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Camillia K Lui, Nina Mulia
Aims: Alcohol problems are most prevalent in young adulthood and decrease thereafter, but some studies find that racial/ethnic minorities have elevated alcohol risk beyond the 20s. This study examines racial/ethnic differences in the transitions into and out of alcohol problems, and whether these are explained by heavy drinking (HD), socioeconomic disadvantages and adult role transitions from the 20s to 30s. Short summary: Racial/ethnic groups had similar risks for earlier onset and recurrence/persistence of alcohol problems, but Blacks were at significantly greater risk than Whites for later onset in the 30s...
March 13, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Emanuele F Osimo, Rudolf N Cardinal, Peter B Jones, Golam M Khandaker
Low-grade inflammation is a risk factor for depression, psychosis and other major psychiatric disorders. It is associated with poor response to antidepressant and antipsychotics, and could potentially be a treatment target. However, there is limited data on the prevalence of low-grade inflammation in major psychiatric disorders, and on the characteristics of patients who show evidence of inflammation. We examined the prevalence of low-grade inflammation and associated socio-demographic and clinical factors in acute psychiatric inpatients...
March 1, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Hiu-Fai Fong, Margarita Alegria, Megan H Bair-Merritt, William Beardslee
Although child welfare caseworkers are responsible for facilitating mental health services access for maltreated children, little is known about caseworkers' decisions to refer children to services. We aimed to identify factors associated with caseworker referral of children to mental health services after a maltreatment investigation. We analyzed data from 1956 children 2-17 years old from the Second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. We examined associations of children's predisposing, enabling, and need-related factors and caseworkers' work environment characteristics with referral to mental health services...
March 9, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Rebecca Burch, Paul Rizzoli, Elizabeth Loder
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In this targeted systematic review, we aimed to identify up-to-date prevalence estimates of migraine and severe headache in adults from population-based US government surveys. Our goal was to assess the stability of prevalence estimates over time, and to identify additional information pertinent to the burden and treatment of migraine and other severe headache conditions. METHODS: We searched for the most current publicly available summary statistics from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS), and the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS)...
March 12, 2018: Headache
Axel H Newton, Frantisek Spoutil, Jan Prochazka, Jay R Black, Kathryn Medlock, Robert N Paddle, Marketa Knitlova, Christy A Hipsley, Andrew J Pask
The Tasmanian tiger or thylacine ( Thylacinus cynocephalus ) was an iconic Australian marsupial predator that was hunted to extinction in the early 1900s. Despite sharing striking similarities with canids, they failed to evolve many of the specialized anatomical features that characterize carnivorous placental mammals. These evolutionary limitations are thought to arise from functional constraints associated with the marsupial mode of reproduction, in which otherwise highly altricial young use their well-developed forelimbs to climb to the pouch and mouth to suckle...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Matthew I Black, Andrew M Jones, Paul T Morgan, Stephen J Bailey, Jonathan Fulford, Anni Vanhatalo
Purpose: To investigate the influence of β-alanine (BA) supplementation on muscle carnosine content, muscle pH and the power-duration relationship (i.e., critical power and W'). Methods: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 20 recreationally-active males (22 ± 3 y, V°O2peak 3.73 ± 0.44 L·min-1 ) ingested either BA (6.4 g/d for 28 d) or placebo (PL) (6.4 g/d) for 28 d. Subjects completed an incremental test and two 3-min all-out tests separated by 1-min on a cycle ergometer pre- and post-supplementation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Emilia Okragla, Milena Chraniuk, Lidia Wolska
Herbs can be used preventatively, to aid treatment and to ease the symptoms of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Traditional medicine uses herbal infusions such as: lingonberry leaf (Vitis idaeae folium), birch leaf (Betulaefolium) wild thyme extract (Serpylli herba), dwarf everlast flower (Helichrysi inflorescentia), goldenrod (Virgauneae herba, also called Solidaginis herba), restharrow root (Ononidis radix), agrimony (Agrimoniae herba), rowanberry (Sorbi aucupariae fructus), black elderberry (Sambuci fructus), and juniper berry (Juniperifrictus)...
May 2017: Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica
Ulises Aregueta-Robles, Oscar R Fajardo-Ramírez, Luis Villela, Janet A Gutiérrez-Uribe, José Hernández-Hernández, Rosa Del Carmen López-Sánchez, Sean-Patrick Scott, Sergio Serna-Saldívar
Background: Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a very common legume seed in Mexican diet. Flavonoids and crude extracts from different plants have been reported as effective agents for chemoprevention and cytotoxicity in several cancer cell lines. We investigated the effects of black bean hulls extract (BBE) and its flavonoid fraction (FF) on lymphoma cells. Methods: BBE and FF were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography. Viability and flow cytometry assays were carried out...
2018: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
Ciaran Thrush, Tabitha J Porter, Brian M Devitt
PURPOSE: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture commonly occurs in conjunction with articular cartilage injury. However, there is no consensus on the most appropriate rehabilitation which should be carried out for ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and the surgical management of articular cartilage lesions of the knee. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature to investigate the recommended rehabilitation protocol for patients undergoing ACLR with concomitant articular cartilage injury with a view to develop guidelines on the most appropriate treatment...
March 6, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Stamatoula Bonatsou, Marina Karamouza, Georgia Zoumpopoulou, Eleni Mavrogonatou, Dimitris Kletsas, Konstantinos Papadimitriou, Effie Tsakalidou, George-John E Nychas, Efstathios Ζ Panagou
In the present study, 49 yeast strains previously isolated from cv. Kalamata table olive fermentation were assessed for their probiotic potential and technological characteristics. The probiotic assays included the in vitro survival in simulated gastric and pancreatic digestions, surface adhesion to the intestinal cell line Caco-2, hydrophobicity, autoaggregation and haemolytic activity. The technological features of the strains were also elucidated in terms of enzymatic activity and susceptibility to diverse salt levels (0-250 g/L) and pH values (3...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Andrus Voitk, Irja Saar, Steven Trudell, Viacheslav Spirin, Michael Beug, Urmas Kõljalg
Geographic, morphological, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-based molecular review of collections identified as Polyozellus multiplex revealed that it is a complex of five phylogenetic species. Average spore size-either less or more than 7 × 6 µm-splits the complex into a small-spored group of two (P. multiplex and P. atrolazulinus) and a large-spored group of three (P. mariae, P. marymargaretae, and P. purpureoniger). Basidiocarps of the small-spored species are somewhat smaller than the large-spored ones, are various shades of blue, dark all the way to black, with brownish tomentum only in early growth, have dark context, and have pilei that tend to flare out at the edge...
December 14, 2017: Mycologia
Suhas Gorakh Karkute, Tanmay Kumar Koley, Bijen Kumar Yengkhom, Ajay Tripathi, Shivani Srivastava, Arti Maurya, Bijendra Singh
BACKGROUND: Black carrot is known to be effective against Type 2 diabetes. The phenolic compounds present in black carrot are responsible for this property, but limited information was available about the mechanism of action and target enzymes. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims at understanding molecular interactions of phenolic compounds of black carrot with enzymes involved in glucose metabolism in human to identify the potential inhibitor that can be used as candidate drug molecule to control diabetes...
February 28, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
A Butkovskyi, L Sevenou, R J W Meulepas, L Hernandez Leal, G Zeeman, H H M Rijnaarts
The effect of granular activated carbon (GAC) addition on the removal of diclofenac, ibuprofen, metoprolol, galaxolide and triclosan in a up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was studied. Prior to the reactor studies, batch experiments indicated that addition of activated carbon to UASB sludge can decrease micropollutant concentrations in both liquid phase and sludge. In continuous experiments, two UASB reactors were operated for 260 days at an HRT of 20 days, using a mixture of source separated black water and sludge from aerobic grey water treatment as influent...
February 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Kimberly R Middleton, Michael M Ward, Steffany Haaz Moonaz, Miriam Magaña López, Gladys Tataw-Ayuketah, Li Yang, Ana T Acevedo, Zavera Brandon, Gwenyth R Wallen
Background: While there is a growing interest in the therapeutic benefits of yoga, minority populations with arthritis tend to be under-represented in the research. Additionally, there is an absence of guidance in the literature regarding the use of multicultural teams and sociocultural health beliefs, when designing yoga studies for a racially diverse population with arthritis. This pilot study examined the feasibility of offering yoga as a self-care modality to an urban, bilingual, minority population with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA), in the Washington, DC area...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Michael B Fawale, Isiaka A Ismaila, Abubakar A Kullima, Morenikeji A Komolafe, Omotade A Ijarotimi, Samuel Anu Olowookere, Rotimi Oluyombo, Tewogbade Adeoye Adedeji
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of RLS in pregnancy is higher when compared with the general population however it remains unknown among indigenous black Africans. Available data indicate that RLS is uncommon in sub-Saharan Africa. We embarked on this study to determine the prevalence and characteristics of RLS in an antenatal clinic sample of Nigerian pregnant women compared with a primary care sample of non-pregnant women. METHODS: A total of 310 pregnant women and non-pregnant women filled out a questionnaire which incorporated the 2014 minimal criteria of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group...
March 2018: Sleep Medicine
Jorge L Del-Aguila, Maria Victoria Fernández, Suzanne Schindler, Laura Ibanez, Yuetiva Deming, Shengmei Ma, Ben Saef, Kathleen Black, John Budde, Joanne Norton, Rachel Chasse, Oscar Harari, Alison Goate, Chengjie Xiong, John C Morris, Carlos Cruchaga
Many genetic studies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been focused on the identification of common genetic variants associated with AD risk and not on other aspects of the disease, such as age at onset or rate of dementia progression. There are multiple approaches to untangling the genetic architecture of these phenotypes. We hypothesized that the genetic architecture of rate of progression is different than the risk for developing AD dementia. To test this hypothesis, we used longitudinal clinical data from ADNI and the Knight-ADRC at Washington University, and we calculated PRS (polygenic risk score) based on the IGAP study to compare the genetic architecture of AD risk and dementia progression...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
B R Ellender, O L F Weyl, M E Alexander, A M Luger, L A J Nagelkerke, D J Woodford
Introduced predatory fishes have had consistently severe consequences for native fishes in stream environments around the world, although the drivers of these effects are often unclear. In the Swartkops River headwaters in South Africa, native Eastern Cape redfin Pseudobarbus afer were always absent from sites occupied by non-native black basses Micropterus salmoides and Micropterus dolomieu, but generally co-occurred with the native predators Anguilla marmorata and Anguilla mossambica. A natural experiment provided by flood-mediated recolonization of black-bass occupied sites by P...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Katherine G Quinn, Sarah J Reed, Julia Dickson-Gomez, Jeffrey A Kelly
Syndemic theory seeks to understand the interactions and clustering of disease and social conditions and explain racial disparities in HIV. Traditionally applied to HIV risk, this study characterizes the syndemic challenges of engagement in care among Black men living with HIV and provides insight into potential HIV treatment interventions to retain vulnerable individuals in care. Interviews were conducted with 23 HIV-positive men who were either out-of-care or nonadherent to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded using MAXQDA qualitative software...
February 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Melissa M Goggin, Stephanie D Gozum, Anna Miller, Gregory C Janis
The recent increase in illicit opioids sold on the black market, cut into heroin and masqueraded as prescription pills prompts a significant public health concern. Most designer opioids possess unknown potencies and unknown pharmacokinetics and their unregulated, variable dosages lead to rashes of overdoses. Additionally, many of the designer opioids, especially the fentanyl analogs are significantly more potent than heroin. High-profile cases involving overdoses of U-47700 and carfentanil have been reported in the media; however, the true prevalence of these and other designer opioids is unknown...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Catherine A Wickham, Elena T Carbone
Over one-third of adolescents are overweight or obese. Food literacy (FL), the ability to plan and manage, select, prepare, and eat healthy foods, is a contemporary concept that provides a mechanism to understand the relationship between food-related knowledge and skills and dietary intake. Innovative interventions which focus on the core concepts of FL and include generationally appropriate technology have the potential to provide positive impact on the dietary habits of adolescents. This systematic review followed PRISMA guidelines and employed the Downs and Black criteria for rating studies...
February 19, 2018: Appetite
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