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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544995/intrauterine-exposure-to-tobacco-and-executive-functioning-in-high-school
#1
Ruth Rose-Jacobs, Mark A Richardson, Kathryn Buchanan-Howland, Clara A Chen, Howard Cabral, Timothy C Heeren, Jane Liebschutz, Leah Forman, Deborah A Frank
BACKGROUND: Executive functioning (EF), an umbrella construct encompassing gradual maturation of cognitive organization/management processes, is important to success in multiple settings including high school. Intrauterine tobacco exposure (IUTE) correlates with negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes, but little is known about its association with adolescent EF and information from real-life contexts is sparse. We evaluated the impact of IUTE on teacher-reported observations of EF in urban high school students controlling for covariates including other intrauterine and adolescent substance exposures...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543620/squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-the-afro-caribbean-community-an-11-year-retrospective-study
#2
Nadège Cordel, Lucie Bonnecarrère, Benoit Tressières
BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is considered the most frequent skin cancer in black people. Its incidence is not known in the Afro-Caribbean population. OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of SCC in Guadeloupe, the largest island of the Lesser Antilles (405 000 inhabitants, mostly black people of African and European descent). The second objective was to characterize clinical and histological patterns of SCC occurring in the Afro-Caribbean community. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted over an 11-year period (2000-2010)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543372/hematologic-and-biochemical-ris-for-an-aged-population-of-captive-african-green-monkeys-chlorocebus-aethiops-sabaeus
#3
Elizabeth M Scallan, Saundra H Sample, Amy M Beierschmitt, Roberta M Palmour
BACKGROUND: Established RIs for geriatric African Green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) are critical for clinical differentiation of normal aging from disease-related changes in this population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to establish hematologic and serum biochemical RIs for a Caribbean captive population of geriatric (≥ 15 years of age) African Green monkeys, or Vervets. METHODS: Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined for a cohort of 109 healthy, aged (15- to 30-year-old, median 19-year-old) Vervets...
May 19, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542162/carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-barbados-driving-change-in-practice-at-the-national-level
#4
Corey Forde, Bryan Stierman, Pilar Ramon-Pardo, Thais Dos Santos, Nalini Singh
INTRODUCTION: Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is of growing concern globally. The risk for transmission of antimicrobial resistant organisms across several continents to the Caribbean is a real one given its tourism industry. After a cluster of cases of CRKP were detected, several studies detailed in this report were initiated to better characterize the problem. METHODS: A hospital-wide point prevalence study and active surveillance were performed at Queen Elizabeth Hospital (QEH) in Barbados in 2013 to assess the prevalence of CRKP infection/colonization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538734/zika-virus-evolution-and-spread-in-the-americas
#5
Hayden C Metsky, Christian B Matranga, Shirlee Wohl, Stephen F Schaffner, Catherine A Freije, Sarah M Winnicki, Kendra West, James Qu, Mary Lynn Baniecki, Adrianne Gladden-Young, Aaron E Lin, Christopher H Tomkins-Tinch, Simon H Ye, Daniel J Park, Cynthia Y Luo, Kayla G Barnes, Rickey R Shah, Bridget Chak, Giselle Barbosa-Lima, Edson Delatorre, Yasmine R Vieira, Lauren M Paul, Amanda L Tan, Carolyn M Barcellona, Mario C Porcelli, Chalmers Vasquez, Andrew C Cannons, Marshall R Cone, Kelly N Hogan, Edgar W Kopp, Joshua J Anzinger, Kimberly F Garcia, Leda A Parham, Rosa M Gélvez Ramírez, Maria C Miranda Montoya, Diana P Rojas, Catherine M Brown, Scott Hennigan, Brandon Sabina, Sarah Scotland, Karthik Gangavarapu, Nathan D Grubaugh, Glenn Oliveira, Refugio Robles-Sikisaka, Andrew Rambaut, Lee Gehrke, Sandra Smole, M Elizabeth Halloran, Luis Villar, Salim Mattar, Ivette Lorenzana, Jose Cerbino-Neto, Clarissa Valim, Wim Degrave, Patricia T Bozza, Andreas Gnirke, Kristian G Andersen, Sharon Isern, Scott F Michael, Fernando A Bozza, Thiago M L Souza, Irene Bosch, Nathan L Yozwiak, Bronwyn L MacInnis, Pardis C Sabeti
Although the recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas and its link to birth defects have attracted a great deal of attention, much remains unknown about ZIKV disease epidemiology and ZIKV evolution, in part owing to a lack of genomic data. Here we address this gap in knowledge by using multiple sequencing approaches to generate 110 ZIKV genomes from clinical and mosquito samples from 10 countries and territories, greatly expanding the observed viral genetic diversity from this outbreak. We analysed the timing and patterns of introductions into distinct geographic regions; our phylogenetic evidence suggests rapid expansion of the outbreak in Brazil and multiple introductions of outbreak strains into Puerto Rico, Honduras, Colombia, other Caribbean islands, and the continental United States...
May 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538723/genomic-epidemiology-reveals-multiple-introductions-of-zika-virus-into-the-united-states
#6
Nathan D Grubaugh, Jason T Ladner, Moritz U G Kraemer, Gytis Dudas, Amanda L Tan, Karthik Gangavarapu, Michael R Wiley, Stephen White, Julien Thézé, Diogo M Magnani, Karla Prieto, Daniel Reyes, Andrea M Bingham, Lauren M Paul, Refugio Robles-Sikisaka, Glenn Oliveira, Darryl Pronty, Carolyn M Barcellona, Hayden C Metsky, Mary Lynn Baniecki, Kayla G Barnes, Bridget Chak, Catherine A Freije, Adrianne Gladden-Young, Andreas Gnirke, Cynthia Luo, Bronwyn MacInnis, Christian B Matranga, Daniel J Park, James Qu, Stephen F Schaffner, Christopher Tomkins-Tinch, Kendra L West, Sarah M Winnicki, Shirlee Wohl, Nathan L Yozwiak, Joshua Quick, Joseph R Fauver, Kamran Khan, Shannon E Brent, Robert C Reiner, Paola N Lichtenberger, Michael J Ricciardi, Varian K Bailey, David I Watkins, Marshall R Cone, Edgar W Kopp, Kelly N Hogan, Andrew C Cannons, Reynald Jean, Andrew J Monaghan, Robert F Garry, Nicholas J Loman, Nuno R Faria, Mario C Porcelli, Chalmers Vasquez, Elyse R Nagle, Derek A T Cummings, Danielle Stanek, Andrew Rambaut, Mariano Sanchez-Lockhart, Pardis C Sabeti, Leah D Gillis, Scott F Michael, Trevor Bedford, Oliver G Pybus, Sharon Isern, Gustavo Palacios, Kristian G Andersen
Zika virus (ZIKV) is causing an unprecedented epidemic linked to severe congenital abnormalities. In July 2016, mosquito-borne ZIKV transmission was reported in the continental United States; since then, hundreds of locally acquired infections have been reported in Florida. To gain insights into the timing, source, and likely route(s) of ZIKV introduction, we tracked the virus from its first detection in Florida by sequencing ZIKV genomes from infected patients and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. We show that at least 4 introductions, but potentially as many as 40, contributed to the outbreak in Florida and that local transmission is likely to have started in the spring of 2016-several months before its initial detection...
May 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537030/chemical-contamination-assessment-in-mangrove-lined-caribbean-coastal-systems-using-the-oyster-crassostrea-rhizophorae-as-biomonitor-species
#7
Javier R Aguirre-Rubí, Andrea Luna-Acosta, Nestor Etxebarría, Manu Soto, Félix Espinoza, Michael J Ahrens, Ionan Marigómez
This paper aims to contribute to the use of mangrove cupped oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorae, as a biomonitor species for chemical contamination assessment in mangrove-lined Caribbean coastal systems. Sampling was carried out in eight localities (three in Nicaragua and five in Colombia) with different types and levels of contamination. Oysters were collected during the rainy and dry seasons of 2012-2013 and the tissue concentrations of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536850/effectiveness-of-daily-prednisolone-to-slow-progression-of-human-t-lymphotropic-virus-type-1-associated-myelopathy-tropical-spastic-paraparesis-a-multicenter-retrospective-cohort-study
#8
Ariella L G Coler-Reilly, Tomoo Sato, Toshio Matsuzaki, Masanori Nakagawa, Masaaki Niino, Masahiro Nagai, Tatsufumi Nakamura, Norihiro Takenouchi, Natsumi Araya, Naoko Yagishita, Eisuke Inoue, Yoshihisa Yamano
Millions of people are infected with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) worldwide; notable endemic areas include Brazil, the Caribbean islands, Iran, and Japan. A small number of those infected develop the progressive neurodegenerative disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM), also known as tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP), which is characterized by chronic spinal cord inflammation and accompanying myelopathic symptoms. The corticosteroid prednisolone (PSL) is a classic treatment for HAM/TSP, yet its effectiveness remains controversial owing to insufficient and conflicting studies...
May 23, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533949/worldwide-exploration-of-the-microbiome-harbored-by-the-cnidarian-model-exaiptasia-pallida-agassiz-in-verrill-1864-indicates-a-lack-of-bacterial-association-specificity-at-a-lower-taxonomic-rank
#9
Tanya Brown, Christopher Otero, Alejandro Grajales, Estefania Rodriguez, Mauricio Rodriguez-Lanetty
Examination of host-microbe interactions in early diverging metazoans, such as cnidarians, is of great interest from an evolutionary perspective to understand how host-microbial consortia have evolved. To address this problem, we analyzed whether the bacterial community associated with the cosmopolitan and model sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida shows specific patterns across worldwide populations ranging from the Caribbean Sea, and the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. By comparing sequences of the V1-V3 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, we revealed that anemones host a complex and diverse microbial community...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530040/adolescents-with-hiv-and-transition-to-adult-care-in-the-caribbean-central-america-and-south-america-eastern-europe-and-asia-and-pacific-regions
#10
Heather Bailey, Maria Letícia Santos Cruz, Wipaporn Natalie Songtaweesin, Thanyawee Puthanakit
INTRODUCTION: The HIV epidemics in the Caribbean, Central America and South America (CCASA), Eastern Europe (EE) and Asia and Pacific (AP) regions are diverse epidemics affecting different key populations in predominantly middle-income countries. This narrative review describes the populations of HIV-positive youth approaching adolescence and adulthood in CCASA, EE and AP, what is known of their outcomes in paediatric and adult care to date, ongoing research efforts and future research priorities...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527874/pressor-support-during-a-jarisch-herxheimer-reaction-after-initiation-of-treatment-for-weil-s-disease
#11
Randi Connor-Schuler, Anee Khan, Nikhil Goyal, Erin Zimny
We present a case of Weil's disease complicated by a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) after initiation of antibiotics while in the emergency department requiring invasive monitoring and vasopressor support. The case is followed by a brief review of the JHR which is rarely observed with treatment of leptospirosis. A healthy 28-year-old female who recently returned from the Caribbean presented to the emergency department with flu-like symptoms. The patient appeared jaundiced with conjunctival suffusion and was ultimately treated with the appropriate antibiotics for leptospirosis in the ED...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527292/-triatoma-dimidiata-in-colombia-distribution-ecology-and-epidemiological-importance
#12
Óscar Quirós-Gómez, Nicolás Jaramillo, Víctor Angulo, Gabriel Parra-Henao
Triatoma dimidiata is an important vector of Chagas disease in Central America and countries of northern South America. In Colombia, it has a wide geographical distribution with reported presence in 14 departments in the Andean, Caribbean, Eastern plains and Upper Magdalena regions, where it occupies different natural and artificial ecotopes. The species is considered a secondary vector in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi. Its presence in wild, peridomestic and intradomiciliary habitats in the Andean region, coupled with its ability to move between them, has allowed it to escape the control based on pyrethroids spraying, highlighting its importance in maintaining transmission of the parasite through the potential reinfestation of homes...
June 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527211/alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-latino-community-intersection-of-genetics-and-social-determinants-of-health
#13
Irving E Vega, Laura Y Cabrera, Cassandra M Wygant, Daniel Velez-Ortiz, Scott E Counts
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia among individuals 65 or older. There are more than 5 million diagnosed cases in the US alone and this number is expected to triple by 2050. Therefore, AD has reached epidemic proportions with significant socioeconomic implications. While aging in general is the greatest risk factor for AD, several additional demographic factors that have contributed to the rise in AD in the US are under study. One such factor is associated with the relatively fast growth of the Latino population...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525510/zika-virus-obstetric-and-pediatric-anesthesia-considerations
#14
Jacqueline L Tutiven, Benjamin T Pruden, James S Banks, Mario Stevenson, David J Birnbach
As of November 2016, the Florida Department of Health (FDH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have confirmed more than 4000 travel-related Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in the United States with >700 of those in Florida. There have been 139 cases of locally acquired infection, all occurring in Miami, Florida. Within the US territories (eg, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands), >30,000 cases of ZIKV infection have been reported. The projected number of individuals at risk for ZIKV infection in the Caribbean and Latin America approximates 5 million...
June 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523612/analysis-of-the-environmental-issues-concerning-the-deployment-of-an-otec-power-plant-in-martinique
#15
Damien A Devault, Anne Péné-Annette
Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a form of power generation, which exploits the temperature difference between warm surface seawater and cold deep seawater. Suitable conditions for OTEC occur in deep warm seas, especially the Caribbean, the Red Sea and parts of the Indo-Pacific Ocean. The continuous power provided by this renewable power source makes a useful contribution to a renewable energy mix because of the intermittence of the other major renewable power sources, i.e. solar or wind power. Industrial-scale OTEC power plants have simply not been built...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521724/hiv-risk-behavior-and-prevention-considerations-among-military-personnel-in-three-caribbean-region-countries-belize-barbados-and-the-dominican-republic
#16
Nakisa Asefnia, Lisa Cowan, Rose Werth
We review research findings and the limitations of recent qualitative and quantitative studies of HIV prevalence and risk behaviors in military populations in three Caribbean countries (Dominican Republic, Belize, and Barbados). This research shows how mental health issues, disordered substance use, and structuring aspects of the occupational field produce and reproduce patterns of risk behaviors. We discuss the use of formative research, the Positive Health, Dignity, and Prevention framework, and the use of implementation science (including research methods that employ alternative methodological assumptions to better elucidate both cultural nuances and unknown components of program impact in different military populations) as a means to tailor individual prevention strategies to military populations...
May 17, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521056/ethnic-minority-status-age-at-immigration-and-psychosis-risk-in-rural-environments-evidence-from-the-sepea-study
#17
James B Kirkbride, Yasir Hameed, Konstantinos Ioannidis, Gayatri Ankireddypalli, Carolyn M Crane, Mukhtar Nasir, Nikolett Kabacs, Antonio Metastasio, Oliver Jenkins, Ashkan Espandian, Styliani Spyridi, Danica Ralevic, Suneetha Siddabattuni, Ben Walden, Adewale Adeoye, Jesus Perez, Peter B Jones
Objective: Several ethnic minority groups experience elevated rates of first-episode psychosis (FEP), but most studies have been conducted in urban settings. We investigated whether incidence varied by ethnicity, generation status, and age-at-immigration in a diverse, mixed rural, and urban setting. Method: We identified 687 people, 16-35 years, with an ICD-10 diagnosis of FEP, presenting to Early Intervention Psychosis services in the East of England over 2 million person-years...
May 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516471/topical-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-for-analgesia-in-traumatic-corneal-abrasions
#18
REVIEW
Abel Wakai, John G Lawrenson, Annali L Lawrenson, Yongjun Wang, Michael D Brown, Michael Quirke, Omar Ghandour, Ryan McCormick, Cathal D Walsh, Ahmed Amayem, Eddy Lang, Nick Harrison
BACKGROUND: Traumatic corneal abrasions are relatively common and there is a lack of consensus about analgesia in their management. It is therefore important to document the clinical efficacy and safety profile of topical ophthalmic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the management of traumatic corneal abrasions. OBJECTIVES: To identify and evaluate all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the use of topical NSAIDs with placebo or any alternative analgesic interventions in adults with traumatic corneal abrasions (including corneal abrasions arising from foreign body removal), to reduce pain, and its effects on healing time...
May 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515078/shifting-quaternary-migration-patterns-in-the-bahamian-archipelago-evidence-from-the-zamia-pumila-complex-at-the-northern-limits-of-the-caribbean-island-biodiversity-hotspot
#19
Dayana E Salas-Leiva, Alan W Meerow, Michael Calonje, Javier Francisco-Ortega, M Patrick Griffith, Kyoko Nakamura, Vanessa Sánchez, Lindy Knowles, David Knowles
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The Bahamas archipelago is formed by young, tectonically stable carbonate banks that harbor direct geological evidence of global ice-volume changes. We sought to detect signatures of major changes on gene flow patterns and reconstruct the phylogeographic history of the monophyletic Zamia pumila complex across the Bahamas. METHODS: Nuclear molecular markers with both high and low mutation rates were used to capture two different time scale signatures and test several gene flow and demographic hypotheses...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513769/the-situation-of-nursing-education-in-latin-america-and-the-caribbean-towards-universal-health
#20
Silvia Helena De Bortoli Cassiani, Lynda Law Wilson, Sabrina de Souza Elias Mikael, Laura Morán Peña, Rosa Amarilis Zarate Grajales, Linda L McCreary, Lisa Theus, Maria Del Carmen Gutierrez Agudelo, Adriana da Silva Felix, Jacqueline Molina de Uriza, Nathaly Rozo Gutierrez
Objective: to assess the situation of nursing education and to analyze the extent to which baccalaureate level nursing education programs in Latin America and the Caribbean are preparing graduates to contribute to the achievement of Universal Health. Method: quantitative, descriptive/exploratory, cross-sectional study carried out in 25 countries. Results: a total of 246 nursing schools participated in the study. Faculty with doctoral level degrees totaled 31...
May 11, 2017: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
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