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Amani F Abaza, Osama N Mohamed, Fathy K El-Fiky, Khaled A Ahmed
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage among patients, healthcare workers (HCWs), and community individuals, as well as to test the effect of tea extracts on detected S. aureus isolates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study that was followed by an experimental study included a total of 1021 nasal swab samples that were collected from 470 community cases, 191 HCWs, and 360 patients...
September 2016: Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association
Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves de Oliveira, Ronir Raggio Luiz
OBJECTIVE: The skin color/race and urbanity are structural determinants of health. The relationship between these variables produces structure of social stratification that defines inequalities in the experiences of life and death. Thus, this study describes the characteristics of the mortality indicators by skin color/race according level of urbanity and aggregation to the metropolitan region (MR) of 5565 cities in Brazil, controlling for gender and age. DESIGN: Descriptive study which included the calculation of measures relating to 1,050,546 deaths in the year survey of 2010 by skin color/race White, Black, and Brown according to both sexes, for five age groups and three levels of urbanity of cities in Brazil that were aggregated or not to the MR in the year of study...
October 17, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Lidia Pino, Cristina Italiano, Antonio Vita, Concetto Fabiano, Vincenzo Recupero
Sorbents for CO2 capture have been prepared by wet impregnation of a commercial active carbon (Ketjen-black, Akzo Nobel) with two CO2-philic compounds, polyethylenimine (PEI) and tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), respectively. The effects of amine amount (from 10 to 70wt.%), CO2 concentration in the feed, sorption temperature and gas hourly space velocity on the CO2 capture performance have been investigated. The sorption capacity has been evaluated using the breakthrough method, with a fixed bed reactor equipped with on line gas chromatograph...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Mona Taouk, Bettina Meiser, Dusan Hadzi-Pavlovic, Michael Dudley, Philip B Mitchell
OBJECTIVES: Few adolescent-specific depression screening instruments have been developed in recent years using multi-method approaches (qualitative and quantitative), and some of those available have limitations with an adolescent audience. We describe the development of a potential measure - the Taouk Scale for Adolescent Depression. METHODS: Draft items were informed by findings from focus groups and reviews by adolescents and healthcare professionals, resulting in a provisional 97-item scale...
October 12, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Tor Ekstrom, Stephen Maher, Yue Chen
INTRODUCTION: Identifying individual identities from faces is crucial for social functioning. In schizophrenia, previous studies showed mixed results as to whether face identity discrimination is compromised. How a social category factor (such as gender and race) affects schizophrenia patients' facial identity discrimination is unclear. METHODS: Using psychophysics, we examined perceptual performance on within- and between- category face identity discrimination tasks in patients (n = 51) and controls (n = 31)...
October 13, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Isabel Friedmann, Elias M Dahdouh, Perlyne Kugler, Gracia Mimran, Jacques Balayla
OBJECTIVE: Public Health initiatives, such as the "Safe to Sleep" campaign, have traditionally targeted infants' risk factors for the prevention of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). However, controversy remains regarding maternal and obstetrical risk factors for SIDS. In our study, we sought out to determine both modifiable and non-modifiable obstetrical and maternal risk factors associated with SIDS. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study using the CDC's Linked Birth-Infant Death data from the United States for the year 2010...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Ank E Nijhawan, Princess A Iroh, Larry S Brown, Daniel Winetsky, Esmaeil Porsa
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) disproportionately affects immigrants, HIV-infected individuals, and those living in crowded settings such as homeless shelters and correctional facilities. Although the majority of jails and prisons use a tuberculin skin test (TST) for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening, limited data exist on the clinical performance and costs of the TST compared to interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) in this setting. METHODS: A prospective pilot study comparing cost between TST and an IGRA (QuantiFERON Gold In-tube, QFT-GIT) for the detection of LTBI in a convenience sample of inmates entering the Dallas County Jail (DCJ) was conducted June-October 2014...
October 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
A M Mahon, C MacGilchrist, C McIntosh, T O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus, coined the 'Black Death of the Twenty-First Century', is associated with complications, including foot ulceration with potential loss of limb. There is a need for development of new wound therapies through completion of robust clinical trials. AIMS: To profile demographics and wound characteristics of an Irish cohort with diabetes, forecast eligibility for entry to a clinical trial of advanced wound therapeutics, and adjust criteria to optimize eligibility for enrolment...
October 11, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Scaria P Thomas, Hari K N Sankar
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a simple method for estimation of tramadol hydrochloride (TH) in pure and pharmaceutical dosage forms using a colorimeter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TH on reaction with Eriochrome Black T in the presence of acetate buffer at pH 3.5 forms a colored complex. This complex was extracted with a fixed volume of chloroform. The optical density of this colored complex was measured against reagent blank using a colorimeter at 520 nm...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Alessandra Haskin, Shawn G Kwatra, Crystal Aguh
Acquired trichorrhexis nodosa is a common cause of hair loss for patients of all ethnicities. It is especially prevalent in black patients with tightly curled hair types and can present unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges due to structural differences in these hair types and the combination of various hair care and styling practices that contribute to hair damage. While scalp biopsies can help rule out other etiologies of hair loss, there is a paucity of histologic findings in acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, making this primarily a clinical diagnosis...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Lyndal Carter, Deborah Black, Anita Bundy, Warwick Williams
BACKGROUND: Since amplified music gained widespread popularity, there has been community concern that leisure-noise exposure may cause hearing loss in adolescents and young adults who would otherwise be free from hearing impairment. Repeated exposure to personal stereo players and music events (e.g., nightclubbing, rock concerts, and music festivals) are of particular concern. The same attention has not been paid to leisure-noise exposure risks for young people with hearing impairment (either present from birth or acquired before adulthood)...
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Kyoko Nagao, Tammy Riegner, Jennifer Padilla, L Ashleigh Greenwood, Jessica Loson, Sarah Zavala, Thierry Morlet
BACKGROUND: Although auditory processing disorder (APD) is a widely recognized impairment, its prevalence and demographic characteristics are not precisely known in the pediatric population. PURPOSE: To examine the demographic characteristics of children diagnosed with APD at a tertiary health-care facility and the prevalence of pediatric APD. RESEARCH DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. STUDY SAMPLE: A total of 243 children (149 boys and 94 girls) who were referred to the Nemours Audiology Clinics in the Delaware Valley for an APD evaluation...
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Vitaliy M Pashkov, Iryna A Golovanova, Petro P Noha
INTRODUCTION: the issue of commercialization of transplantation analyses in the article. Attention is paid to the importance of transplantation as a method of treatment and saving human lives. AIM: the clarify the feasibility of the introduction of donation commercialization as an avenue to solve the shortage of donor organs and means of combating with black organ market and finding alternative avenues solving these problems, which are more morally acceptable for society is the aim of this article...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Ue-Li Pen, Neil Turok
We point out a surprising consequence of the usually assumed initial conditions for cosmological perturbations. Namely, a spectrum of Gaussian, linear, adiabatic, scalar, growing mode perturbations not only creates acoustic oscillations of the kind observed on very large scales today, it also leads to the production of shocks in the radiation fluid of the very early Universe. Shocks cause departures from local thermal equilibrium as well as create vorticity and gravitational waves. For a scale-invariant spectrum and standard model physics, shocks form for temperatures 1  GeV<T<10^{7}  GeV...
September 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Cesar E P Villegas, A S Rodin, Alexandra Carvalho, A R Rocha
Excitons play a key role in technological applications since they have a strong influence on determining the efficiency of photovoltaic devices. Recently, it has been shown that the allotropes of phosphorus possess an optical band gap that can be tuned over a wide range of values including the near-infrared and visible spectra, which would make them promising candidates for optoelectronic applications. In this work we carry out ab initio many-body perturbation theory calculations to study the excitonic effects on the optical properties of two-dimensional phosphorus allotropes: the case of blue and black monolayers...
October 12, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Patricia McAllister, Eleanor Graham, Paul Deacon, Kevin J Farrugia
There appears to be a limited but growing body of research on the sequential analysis/treatment of multiple types of evidence. The development of an integrated forensic approach is necessary to maximise evidence recovery and to ensure that a particular treatment is not detrimental to other types of evidence. This study aims to assess the effect of latent and blood mark enhancement techniques (e.g. fluorescence, ninhydrin, acid violet 17, black iron-oxide powder suspension) on the subsequent detection of saliva...
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
May N Tsao, Emily Sinclair, Dalal Assaad, Jeff Fialkov, Oleh Antonyshyn, Elizabeth Barnes
OBJECTIVE: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) lesions are purplish, reddish blue or dark brown/black macules, plaques or nodules which involve the skin and occasionally internal organs. Most patients with KS have a long indolent chronic course. METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken for all KS skin patients treated with radiotherapy at a tertiary cancer centre from Jan. 2, 1999 to Dec. 31, 2014 (inclusive). RESULTS: A total of 47 patients with KS (43 classical, 0 African, 1 iatrogenic, 3 AIDS related) were seen in the multidisciplinary clinic...
August 25, 2016: Annals of Palliative Medicine
Jodi Taylor, Sarah Black, Stephen J Brett, Kim Kirby, Jerry P Nolan, Barnaby C Reeves, Maria Robinson, Chris A Rogers, Lauren J Scott, Adrian South, Elizabeth A Stokes, Matthew Thomas, Sarah Voss, Sarah Wordsworth, Jonathan R Benger
Health outcomes after out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) are extremely poor, with only 7-9% of patients in the United Kingdom (UK) surviving to hospital discharge. Currently emergency medical services (EMS) use either tracheal intubation or newer supraglottic airway devices (SGAs) to provide advanced airway management during OHCA. Equipoise between the two techniques has led to calls for a well-designed randomised controlled trial. The primary objective of the AIRWAYS-2 trial is to assess whether the clinical effectiveness of the i-gel, a second-generation SGA, is superior to tracheal intubation in the initial airway management of OHCA patients in the UK...
September 30, 2016: Resuscitation
Zeynep Koloren, Onuralp Seferoğlu, Panagiotis Karanis
A total of 420 environmental water samples and 120 drinking water samples from 45 different sampling sites of the Black Sea in Turkey were collected between 2012 and 2014. Genomic DNA was isolated from all the investigated water samples and comparativelly analyzed by Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of the elongation factor 1 Alfa (EF1α) gene, and by nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (nPCR) of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA and semi-nested PCR (snPCR) of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene (GDH). 141 (58...
September 30, 2016: Acta Tropica
Mohammad Hajizadeh
Notwithstanding a century of prohibition, marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in Canada. Due to the growing public acceptance of recreational marijuana use and ineffectiveness of the existing control system in Canada, the issue surrounding legalizing this illicit drug has received considerable public and political attentions in recent years. Consequently, the newly elected Liberal Government has formally announced that Canada will introduce legislation in the spring of 2017 to start legalizing and regulating marijuana...
May 25, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
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