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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468051/the-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-of-doctors-regarding-antibiotic-resistance-at-a-tertiary-care-institution-in-the-caribbean
#1
Alison Nicholson, Ingrid Tennant, Livingston White, Camille-Ann Thoms-Rodriguez, Loraine Cook, Stephen Johnson, Tamara Thompson, Jasper Barnett, Lundie Richards
Background: Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is a serious threat that requires coordinated global intervention to prevent its spread. There is limited data from the English-speaking Caribbean. Methods: As part of a national programme to address antibiotic resistance in Jamaica, a survey of the knowledge, attitudes and antibiotic prescribing practices of Jamaican physicians was conducted using a 32-item self-administered questionnaire. Results: Of the eight hundred physicians targeted, 87% responded...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468027/age-dependent-negative-heterozygosity-fitness-correlations-and-local-effects-in-an-endangered-caribbean-reptile-iguana-delicatissima
#2
Jessica L Martin Judson, Charles R Knapp, Mark E Welch
Inbreeding depression can have alarming impacts on threatened species with small population sizes. Assessing inbreeding has therefore become an important focus of conservation research. In this study, heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) were measured by genotyping 7 loci in 83 adult and 184 hatchling Lesser Antillean Iguanas, Iguana delicatissima, at a communal nesting site in Dominica to assess the role of inbreeding depression on hatchling fitness and recruitment to the adult population in this endangered species...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466634/some-intertidal-and-shallow-water-polychaetes-of-the-caribbean-coast-of-costa-rica
#3
Harlan K Dean
The polychaete fauna of the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica has been inadequately characterized with only nine species previously reported. Collections of polychaetes from intertidal coralline rocks and several shallow sub-tidal sites on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica have been examined and 68 species were identified. Of these, 66 are new records for Costa Rica.
March 2017: Revista de Biología Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466633/-distribution-and-abundance-of-the-lionfish-pterois-volitans-scorpaeniformes-scorpaenidae-and-associated-native-species-in-parque-marino-cayos-de-san-felipe-cuba
#4
Elena de la Guardia, Dorka Cobián Rojas, Leonardo Espinosa, Zaimiuri Hernández, Lázaro García, Jesús Ernesto Arias González
The first lionfish sighting at the National Park "Cayos de San Felipe" was in 2009 and could be a threat to its marine ecosystem diversity and their capacity to generate services. To analyze the incidence of the lionfish invasion in the area, an annual sampling was conducted between 2013 and 2015. Lionfish abundance and size was investigated on mangroves through visual census on ten transects of 30x2 m/station, and on coral reefs (15 and 25 m deep) with stereo video on six transects of 50x2 m/station...
March 2017: Revista de Biología Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466521/prolonged-zika-virus-viremia-in-a-patient-with-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-trinidad-and-tobago
#5
Gabriel Gonzalez-Escobar, Anne Marie Valadere, Rosmond Adams, Karen Polson-Edwards, Avery Q J Hinds, Akenath Misir, C James Hospedales
An emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus, Zika virus (ZIKV) is a significant public health concern because of the syndromes associated with the infection. In addition, ZIKV is considered a major problem due to large-scale spread of the disease and the possible clinical complications for the central nervous system, especially Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly. Since the introduction of ZIKV in the Caribbean, molecular detection of the viral RNA has been utilized as a more specific and sensitive approach to demonstrating acute infection...
February 19, 2018: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463742/origins-and-genetic-legacies-of-the-caribbean-taino
#6
Hannes Schroeder, Martin Sikora, Shyam Gopalakrishnan, Lara M Cassidy, Pierpaolo Maisano Delser, Marcela Sandoval Velasco, Joshua G Schraiber, Simon Rasmussen, Julian R Homburger, María C Ávila-Arcos, Morten E Allentoft, J Víctor Moreno-Mayar, Gabriel Renaud, Alberto Gómez-Carballa, Jason E Laffoon, Rachel J A Hopkins, Thomas F G Higham, Robert S Carr, William C Schaffer, Jane S Day, Menno Hoogland, Antonio Salas, Carlos D Bustamante, Rasmus Nielsen, Daniel G Bradley, Corinne L Hofman, Eske Willerslev
The Caribbean was one of the last parts of the Americas to be settled by humans, but how and when the islands were first occupied remains a matter of debate. Ancient DNA can help answering these questions, but the work has been hampered by poor DNA preservation. We report the genome sequence of a 1,000-year-old Lucayan Taino individual recovered from the site of Preacher's Cave in the Bahamas. We sequenced her genome to 12.4-fold coverage and show that she is genetically most closely related to present-day Arawakan speakers from northern South America, suggesting that the ancestors of the Lucayans originated there...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462893/social-determinants-of-perceived-discrimination-among-black-youth-intersection-of-ethnicity-and-gender
#7
Shervin Assari, Cleopatra Howard Caldwell
Most of the existing sociological and epidemiological literature has focused on the protective effects of high socioeconomic status (SES) on population health through reducing exposure to risk factors and increasing human and material resources that can mitigate adversities. Recent studies, however, have documented poor mental health of high SES Blacks, particularly African American males and Caribbean Black females. The literature also shows a link between perceived discrimination and poor mental health. To better understand the extra costs of upward social mobility for minority populations, this study explored ethnic by gender variations in the associations between SES indicators and perceived discrimination in an ethnically diverse national sample of Black youth...
February 15, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460377/obstetric-providers-willing-to-accept-women-s-preferences-for-mode-of-delivery
#8
Adeline A Boatin
Access to a safe caesarean delivery is a corner stone of comprehensive and quality reproductive health care. And yet, when performed for non-medically indicated reasons, caesarean delivery has been associated with higher rates of infection, haemorrhage, surgical injury and death (Vogel et al, BJOG, 2014, 121, 76-88). As outlined by Rivo et al, Latin American and Caribbean countries have the highest caesarean delivery rates globally, with over 40% of women delivering by caesarean. This article is protected by copyright...
February 20, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460341/continuing-rise-of-type-2-diabetes-incidence-in-children-and-young-people-in-the-uk
#9
T P Candler, O Mahmoud, R M Lynn, A A Majbar, T G Barrett, J P H Shield
AIMS: To estimate the incidence of Type 2 diabetes in children aged <17 years, compare this with similar data 10 years ago, and characterize clinical features at diagnosis in the UK and Republic of Ireland. METHODS: Using the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit reporting framework, cases of Type 2 diabetes diagnosed in children aged <17 years between 1 April 2015 and 30 April 2016 were reported each month. RESULTS: A total of 106 cases were reported, giving a UK incidence of 0...
February 20, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460140/sarcocystis-cymruensis-discovery-in-western-hemisphere-in-the-brown-rat-rattus-norvegicus-from-grenada-west-indies-redescription-molecular-characterization-and-transmission-to-ifn-%C3%AE-gene-knockout-mice-via-sporocysts-from-experimentally-infected-domestic-cat
#10
Fernando H Antunes Murata, Camila K Cerqueira-Cézar, Peter C Thompson, Keshaw Tiwari, Joseph D Mowery, Shiv K Verma, Benjamin M Rosenthal, Ravindra N Sharma, Jitender P Dubey
Rodents are intermediate hosts for many species of Sarcocystis. Little is known of Sarcocystis cymruensis that uses the Brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) as intermediate hosts and the domestic cat (Felis catus) as experimental definitive host. Here, we identified and described Sarcocystis cymruensis in naturally infected R. norvegicus from Grenada, West Indies. Rats (n = 167) were trapped in various locations in two parishes (St. George and St. David). Microscopic, thin (< 1 μm) walled, slender sarcocysts were found in 11 of 156 (7...
February 19, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457993/leptospira-seroprevalence-in-animals-in-the-caribbean-region-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Nicola Pratt, Sreekumari Rajeev
This systematic review summarises the data published on the Leptospira seroprevalence, serovar diversity and distribution among animal species in the Caribbean region. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, and checklist, relevant articles were identified and data were extracted and recorded. The review provided Leptospira seroprevalence data from 16 Caribbean islands (Barbados, Trinidad, Grenada, Puerto Rico, Saint Croix, St. Kitts and Nevis, Jamaica, Antigua, Carriacou, Dominica, Guadalupe, Martinique, Monserrat, St...
February 16, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457468/experiences-of-racism-sexual-objectification-and-alcohol-use-among-gay-and-bisexual-men-of-colour
#12
Rusty Souleymanov, David J Brennan, Clemon George, Richard Utama, Andre Ceranto
OBJECTIVE: Previous research has shown that experiences of racial discrimination and sexual objectification are associated with health risk behaviours among gay and bisexual men of colour. However, little is known about whether racial discrimination and sexual objectification are associated with alcohol use among this population. This community-based study examined the association between racial discrimination, sexual objectification and alcohol use in a sample of 369 gay and bisexual men of colour (Black/African/Caribbean, Latino/Latin American, South Asian, and East and Southeast Asian) in Toronto...
February 18, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456896/factors-associated-with-elevated-blood-pressure-or-hypertension-in-afro-caribbean-youth-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Trevor S Ferguson, Novie O M Younger-Coleman, Marshall K Tulloch-Reid, Nadia R Bennett, Amanda E Rousseau, Jennifer M Knight-Madden, Maureen E Samms-Vaughan, Deanna E Ashley, Rainford J Wilks
Background: Although several studies have identified risk factors for high blood pressure (BP), data from Afro-Caribbean populations are limited. Additionally, less is known about how putative risk factors operate in young adults and how social factors influence the risk of high BP. In this study, we estimated the relative risk for elevated BP or hypertension (EBP/HTN), defined as BP ≥ 120/80 mmHg, among young adults with putative cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Jamaica and evaluated whether relative risks differed by sex...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450102/what-is-known-about-sexual-and-reproductive-health-in-latin-american-and-caribbean-mining-contexts-a-systematic-scoping-review
#14
REVIEW
Jose Wilches-Gutierrez, Patricia Documet
Background: Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) has experienced an unprecedented mining boom since the mid-2000s with unknown effects on sexual and reproductive health (SRH). This study takes the essential first steps of summarizing the available literature regarding SRH in mining contexts in LAC, identifying critical gaps in knowledge, and discussing main implications for future research. Methods: We conducted a scoping review with a systematic search of health literature in four databases, reference lists of selected papers, and citations in Google Scholar...
2018: Public Health Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449664/incidence-and-clinical-characteristics-of-ciguatera-fish-poisoning-in-guadeloupe-french-west-indies-between-2013-and-2016-a-retrospective-cases-series
#15
Denis Boucaud-Maitre, Jean-Paul Vernoux, Stéphane Pelczar, Elise Daudens-Vaysse, Lyderic Aubert, Sylvie Boa, Serge Ferracci, Robert Garnier
This retrospective case study analysed the incidence and symptoms of ciguatera fish poisoning (ciguatera) in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) between 2013 and 2016. Cases attending the emergency departments of the two public hospitals and the reports received by the regional health authority in charge of monitoring (ARS) were compiled. Two hundred and thirty-four cases of poisoning were observed, with a mean annual incidence of 1.47/10,000 (95% CI): 1.29-1.66), i.e 5 times higher than the previously reported incidence (1996-2006)...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446825/phytomedicines-medicines-derived-from-plants-for-sickle-cell-disease
#16
REVIEW
Oluseyi Oniyangi, Damian H Cohall
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease, a common recessively inherited haemoglobin disorder, affects people from sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, Mediterranean basin, Indian subcontinent, Caribbean and South America. It is associated with complications and a reduced life expectancy. Phytomedicines (medicine derived from plants in their original state) encompass many of the plant remedies from traditional healers which the populations most affected would encounter. Laboratory research and limited clinical trials have suggested positive effects of phytomedicines both in vivo and in vitro...
February 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444301/an-integrative-review-exploring-black-men-of-african-and-caribbean-backgrounds-their-fears-of-prostate-cancer-and-their-attitudes-towards-screening
#17
Obrey Alexis, Aaron Worsley
Evidence suggests that black men are disproportionately more affected than any other ethnicity by prostate cancer. The aim of this review is to identify studies exploring black men of African and Caribbean descent, their fears of prostate cancer and their attitudes towards screening. Four databases were searched and reference lists of relevant papers were hand searched. The inclusion criteria were studies exploring attitudes towards screening and fear of prostate cancer in black men of African and Caribbean backgrounds, peer-reviewed research, qualitative studies, surveys, questionnaires and English language publications...
February 9, 2018: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441518/haloperidol-for-delirium-in-critically-ill-patients-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#18
M Barbateskovic, S R Kraus, M O Collet, O Mathiesen, J C Jakobsen, A Perner, J Wetterslev
BACKGROUND: In the intensive care unit, the prevalence of delirium is high. Delirium has been associated with morbidity and mortality including more ventilator days, longer intensive care unit stay, increased long-term mortality, and cognitive impairment. Thus, the burden of delirium for patients, relatives, and societies is considerable. The objective of this systematic review was to critically access the evidence of randomised clinical trials on the effects of haloperidol vs. placebo or any other agents for delirium in critically ill patients...
February 14, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439590/adapting-and-pilot-testing-the-healthy-love-hiv-and-sexually-transmitted-infection-prevention-intervention-with-african-caribbean-and-black-women-in-community-based-settings-in-toronto-canada
#19
Carmen H Logie, Moses Okumu, Shannon Ryan, Dahlak M Yehdego, Nakia Lee-Foon
We adapted the Healthy Love Workshop (HLW), an HIV prevention workshop for African American women in the United States, for African, Caribbean and Black (ACB) women in Toronto, Canada. We conducted a pilot study with ACB women ( n = 80) in ten community-based settings with pre-test (T1), post-test (T2) and three-month follow-up (T3) surveys. Mixed-effect regression results indicated significant increases in condom use self-efficacy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) knowledge scores from T1 to T3...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436102/clinical-nursing-and-midwifery-research-in-latin-american-and-caribbean-countries-a-scoping-review
#20
Sarah Iribarren, Samantha Stonbraker, Brandon Larsen, Islane Santos, Renata Faria, Fernanda S N Góes, Lorena Binfa, Elaine Larson
AIM: To identify and describe published, nursing-led and midwifery-led, clinical research that has been conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean. BACKGROUND: Peer-reviewed published research may correspond to and elucidate country's realities, priorities, and needs. DESIGN: A 6-stage scoping review methodology was used to search scientific databases using an applied search strategy. DATA SOURCES: Five databases were searched for articles published in English, Spanish, or Portuguese conducted in a Latin American or Caribbean country between January 1, 2006 and June 14, 2016...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Practice
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