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Fernando G Benavides, Pamela Merino-Salazar, Cecilia Cornelio, Ada Avila Assunção, Andrés A Agudelo-Suárez, Marcelo Amable, Lucía Artazcoz, Jonh Astete, Douglas Barraza, Fabián Berhó, Lino Carmenate Milián, George Delclòs, Lorena Funcasta, Johanna Gerke, David Gimeno, María José Itatí-Iñiguez, Eduardo de Paula Lima, David Martínez-Iñigo, Adriane Mesquita de Medeiros, Lida Orta, Javier Pinilla, Fernando Rodrigo, Marianela Rojas, Iselle Sabastizagal, Clelia Vallebuona, Greet Vermeylen, Gloria H Villalobos, Alejandra Vives
This article aimed to present a basic questionnaire and minimum methodological criteria for consideration in future Surveys on Working Conditions, Employment, and Health in Latin America and the Caribbean. A virtual and face-to-face consensus process was conducted with participation by a group of international experts who used the surveys available up until 2013 as the point of departure for defining the proposal. The final questionnaire included 77 questions grouped in six dimensions: socio-demographic characteristics of workers and companies; employment conditions; working conditions; health status; resources and preventive activities; and family characteristics...
October 10, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Carmen H Logie, Uzma Ahmed, Wangari E Tharao, Mona Loutfy
African and Caribbean Black (ACB) women in Canada are disproportionately impacted by new HIV infections. ACB women's HIV vulnerabilty is shaped by contexts of stigma and discrimination. HIV-related stigma compromises quality of life (QOL) among women living with HIV (WLWH), yet scant research has examined concomitant effects of racial discrimination and HIV-related stigma on QOL. We used data from a cross-sectional survey with ACB WLWH in Ontario (n=173) to test a conceptual model of pathways between HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, depression, social support and QOL...
October 17, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Nídia Cangi, Jonathan L Gordon, Laure Bournez, Valérie Pinarello, Rosalie Aprelon, Karine Huber, Thierry Lefrançois, Luís Neves, Damien F Meyer, Nathalie Vachiéry
The disease, Heartwater, caused by the Anaplasmataceae E. ruminantium, represents a major problem for tropical livestock and wild ruminants. Up to now, no effective vaccine has been available due to a limited cross protection of vaccinal strains on field strains and a high genetic diversity of Ehrlichia ruminantium within geographical locations. To address this issue, we inferred the genetic diversity and population structure of 194 E. ruminantium isolates circulating worldwide using Multilocus Sequence Typing based on lipA, lipB, secY, sodB, and sucA genes...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Sean Ekins, John Liebler, Bruno J Neves, Warren G Lewis, Megan Coffee, Rachelle Bienstock, Christopher Southan, Carolina H Andrade
The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae, which is similar to dengue virus, yellow fever and West Nile virus. Recent outbreaks in South America, Latin America, the Caribbean and in particular Brazil have led to concern for the spread of the disease and potential to cause Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly. Although ZIKV has been known of for over 60 years there is very little in the way of knowledge of the virus with few publications and no crystal structures. No antivirals have been tested against it either in vitro or in vivo...
2016: F1000Research
Máximo Rossi, Zuleika Ferre, María Rosa Curutchet, Ana Giménez, Gastón Ares
OBJECTIVE: To determine the factor structure of the Latin American & Caribbean Household Food Security Scale (ELCSA) and to study the influence of sociodemographic characteristics on each of the identified dimensions in Montevideo, Uruguay. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey with a representative sample of urban households. Household food insecurity was measured using the ELCSA. The percentage of respondents who gave affirmative responses for each of the items of the ELCSA was determined...
October 17, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
Joseph Caspermeyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Zachary Hajian-Forooshani, Iris Saraeny Rivera Salinas, Estelí Jiménez-Soto, Ivette Perfecto, John Vandermeer
Recent theoretical work suggests that two ineffective control agents can provide effective biological control when coupled together. We explore the implications of this work with the system of coffee leaf rust (CLR), caused by the fungal agent Hemileiae vastatrix, and two of its natural enemies, a fungal pathogen (Lecanicillium lecanii) and a spore predator (Mycodiplosis hemileiae). Here we report on comparative surveys of the CLR and its two natural enemies in Mexico, where the CLR has been at epidemic status since 2012, and Puerto Rico, where the CLR is present but has not reached epidemic densities...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Maud Gits-Muselli, Mazouz Benderdouche, Samia Hamane, Anselme Mingui, Martine Feuilhade de Chauvin, Nicolas Guigue, Marie-Quitterie Picat, Emmanuelle Bourrat, Antoine Petit, Martine Bagot, Alexandre Alanio, Stéphane Bretagne
Tinea capitis (TC) is a highly contagious fungal infection of the scalp due to dermatophytes in children. To obtain information on the epidemiology of TC in the urban area of Paris, we analysed the microbiological results of 3090 patients seen with suspected TC from October 2010 to September 2015 at Saint Louis hospital, Paris, France. A peak of TC was observed in 3-6 year-old children, followed by a progressive decrease until 16 years of age. Of the 1311 positive cultures, 95% (1246) yielded one of the three anthropophilic species [Trichophyton tonsurans (33...
October 14, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Barry Atkinson, Victoria Graham, Rory W Miles, Kuiama Lewandowski, Stuart D Dowall, Steven T Pullan, Roger Hewson
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogenic flavivirus currently circulating in numerous countries in South America, the Caribbean, and the Western Pacific Region. Using an unbiased metagenomic sequencing approach, we report here the first complete genome sequence of ZIKV isolated from a clinical semen sample.
October 13, 2016: Genome Announcements
Israel Medina-Gómez, Christopher J Madden, Jorge Herrera-Silveira, Björn Kjerfve
This study was undertaken to determine the relationships between the biomass, morphometry, and density of short shoots (SS) of the tropical seagrass Thalassia testudinum and the physical-environmental forcing in the region. Seasonal sampling surveys were undertaken four times in Bahia de la Ascension, a shallow estuary in the western Mexican Caribbean, to measure plant morphology and environmental variables. The estuary has a fresh water-influenced inner bay, a large central basin and a marine zone featuring a barrier reef at the seaward margin...
2016: PloS One
Jill D Henning, Luis A Bonachea, Clareann H Bunker, Alan L Patrick, Frank J Jenkins
OBJECTIVES: To compare the cytokine profile between human herpesvirus 8 seropositive and seronegative men with and without prostate cancer. METHODS: The study sample was obtained from the Tobago Prostate Survey, an ongoing study of prostate cancer in the Caribbean island of Tobago. Participants in the study were recruited mostly by public service announcement and by word of mouth. For analyses of circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, participants with biopsy-confirmed prostate cancer (n = 79) were compared with control participants (n = 87)...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Amy O'Donnell, Catherine McParlin, Stephen C Robson, Fiona Beyer, Eoin Moloney, Andrew Bryant, Jennifer Bradley, Colin Muirhead, Catherine Nelson-Piercy, Dorothy Newbury-Birch, Justine Norman, Emma Simpson, Brian Swallow, Laura Yates, Luke Vale
BACKGROUND: Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) affects up to 85% of all women during pregnancy, but for the majority self-management suffices. For the remainder, symptoms are more severe and the most severe form of NVP - hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) - affects 0.3-1.0% of pregnant women. There is no widely accepted point at which NVP becomes HG. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treatments for NVP and HG...
October 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Anna L Altshuler, Brian T Nguyen, Halley E M Riley, Marilyn L Tinsley, Özge Tuncalp
CONTEXT: Although some women may desire the involvement of their partners when obtaining abortion care, male partners are not routinely included in the abortion process. A review of the literature on how male involvement relates to women's abortion experiences may help guide facilities that are considering incorporating male partners in abortion care. METHODS: PubMed, PsycINFO (Ovid), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched without restrictions through September 23, 2015, to identify qualitative and quantitative primary studies investigating male partner accompaniment during the abortion process in noncoercive situations...
October 11, 2016: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
Rasika Ann Mathias, Margaret A Taub, Christopher R Gignoux, Wenqing Fu, Shaila Musharoff, Timothy D O'Connor, Candelaria Vergara, Dara G Torgerson, Maria Pino-Yanes, Suyash S Shringarpure, Lili Huang, Nicholas Rafaels, Meher Preethi Boorgula, Henry Richard Johnston, Victor E Ortega, Albert M Levin, Wei Song, Raul Torres, Badri Padhukasahasram, Celeste Eng, Delmy-Aracely Mejia-Mejia, Trevor Ferguson, Zhaohui S Qin, Alan F Scott, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, James G Wilson, Javier Marrugo, Leslie A Lange, Rajesh Kumar, Pedro C Avila, L Keoki Williams, Harold Watson, Lorraine B Ware, Christopher Olopade, Olufunmilayo Olopade, Ricardo Oliveira, Carole Ober, Dan L Nicolae, Deborah Meyers, Alvaro Mayorga, Jennifer Knight-Madden, Tina Hartert, Nadia N Hansel, Marilyn G Foreman, Jean G Ford, Mezbah U Faruque, Georgia M Dunston, Luis Caraballo, Esteban G Burchard, Eugene Bleecker, Maria Ilma Araujo, Edwin Francisco Herrera-Paz, Kimberly Gietzen, Wendy E Grus, Michael Bamshad, Carlos D Bustamante, Eimear E Kenny, Ryan D Hernandez, Terri H Beaty, Ingo Ruczinski, Joshua Akey, Kathleen C Barnes
The African Diaspora in the Western Hemisphere represents one of the largest forced migrations in history and had a profound impact on genetic diversity in modern populations. To date, the fine-scale population structure of descendants of the African Diaspora remains largely uncharacterized. Here we present genetic variation from deeply sequenced genomes of 642 individuals from North and South American, Caribbean and West African populations, substantially increasing the lexicon of human genomic variation and suggesting much variation remains to be discovered in African-admixed populations in the Americas...
October 11, 2016: Nature Communications
M L Munang, C Browne, J T Evans, E G Smith, P M Hawkey, S B Welch, H Kaur, M J Dedicoat
SETTING: Birmingham, United Kingdom, 2010-2014. OBJECTIVE: To investigate predictors for clustering of tuberculosis (TB) cases and cluster size and to evaluate the impact of cluster investigation using social network data. DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort study. Prioritised cases linked using 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) were interviewed using a social network approach to find epidemiological links...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Jeremy Snyder, Valorie A Crooks, Rory Johnston, Alejandro Cerón, Ronald Labonte
BACKGROUND: Medical tourism has attracted considerable interest within the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region. Governments in the region tout the economic potential of treating foreign patients while several new private hospitals primarily target international patients. This analysis explores the perspectives of a range of medical tourism sector stakeholders in two LAC countries, Guatemala and Barbados, which are beginning to develop their medical tourism sectors. These perspectives provide insights into how beliefs about international patients are shaping the expanding regional interest in medical tourism...
October 7, 2016: Globalization and Health
William K Heve, Fahiem E El-Borai, Daniel Carrillo, Larry W Duncan
BACKGROUND: Caribbean fruit fly (Caribfly) is a serious economic insect pest because of development of larvae that hatch from eggs oviposited into fruits by female adults. This study assessed virulence of at least 10 entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) to Caribfly in laboratory bioassays as a starting point toward evaluation of management strategies for the fruit-to-soil-dwelling stages of A. suspensa in fields infested by Caribfly. RESULTS: Inoculation of A. suspensa with 1 ml of ca...
September 22, 2016: Pest Management Science
Ángel G Muñoz, Madeleine C Thomson, Lisa Goddard, Sylvain Aldighieri
BACKGROUND: The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Latin America and the Caribbean in 2014-2016 occurred during a period of severe drought and unusually high temperatures, conditions that have been associated with the 2015-2016 El Niño event, and/or climate change; however, no quantitative assessment has been made to date. Analysis of related flaviviruses transmitted by the same vectors suggests that ZIKV dynamics are sensitive to climate seasonality and longer-term variability and trends...
October 6, 2016: GigaScience
Christina Howitt, Soren Brage, Ian R Hambleton, Kate Westgate, T Alafia Samuels, Angela Mc Rose, Nigel Unwin
BACKGROUND: Current understanding of population physical activity (PA) levels and sedentary behaviour in developing countries is limited, and based primarily on self-report. We described PA levels using objective and self-report methods in a developing country population. METHODS: PA was assessed in a cross-sectional, representative sample of the population of Barbados (25-54 years), using a validated questionnaire (RPAQ) and individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing monitors...
October 1, 2016: BMC Public Health
Edward J Alessi, Sarilee Kahn, Rebecca Van Der Horn
Progress in analyzing and interpreting the concepts of sexual orientation and gender identity in the context of refugee law has contributed to a rise in individuals seeking asylum in such countries as the United States and Canada. However, few studies have examined the victimization experiences of sexual- and gender-identity forced migrants prior to their arrival in North America. This qualitative study used thematic analysis to explore the premigration adult victimization experiences of 26 lesbian, gay, and transgender individuals who obtained refugee, asylee, or withholding-of-removal status in the United States or Canada based on persecution for their sexual orientation and/or gender identity...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Sex Research
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