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A Kumar, M Gittens-St Hilaire, A L Nielsen
Using the dengue surveillance program, we prospectively collected data on all the suspected and confirmed cases of dengue in Barbados from 2006 to 2015. Data were analysed for demographic, seasonal and temporal dynamics of this disease in this country. The overall mean annual incidence rate of suspected and confirmed dengue over the study period was 0.49% (range 0.15%-0.99%) and 0.16% (range 0.05%-0.48%), respectively. There was a significant correlation between the mean monthly number of confirmed cases, the mean monthly rainfall and the mean monthly relative humidity percentage...
April 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Yangmei Li, Maria A Quigley, Nirupa Dattani, Ron Gray, Hiranthi Jayaweera, Jennifer J Kurinczuk, Alison Macfarlane, Jennifer Hollowell
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe ethnic variations in infant mortality and explore the contribution of area deprivation, mother's country of birth, and prematurity to these variations. METHODS: We analyzed routine birth and death data on singleton live births (gestational age≥22 weeks) in England and Wales, 2006-2012. Infant mortality by ethnic group was analyzed using logistic regression with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and gestational age...
2018: PloS One
Saskia C M Franken, Crystal R Smit, Moniek Buijzen
Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and the associated childhood obesity are major concerns in the Caribbean, creating a need for interventions promoting water consumption as a healthy alternative. A social network-based intervention (SNI) was tested among Aruban children to increase their water consumption and behavioral intention to do so and, consequently, to decrease SSB consumption and the associated behavioral intention. In this study, the moderating effects of descriptive and injunctive norms were tested...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Cheryl J Cherpitel, Yu Ye, Maristela Monteiro
Objectives: The risk for violence-related injury from drinking and attributable burden in the Latin American and Caribbean region was explored. Methods: A probability sample of 1024 emergency department patients reporting a violence-related injury was analyzed from 11 countries, using case-crossover fractional polynomial analysis of the number of drinks consumed prior to the event. Results: A dose-response relationship was observed with a six-fold increase in risk (RR=5...
January 2018: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Vivian Villalba-Vizcaíno, Yaleyvis Buelvas, Barbara Arroyo-Salgado, Lyda R Castro
INTRODUCTION: Parasitoses are an important health problem and its post-infectious consequences can cause high morbidity and mortality, worldwide. Epidemiological data is scarce in our region. We aimed to obtain frequency and circulating genotypes of Giardia intestinalis in two cities of the Caribbean Coast. METHODS: To identify parasites in samples, a fecal concentration and microscopical examination were performed. For further identification and genotyping of G...
April 5, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Okuto Takama, Iria Fernandez-Silva, Cataixa López, James Davis Reimer
Millepora (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Milleporidae) spp. are distributed throughout shallow subtropical and tropical marine environments in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean-Atlantic, and have traditionally been identified using pore characteristics and colony form. Until now, representatives of Millepora spp. on the island of Okinawa-jima, Japan, have been divided into five species; three branching species (Millepora intricata, M. tenera, M. dichotoma), one species with plate-like morphology (M. platyphylla), and one encrusting species (M...
April 2018: Zoological Science
James M Shultz, James P Kossin, J Marshall Shepherd, Justine M Ransdell, Rory Walshe, Ilan Kelman, Sandro Galea
ABSTRACTThe intensely active 2017 Atlantic basin hurricane season provided an opportunity to examine how climate drivers, including warming oceans and rising seas, exacerbated tropical cyclone hazards. The season also highlighted the unique vulnerabilities of populations residing on Small Island Developing States (SIDS) to the catastrophic potential of these storms. During 2017, 22 of the 29 Caribbean SIDS were affected by at least one named storm, and multiple SIDS experienced extreme damage. This paper aims to review the multiplicity of storm impacts on Caribbean SIDS throughout the 2017 season, to explicate the influences of climate drivers on storm formation and intensity, to explore the propensity of SIDS to sustain severe damage and prolonged disruption of essential services, to document the spectrum of public health consequences, and to delineate the daunting hurdles that challenged emergency response and recovery operations for island-based, disaster-affected populations...
April 6, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Reginald F Baugh
Ignoring the diverse and rich cultures and histories of Africa and the African diaspora by applying the term African American to anyone of sub-Saharan African ancestry in medical school admissions does a disservice to applicants, medical schools, and the communities they serve. To determine how applicants can contribute to a diverse educational environment, admissions decisions must go beyond racial and ethnic self-reporting and recognize the diversity applicants bring to their medical school. Using a holistic approach, institutions can fairly evaluate applicants and strategically fill their incoming classes...
April 3, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Alvaro Mitsunori Nishikawa, Ana Marli Christovam Sartori, Giulia Marcelino Mainardi, Angela Carvalho Freitas, Alexander Itria, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh Novaes, Patrícia Coelho de Soárez
OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the economic evaluations of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) in adults aged ≥60 years to inform the development of local studies through the discussion of parameters and assumptions that influence the results of the analyses. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica, Cochrane Library, Latin-American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), Brazilian Regional Library of Medicine, National Health Service Economic Evaluation, and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination-as well as the Scopus citation index and the Web of Science for full economic evaluations of PPV23 published up to March 2016...
April 2, 2018: Vaccine
Rosanne Blanchet, Constance P Nana, Dia Sanou, Malek Batal, Isabelle Giroux
The study explores the dietary acculturation process among first-generation immigrant families from sub-Saharan Africa or the Caribbean living in Ottawa (Canada). In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 mothers. The interaction between accelerating factors and other mediating factors resulted in a spiral of dietary changes triggered by immigration. The spiral evolved at different paces from traditional to acculturated and toward healthy or unhealthy diets and was hard to stop or to change in its direction once it started...
April 4, 2018: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
Patrick Cloos, Valéry Ridde
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
Staci M Dreyer, Kelsey J Morin, Jefferson A Vaughan
BACKGROUND: Vector control is a crucial element of anti-malaria campaigns and works best when there is a thorough knowledge of the biology and behaviour of the Anopheles vector species responsible for transmitting malaria within a given locale. With the push to eradicate malaria stronger than ever, there is a growing need to develop and deploy control strategies that exploit the behavioural attributes of local vector species. This is especially true in regions where the vectors are exophagic (i...
April 3, 2018: Malaria Journal
Dawne M Mouzon, Daphne C Watkins, Ramona Perry, Theresa M Simpson, Jamie A Mitchell
Goal-striving stress refers to the psychological consequences of seeking but failing to reach upward mobility and is more common among low-income and people of color. Intergenerational mobility-or improved socioeconomic standing relative to one's parents-may be an important predictor of goal-striving stress for Blacks. We used the National Survey of American Life to investigate the association between intergenerational mobility and goal-striving stress among U.S.-born African Americans, U.S.-born Caribbean Blacks, and foreign-born Caribbean Blacks...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
David P Durham, Meagan C Fitzpatrick, Martial L Ndeffo-Mbah, Alyssa S Parpia, Nelson L Michael, Alison P Galvani
Background: Mosquito-borne and sexually transmitted Zika virus has become widespread across Central and South America and the Caribbean. Many Zika vaccine candidates are under active development. Objective: To quantify the effect of Zika vaccine prioritization of females aged 9 to 49 years, followed by males aged 9 to 49 years, on incidence of prenatal Zika infections. Design: A compartmental model of Zika transmission between mosquitoes and humans was developed and calibrated to empirical estimates of country-specific mosquito density...
April 3, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Janina Seemann, Alexandra Yingst, Rick D Stuart-Smith, Graham J Edgar, Andrew H Altieri
Fish communities associated with coral reefs worldwide are threatened by habitat degradation and overexploitation. We assessed coral reefs, mangrove fringes, and seagrass meadows on the Caribbean coast of Panama to explore the influences of their proximity to one another, habitat cover, and environmental characteristics in sustaining biomass, species richness and trophic structure of fish communities in a degraded tropical ecosystem. We found 94% of all fish across all habitat types were of small body size (≤10 cm), with communities dominated by fishes that usually live in habitats of low complexity, such as Pomacentridae (damselfishes) and Gobiidae (gobies)...
2018: PeerJ
Diego Forni, Chiara Pontremoli, Uberto Pozzoli, Mario Clerici, Rachele Cagliani, Manuela Sironi
The Mammarenavirus genus includes several pathogenic species of rodent-borne viruses. Old World (OW) mammarenaviruses infect rodents in the Murinae subfamily and are mainly transmitted in Africa and Asia; New World (NW) mammarenaviruses are found in rodents of the Cricetidae subfamily in the Americas. We applied a selection-informed method to estimate that OW and NW mammarenaviruses diverged less than ∼45,000 years ago (ya). By incorporating phylogeographic inference, we show that NW mammarenaviruses emerged in the Latin America-Caribbean region ∼41,400-3,300 ya, whereas OW mammarenaviruses originated ∼23,100-1,880 ya, most likely in Southern Africa...
March 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Natalie Turner, Julia F Hastings, Harold W Neighbors
OBJECTIVES: As adults increase in age, the likelihood for using mental health care services decrease. Underutilization, expecially among racial/ethnic minorities such as African American and Caribbean Blacks, can result in a decrease in quality of life, as well as significant costs to families, employers, and health systems. METHODS: The study explored the differences in relationships between mental health care usage and strength of religious/spiritual beliefs between African American and Caribbean Black older adults (54 years or older) and adults (18-53 years) using data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL)...
April 2, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Kath Webster, Allison Carter, Karène Proulx-Boucher, Danièle Dubuc, Valerie Nicholson, Kerrigan Beaver, Claudine Gasingirwa, Brigitte Ménard, Nadia O'Brien, Kayla Mitchell, Micaela Pereira Bajard, Erin Ding, Alexandra de Pokomandy, Mona Loutfy, Angela Kaida
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to describe the recruitment of women living with HIV (WLWH) into the community-based Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS), because women are under-represented in HIV research. METHODS: There were 1,424 WLWH were enrolled from British Columbia, Ontario, and Québec, who completed detailed questionnaires administered by peer research associates (PRAs; WLWH with research training). During screening, participants were asked: "How did you hear about the study?" We describe recruitment strategies by subpopulation and offer reflections on challenges and successes...
2018: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
George S Hagopian, Molly Lieber, Peter R Dottino, M Margaret Kemeny, Xilian Li, Jessica Overbey, Li-Duen Clark, Ann Marie Beddoe
OBJECTIVE: We studied cervical cancer patients who presented to the Public Hospital System in ethnically-diverse Queens, New York from 2000 to 2010 with the purpose of examining the relationship between nativity (birthplace) and survival. METHODS: A retrospective review of tumor registries was used to identify patients diagnosed with cervical cancer between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. Using electronic medical records, data from 317 patients were available for this analysis...
April 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Angela M Parcesepe, Catrina Mugglin, Fred Nalugoda, Charlotte Bernard, Evy Yunihastuti, Keri Althoff, Antoine Jaquet, Andreas D Haas, Stephany N Duda, C William Wester, Denis Nash
INTRODUCTION: Integration of services to screen and manage mental health and substance use disorders (MSDs) into HIV care settings has been identified as a promising strategy to improve mental health and HIV treatment outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Data on the extent to which HIV treatment sites in LMICs screen and manage MSDs are limited. The objective of this study was to assess practices for screening and treatment of MSDs at HIV clinics in LMICs participating in the International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) consortium...
March 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
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