine D Jones, Jonathan S Vogelman, Rachel Luba, Mudassir Mumtaz, Sandra D Comer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: While research on the separate relationships between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and chronic pain, and HRQOL and opioid abuse has been sparse, even less work has investigated the factors associated with HRQOL in individuals who have both chronic pain and meet criteria for opioid use disorder. The data presented in this analysis should allow a better understanding the factors important to quality of life among this dual-diagnosed population. METHODS: Individuals with dual diagnoses of chronic pain and opioid use disorder were recruited for clinical research studies at Columbia University Medical Center...
November 21, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159862/mass-media-interventions-for-smoking-cessation-in-adults
#20
REVIEW
Malgorzata M Bala, Lukasz Strzeszynski, Roman Topor-Madry
BACKGROUND: Mass media tobacco control campaigns can reach large numbers of people. Much of the literature is focused on the effects of tobacco control advertising on young people, but there are also a number of evaluations of campaigns targeting adult smokers, which show mixed results. Campaigns may be local, regional or national, and may be combined with other components of a comprehensive tobacco control policy. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of mass media interventions in reducing smoking among adults...
November 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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