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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765110/mast-cells-contribute-to-enterovirus-71-infection-induced-pulmonary-edema-in-neonatal-mice
#1
Yuefei Jin, Chao Zhang, Hui Wang, Guangyuan Zhou, Xiangpeng Wang, Rongguang Zhang, Shuaiyin Chen, Jingchao Ren, Lu Chen, Dejian Dang, Peng Zhang, Yuanlin Xi, Weidong Wu, Weiguo Zhang, Guangcai Duan
Enterovirus (EV) 71 infection has been widely acknowledged as the leading cause of severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which may rapidly lead to fatal pulmonary edema. In this study, we established a mouse model for EV71 infection exhibiting high incidence of severe symptoms with pulmonary edema. Mast cells (MCs) accumulation, activation and allergic inflammation were found in the brains, lungs and skeletal muscle of mice after EV71 infection, especially in the lungs of mice. Levels of histamine, platelet-activating factor (PAF), interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) and noradrenaline (NA) were increased in EV71-infected lungs...
May 15, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764421/computational-analysis-of-the-receptor-binding-specificity-of-novel-influenza-a-h7n9-viruses
#2
Xinrui Zhou, Jie Zheng, Fransiskus Xaverius Ivan, Rui Yin, Shoba Ranganathan, Vincent T K Chow, Chee-Keong Kwoh
BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses are undergoing continuous and rapid evolution. The fatal influenza A/H7N9 has drawn attention since the first wave of infections in March 2013, and raised more grave concerns with its increased potential to spread among humans. Experimental studies have revealed several host and virulence markers, indicating differential host binding preferences which can help estimate the potential of causing a pandemic. Here we systematically investigate the sequence pattern and structural characteristics of novel influenza A/H7N9 using computational approaches...
May 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755701/role-of-cytokines-as-molecular-marker-of-dengue-severity
#3
Priyanka Sehrawat, Ashutosh Biswas, Prabhat Kumar, Paras Singla, Naveet Wig, Lalit Dar, Rita Sood
Objective: Dengue infection is a rapidly spreading vector-borne disease and is endemic in the Indian subcontinent. It has varied manifestations ranging from subclinical infection to severe fatal shock syndrome. This study aimed to estimate cytokine level in dengue patients and correlate them with dengue severity. Methods: Cases of dengue fever diagnosed in the department of medicine of our institute from July 2015 to November 2016 were included in the study. The clinical features, biochemical, hematological and radiological parameters along with cytokine levels (Interferon-gamma, Interleukin-6, and Tumour Necrosis Factor-alpha) were recorded in all patients...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751112/identification-and-molecular-typing-of-naegleria-fowleri-from-a-patient-of-primary-amebic-meningoencephalitis-pam-in-china
#4
Ling-Ling Zhang, Mao Wu, Bang-Chuan Hu, Hua-Liang Chen, Jin-Ren Pan, Wei Ruan, Li-Nong Yao
Naegleria fowleri (N. fowleri) is the only Naegleria spp. known to cause an acute, fulminant, and rapidly fatal central nervous system infection called primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in human. In 2016, a suspected PAM patient was found in Zhejiang Province of China. The pathogen was identified by microscopic examination and PCR. The positive PCR products were sequenced and the sequences were aligned using NCBI BLAST programme. The homologous and phylogenetic analysis was conducted using the MEGA 6 programme...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746631/using-clinical-research-networks-to-assess-severity-of-an-emerging-influenza-pandemic
#5
Lone Simonsen, Elizabeth Higgs, Robert J Taylor, Deborah Wentworth, Al Cozzi-Lepri, Sarah Pett, Dominic E Dwyer, Richard Davey, Ruth Lynfield, Marcelo Losso, Kathleen Morales, Marshall J Glesby, Jozef Weckx, Dianne Carey, Cliff Lane, Jens Lundgren
Background: Early clinical severity assessments during the 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1) overestimated clinical severity due to selection bias and other factors. We retrospectively investigated how to use data from the International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials, a global clinical influenza research network, to make more accurate case fatality ratio (CFR) estimates early in a future pandemic, an essential part of pandemic response. Methods: We estimated the CFR of medically attended influenza (CFRMA) as the product of probability of hospitalization given confirmed outpatient influenza and the probability of death given hospitalization with confirmed influenza for the pandemic (2009-2011) and post-pandemic (2012-2015) periods...
May 8, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742715/liver-abscess-caused-by-clostridium-haemolyticum-infection-after-transarterial-chemoembolization-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-case-report
#6
Dong-Jun Son, Ji-Yun Hong, Ki-Hyun Kim, Young-Hoon Jeong, Dae-Seong Myung, Sung-Bum Cho, Wan-Sik Lee, Yang-Jun Kang, Jin-Woong Kim, Young-Eun Joo
RATIONALE: Liver abscesses caused by Clostridium species infection are extremely rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: The authors report the first case of a liver abscess due to Clostridium haemolyticum, which occurred after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma, in a 76-year-old woman who presented with right upper quadrant pain and fever. DIAGNOSES: Computed tomography of the abdomen after the second TACE showed an air-filled abscess around a compact, lipiodolized lesion in the right hepatic lobe...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735827/molecular-characterisation-for-clonality-and-transmission-dynamics-of-an-outbreak-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-amongst-neonates-in-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-south-india
#7
Chaitra Shankar, Manish Kumar, Ashtawarthani Baskaran, Miracle Magdelene Paul, Nithya Ponmudi, Sridhar Santhanam, Joy Sarojini Michael, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Purpose: Sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality amongst neonates. Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of nosocomial outbreaks causing bacteraemia and having potential of acquiring plasmids enhancing antimicrobial resistance. In the present study, we investigate K. pneumoniae outbreak causing bacteraemia amongst neonates over a span of 2 months. Isolates were characterised for antimicrobial resistance, virulence, molecular typing for clonality and plasmid typing for transmission dynamics, and patient outcome was investigated...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734943/low-mood-visual-hallucinations-and-falls-heralding-the-onset-of-rapidly-progressive-probable-sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-in-a-73-year-old-a-case-report
#8
Daniel Martin Klotz, Rose Sarah Penfold
BACKGROUND: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare and rapidly fatal neurodegenerative disease. Since clinicians may see only very few cases during their professional career, it is important to be familiar with the clinical presentation and progression, to perform appropriate investigations, and allow for quick diagnosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 73-year-old British Caucasian woman presented with acute confusion of 2 weeks' duration on a background of low mood following a recent bereavement...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723168/malaria-surveillance-united-states-2015
#9
Kimberly E Mace, Paul M Arguin, Kathrine R Tan
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles species mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission...
May 4, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722741/neuroinvasive-listeriosis-could-petechial-hemorrhages-be-a-diagnostic-clue
#10
Sevda Diker, Serhat Okar, Lale Mehdikhanova, Ethem Murat Arsava, Asli Kurne, Işin Ünal Çevik, Yakut Akyön, Şehnaz Alp, Çağkan İnkaya, Murat Akova, Melike Mut, Rahşan Göçmen, Kader Karli Oğuz, Mehmet Akif Topçuoğlu
INTRODUCTION: Listeria monocytogenes-related central nervous system infections may involve the cerebral parenchyma. Meningitis and meningoencephalitis are the most commonly seen forms and mainly affect immunocompromised patients; however, a less frequent form, rhombencephalitis, can occur in otherwise healthy people. Early treatment with appropriate antibiotic therapy is crucial for this otherwise fatal disorder. However, it is not always possible to rapidly establish the diagnosis because of varying presentations and discrepancies in diagnostic tests...
May 2018: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721234/mucormycosis-of-maxilla-following-tooth-extraction-in-immunocompetent-patients-reports-and-review
#11
Kumar Nilesh, Aaditee V Vande
Mucormycosis is a rare, fulminant, rapidly spreading fungal infection, which usually affects patient with underlying immune deficiency. If not managed promptly, the disease is characterized by progressive necrosis and is often fatal. A review of English literature shows that only fourteen cases of mucormycosis have been reported after tooth extraction. This paper highlights two cases of mucormycosis subsequent to tooth extraction in healthy adult patients. This first patient presented with an oroantral fistula and extensive maxillary necrosis...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720525/antibodies-to-the-glycoprotein-gp2-subunit-cross-react-between-old-and-new-world-arenaviruses
#12
Fatima Amanat, James Duehr, Lisa Oestereich, Kathryn M Hastie, Erica Ollmann Saphire, Florian Krammer
Arenaviruses pose a major public health threat and cause numerous infections in humans each year. Although most viruses belonging to this family do not cause disease in humans, some arenaviruses, such as Lassa virus and Machupo virus, are the etiological agents of lethal hemorrhagic fevers. The absence of a currently licensed vaccine and the highly pathogenic nature of these viruses both make the necessity of developing viable vaccines and therapeutics all the more urgent. Arenaviruses have a single glycoprotein on the surface of virions, the glycoprotein complex (GPC), and this protein can be used as a target for vaccine development...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709684/the-re-emerging-of-orf-virus-infection-a-call-for-surveillance-vaccination-and-effective-control-measures
#13
REVIEW
Jamilu Abubakar Bala, Krishnan Nair Balakrishnan, Ashwaq Ahmed Abdullah, Ramlan Mohamed, Abd Wahid Haron, Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse, Mustapha M Noordin, Mohd Lila Mohd-Azmi
Orf disease is known to be enzootic among small ruminants in Asia, Africa, and some other parts of the world. The disease caused by orf virus is highly contagious among small ruminant species. Unfortunately, it has been neglected for decades because of the general belief that it only causes a self-limiting disease. On the other hand, in the past it has been reported to cause huge cumulative financial losses in livestock farming. Orf disease is characterized by localized proliferative and persistent skin nodule lesions that can be classified into three forms: generalized, labial and mammary or genitals...
April 28, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706238/-a-fatal-septic-shock-due-to-capnocytophaga-canimorsus-and-review-of-literature
#14
G Vignon, P Combeau, J Violette, A-S Cognée, S Méglio, F Carrère, P Aucher, F Lellouche
INTRODUCTION: Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a Gram-negative bacterium present in normal dogs and cats mouths. It can be responsible for septic shocks after dog or cat bite, especially in asplenic patients. CASE REPORT: We report here a case of C. canimorsus infection rapidly presenting as a multiple organ dysfonction syndrome in an immunocompetent 54 years old patient, who lives near a dog, without any sign of bite. The evolution was a rapidly fatal fulminant septic shock...
April 26, 2018: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703037/fatal-malignant-pertussis-with-hyperleukocytosis-in-a-chinese-infant-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#15
Shu-Feng Tian, Hong-Mei Wang, Ji-Kui Deng
RATIONALE: Pertussis has re-emerged on a global scale and is an ongoing public health problem, even in countries with high rates of vaccination. Hyperleukocytosis [white blood cell (WBC) count >100 × 10/L] is a rare complication that strongly predicts mortality in cases of severe pertussis. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of severe pertussis in an infant who initially presented with persistent cyanotic cough, tachypnea, and grunting. The infant's condition deteriorated rapidly, and she was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) during her third hour of hospitalization...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698542/point-prevalence-of-healthcare-associated-infections-and-antibiotic-use-in-three-large-swiss-acute-care-hospitals
#16
Aliki Metsini, Miriam Vazquez, Rami Sommerstein, Jonas Marschall, Cathy Voide, Nicolas Troillet, Céline Gardiol, Didier Pittet, Walter Zingg, The Swissnoso Network
BACKGROUND: The overall burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) remains high, even in high-income countries. However, the current burden of HAI in Switzerland is unknown. Prevalence surveys have a long tradition in the field of infection prevention and control for measuring both HAI and antimicrobial use. The objective of this survey was to test the point prevalence survey (PPS) methodology of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) in acute-care hospitals in Switzerland...
April 26, 2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679779/biomimetic-3d-in-vitro-model-of-biofilm-triggered-osteomyelitis-for-investigating-hematopoiesis-during-bone-marrow-infections
#17
Annamarija Raic, Sophie Riedel, Elena Kemmling, Karen Bieback, Joerg Overhage, Cornelia Lee-Thedieck
In this work, we define the requirements for a human-based osteomyelitis model which overcomes the limitations of state of the art animal models. Osteomyelitis is a severe and difficult to treat infection of the bone that develops rapidly, making it difficult to study in humans. We have developed a 3D in vitro model of the bone marrow, comprising a macroporous material, human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Inclusion of biofilms grown on an implant into the model system allowed us to study the effects of postoperative osteomyelitis-inducing bacteria on the bone marrow...
April 18, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674675/pathogen-derived-extracellular-vesicles-mediate-virulence-in-the-fatal-human-pathogen-cryptococcus-gattii
#18
Ewa Bielska, Marta Arch Sisquella, Maha Aldeieg, Charlotte Birch, Eloise J O'Donoghue, Robin C May
The Pacific Northwest outbreak of cryptococcosis, caused by a near-clonal lineage of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii, represents the most significant cluster of life-threatening fungal infections in otherwise healthy human hosts currently known. The outbreak lineage has a remarkable ability to grow rapidly within human white blood cells, using a unique 'division of labour' mechanism within the pathogen population, where some cells adopt a dormant behaviour to support the growth of neighbouring cells...
April 19, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668950/secondary-bacterial-pneumonia-by-staphylococcus-aureus-following-influenza-a-infection-is-saer-s-dependent
#19
Timothy R Borgogna, Bennett Hisey, Emily Heitmann, Joshua J Obar, Nicole Meissner, Jovanka M Voyich
S. aureus is a predominant cause of fatal pneumonia following influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Herein we investigate the influence of antecedent IAV infection on S. aureus virulence gene expression. Using a murine model, comparing USA300 and USA300ΔsaeR/S strains, we demonstrate S. aureus pathogenesis following IAV infection is SaeR/S dependent. Furthermore, we show that IAV modulates the lung environment to rapidly up-regulate S. aureus virulence factors containing the SaeR-binding domain. Data demonstrate the pathogen response to IAV infection impacts host outcome and provides evidence that the ability of S...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665324/rapid-amplification-of-prions-from-variant-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-cerebrospinal-fluid
#20
Marcelo A Barria, Andrew Lee, Alison Je Green, Richard Knight, Mark W Head
Human prion diseases constitute a group of infectious and invariably fatal neurodegenerative disorders associated with misfolding of the prion protein. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) is a zoonotic prion disease linked to oral exposure to the infectious agent that causes bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle. The most recent case of definite vCJD was heterozygous (MV) at polymorphic codon 129 of the prion protein gene PRNP while all of the previous 177 definite or probable vCJD cases who underwent genetic analysis were methionine homozygous (MM)...
April 2018: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
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