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Patricia E McDonald, Maxine A Nunez, Hossein N Yarandi
Forty-eight (N = 48) African-Caribbeans participated in a church-based diabetes care survey in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether integration was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms and glycemic control in persons with type 2 diabetes among African-Caribbeans in faith-based organizations (FBO), controlling for demographic variables. Data were collected on measures of integration of diabetes, acceptance, depressive symptoms, number of hypoglycemic episodes, hemoglobin Alc, and demographic characteristics...
July 2017: Journal of National Black Nurses' Association: JNBNA
Nassar Seifo, Waraf Al-Yaseen, Nicola Innes
Data sourcesPubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database (LILACS), the Brazilian Library in Dentistry (BBO), Cochrane Library and grey literature.Study selectionTwo reviewers selected randomised clinical trials (RCTs) that compared the efficacy of SDF application with other active treatments or placebo in arresting carious lesions.Data extraction and synthesisThree authors extracted data using customised extraction forms, and risk of bias was assessed by two independent reviewers...
June 2018: Evidence-based Dentistry
Amarnath Challapalli, Steve M Edwards, Paul Abel, Stephen A Mangar
Background & purpose: The impact of vasomotor symptoms (VMS) occurring in prostate cancer (PC) patients whilst on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has not been extensively researched. This longitudinal study sought to assess the VMS and identify any predictive factors. Material & methods: Data from 250 PC patients on ADT were prospectively evaluated between January 10 and August 13 using a physician-directed questionnaire, to assess the impact of VMS. Parameters including height, weight, body surface area (BSA), body mass index (BMI), duration/type of ADT, co-morbidities and ethnicity were recorded...
March 2018: Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
A Fuentes, W E Braswell, R Ruiz-Arce, A Racelis
Citrus greening disease, or huanglongbing (HLB), is currently one of the most devastating diseases of citrus. The bacteria thought to be responsible for the disease, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus impact the majority of commercial citrus species worldwide. These bacteria are transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, which is now found in most citrus growing regions. With no known cure, ACP-vectored HLB is responsible for significant economic losses to the global citrus industry...
2018: PloS One
Yvonne Commodore-Mensah, Elizabeth Selvin, Jonathan Aboagye, Ruth-Alma Turkson-Ocran, Ximin Li, Cheryl Dennison Himmelfarb, Rexford S Ahima, Lisa A Cooper
BACKGROUND: Ethnic minority populations in the United States (US) are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including hypertension, overweight/obesity, and diabetes. The size and diversity of ethnic minority immigrant populations in the US have increased substantially over the past three decades. However, most studies on immigrants in the US are limited to Asians and Hispanics; only a few have examined the prevalence of CVD risk factors across diverse immigrant populations...
June 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
D Ransom Hardison, William C Holland, H Taiana Darius, Mireille Chinain, Patricia A Tester, Damian Shea, Alex K Bogdanoff, James A Morris, Harold A Flores Quintana, Christopher R Loeffler, Dayne Buddo, R Wayne Litaker
Lionfish, native to reef ecosystems of the tropical and sub-tropical Indo-Pacific, were introduced to Florida waters in the 1980s, and have spread rapidly throughout the northwestern Atlantic, Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. These invasive, carnivorous fish significantly reduce other fish and benthic invertebrate biomass, fish recruitment, and species richness in reef ecosystems. Fisheries resource managers have proposed the establishment of a commercial fishery to reduce lionfish populations and mitigate adverse effects on reef communities...
2018: PloS One
Dagmar F Hernandez-Suarez, Mariana R Botton, Stuart A Scott, Matthew I Tomey, Mario J Garcia, Jose Wiley, Pedro A Villablanca, Kyle Melin, Angel Lopez-Candales, Jessicca Y Renta, Jorge Duconge
Introduction: High on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) to clopidogrel imparts an increased risk for ischemic events in adults with coronary artery disease. Platelet reactivity varies with ethnicity and is influenced by both clinical and genetic variables; however, no clopidogrel pharmacogenetic studies with Puerto Rican patients have been reported. Therefore, we sought to identify clinical and genetic determinants of on-treatment platelet reactivity in a cohort of Puerto Rican patients with cardiovascular disease...
2018: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
Clara Chew, John T Reager, Eric Small
The 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season was one of the most active and destructive on record, leading to significant flooding in many parts of the United States and the Caribbean. During flooding events such as these, there is an urgent need to quickly map in detail which areas have been severely affected, yet current satellite missions are not capable of sampling the global land surface at high enough spatio-temporal scales for flooding applications. Here, we demonstrate a novel approach to high-resolution flood mapping by repurposing data from the new NASA mission, CYGNSS...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lisa Burry, Sangeeta Mehta, Marc M Perreault, Jay S Luxenberg, Najma Siddiqi, Brian Hutton, Dean A Fergusson, Chaim Bell, Louise Rose
BACKGROUND: Guidelines suggest limited and cautious use of antipsychotics for treatment of delirium where nonpharmacological interventions have failed and symptoms remain distressing or dangerous, or both. It is unclear how well these recommendations are supported by current evidence. OBJECTIVES: Our primary objective was to assess the efficacy of antipsychotics versus nonantipsychotics or placebo on the duration of delirium in hospitalised adults. Our secondary objectives were to compare the efficacy of: 1) antipsychotics versus nonantipsychotics or placebo on delirium severity and resolution, mortality, hospital length of stay, discharge disposition, health-related quality of life, and adverse effects; and 2) atypical vs...
June 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Elizabeth C Shaver, Deron E Burkepile, Brian R Silliman
Recent large-scale analyses suggest that local management actions may not protect coral reefs from climate change, yet most local threat-reduction strategies have not been tested experimentally. We show that removing coral predators is a common local action used by managers across the world, and that removing the corallivorous snail Coralliophila abbreviata from Caribbean brain corals (Pseudodiploria and Diploria species) before a major warming event increased coral resilience by reducing bleaching severity (resistance) and post-bleaching tissue mortality (recovery)...
June 18, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
A M Müller, C S Osório, D R Silva, G Sbruzzi, P de Tarso, Roth Dalcin
SETTING: One of the most serious problems in tuberculosis (TB) control is non-adherence to treatment. Several strategies have been developed to improve adherence and increase the cure rate. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review interventions to improve adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment. DESIGN: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of 22 randomised clinical trials (RCTs) to ascertain whether providing directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS), financial incentives, food incentives and/or patient education/counselling improved adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Yasser Morera-Gómez, Jesús Miguel Santamaría, David Elustondo, Carlos Manuel Alonso-Hernández, David Widory
The constant increase of anthropogenic emissions of aerosols, usually resulting from a complex mixture from various sources, leads to a deterioration of the ambient air quality. The stable isotope compositions (δ13 C and δ15 N) of total carbon (TC) and nitrogen (TN) in both PM10 and emissions from potential sources were investigated for first time in a rural and an urban Caribbean costal sites in Cuba to better constrain the origin of the contamination. Emissions from road traffic, power plant and shipping emissions were discriminated by coupling their C and N contents and corresponding isotope signatures...
June 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Laura Lagourgue, Nicolas Puillandre, Claude Payri
The Udoteaceae family (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) is known to be highly diverse morphologically in the Caribbean region, but only few studies have studied its genetic diversity. Using an integrative taxonomic approach, this study aimed at (1) exploring the Udoteaceae species diversity using a combination of five DNA-based species delimitation methods and morpho-anatomical data for confirmation; (2) estimating the discriminatory power of traditional diagnostic characters using a morphology-based clustering method and statistical analyses focused on the genus Udotea; and (3) reconstructing the phylogeny of the family based on a multilocus analysis (tufA, rbcL, 18S rDNA)...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Amr El-Demerdash, Mohamed A Tammam, Atanas G Atanasov, John N A Hooper, Ali Al-Mourabit, Anake Kijjoa
Over the past seven decades, particularly since the discovery of the first marine-derived nucleosides, spongothymidine and spongouridine, from the Caribbean sponge Cryptotethya crypta in the early 1950s, marine natural products have emerged as unique, renewable and yet under-investigated pools for discovery of new drug leads with distinct structural features, and myriad interesting biological activities. Marine sponges are the most primitive and simplest multicellular animals, with approximately 8900 known described species, although more than 15,000 species are thought to exist worldwide today...
June 18, 2018: Marine Drugs
Roberto González-Gómez, Patricia Briones-Fourzán, Lorenzo Álvarez-Filip, Enrique Lozano-Álvarez
Coral reefs sustain abundant and diverse macrocrustaceans that perform multiple ecological roles, but coral reefs are undergoing massive degradation that may be driving changes in the species composition and abundance of reef-associated macrocrustaceans. To provide insight into this issue, we used non-destructive visual census techniques to compare the diversity and abundance of conspicuous macrocrustaceans (i.e., those >1 cm and visible without disturbance) between two shallow Caribbean coral reefs similar in size (∼1...
2018: PeerJ
Laura A Enzor, Cheryl Hankins, Deborah N Vivian, William S Fisher, Mace G Barron
Projected increases in ocean p CO2 levels are anticipated to affect calcifying organisms more rapidly and to a greater extent than other marine organisms. The effects of ocean acidification (OA) have been documented in numerous species of corals in laboratory studies, largely tested using flow-through exposure systems. We developed a recirculating ocean acidification exposure system that allows precise p CO2 control using a combination of off-gassing measures including aeration, water retention devices, venturi injectors, and CO2 scrubbing...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology
Nathaniel C Gilbert, David B Neau, Marcia E Newcomer
Methods are presented for the use of the coral 8R-lipoxygenase from the Caribbean sea whip coral Plexaura homomalla as a model enzyme for structural studies of animal lipoxygenases. The 8R-lipoxygenase is remarkably stable and can be stored at 4°C for 3 months with virtually no loss of activity. In addition, an engineered "pseudo wild-type" enzyme is soluble in the absence of detergents, which helps facilitate the preparation of enzyme:substrate complexes.
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Cristian Román-Palacios, Jose Tavera, María Del Rosario Castañeda
Whereas most of the studies that discuss the evolutionary divergence of Anolis lizards have dated the clade's crown group in between 31-64 Ma, a single study has recovered a significantly older age for the same node (87 Ma). These differences also entail notable consequences on the preferred biogeographical hypothesis for the whole clade. Here we analyze a total of seven dating strategies by combining three calibration sources in independent BEAST runs to infer the most probable divergence timing for anole lizards (a mitochondrial rate for ND2 gene, the Anolis dominicanus fossil, and a group of fossils assigned to the Priscagamines, Iguanines, and Idontosaurus clades)...
June 12, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Alan M Preston, José Rodríguez-Orengo, Lorena González-Sepúlveda, Sylvette Ayala-Peña, Elizabeth Maldonado-Maldonado
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D status is primarily dependent upon sun exposure and dietary sources, however genetic, cultural, and environmental factors can have a modulating role in the measured amount. One under-reported factor is the effect of regular living quarters on the degree of sun exposure. Herein, we assess vitamin D status in the blood of Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) housed in high amounts of sunlight (corn-cribs), medium sunlight (corrals with shaded areas), and minimal sunlight (quarantine cages)...
June 2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Augusto R Elías-Boneta, Milagros J Toro, Sona Rivas-Tumanyan, Arvind Babu Rajendra-Santosh, Michael Brache, James R Collins C
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence, severity, and associated risk factors of gingival inflammation in a group of adults from Kingston, Jamaica; Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic; and San Juan, Puerto Rico. METHODS: In this representative cross-sectional study, participants completed medical and oral health questionnaires and received an oral clinical examination by trained and calibrated examiners. Clinical assessments included: gingival health (modified Löe-Silness index), visible plaque and presence of calculus...
June 2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
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