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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035966/effectiveness-of-rifampicin-chemoprophylaxis-in-preventing-leprosy-in-patient-contacts-a-systematic-review-of-quantitative-and-qualitative-evidence
#1
Silvana Margarida Benevides Ferreira, Tatiana Yonekura, Eliane Ignotti, Larissa Bertacchini de Oliveira, Juliana Takahashi, Cassia Baldini Soares
BACKGROUND: Individuals in contact with patients who have leprosy have an increased risk of disease exposure, which reinforces the need for chemoprophylactic measures, such as the use of rifampicin. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the review was to synthesize the best available evidence regarding the effectiveness of rifampicin chemoprophylaxis for contacts with patients with leprosy, and to synthesize the best available evidence on the experience and acceptability of rifampicin chemoprophylaxis as reported by the contacts and health professionals involved in the treatment of leprosy or Hansen's disease...
October 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034575/life-after-prostate-cancer-a-systematic-literature-review-and-thematic-synthesis-of-the-post-treatment-experiences-of-black-african-and-black-caribbean-men
#2
REVIEW
O Bamidele, H McGarvey, B M Lagan, N Ali, F Chinegwundoh Mbe, K Parahoo, E McCaughan
Evidence shows that there are significant ethnic variations in prostate cancer prevalence and outcomes. Specifically, Black African and Black Caribbean men may encounter different post-treatment experiences than Caucasian men due to their disproportionately higher risk of being diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer. But to date, no review of these experiences has been undertaken. This review synthesised findings from existing literature on the post-treatment experiences of Black African and Black Caribbean men with prostate cancer and identified pertinent issues which may be useful to inform practice and future research...
October 16, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032937/challenges-and-opportunities-to-scale-up-cardiovascular-disease-secondary-prevention-in-latin-america-and-the-caribbean
#3
Álvaro Avezum, Pablo Perel, Gustavo B F Oliveira, Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, Gustavo Restrepo, Fleetwood Loustalot, Andrea Srur, Reinaldo de La Noval, Kenneth I Connell, Salvador Cruz-Flores, Lenildo de Moura, Gabriela Castellac, Antonio C Mattos, Pedro Ordunez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2017: Global Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030973/returning-to-work-after-laparoscopic-myomectomy-a-prospective-observational-study
#4
Keren O Huff, Mehrnoosh Aref-Adib, Zwelihle Magama, Evangelia K Vlachodimitropoulou, Reeba Oliver, Funlayo Odejinmi
INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic myomectomy offers women many benefits over conventional open surgery, including an expedited recovery and return to employment. Our study evaluates the time taken for women to return to work after laparoscopic myomectomy and identifies factors prolonging recovery to over eight weeks. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 94 women undergoing laparoscopic myomectomy by a single surgeon between January 2012 and March 2015. Women had standardised pre-operative counseling and completed a validated return to work questionnaire three months post-operatively via telephone, post or in clinic...
October 14, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029897/worldwide-trends-in-body-mass-index-underweight-overweight-and-obesity-from-1975-to-2016-a-pooled-analysis-of-2416-population-based-measurement-studies-in-128%C3%A2-9-million-children-adolescents-and-adults
#5
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. METHODS: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5-19 years...
October 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029157/stings-of-the-ant-wasmannia-auropunctata-hymenoptera-formicidae-as-cause-of-punctate-corneal-lesions-in-humans-and-other-animals
#6
Diego Rosselli, James K Wetterer
Numerous researchers have observed a form of punctate corneal lesions causing leukomas (corneal opacities) in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals in different parts of the world. This condition has been reported under different names, including West Indian (or Caribbean) punctate keratopathy, West Indian dots, tropical punctate keratopathy, Rice's keratopathy, Florida keratopathy, and Florida spots. Many of these cases, appear to have a common cause, the stings of a small red ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), originally from the Neotropics, but spread to other parts of the world through human commerce...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026375/sexual-risk-behavior-among-hiv-positive-persons-in-jamaica
#7
Butho Ncube, Jessica Ansong, Kewanna Daniels, Dianne Campbell-Stennett, Pauline E Jolly
BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS remains a global public health challenge, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean. Sexual risk behaviors among HIV-positive persons place their partners at risk for HIV transmission and other sexually transmitted infections. Stopping transmission acts among HIV-positive people is crucial in reversing HIV incidence. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the prevalence and predictors of sexual risk behaviors among HIV-positive individuals in clinical care in Northwestern Jamaica...
March 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026018/rebuilding-caribbean-science
#8
EDITORIAL
Juan S Ramírez Lugo, Carlos A Torres-Ramos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025489/evidence-based-interventions-to-reduce-tuberculosis-stigma-a-systematic-review
#9
N Sommerland, E Wouters, E M H Mitchell, M Ngicho, L Redwood, C Masquillier, R van Hoorn, S van den Hof, A Van Rie
SETTING: While substantial progress is being made in tuberculosis (TB) control, the success of public health efforts is hampered by pervasive stigma. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic literature review to assess the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing TB stigma in patients, health care workers, care givers and the general community. DESIGN: Studies were eligible for inclusion if they evaluated interventions aimed at reducing TB stigma and were published between 1950 and 2015...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023320/favorable-liver-cancer-mortality-to-incidence-ratios-of-countries-with-high-health-expenditure
#10
Chi-Chih Wang, Ming-Chang Tsai, Cheng-Ming Peng, Hsiang-Lin Lee, Hsuan-Yi Chen, Tzu-Wei Yang, Wen-Wei Sung, Chun-Che Lin
OBJECTIVE: Health expenditure is a marker associated with an advanced healthcare system, which contributes toward the good prognosis of patients. Mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) are one of the predictors that reflect the prognosis of cancer patients. There remains some uncertainty on the correlation of MIRs of liver cancer with the health expenditure of countries. METHODS: We therefore analyzed the correlation of MIRs from the GLOBOCAN 2012 database with the WHO rankings and the total expenditures on health/gross domestic product from WHO by linear regression analyses...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022793/intralesional-excision-with-topical-intralesional-cryotherapy-improves-the-treatment-of-keloid-scarring-in-a-paediatric-patient
#11
D Reissis, T Tickunas, R A Agha, Avh Greig
Recurrent keloid scarring has a significant impact on quality of life. Management is complex, particularly for scars resistant to conventional treatments and in paediatric cases where radiotherapy is not a suitable adjunct to surgical excision. We present the case of a nine-year-old African Caribbean girl with multiple large and recurrent keloid scars on both ears and bilateral sensorineural deafness. Following repeated intralesional excisions, corticosteroid and botulinum toxin injections, she continued to experience rapid recurrence of her keloids, worsening pain and pruritus...
September 15, 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021405/high-prevalence-of-high-risk-hpv-genotypes-other-than-16-and-18-in-cervical-cancers-of-cura%C3%A3-ao-implications-for-choice-of-prophylactic-hpv-vaccine
#12
Desiree J Hooi, Birgit I Lissenberg-Witte, Maurits N C de Koning, Herbert M Pinedo, Gemma G Kenter, Chris J L M Meijer, Wim G Quint
BACKGROUND: Curaçao is a Dutch-Caribbean Island located in a high-risk area for cervical cancer.Prior to introduction of a prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, knowledge of the prevalence of high-risk HPV vaccine genotypes (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58) in cervical (pre)cancer is required. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of HPV genotypes in invasive cervical cancers (ICC) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 1, 2 and 3 in Curaçao...
October 11, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020435/blood-pressure-targets-for-the-treatment-of-people-with-hypertension-and-cardiovascular-disease
#13
REVIEW
Luis Carlos Saiz, Javier Gorricho, Javier Garjón, Mª Concepción Celaya, Lourdes Muruzábal, Mª Del Mar Malón, Rodolfo Montoya, Antonio López
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a prominent preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality. People with hypertension and established cardiovascular disease are at particularly high risk, so reducing blood pressure below standard targets may be beneficial. This strategy could reduce cardiovascular mortality and morbidity but could also increase adverse events. The optimal blood pressure target in people with hypertension and established cardiovascular disease remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine if 'lower' blood pressure targets (≤ 135/85 mmHg) are associated with reduction in mortality and morbidity as compared with 'standard' blood pressure targets (≤ 140 to 160/ 90 to 100 mmHg) in the treatment of people with hypertension and a history of cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, angina, stroke, peripheral vascular occlusive disease)...
October 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020122/informality-and-employment-vulnerability-application-in-sellers-with-subsistence-work
#14
María Osley Garzón-Duque, María Doris Cardona-Arango, Fabio León Rodríguez-Ospina, Angela María Segura-Cardona
OBJECTIVE: To describe the origin, evolution, and application of the concept of employment vulnerability in workers who subsist on street sales. METHODS: We have carried out an analysis of the literature in database in Spanish, Portuguese, and English, without restriction by country. This is a review of the gray literature of government reports, articles, and documents from Latin America and the Caribbean. We have analyzed information on the informal economy, social-employment vulnerability, and subsistence workers...
October 5, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020115/genetic-characteristics-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-isolates-from-caribbean-countries
#15
Patrick Eberechi Akpaka, Shivnarine Kissoon, Padman Jayaratne, Clyde Wilson, George R Golding, Alison M Nicholson, Delores B Lewis, Sandra M Hermelijn, Alexis Wilson-Pearson, Ashley Smith
Emergence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) that first appeared on the stage about three decades ago is now a major concern worldwide as it has globally reached every continent. Our aim was to simply undertake a multinational study to delineate the resistance and virulence genes of clinical isolates of VRE isolates from the Caribbean. We employed both conventional (standard microbiological methods including use of E-test strips, chromogenic agar) and molecular methods (polymerase chain reactions-PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-PFGE and multilocus sequence typing-MLST) to analyze and characterize 245 Enterococci species and 77 VRE isolates from twelve hospitals from eight countries in the Caribbean...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017552/syphilis-in-the-americas-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-of-syphilis-prevalence-and-incidence-in-four-high-risk-groups-1980-2016
#16
Ken Kitayama, Eddy R Segura, Jordan E Lake, Amaya G Perez-Brumer, Catherine E Oldenburg, Bethany A Myers, Paria Pourjavaheri, Chinomnso N Okorie, Robinson L Cabello, Jesse L Clark
BACKGROUND: Syphilis infection has recently resurfaced as a significant public health problem. Although there has been a tremendous amount of research on the epidemiology of syphilis, there has been limited work done to synthesize the extensive body of research and systematically estimate patterns of disease within high-risk groups in the Americas. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to (1) summarize recent patterns of syphilis infection in North and South America among four high-risk groups (MSM, transgender women, sex workers, and incarcerated individuals) from 1980 to 2016, (2) identify and differentiate regional geographic epidemiologic characteristics, and (3) compare the epidemics of the economically developed countries of North America from the developing countries and public health systems of Latin America and the Caribbean...
October 10, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016624/unusually-high-coral-recruitment-during-the-2016-el-ni%C3%A3-o-in-mo-orea-french-polynesia
#17
Peter J Edmunds
The negative implications of the thermal sensitivity of reef corals became clear with coral bleaching throughout the Caribbean in the 1980's, and later globally, with the severe El Niño of 1998 and extensive seawater warming in 2005. These events have substantially contributed to declines in coral cover, and therefore the El Niño of 2016 raised concerns over the implications for coral reefs; on the Great Barrier Reef these concerns have been realized. A different outcome developed in Mo'orea, French Polynesia, where in situ seawater temperature from 15 March 2016 to 15 April 2016 was an average of 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016282/analysis-of-health-indicators-in-two-rural-communities-on-the-colombian-caribbean-coast-poor-water-supply-and-education-level-are-associated-with-water-related-diseases
#18
María Stephany Ruiz-Díaz, Gustavo José Mora-García, Germán Israel Salguedo-Madrid, Doris Esther Gómez-Camargo
Water-related diseases are closely linked with drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) indicators, socioeconomic status, education level, or dwelling's conditions. Developing countries exhibit a particular vulnerability to these diseases, especially rural areas and urban slums. This study assessed socioeconomic features, WASH indicators, and water-related diseases in two rural areas of the Colombian Caribbean coast. Most of this population did not finish basic education (72.3%, N = 159). Only one of the communities had a water supply (aqueduct), whereas the other received water via an adapted tanker ship...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988879/roadmap-for-tuberculosis-elimination-in-latin-america-and-the-caribbean
#19
Carlos A Torres-Duque, Zhenia M Fuentes Alcalá, Adrián Rendón, Giovanni Battista Migliori
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987250/differences-between-metabolically-healthy-vs-unhealthy-obese-children-and-adolescents
#20
Aditi Khokhar, Vivian Chin, Sheila Perez-Colon, Tanni Farook, Shipra Bansal, Elna Kochummen, Vatcharapan Umpaichitra
Obesity is on the rise worldwide. An obesity subtype, metabolically healthy obese (MHO), is resilient to unfavorable metabolic and cardiovascular effects. Factors predicting MHO phenotype are not well characterized. We aimed to identify MHO and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) children and adolescents with respect to metabolic factors, and to find predictors of MHO subtype. A retrospective chart review was done on children, ages 4-19 years, 99% African-American/Caribbean, with BMI ≥95th %tile. MUO was defined as meeting ≥1 of the following: fasting glucose ≥100 mg/dl, HbA1c >5...
2017: Journal of the National Medical Association
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