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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701847/melioidosis-an-emerging-infection-with-fatal-outcomes
#1
Isabella Princess, R Ebenezer, Nagarajan Ramakrishnan, Arun Kumar Daniel, S Nandini, M A Thirunarayan
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, from being nonendemic for melioidosis, India has now become endemic for the disease since 2012. Until then, melioidosis cases were being reported sporadically from India. There have been isolated case reports from few states across the country for the past few years. Most of the times, Burkholderia pseudomallei may be misreported as Pseudomonas species, especially in resource-poor laboratories. Due to its varied clinical presentation, the specific clinical diagnosis can be difficult, thereby making laboratory diagnosis mandatory...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693453/an-account-of-the-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak-in-nigeria-implications-and-lessons-learnt
#2
Akaninyene Otu, Soter Ameh, Egbe Osifo-Dawodu, Enoma Alade, Susan Ekuri, Jide Idris
BACKGROUND: The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak remains unprecedented both in the number of cases, deaths and geographic scope. The first case of EVD was confirmed in Lagos Nigeria on 23 July 2014 and spread to involve 19 laboratory-confirmed EVD cases. The EVD cases were not limited to Lagos State as Rivers State recorded 2 confirmed cases of EVD with 1 out of the 2 dying. Swift implementation of public health measures were sufficient to forestall a country -wide spread of this dreaded disease...
July 10, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688832/prosthetic-valve-infective-endocarditis-with-mycobacterium-fortuitum-antibiotics-alone-can-be-curative
#3
Sonali R Gnanenthiran, Eunice Y T Liu, Michael Wilson, Tommy Chung, Thomas Gottlieb
Rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria (RGM) are a rare, often fatal cause of infective endocarditis. Although surgery has been the cornerstone of RGM endocarditis therapy, we present the first documented adult case of Mycobacterium fortuitum endocarditis cured with antibiotic therapy.
June 15, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686578/culling-of-apcs-by-inflammatory-cell-death-pathways-restricts-tim3-and-pd-1-expression-and-promotes-the-survival-of-primed-cd8-t-cells
#4
Rajen Patel, Kwangsin Kim, Bojan Shutinoski, Kristina Wachholz, Lakshmi Krishnan, Subash Sad
We evaluated the impact of premature cell death of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) by Caspase-1- and RipK3-signaling pathways on CD8(+) T-cell priming during infection of mice with Salmonella typhimurium (ST). Our results indicate that Caspase1 and RipK3 synergize to rapidly eliminate infected APCs, which does not influence the initial activation of CD8(+) T cells. However, the maintenance of primed CD8(+) T cells was greatly compromised when both these pathways were disabled. Caspase-1- and RipK3-signaling did not influence NF-κB signaling in APCs, but synergized to promote processing of IL-1 and IL-18...
July 7, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685287/an-immuno-chromatographic-lateral-flow-assay-lfa-for-rapid-on-the-farm-detection-of-classical-swine-fever-virus-csfv
#5
Rathnapraba Sambandam, Raja Angamuthu, Vijayarani Kanagaraj, Kumanan Kathaperumal, Shubhada K Chothe, Ruth H Nissly, Rhiannon M Barry, Bhushan M Jayarao, Suresh V Kuchipudi
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious and potentially fatal disease of domestic pigs. Classical swine fever is routinely diagnosed by clinical signs, serology, detection of CSF virus (CSFV) nucleic acid by PCR and virus isolation. Most of the current CSF diagnostic methods are expensive and have an extended turnaround time. In the majority of the CSF endemic countries, lack of easy access to diagnostic facilities is a major problem for swine producers trying to obtain early diagnosis and often results in the entire herd being infected...
July 6, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680860/host-iron-nutritional-immunity-induced-by-a-live-yersinia-pestis-vaccine-strain-is-associated-with-immediate-protection-against-plague
#6
Ayelet Zauberman, Yaron Vagima, Avital Tidhar, Moshe Aftalion, David Gur, Shahar Rotem, Theodor Chitlaru, Yinon Levy, Emanuelle Mamroud
Prompt and effective elicitation of protective immunity is highly relevant for cases of rapidly deteriorating fatal diseases, such as plague, which is caused by Yersinia pestis. Here, we assessed the potential of a live vaccine to induce rapid protection against this infection. We demonstrated that the Y. pestis EV76 live vaccine protected mice against an immediate lethal challenge, limiting the multiplication of the virulent pathogen and its dissemination into circulation. Ex vivo analysis of Y. pestis growth in serum derived from EV76-immunized mice revealed that an antibacterial activity was produced rapidly...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680402/molecular-simulations-of-carbohydrates-with-a-fucose-binding-burkholderia-ambifaria-lectin-suggest-modulation-by-surface-residues-outside-the-fucose-binding-pocket
#7
Tamir Dingjan, Anne Imberty, Serge Pérez, Elizabeth Yuriev, Paul A Ramsland
Burkholderia ambifaria is an opportunistic respiratory pathogen belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex, a collection of species responsible for the rapidly fatal cepacia syndrome in cystic fibrosis patients. A fucose-binding lectin identified in the B. ambifaria genome, BambL, is able to adhere to lung tissue, and may play a role in respiratory infection. X-ray crystallography has revealed the bound complex structures for four fucosylated human blood group epitopes (blood group B, H type 1, H type 2, and Le(x) determinants)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673299/efficacy-and-safety-evaluation-of-a-novel-trioxaquine-in-the-management-of-cerebral-malaria-in-a-mouse-model
#8
Onyango C Odhiambo, Hannah N Wamakima, Gabriel N Magoma, Peter G Kirira, Bonface J Malala, Francis T Kimani, Francis W Muregi
BACKGROUND: The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum poses a great threat of increased fatalities in cases of cerebral and other forms of severe malaria infections in which parenteral artesunate monotherapy is the current drug of choice. The study aimed to investigate in a mouse model of human cerebral malaria whether a trioxaquine chemically synthesized by covalent linking of a 4,7-dichloroquinoline pharmacophore to artesunate through a recent drug development approach termed 'covalent bitherapy' could improve the curative outcomes in cerebral malaria infections...
July 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647541/response-tailored-protocol-versus-the-fixed-12weeks-course-of-dual-sofosbuvir-daclatasvir-treatment-in-egyptian-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-genotype-4-infection-a-randomized-open-label-non-inferiority-trial
#9
Mostafa Yakoot, Alaa M Abdo, Siham Abdel-Rehim, Sherine Helmy
BACKGROUND: The most recent European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) 2016 Guidelines on treatment of hepatitis C (HCV), allowed for shortening the course of treatment for some subsets of patients with sofosbuvir/ledipasvir and with grazoprevir/elbasvir based on cutoff baseline HCV RNA values. We hypothesized that it would be prudent to also consider an objectively assuring very rapid, on-treatment, virologic response to therapy at week 2 (vRVR) before taking the decision of shortening the treatment duration...
May 17, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644417/herpes-simplex-virus-establishment-maintenance-and-reactivation-in-vitro-modeling-of-latency
#10
REVIEW
Nikki M Thellman, Steven J Triezenberg
All herpes viruses establish lifelong infections (latency) in their host, and herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) are highly prevalent worldwide. Recurrence of HSV infections contributes to significant disease burden in people and on rare occasion can be fatal. Cell culture models that recapitulate latent infection provide valuable insight on the host processes regulating viral establishment and maintenance of latency. More robust and rapid than infections in live animal studies, advancements in neuronal culture techniques have made the systematic analysis of viral reactivation mechanisms feasible...
June 23, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643547/rabies%C3%A2-%C3%A2-epidemiology-pathogenesis-public-health-concerns-and-advances-in-diagnosis-and-control-a-comprehensive-review
#11
Rajendra Singh, Karam Pal Singh, Susan Cherian, Mani Saminathan, Sanjay Kapoor, G B Manjunatha Reddy, Shibani Panda, Kuldeep Dhama
Rabies is a zoonotic, fatal and progressive neurological infection caused by rabies virus of the genus Lyssavirus and family Rhabdoviridae. It affects all warm-blooded animals and the disease is prevalent throughout the world and endemic in many countries except in Islands like Australia and Antarctica. Over 60,000 peoples die every year due to rabies, while approximately 15 million people receive rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) annually. Bite of rabid animals and saliva of infected host are mainly responsible for transmission and wildlife like raccoons, skunks, bats and foxes are main reservoirs for rabies...
December 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638939/-consequences-of-autopsies-for-the-living-causes-of-death-in-the-clinical-diagnosis-septic-and-toxic-shock
#12
REVIEW
L Ozretić, A Schwindowski, H-P Dienes, R Büttner, U Drebber, J W U Fries
BACKGROUND: There is reason to believe that the diagnosis of septic and toxic shock, as indicated on the death certificate, cannot be confirmed as the cause of death without autopsy and subsequent histological analysis. The external examination of the corpse can therefore not represent the sole basis for a reliable statement about the infection status of a corpse, e. g. as a prerequisite for embalming. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The validity of autopsy in determining septic and toxic shock as the cause of death is demonstrated in 7 exemplary cases...
June 21, 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638665/a-rare-case-of-septic-shock-secondary-to-emphysematous-hepatitis
#13
Khaled M Nada, Ibrahim El Husseini, Mohammad E Abu Hishmeh, Neerav S Shah, Nadezhda Ibragimova, Riyad Basir
OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of emphysematous hepatitis which is a rare clinical entity, characterized by a fatal, rapidly progressive infection of the liver with a radiological appearance simulating emphysematous pyelonephritis and to help provide more data about the causative organisms and precipitating factors of this pathology. DATA SOURCES AND SYNTHESIS: Relevant literature was reviewed and, to the best of our knowledge, there is limited data regarding the pathogenesis, causative organisms, and management of this condition...
2017: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628941/a-novel-cause-of-chronic-viral-meningoencephalitis-cache-valley-virus
#14
Michael R Wilson, Dan Suan, Andrew Duggins, Ryan D Schubert, Lillian M Khan, Hannah A Sample, Kelsey C Zorn, Aline Rodrigues Hoffman, Anna Blick, Meena Shingde, Joseph L DeRisi
OBJECTIVE: Immunodeficient patients are particularly vulnerable to neuroinvasive infections that can be challenging to diagnose. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing can identify unusual or novel microbes and is therefore well suited for investigating the etiology of chronic meningoencephalitis in immunodeficient patients. METHODS: We present the case of a 34 year-old man with X-linked agammaglobulinemia from Australia suffering from three years of meningoencephalitis that defied an etiologic diagnosis despite extensive conventional testing, including a brain biopsy...
June 19, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619145/thymol-kills-bacteria-reduces-biofilm-formation-and-protects-mice-against-a-fatal-infection-of-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-strain-l20
#15
Lei Wang, Xueqin Zhao, Chunling Zhu, Xiaojing Xia, Wanhai Qin, Mei Li, Tongzhao Wang, Shijun Chen, Yanzhao Xu, Bolin Hang, Yawei Sun, Jinqing Jiang, Langford Paul Richard, Liancheng Lei, Gaiping Zhang, Jianhe Hu
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of the highly contagious and deadly respiratory infection porcine pleuropneumonia, resulting in serious losses to the pig industry worldwide. Alternative to antibiotics are urgently needed due to the serious increase in antimicrobial resistance. Thymol is a monoterpene phenol and efficiently kills a variety of bacteria. This study found that thymol has strong bactericidal effects on the A. pleuropneumoniae 5b serotype strain, an epidemic strain in China...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616497/mers-coronavirus-from-discovery-to-intervention
#16
REVIEW
W Widagdo, Nisreen M A Okba, V Stalin Raj, Bart L Haagmans
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) still causes outbreaks despite public awareness and implementation of health care measures, such as rapid viral diagnosis and patient quarantine. Here we describe the current epidemiological picture of MERS-CoV, focusing on humans and animals affected by this virus and propose specific intervention strategies that would be appropriate to control MERS-CoV. One-third of MERS-CoV patients develop severe lower respiratory tract infection and succumb to a fatal outcome; these patients would require effective therapeutic antiviral therapy...
June 2017: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614372/intestinal-organoids-model-human-responses-to-infection-by-commensal-and-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli
#17
Sayali S Karve, Suman Pradhan, Doyle V Ward, Alison A Weiss
Infection with Shiga toxin (Stx) producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 can cause the potentially fatal complication hemolytic uremic syndrome, and currently only supportive therapy is available. Lack of suitable animal models has hindered study of this disease. Induced human intestinal organoids (iHIOs), generated by in vitro differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, represent differentiated human intestinal tissue. We show that iHIOs with addition of human neutrophils can model E. coli intestinal infection and innate cellular responses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611446/genome-wide-analysis-of-gene-expression-and-protein-secretion-of-babesia-canis-during-virulent-infection-identifies-potential-pathogenicity-factors
#18
Ramon M Eichenberger, Chandra Ramakrishnan, Giancarlo Russo, Peter Deplazes, Adrian B Hehl
Infections of dogs with virulent strains of Babesia canis are characterized by rapid onset and high mortality, comparable to complicated human malaria. As in other apicomplexan parasites, most Babesia virulence factors responsible for survival and pathogenicity are secreted to the host cell surface and beyond where they remodel and biochemically modify the infected cell interacting with host proteins in a very specific manner. Here, we investigated factors secreted by B. canis during acute infections in dogs and report on in silico predictions and experimental analysis of the parasite's exportome...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607014/np108-an-antimicrobial-polymer-with-activity-against-methicillin-and-mupirocin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#19
Derry K Mercer, Laura K Katvars, Fiona Hewitt, Daniel W Smith, Jennifer Robertson, Deborah A O'Neil
Staphylococcus aureus is a clinically significant human pathogen that causes infectious diseases ranging from skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), healthcare associated infections (HAI) to potentially fatal bacteraemia and endocarditis. Nasal carriage of S. aureus, especially persistent carriage, is associated with an increased risk of subsequent infection, particularly nosocomial and surgical site infections (SSI), usually via autoinfection. NP108 is a cationic antimicrobial polymer composed of Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) amino acid building blocks...
June 12, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606995/synergistic-antibacterial-effect-of-silver-and-ebselen-against-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacterial-infections
#20
Lili Zou, Jun Lu, Jun Wang, Xiaoyuan Ren, Lanlan Zhang, Yu Gao, Martin E Rottenberg, Arne Holmgren
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria account for a majority of fatal infections, and development of new antibiotic principles and drugs is therefore of outstanding importance. Here, we report that five most clinically difficult-to-treat MDR Gram-negative bacteria are highly sensitive to a synergistic combination of silver and ebselen. In contrast, silver has no synergistic toxicity with ebselen on mammalian cells. The silver and ebselen combination causes a rapid depletion of glutathione and inhibition of the thioredoxin system in bacteria...
June 12, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
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