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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319134/genotype-and-local-environment-dynamically-influence-growth-disturbance-response-and-survivorship-in-the-threatened-coral-acropora-cervicornis
#1
Crawford Drury, Derek Manzello, Diego Lirman
The relationship between the coral genotype and the environment is an important area of research in degraded coral reef ecosystems. We used a reciprocal outplanting experiment with 930 corals representing ten genotypes on each of eight reefs to investigate the influence of genotype and the environment on growth and survivorship in the threatened Caribbean staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis. Coral genotype and site were strong drivers of coral growth and individual genotypes exhibited flexible, non-conserved reaction norms, complemented by ten-fold differences in growth between specific G-E combinations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295974/risk-factors-and-outcome-differences-in-hypoglycaemia-related-hospital-admissions-a-case-control-study-in-england
#2
Francesco Zaccardi, David R Webb, Melanie J Davies, Nafeesa N Dhalwani, Gemma Housley, Dominic Shaw, James W Hatton, Kamlesh Khunti
AIMS: To evaluate risk factors for hospital admissions for hypoglycaemia and compare length of hospitalisation, inpatient mortality, and hospital readmission between hypoglycaemia and non-hypoglycaemia-related admissions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used all admissions for hypoglycaemia in people with diabetes to English NHS hospital trusts between 2005 and 2014 (101,475 case admissions) and three random admissions per case in people with diabetes without hypoglycaemia (304,425 control admissions)...
March 14, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293130/treatment-of-tungiasis-with-a-two-component-dimeticone-a-comparison-between-moistening-the-whole-foot-and-directly-targeting-the-embedded-sand-fleas
#3
Per Nordin, Marlene Thielecke, Nicholas Ngomi, George Mukone Mudanga, Ingela Krantz, Hermann Feldmeier
BACKGROUND: Tungiasis (sand flea disease) is caused by the penetration of female sand fleas (Tunga penetrans, Siphonaptera) into the skin. It belongs to the neglected tropical diseases and is prevalent in South America, the Caribbean and sub-Saharan Africa. Tungiasis predominantly affects marginalized populations and resource-poor communities in both urban and rural areas. In the endemic areas, patients do not have access to an effective and safe treatment. A proof-of-principle study in rural Kenya has shown that the application of a two-component dimeticone (NYDA®) which is a mixture of two low viscosity silicone oils caused almost 80% of the embedded sand fleas to lose their viability within 7 days...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289966/variable-alkaloid-defenses-in-the-dendrobatid-poison-frog-oophaga-pumilio-are-perceived-as-differences-in-palatability-to-arthropods
#4
Sarah K Bolton, Kelsie Dickerson, Ralph A Saporito
Conspicuously colored dendrobatid frogs sequester alkaloid defenses from dietary arthropods, resulting in considerable alkaloid variation among populations; however, little is known about how variation is perceived as a defense against predators. Previous studies have found variable alkaloids in the dendrobatid Oophaga pumilio to be associated with differences in toxicity to laboratory mice, suggesting variable defenses are important. Arthropods are natural predators that use chemoreception to detect prey, including frogs, and may therefore perceive variation in alkaloid profiles as differences in palatability...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287859/a-mixed-methods-evaluation-of-a-community-based-glaucoma-check-service-in-hackney-london-uk
#5
Elizabeth Holdsworth, Jessica Datta, Dalya Marks, Hannah Kuper, Helen Lee, Shaun Leamon, Robert Lindfield, Richard Wormald, Jonathan Clarke, Ahmed Elkarmouty, Wendy Macdowall
PURPOSE: To evaluate the uptake, feasibility and acceptability of a general practice-based optometrist-led glaucoma check service. The service targeted people of black Caribbean and black African descent aged 40-65 years, resident in Hackney, London, United Kingdom. METHODS: The study used a mixed-method design, including analysis of service data, prospective audit of secondary care referrals patient survey, cost-consequence analysis, and interviews with staff involved in developing and implementing the service...
March 13, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285789/zika-virus-history-epidemiology-transmission-and-clinical-presentation
#6
REVIEW
Byung-Hak Song, Sang-Im Yun, Michael Woolley, Young-Min Lee
Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne positive-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae (genus Flavivirus), is now causing an unprecedented large-scale outbreak in the Americas. Historically, ZIKV spread eastward from equatorial Africa and Asia to the Pacific Islands during the late 2000s to early 2010s, invaded the Caribbean and Central and South America in 2015, and reached North America in 2016. Although ZIKV infection generally causes no symptoms or only a mild self-limiting illness, it has recently been linked to a rising number of severe neurological diseases, including microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285312/world-perspective-on-the-epidemiology-of-stunting-between-1990-and-2015%C3%A2
#7
Susan C Campisi, Arlin Mary Cherian, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Stunting is the most prevalent form of child undernutrition with current worldwide estimates at 156 million. The majority of these children reside in low- and middle-income countries. When stunting prevails to adulthood, optimal growth potential and economic productivity are minimized. RESULTS: In 2015 there were 98.5 million fewer stunted children under 5 years of age than in 1990. In East Asia and Pacific and South Asia, the stunting prevalence decreased by 24...
March 10, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284110/protistan-biogeography-a-snapshot-across-a-major-shipping-corridor-spanning-two-oceans
#8
Katrina M Pagenkopp Lohan, Robert C Fleischer, Mark E Torchin, Gregory M Ruiz
Deciphering patterns of protistan taxa is a crucial step for understanding anthropogenic and environmental impacts on biogeography. We characterized and compared protistan communities from environmental samples collected along a major shipping corridor, the Panama Canal, and the Bocas del Toro archipelago. We used metabarcoding with high throughput sequencing (HTS) with the V4 hypervariable region of the ribosomal gene complex (rDNA). We detected many protistan taxa, including a variety of parasitic and toxic taxa...
January 6, 2017: Protist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283861/injuries-among-immigrants-treated-in-primary-care-in-madrid-spain
#9
Ana Clara Zoni, María Felicitas Domínguez-Berjón, María Dolores Esteban-Vasallo, Luis Miguel Velázquez-Buendía, Vendula Blaya-Nováková, Enrique Regidor
This study compared the injury incidence rates by sex in adult immigrant and native population attended in primary care in the Community of Madrid, Spain. Cross-sectional study of injuries registered in the primary care electronic medical record in 2012. Crude and age-adjusted incidence rates by sex, region of birth and type of injury were calculated. Poisson regression was performed. In both sexes, the highest crude injury incidence rate was found in immigrants from North Africa, followed by the native population...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283118/a-protocol-to-develop-practice-guidelines-for-primary-care-medical-service-trips
#10
Christopher Dainton, Charlene H Chu, Henry Lin, William Cherniak, Lawrence C Loh
BACKGROUND: North American clinicians are increasingly participating in medical service trips (MSTs) that provide primary healthcare in Latin America and the Caribbean. Literature reviews have shown that the existence and use of evidence-based guidelines by these groups are limited, which presents potential for harm. OBJECTIVE: This paper proposes a 5-step methodology to develop protocols for diagnosis and treatment of conditions encountered by MST clinicians. METHODS: We reviewed the 2010 American College of Physicians guidance statement on guidelines development and developed our own adaptation...
September 2016: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282947/disparity-in-retention-in-care-and-viral-suppression-for-black-caribbean-born-immigrants-living-with-hiv-in-florida
#11
Elena Cyrus, Christyl Dawson, Kristopher P Fennie, Diana M Sheehan, Daniel E Mauck, Mariana Sanchez, Lorene M Maddox, Mary Jo Trepka
(1) The study aim was to assess disparities in non-retention in HIV care and non-viral suppression among non-Hispanic Black Caribbean immigrants living with HIV in Florida. (2) We analyzed cases involving individuals, aged ≥13, who met CDC HIV case definition during 2000-2014. Chi square test was used to evaluate differences in non-retention and non-viral suppression by country of origin/race/ethnicity. Multilevel logistic regressions with three referent groups [US-born Blacks, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs)] were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR)...
March 9, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282358/zany-over-zika-virus-an-overview-of-diagnosis-and-treatment-modalities
#12
Natasha J Pyzocha, Stephanie E Chinchen, Douglas M Maurer
Zika virus has been a recent international public health concern with outbreaks occurring in the Americas, Caribbean, and Pacific. The zoonotic infection is primarily spread to humans by the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. The virus also can be transmitted via bodily fluids, sexual intercourse, and maternal-fetal vertical transmission. Asymptomatic presentation is common. If symptoms do occur, individuals display a low-grade fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis 2 to 7 d after infection...
March 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280063/surveillance-report-of-zika-virus-among-canadian-travellers-returning-from-the-americas
#13
Andrea K Boggild, Jennifer Geduld, Michael Libman, Cedric P Yansouni, Anne E McCarthy, Jan Hajek, Wayne Ghesquiere, Yazdan Mirzanejad, Jean Vincelette, Susan Kuhn, Pierre J Plourde, Sumontra Chakrabarti, David O Freedman, Kevin C Kain
BACKGROUND: Widespread transmission of Zika virus in the Americas has occurred since late 2015. We examined demographic and travel-related characteristics of returned Canadian travellers with Zika infection acquired in the Americas to illuminate risk factors for acquisition and the clinical spectrum. METHODS: We analyzed demographic and travel-related data for returned Canadian travellers who presented to a CanTravNet site between October 2015 and September 2016 for care of Zika virus acquired in the Americas...
March 6, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279703/limitations-to-the-adoption-of-a-standardized-strongyloides-stercoralis-diagnostic-method-case-study-in-the-caribbean
#14
Jennifer K Ketzis
BACKGROUND: Strongyloides stercoralis is frequently under-diagnosed due to the low sensitivity of common faecal diagnostic methods used in clinical laboratories. This leads to a belief that prevalence is low and that S. stercoralis is not an important soil-transmitted helminth (STH). S. stercoralis diagnostic methods with higher sensitivity are available but often not used. Reasons for their lack of use need to be identified and addressed in order to increase awareness of this neglected parasite...
March 6, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278162/the-origin-and-biogeographic-diversification-of-fishes-in-the-family-poeciliidae
#15
David N Reznick, Andrew I Furness, Robert W Meredith, Mark S Springer
The fish subfamily Poeciliinae (sensu Parenti, 1981) is widely distributed across the Western Hemisphere and a dominant component of the fish communities of Central America. Poeciliids have figured prominently in previous studies on the roles of dispersal and vicariance in shaping current geographic distributions. Most recently, Hrbek et al. combined a DNA-based phylogeny of the family with geological models to provide a biogeographic perspective that emphasized the role of both vicariance and dispersal. Here we expand on that effort with a database enlarged in the quantity of sequence represented per species, in the number of species included, and in an enlarged and more balanced representation of the order Cyprinodontiformes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277029/physical-psychiatric-comorbidity-patterns-and-explanations-for-ethnic-group-differences
#16
Christy L Erving
OBJECTIVE: This paper examines ethnic differences in the co-occurrence of physical and psychiatric health problems (physical-psychiatric comorbidity) for women and men. The following ethnic groups are included: Non-Latino Whites, African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, Spanish Caribbean Blacks, Mexicans, Cubans, Puerto Ricans, Other Latinos, Chinese, Filipinos, Vietnamese, and Other Asian Americans. In addition, the study assesses the extent to which social factors (socioeconomic status, stress exposure, social support) account for ethnic differences in physical-psychiatric comorbidity (PPC)...
February 7, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275730/predatory-fish-depletion-and-recovery-potential-on-caribbean-reefs
#17
Abel Valdivia, Courtney Ellen Cox, John Francis Bruno
The natural, prehuman abundance of most large predators is unknown because of the lack of historical data and a limited understanding of the natural factors that control their populations. Determining the supportable predator biomass at a given location (that is, the predator carrying capacity) would help managers to optimize protection and would provide site-specific recovery goals. We assess the relationship between predatory reef fish biomass and several anthropogenic and environmental variables at 39 reefs across the Caribbean to (i) estimate their roles determining local predator biomass and (ii) determine site-specific recovery potential if fishing was eliminated...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275252/national-legislation-and-spending-on-vaccines-in-latin-america-and-the-caribbean
#18
Michael McQuestion, Ana Gabriela Felix Garcia, Cara Janusz, Jon Kim Andrus
This study examined the dynamics of vaccine spending and vaccine legislation in the Americas Region over the period 1980-2013. Annual vaccine expenditures from thirty-one countries were extracted from the Pan American Health Organization Revolving Fund database. Information on vaccine laws and regulations was provided by the PAHO Family, Gender, and Life Course Unit. Both time series and event history models were estimated. The results show that passing an immunization law led a representative country to increase its vaccine spending, controlling for income, infant mortality, population size, and DPT3 vaccine coverage...
February 2017: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274650/ethnic-differences-in-parental-feeding-behaviors-in-uk-parents-of-preschoolers
#19
Cihang Gu, Warkentin Sarah, Mais Laís Amaral, Susan Carnell
Childhood obesity is prevalent among ethnic minorities in the UK but little is known about parent feeding practices in these populations. We administered questionnaires assessing parental feeding behaviors and perceptions and concerns relating to child weight to White British (n = 271), South Asian (n = 59), and Black Afro-Caribbean (n = 42) parents of UK 3-5 year-olds. Child BMI z-scores were determined from measured heights and weights. South Asian and Black Afro-Caribbean parents exhibited greater pressure to eat than White British parents...
March 5, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274153/role-of-kangaroo-mother-care-in-growth-and-breast-feeding-rates-in-very-low-birth-weight-vlbw-neonates-a-systematic-review
#20
Deepak Sharma, Nazanin Farahbakhsh, Sweta Sharma, Pradeep Sharma, Akash Sharma
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of Kangaroo mother care (KMC) on growth and breast feeding rates in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. METHOD AND MATERIAL: A literature search was done to identify eligible studies using various electronic database searches including PubMed and EMBASE, various Web of Science including Scopus, Index Copernicus, African Index Medicus (AIM), Thomson Reuters (ESCI), Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS), SCIWIN (Scientific World Index), Google Scholar, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Information System (LILACS), Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), Index Medicus for the South-East Asian Region (IMSEAR), and Western Pacific Region Index Medicus (WPRIM) and various clinical trial registries...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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