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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918559/prostate-cancer-screening-by-prostate-specific-antigen-psa-a-relevant-approach-for-the-small-population-of-the-cayman-islands
#1
Shravana Kumar Jyoti, Camille Blacke, Pallavi Patil, Vibha P Amblihalli, Amanda Nicholson
INTRODUCTION: The common tool for diagnosing prostate cancer is prostate-specific antigen (PSA), but the high sensitivity and low specificity of PSA testing are the problems in clinical practice. There are no proper guidelines to investigate the suspected prostate cancer in the Cayman Islands. We correlated PSA levels with the incidence of prostate cancers by tissue diagnosis and proposed logical protocol for prostate screening by using PSA test in this small population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 165 Afro Caribbean individuals who had prostate biopsy done after the investigations for PSA levels from year 2005 to 2015 were studied retrospectively...
September 16, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917819/seabirds-and-marine-plastic-debris-in-the-northeastern-atlantic-a-synthesis-and-recommendations-for-monitoring-and-research
#2
REVIEW
Nina J O'Hanlon, Neil A James, Elizabeth A Masden, Alexander L Bond
Marine plastic pollution is an increasing, and global, environmental issue. Numerous marine species are affected by plastic debris through entanglement, nest incorporation, and ingestion, which can lead to lethal and sub-lethal impacts. However, in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean, an area of international importance for seabirds, there has been little effort to date to assess information from studies of wildlife and plastic to better understand the spatiotemporal variation of how marine plastic affects different seabird species...
September 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915541/temporal-variability-in-aerosol-characteristics-and-its-radiative-properties-over-patiala-northwestern-part-of-india-impact-of-agricultural-biomass-burning-emissions
#3
D Sharma, A K Srivastava, K Ram, A Singh, D Singh
A comprehensive measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD), particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) mass concentrations have been carried out over Patiala, a semi-urban site in northwest India during October 2008 to September 2010. The measured aerosol data was incorporated in an aerosol optical model to estimate various aerosol optical parameters, which were subsequently used for radiative forcing estimation. The measured AOD at 500 nm (AOD500) shows a significant seasonal variability, with maximum value of 0...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915271/extending-topological-surgery-to-natural-processes-and-dynamical-systems
#4
Stathis Antoniou, Sofia Lambropoulou
Topological surgery is a mathematical technique used for creating new manifolds out of known ones. We observe that it occurs in natural phenomena where a sphere of dimension 0 or 1 is selected, forces are applied and the manifold in which they occur changes type. For example, 1-dimensional surgery happens during chromosomal crossover, DNA recombination and when cosmic magnetic lines reconnect, while 2-dimensional surgery happens in the formation of tornadoes, in the phenomenon of Falaco solitons, in drop coalescence and in the cell mitosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913534/shell-isolated-nanoparticles-for-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-studies-in-lithium-oxygen-cells
#5
Thomas A Galloway, Laura Cabo-Fernandez, Iain M Aldous, Filipe Braga, Laurence J Hardwick
A critical and detailed assessment of using Shell Isolated Nanoparticles for Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SHINERS) on different electrode substrates was carried out, providing relative enhancement factors, as well as an evaluation of the distribution of shell-isolated nanoparticles upon the electrode surfaces. The chemical makeup of surface layers formed upon lithium metal electrodes and the mechanism of the oxygen reduction reaction on carbon substrates relevant to lithium-oxygen cells are studied with the employment of the SHINERS technique...
September 15, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904690/-mixed-connective-tissue-disease-prevalence-and-clinical-characteristics-in-african-black-study-of-7-cases-in-gabon-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Landry Missounga, Josaphat Iba Ba, Ingrid Rosalie Nseng Nseng Ondo, Maria Ines Carine Nziengui Madjinou, Doris Malekou, Emeline Gracia Mouendou Mouloungui, Emmanuel Ecke Nzengue, Jean Bruno Boguikouma, Moussavou Kombila
The literature reports that mixed connective tissue disease seems more frequent in the black population and among Asians. This study aims to determine the prevalence of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) among connective tissue disorders and all rheumatologic pathologies in a hospital population in Gabon as well as to describe the clinical features of this disease. We conducted a retrospective study by reviewing the medical records of patients treated for mixed connective tissue disease (Kasukawa criteria) and other entities of connective tissue disorders (ACR criteria) in the Division of Rheumatology at the University Hospital in Libreville between January 2010 and December 2015...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902931/binge-drinking-a-pattern-associated-with-a-risk-of-problems-of-alcohol-use-among-university-students
#7
André Bedendo, André Luiz Monezi Andrade, Emérita Sátiro Opaleye, Ana Regina Noto
Objective: to evaluate problems associated with alcohol use among university students who reported binge drinking in comparison to students who consumed alcohol without binging. Method: a cross-sectional study among university students (N=2,408) who accessed the website about alcohol use. Logistic and linear regression models were included in the statistical analyzes. Results: alcohol use in the last three months was reported by 89.2% of university students; 51...
September 12, 2017: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901747/the-deep-eutectic-solvent-functionalized-graphene-composite-as-an-extremely-high-potent-flame-retardant
#8
Dattatray Appasha Pethsangave, Rahul Vijay Khose, Pravin Harishchandra Wadekar, Surajit Some
We report a simple and green approach to develop the deep eutectic solvent functionalized graphene derivative, as an effective flame retardant. The deep eutectic solvent functionalized graphene oxide (DESGO) was synthesized by intro-ducing nitrogen supported phosphorus functional groups on the surface of graphene derivative via a deep eutectic sol-vent, which is prepared by the treatment of monosodium dihydrogen orthophosphate and choline chloride. Subse-quently, the resultant DESGO material is characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
September 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900770/how-regularities-of-mortality-statistics-explain-why-we-age-despite-having-potentially-ageless-somatic-stem-cells
#9
Alexander V Khalyavkin, Vyacheslav N Krut'ko
Researchers working in the area of ageing have found numerous manifestations of this process at the molecular biological level, including DNA and protein damage, accumulation of metabolic by-products, lipids peroxidation, macromolecular cross-linking, non-enzymatic glycosylation, anti-oxidant/pro-oxidant misbalance, rising of pro-inflammatory cytokines, etc. This results in an increase in the proportion of cells in growth arrest, reduction of the rate of information processing, metabolic rate decrease, and decrease in rates of other processes characterizing dynamic aspects of the organism's interaction with its environment...
September 12, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900719/the-effects-of-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-on-critical-torque
#10
Marcin K Szczyglowski, Carl J Ade, Jason A Campbell, Christopher D Black
OBJECTIVE: Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has been shown to reduce endurance exercise performance. This study examined the effects of EIMD on critical torque (CT) and the sum of the torque integral above CT during (∫ T total) during a 5-min all-out, intermittent isometric knee extension exercise. METHODS: CT was determined in eight participants prior to and 48-h following EIMD. EIMD was induced using electrically stimulated eccentric knee extensions until maximal voluntary strength (MVC) was reduced by 40%...
September 12, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894467/racial-and-socioeconomic-disparities-are-more-pronounced-in-inflammatory-breast-cancer-than-other-breast-cancers
#11
Ryan A Denu, John M Hampton, Adam Currey, Roger T Anderson, Rosemary D Cress, Steven T Fleming, Joseph Lipscomb, Xiao-Cheng Wu, J Frank Wilson, Amy Trentham-Dietz
Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare yet aggressive form of breast cancer. We examined differences in patient demographics and outcomes in IBC compared to locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) and all other breast cancer patients from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Data Quality and Patterns of Care Study (POC-BP), containing information from cancer registries in seven states. Out of 7,624 cases of invasive carcinoma, IBC and LABC accounted for 2.2% (N = 170) and 4.9% (N = 375), respectively. IBC patients were more likely to have a higher number (P = 0...
2017: Journal of Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892789/thymoquinone-rich-fraction-nanoemulsion-tqrfne-decreases-a%C3%AE-40-and-a%C3%AE-42-levels-by-modulating-app-processing-up-regulating-ide-and-lrp1-and-down-regulating-bace1-and-rage-in-response-to-high-fat-cholesterol-diet-induced-rats
#12
Norsharina Ismail, Maznah Ismail, Nur Hanisah Azmi, Muhammad Firdaus Abu Bakar, Zhang Yida, Maizaton Atmadini Abdullah, Hamidon Basri
Though the causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are yet to be understood, much evidence has suggested that excessive amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation due to abnormal amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) processing and Aβ metabolism are crucial processes towards AD pathogenesis. Hence, approaches aiming at APP processing and Aβ metabolism are currently being actively pursued for the management of AD. Studies suggest that high cholesterol and a high fat diet have harmful effects on cognitive function and may instigate the commencement of AD pathogenesis...
September 8, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889201/not-accounting-for-interindividual-variability-can-mask-habitat-selection-patterns-a-case-study-on-black-bears
#13
Rémi Lesmerises, Martin-Hugues St-Laurent
Habitat selection studies conducted at the population scale commonly aim to describe general patterns that could improve our understanding of the limiting factors in species-habitat relationships. Researchers often consider interindividual variation in selection patterns to control for its effects and avoid pseudoreplication by using mixed-effect models that include individuals as random factors. Here, we highlight common pitfalls and possible misinterpretations of this strategy by describing habitat selection of 21 black bears Ursus americanus...
September 9, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886938/enantioselective-determination-of-r-zopiclone-and-s-zopiclone-eszopiclone-in-human-hair-by-micropulverized-extraction-and-chiral-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#14
Hajime Miyaguchi, Kenji Kuwayama
Zopiclone and its (S)-enantiomer (eszopiclone) are commonly prescribed for insomnia. Despite the high demand for enantioselective differentiation, the chiral analysis of zopiclone in hair has not been reported. In this study, a method for the enantioselective quantification of zopiclone in human hair was developed. The extraction medium and duration were optimized using real eszopiclone-positive hair samples. Specifically, micropulverized extraction with 3.0M ammonium phosphate buffer (pH 8.4) involving salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile was utilized to minimize the degradation of zopiclone and for rapid and facile operation...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886854/impact-of-cardiorespiratory-fitness-on-mortality-in-black-male-veterans-with-resistant-systemic-hypertension
#15
Puneet Narayan, Michael Doumas, Anubhav Kumar, Charles J Faselis, Jonathan N Myers, Andreas Pittaras, Peter F Kokkinos
Patients with resistant systemic hypertension have poorer outcomes than nonresistant hypertensives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and all-cause mortality in black male Veterans with resistant systemic hypertension. Patients were identified from a cohort undergoing exercise tolerance test at the department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Washington, DC. Patients were divided into 4 cardiorespiratory fitness categories based on age-specific peak metabolic equivalents achieved on a standard Bruce protocol...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885270/association-between-internalized-hiv-related-stigma-and-hiv-care-visit-adherence
#16
Whitney S Rice, Kaylee Burnham, Michael J Mugavero, James L Raper, Ghislaine C Atkins, Bulent Turan
BACKGROUND: Internalized HIV-related stigma acts as a barrier to antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, but its effects on other HIV care continuum outcomes is unclear. METHODS: Among 196 HIV clinic patients in Birmingham, Alabama, we assessed internalized HIV-related stigma and depressive symptom severity using validated multi-item scales, and assessed ART adherence using a validated single-item measure. HIV visit adherence (attended out of total scheduled visits) was calculated using data from clinic records...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884851/-bottom-up-in-situ-proteomic-differentiation-of-human-and-non-human-haemoglobins-for-forensic-purposes-by-maldi-tof-ms-ms
#17
K P Kirkbride, S Kamanna, J Henry, N Voelcker, A Linacre
RATIONALE: The detection and identification of human blood on crime-related items are of particular relevance to many investigations because shed blood can provide evidence of violent contact between individuals. However, for any detection and identification technique, specificity is a critical performance characteristic to assess; that is, whether the technique has the capability to differentiate between human blood (which usually is of relevance to a criminal investigation) and non-human blood (which usually would not be associated with a crime but may be detected incidentally)...
September 8, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884473/pharmacotherapy-for-smoking-cessation-effects-by-subgroup-defined-by-genetically-informed-biomarkers
#18
REVIEW
Ewoud Schuit, Orestis A Panagiotou, Marcus R Munafò, Derrick A Bennett, Andrew W Bergen, Sean P David
BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation therapies are not effective for all smokers, and researchers are interested in identifying those subgroups of individuals (e.g. based on genotype) who respond best to specific treatments. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether quit rates vary by genetically informed biomarkers within pharmacotherapy treatment arms and as compared with placebo. To assess the effects of pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation in subgroups of smokers defined by genotype for identified genome-wide significant polymorphisms...
September 8, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876649/an-evaluation-of-epidemiological-differences-in-colorectal-cancer-patients-over-and-under-the-age-of-50-presenting-to-academic-centers-in-johannesburg
#19
B D Bebington
BACKGROUND: As in other developing countries, the nations of Sub-Saharan Africa have seen an increase in the incidence of colorectal cancer. Repeatedly, the indigenous populations have shown a skewing of incidence in favour of patients below the age of 50. As part of a larger study, and through funding from the Medical research Council of South Africa, the Wits MRC Oncology group has set out to identify the epidemiological characteristics and disease progression of patients under the age of 50 presenting with colorectal cancer...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873168/vision-screening-in-children-aged-6-months-to-5-years-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#20
David C Grossman, Susan J Curry, Douglas K Owens, Michael J Barry, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Ann E Kurth, C Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Maureen G Phipps, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: One of the most important causes of vision abnormalities in children is amblyopia (also known as "lazy eye"). Amblyopia is an alteration in the visual neural pathway in a child's developing brain that can lead to permanent vision loss in the affected eye. Among children younger than 6 years, 1% to 6% have amblyopia or its risk factors (strabismus, anisometropia, or both). Early identification of vision abnormalities could prevent the development of amblyopia. Subpopulation Considerations: Studies show that screening rates among children vary by race/ethnicity and family income...
September 5, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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