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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231903/darker-skin-tone-increases-perceived-discrimination-among-male-but-not-female-caribbean-black-youth
#1
Shervin Assari, Cleopatra Howard Caldwell
BACKGROUND: Among most minority groups, males seem to report higher levels of exposure and vulnerability to racial discrimination. Although darker skin tone may increase exposure to racial discrimination, it is yet unknown whether skin tone similarly influences perceived discrimination among male and female Caribbean Black youth. OBJECTIVE: The current cross-sectional study tests the role of gender on the effects of skin tone on perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth...
December 12, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228334/clinical-and-epidemiological-characterization-of-histoplasmosis-cases-in-a-nonendemic-area-connecticut-united-states
#2
Marwan M Azar, Xuchen Zhang, Roland Assi, Chadi Hage, L Joseph Wheat, Maricar F Malinis
We performed a retrospective analysis of histoplasmosis cases diagnosed at our institution in New Haven, Connecticut, from 2005 to 2015. Among 12 cases of active histoplasmosis, seven were immunosuppressed and five had human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Eleven patients reported travel to potentially endemic areas at a median of 105 days prior to presentation; travel to the Caribbean was most common (n = 6). Median time to diagnosis from symptom onset and first Histoplasma antigen testing were 41 and 28 days, respectively...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227231/alcohol-policy-relevant-indicators-and-alcohol-use-among-adolescents-in-latin-america-and-the-caribbean
#3
Charlotte Probst, Maristela Monteiro, Blake Smith, Roberta Caixeta, Aaron Merey, Jürgen Rehm
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed four alcohol policy indicators and their associations with adolescent alcohol use in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHOD: A secondary data analysis of nationally representative, cross-sectional data sets (years 2007-2013) from 26 Latin American and Caribbean countries was performed (N = 55,248 13- to 15-year-old students). Logistic regression models were used to analyze associations between alcohol policy relevant indicators and alcohol use, adjusting for the country and demographic variables...
January 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225774/first-record-of-the-ligia-baudiniana-species-complex-in-the-american-gulf-of-mexico-coastline-as-confirmed-by-morphological-and-molecular-approaches
#4
Carlos A Santamaria, Edgar T Bischoff Iii, Moe Aye, Keith W Phillips, Victoria Overmeyer
Ligia isopods exhibit a constrained morphology that makes identification difficult. In the Greater Caribbean, a convoluted taxonomic history has left the distributional limits of Ligia baudiniana unclear. To date, no confirmed records of this species exist from the American Gulf of Mexico. Herein, we report the presence of L. baudiniana in Sarasota-Manatee Florida, as confirmed by morphological and molecular approaches. This is the first record of this species in the region and a ~300Km extension of its range...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218863/population-structure-and-migration-of-the-tobacco-blue-mold-pathogen-peronospora-tabacina-into-north-america-and-europe
#5
Monica Blanco-Meneses, Ignazio Carbone, Jean B Ristaino
Tobacco blue mold, caused by Peronospora tabacina, is an oomycete plant pathogen that causes yearly epidemics in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) in the U.S. and Europe. The genetic structure of P. tabacina was examined in order to understand genetic diversity, population structure and patterns of migration. Two nuclear loci, Igs2 and Ypt1 and one mitochondrial locus, cox2, were amplified, cloned and sequenced from fifty four isolates of P. tabacina from the U.S., Central America-Caribbean-Mexico (CCAM), Europe and the Middle East (EULE)...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216354/high-prevalence-of-rare-monogenic-forms-of-obesity-in-obese-guadeloupean-afro-caribbean-children
#6
Lydia Foucan, Laurent Larifla, Emmanuelle Durand, Christine Rambhojan, Christophe Armand, Carl-Thony Michel, Rachel Billy, Véronique Dhennin, Franck De Graeve, Iandry Rabearivelo, Olivier Sand, Jean-Marc Lacorte, Philippe Froguel, Amélie Bonnefond
Context: The population from Guadeloupe Island exhibits high prevalence of obesity. Objective: We aimed to investigate whether rare genetic mutations in genes involved in monogenic obesity (or diabetes) might be causal in this population of Afro-Caribbean ancestry. Design and setting: This was a secondary analysis of a study on obesity conducted in schoolchildren from Guadeloupe in 2013, which aimed to assess the changes in children profiles after a lifestyle intervention program...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211546/association-of-outdoor-air-pollution-with-the-prevalence-of-asthma-in-children-of-latin-america-and-the-caribbean-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Pablo Orellano, Nancy Quaranta, Julieta Reynoso, Brenda Balbi, Julia Vasquez
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the association between asthma prevalence and outdoor air pollution in children in Latin America and the Caribbean. DATA SOURCES: We searched studies in global and regional databases: PubMed, Scopus, LILACS and SciELO. STUDY SELECTION: Articles following a cross-sectional design, studying children from 0 to 18 years old, and comparing the prevalence of asthma in two or more areas of LAC countries with different air pollution levels were included...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209931/co-morbid-non-communicable-diseases-and-associated-health-service-use-in-african-and-caribbean-immigrants-with-hiv
#8
Khatundi-Irene Masindi, Nathaniel Jembere, Claire E Kendall, Ann N Burchell, Ahmed M Bayoumi, Mona Loutfy, Janet Raboud, Sean B Rourke, Henry Luyombya, Tony Antoniou
We sought to characterize non-communicable disease (NCD)-related and overall health service use among African and Caribbean immigrants living with HIV between April 1, 2010 and March 31, 2013. We conducted two population-based analyses using Ontario's linked administrative health databases. We studied 1525 persons with HIV originally from Africa and the Caribbean. Compared with non-immigrants with HIV (n = 11,931), African and Caribbean immigrants had lower rates of hospital admissions, emergency department visits and non-HIV specific ambulatory care visits, and higher rates of health service use for hypertension and diabetes...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209659/imaging-paleoslabs-in-the-d%C3%A2-layer-beneath-central-america-and-the-caribbean-using-seismic-waveform-inversion
#9
Anselme F E Borgeaud, Kenji Kawai, Kensuke Konishi, Robert J Geller
D″ (Dee double prime), the lowermost layer of the Earth's mantle, is the thermal boundary layer (TBL) of mantle convection immediately above the Earth's liquid outer core. As the origin of upwelling of hot material and the destination of paleoslabs (downwelling cold slab remnants), D″ plays a major role in the Earth's evolution. D″ beneath Central America and the Caribbean is of particular geodynamical interest, because the paleo- and present Pacific plates have been subducting beneath the western margin of Pangaea since ~250 million years ago, which implies that paleoslabs could have reached the lowermost mantle...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204320/hermit-crab-response-to-a-visual-threat-is-sensitive-to-looming-cues
#10
Talya Shragai, Xiaoge Ping, Cameron Arakaki, Dennis Garlick, Daniel T Blumstein, Aaron P Blaisdell
Prior work in our lab has shown that an expanding image on a computer screen elicits a hiding response in the Caribbean terrestrial hermit crab (Coenobita clypeatus). We conducted two experiments to identify what properties of the expanding stimulus contribute to its effectiveness as a visual threat. First we found that an expanding geometric star evoked a strong hiding response while a contracting or full-sized stationary star did not. A second experiment revealed that the more quickly the stimulus expanded the shorter the latency to hide...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203793/environmental-dna-reveals-tropical-shark-diversity-in-contrasting-levels-of-anthropogenic-impact
#11
Judith Bakker, Owen S Wangensteen, Demian D Chapman, Germain Boussarie, Dayne Buddo, Tristan L Guttridge, Heidi Hertler, David Mouillot, Laurent Vigliola, Stefano Mariani
Sharks are charismatic predators that play a key role in most marine food webs. Their demonstrated vulnerability to exploitation has recently turned them into flagship species in ocean conservation. Yet, the assessment and monitoring of the distribution and abundance of such mobile species in marine environments remain challenging, often invasive and resource-intensive. Here we pilot a novel, rapid and non-invasive environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding approach specifically targeted to infer shark presence, diversity and eDNA read abundance in tropical habitats...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202073/what-does-the-development-of-medical-tourism-in-barbados-hold-for-health-equity-an-exploratory-qualitative-case-study
#12
Ronald Labonté, Vivien Runnels, Valorie A Crooks, Rory Johnston, Jeremy Snyder
Background: Although the global growth of privatized health care services in the form of medical tourism appears to generate economic benefits, there is debate about medical tourism's impacts on health equity in countries that receive medical tourists. Studies of the processes of economic globalization in relation to social determinants of health suggest that medical tourism's impacts on health equity can be both direct and indirect. Barbados, a small Caribbean nation which has universal public health care, private sector health care and a strong tourism industry, is interested in developing an enhanced medical tourism sector...
2017: Global Health Research and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201915/exploring-the-concept-of-degrees-of-maternal-morbidity-as-a-tool-for-surveillance-of-maternal-health-in-latin-american-and-caribbean-settings
#13
Suzanne J Serruya, Bremen de Mucio, Gerardo Martinez, Luis Mainero, Andres de Francisco, Lale Say, Maria H Sousa, Renato T Souza, Maria L Costa, Jussara Mayrink, Jose G Cecatti
Objectives: To assess a birth registry to explore maternal mortality and morbidity and their association with other factors. Study Design: Exploratory multicentre cross-sectional analysis with over 700 thousand childbirths from twelve Latin American and Caribbean countries between 2009 and 2012. The WHO criteria for maternal morbidity were employed to split women, following a gradient of severity of conditions, into (1) maternal death (MD); (2) maternal near miss (MNM); (3) potentially life-threatening conditions (PLTC); (4) less severe maternal morbidity (LSMM); (5) any maternal morbidity; and (6) women with no maternal morbidity...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199934/pablo-f-g%C3%A3-mez-the-experiential-caribbean-creating-knowledge-and-healing-in-the-early-modern-atlantic-chapel-hill-nc-university-of-north-carolina-press-2017-pp-%C3%A2-xxii-314-85-00-hardback-isbn-978-1-4696-3086-1
#14
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198909/hiv-1-drug-resistance-before-initiation-or-re-initiation-of-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-regression-analysis
#15
Ravindra K Gupta, John Gregson, Neil Parkin, Hiwot Haile-Selassie, Amilcar Tanuri, Liliana Andrade Forero, Pontiano Kaleebu, Christine Watera, Avelin Aghokeng, Nicholus Mutenda, Janet Dzangare, San Hone, Zaw Zaw Hang, Judith Garcia, Zully Garcia, Paola Marchorro, Enrique Beteta, Amalia Giron, Raph Hamers, Seth Inzaule, Lisa M Frenkel, Michael H Chung, Tulio de Oliveira, Deenan Pillay, Kogie Naidoo, Ayesha Kharsany, Ruthiran Kugathasan, Teresa Cutino, Gillian Hunt, Santiago Avila Rios, Meg Doherty, Michael R Jordan, Silvia Bertagnolio
BACKGROUND: Pretreatment drug resistance in people initiating or re-initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) might compromise HIV control in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed to assess the scale of this problem and whether it is associated with the intiation or re-initiation of ART in people who have had previous exposure to antiretroviral drugs. METHODS: This study was a systematic review and meta-regression analysis...
November 30, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198263/partnership-models-for-the-establishment-of-sustainable-paediatric-cardiac-surgical-and-cardiac-intensive-care-programmes-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#16
Patricia Bastero, Sandra L Staveski, Bistra Zheleva, Emma Scanlan, Antonio G Cabrera, Aric Araujo, Guillermo Reyes, Carlos M Mery, Alexis Palacios-Macedo, Christian P Brizard
The care of patients with CHD remains a challenge in low- and middle-income countries. Their health systems have not been able to achieve consistently high performance in this field. The large volume of patients, manpower constraints, inconsistencies in the level and type of background training of the teams caring for this patient population, and the inadequate quality control systems are some of the barriers to achieving excellence of care. We describe three different international projects supporting the paediatric cardiac surgical and paediatric cardiac intensive care programmes in Latin America, Asia, and the Caribbean...
December 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198177/clinicopathologic-features-of-solid-pseudopapillary-pancreatic-neoplasms-in-an-eastern-caribbean-population
#17
Shamir O Cawich, Zulema Ledesma, Lian Sampath, Sherisse Sandy
Pancreatic solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs) are uncommon lesions across the globe. Their incidence is unknown in the Caribbean. This retrospective study sought to document the clinicopathologic features of pancreatic SPNs in an Eastern Caribbean population. We examined data from the hospital records of all patients with SPN in Trinidad and Tobago, finding 11 cases over five years, equating to an incidence of 0.17 cases per 100,000 population per year. The lesions occurred in girls and young women at a mean age of 25 years, with a propensity for those of Afro-Caribbean descent...
January 1, 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196278/discrepancies-between-classic-and-digital-epidemiology-in-searching-for-the-mayaro-virus-preliminary-qualitative-and-quantitative-analysis-of-google-trends
#18
Mohammad Adawi, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Abdulla Watad, Kassem Sharif, Howard Amital, Naim Mahroum
BACKGROUND: Mayaro virus (MAYV), first discovered in Trinidad in 1954, is spread by the Haemagogus mosquito. Small outbreaks have been described in the past in the Amazon jungles of Brazil and other parts of South America. Recently, a case was reported in rural Haiti. OBJECTIVE: Given the emerging importance of MAYV, we aimed to explore the feasibility of exploiting a Web-based tool for monitoring and tracking MAYV cases. METHODS: Google Trends is an online tracking system...
December 1, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194910/monilophthora-roreri-causal-agent-of-cacao-frosty-pod-rot
#19
Bryan A Bailey, Harry C Evans, Wilbert Phillips-Mora, Shahin S Ali, Lyndel W Meinhardt
Taxonomy: Moniliophthora roreri (Cif.) H.C. Evans et al. (1978); Phylum Basidiomycota; Class Agaricomycetes; Order Agaricales; Family Marasmiaceae; Genus Moniliophthora. Biology: M. roreri attacks Theobroma and Herrania species causing frosty pod rot. Theobroma cacao (cacao) is the host of major economic concern. M. roreri is a hemibiotroph with a long biotrophic phase (45-90 days). Spore masses, of apparent asexual origin, are produced on the pod surface after initiation of the necrotrophic phase. Spores are spread by wind, rain and human activity...
December 1, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188465/demographic-and-travel-characteristics-of-travel-associated-zika-virus-infection-case-patients-in-san-diego-county-california-january-1-2016-march-31-2017
#20
Gabriela Escutia, Eric McDonald, Alfonso Rodríguez-Lainz, Jessica Healy
Most Zika disease cases diagnosed in the continental US have been associated with travel to areas with risk of Zika transmission, mainly the Caribbean and Latin America. Limited information has been published about the demographic and travel characteristics of Zika case-patients in the United States, besides their age and gender. During 2016-2017 the County of San Diego Health and Human Services Agency, California, expanded the scope and completeness of demographic and travel information collected from Zika case-patients for public health surveillance purposes...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Community Health
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