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Philippe Jacques, Max Béchet, Muriel Bigan, Delphine Caly, Gabrielle Chataigné, François Coutte, Christophe Flahaut, Egon Heuson, Valérie Leclère, Didier Lecouturier, Vincent Phalip, Rozenn Ravallec, Pascal Dhulster, Rénato Froidevaux
Innovations in novel enzyme discoveries impact upon a wide range of industries for which biocatalysis and biotransformations represent a great challenge, i.e., food industry, polymers and chemical industry. Key tools and technologies, such as bioinformatics tools to guide mutant library design, molecular biology tools to create mutants library, microfluidics/microplates, parallel miniscale bioreactors and mass spectrometry technologies to create high-throughput screening methods and experimental design tools for screening and optimization, allow to evolve the discovery, development and implementation of enzymes and whole cells in (bio)processes...
October 13, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Martine Boccara, Yasmina Fedala, Catherine Venien Bryan, Marc Bailly-Bechet, Chris Bowler, Albert Claude Boccara
There is a huge abundance of viruses and membrane vesicles in seawater. We describe a new full-field, incoherently illuminated, shot-noise limited, common-path interferometric detection method that we couple with the analysis of Brownian motion to detect, quantify, and differentiate biotic nanoparticles. We validated the method with calibrated nanoparticles and homogeneous DNA or RNA viruses. The smallest virus size that we characterized with a suitable signal-to-noise ratio was around 30 nm in diameter. Analysis of Brownian motions revealed anisotropic trajectories for myoviruses...
September 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
Robert Cohen, Emmanuelle Varon, Stéphane Béchet, Stéphane Bonacorsi, Corinne Levy
BACKGROUND: Several underlying conditions increase the risk of pneumococcal meningitis (PM) in childhood. Patients with these diseases are initially considered as an important target of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). Limited data are available for PM in children with underlying conditions. To understand the benefits of PCV7 followed by PCV13 in this vulnerable population, we analyzed the data for a large cohort of pediatric patients with PM in France from 2001 to 2014. METHODS: We conducted hospital-based active surveillance with 227 pediatric wards working with 168 microbiology departments throughout France...
September 22, 2016: Vaccine
Sibylle Béchet, Fiona Hill, Órla Gilheaney, Margaret Walshe
Oropharyngeal aspiration (OPA) is a common occurrence in patients with tracheostomy. The modified Evan's blue dye test (MEBDT) is an easily administered bedside procedure for the assessment of tracheostomised patients. However, studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of the MEBDT reach conflicting results. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to determine the overall accuracy of the MEBDT in detecting OPA in adults with tracheostomy. The search strategy incorporated searching electronic databases, checking reference lists and citations and retrieving unpublished data...
August 16, 2016: Dysphagia
Fanny Pouyet, Marc Bailly-Bechet, Dominique Mouchiroud, Laurent Guéguen
Gene sequences are the target of evolution operating at different levels, including the nucleotide, codon, and amino acid levels. Disentangling the impact of those different levels on gene sequences requires developing a probabilistic model with three layers. Here we present SENCA (site evolution of nucleotides, codons, and amino acids), a codon substitution model that separately describes 1) nucleotide processes which apply on all sites of a sequence such as the mutational bias, 2) preferences between synonymous codons, and 3) preferences among amino acids...
2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Polge Cécile, Nathalie Koulmann, Agnès Claustre, Marianne Jarzaguet, Bernard Serrurier, Lydie Combaret, Daniel Béchet, Xavier Bigard, Didier Attaix, Daniel Taillandier
The Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) is mainly responsible for the increased protein breakdown observed in muscle wasting. The E3 ligase MuRF1 is so far the only enzyme known to direct the main contractile proteins for degradation (i.e. troponin I, myosin heavy chains and actin). However, MuRF1 does not possess any catalytic activity and thus depends on the presence of a dedicated E2 for catalyzing the covalent binding of polyubiquitin (polyUb) chains on the substrates. The E2 enzymes belonging to the UBE2D family are commonly used for in vitro ubiquitination assays but no experimental data suggesting their physiological role as bona fide MuRF1-interacting E2 enzymes are available...
July 1, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
André Birgy, Corinne Levy, Philippe Bidet, Franck Thollot, Véronique Derkx, Stéphane Béchet, Patricia Mariani-Kurkdjian, Robert Cohen, Stéphane Bonacorsi
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the evolution and risk factors of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) carriage in children in the community for a long period distinguishing ST131 and non-ST131 Escherichia coli. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, rectal samples were obtained from children aged 6-24 months by community paediatricians between 2010 and 2015. Demographic characteristics and risk factors for ESBL-E carriage were collected...
October 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Christiane Deval, Frédéric Capel, Brigitte Laillet, Cécile Polge, Daniel Béchet, Daniel Taillandier, Didier Attaix, Lydie Combaret
BACKGROUND: Muscle wasting prevails in numerous diseases (e.g. diabetes, cardiovascular and kidney diseases, COPD,…) and increases healthcare costs. A major clinical issue is to devise new strategies preventing muscle wasting. We hypothesized that 8-week docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation prior to fasting may preserve muscle mass in vivo. METHODS: Six-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed a DHA-enriched or a control diet for 8 weeks and then fasted for 48 h...
February 15, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Cécile Polge, Roza Leulmi, Marianne Jarzaguet, Agnes Claustre, Lydie Combaret, Daniel Béchet, Anne-Elisabeth Heng, Didier Attaix, Daniel Taillandier
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle protein loss is an adaptive response to various patho-physiological situations, and the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is responsible for the degradation of the bulk of muscle proteins. The role of E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes is still poorly understood in skeletal muscle. METHODS: We screened for E2s expression levels in C2C12 myotubes submitted to the catabolic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex). RESULTS: One micromolar Dex induced an accumulation of proteasome substrates (polyUb conjugates) and an overexpression of the muscle-specific E3 ligase MuRF1 and of six E2 enzymes, UBE2A, UBE2B, UBE2D1, UBE2D2, UBE2G1, and UBE2J1...
June 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Chao Lu, Siddhant U Jain, Dominik Hoelper, Denise Bechet, Rosalynn C Molden, Leili Ran, Devan Murphy, Sriram Venneti, Meera Hameed, Bruce R Pawel, Jay S Wunder, Brendan C Dickson, Stefan M Lundgren, Krupa S Jani, Nicolas De Jay, Simon Papillon-Cavanagh, Irene L Andrulis, Sarah L Sawyer, David Grynspan, Robert E Turcotte, Javad Nadaf, Somayyeh Fahiminiyah, Tom W Muir, Jacek Majewski, Craig B Thompson, Ping Chi, Benjamin A Garcia, C David Allis, Nada Jabado, Peter W Lewis
Several types of pediatric cancers reportedly contain high-frequency missense mutations in histone H3, yet the underlying oncogenic mechanism remains poorly characterized. Here we report that the H3 lysine 36-to-methionine (H3K36M) mutation impairs the differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells and generates undifferentiated sarcoma in vivo. H3K36M mutant nucleosomes inhibit the enzymatic activities of several H3K36 methyltransferases. Depleting H3K36 methyltransferases, or expressing an H3K36I mutant that similarly inhibits H3K36 methylation, is sufficient to phenocopy the H3K36M mutation...
May 13, 2016: Science
Julien Aniort, Cécile Polge, Agnès Claustre, Lydie Combaret, Daniel Béchet, Didier Attaix, Anne-Elisabeth Heng, Daniel Taillandier
Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is frequently encountered in hospitalized patients where it is associated with increased mortality and morbidity notably affecting muscle wasting. Increased protein degradation has been shown to be the main actor of AKI-induced muscle atrophy, but the proteolytic pathways involved are poorly known. The Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) is almost systematically activated in various catabolic situations, and the E3 ligases MuRF1 and MAFbx are generally up regulated in atrophying muscles...
April 18, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Sophia Bellulo, Julie Sommet, Corinne Lévy, Yves Gillet, Laure Hees, Mathie Lorrot, Christèle Gras-Le-Guen, Irina Craiu, François Dubos, Philippe Minodier, Sandra Biscardi, Marie-Aliette Dommergues, Stéphane Béchet, Philippe Bidet, Corinne Alberti, Robert Cohen, Albert Faye
BACKGROUND: The incidence of invasive group A streptococcus (GAS) infections is increasing worldwide, whereas there has been a dramatic decrease in pneumococcal invasive diseases. Few data describing GAS pleural empyema in children are available. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and microbiological features, management and outcome of GAS pleural empyema in children and compare them with those of pneumococcal empyema. DESIGN, SETTING AND PATIENTS: Fifty children admitted for GAS pleural empyema between January 2006 and May 2013 to 8 hospitals participating in a national pneumonia survey were included in a descriptive study and matched by age and centre with 50 children with pneumococcal empyema...
August 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Qassim Esmaeel, Maude Pupin, Nam Phuong Kieu, Gabrielle Chataigné, Max Béchet, Jovana Deravel, François Krier, Monica Höfte, Philippe Jacques, Valérie Leclère
Burkholderia is an important genus encompassing a variety of species, including pathogenic strains as well as strains that promote plant growth. We have carried out a global strategy, which combined two complementary approaches. The first one is genome guided with deep analysis of genome sequences and the second one is assay guided with experiments to support the predictions obtained in silico. This efficient screening for new secondary metabolites, performed on 48 gapless genomes of Burkholderia species, revealed a total of 161 clusters containing nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs), with the potential to synthesize at least 11 novel products...
June 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Hamid Nikbakht, Eshini Panditharatna, Leonie G Mikael, Rui Li, Tenzin Gayden, Matthew Osmond, Cheng-Ying Ho, Madhuri Kambhampati, Eugene I Hwang, Damien Faury, Alan Siu, Simon Papillon-Cavanagh, Denise Bechet, Keith L Ligon, Benjamin Ellezam, Wendy J Ingram, Caedyn Stinson, Andrew S Moore, Katherine E Warren, Jason Karamchandani, Roger J Packer, Nada Jabado, Jacek Majewski, Javad Nazarian
Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas (DIPGs) are deadly paediatric brain tumours where needle biopsies help guide diagnosis and targeted therapies. To address spatial heterogeneity, here we analyse 134 specimens from various neuroanatomical structures of whole autopsy brains from nine DIPG patients. Evolutionary reconstruction indicates histone 3 (H3) K27M--including H3.2K27M--mutations potentially arise first and are invariably associated with specific, high-fidelity obligate partners throughout the tumour and its spread, from diagnosis to end-stage disease, suggesting mutual need for tumorigenesis...
2016: Nature Communications
C Briand, C Levy, F Baumie, L Joao, S Béchet, E Carbonnelle, E Grimprel, R Cohen, J Gaudelus, L de Pontual
OBJECTIVE: Pediatricians are well aware of the immediate risks of bacterial meningitis in children. However, the long-term outcome of the disease has not been extensively studied. We aimed: (i) to evaluate the duration and quality of the long-term follow-up of children diagnosed with bacterial meningitis in a general pediatric department, (ii) to estimate the incidence of sequelae at the various stages of follow-up, and (iii) to compare our data with that of other studies. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study and included 34 children (3 months-15 years) who had been hospitalized for bacterial meningitis in the pediatric department of a University Hospital between January 1st, 2001 and December 31st, 2013...
June 2016: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Quentin Béchet, Andy Shilton, Benoit Guieysse
The ability to dynamically control algal raceway ponds to maximize biomass productivity and reduce environmental impacts (e.g., land and water use) with consideration of local constraints (e.g., water availability and climatic conditions) is an important consideration in algal biotechnology. This paper presents a novel optimization strategy that seeks to maximize growth (i.e., optimize land use), minimize respiration losses, and minimize water demand through regular adjustment of pond depth and hydraulic retention time (HRT) in response to seasonal changes...
April 5, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Yazen Yaseen, Frédérique Gancel, Djamel Drider, Max Béchet, Philippe Jacques
Fengycin is a promising antifungal lipopeptide from Bacillus spp. synthesized by non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). In this work, fengycin production of a spontaneous fengycin overproducing strain, Bacillus subtilis BBG21, was first compared to those of B. subtilis BBG111 (a 168 derivative), B. subtilis ATCC 21332 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 under two different experimental conditions. In both conditions, very high fengycin yields were obtained from strain BBG21 (480 mg/L) in comparison to its counterparts...
May 2016: Research in Microbiology
V Bozikas, A Ramnalis, J Dittopoulos, J Iakovou, G Garyfallos, K Fokas
Beçhet's disease (BD) is a chronic, heterogeneous, multisystem disease that affects young males and females around the Mediterranean region, as well as from Far and Middle East. Its etiology is vague with vasculitis being its main pathological feature. International diagnostic criteria have been established and they require the presence of recurrent oral ulcerations plus two of the following: Recurrent genital ulceration, eye lesions, skin lesions and positive pathergy test. A significant number of patients with Beçhet's disease suffers from symptoms from the central nervous system (CNS), while the most common clinical symptoms are pyramidal signs, mental-behavioral changes, hemiparesis and brain stem syndrome...
October 2015: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
M Kondili, M Roux, N Vabret, M Bailly-Bechet
The immune system is able to identify foreign pathogens via different pathways. In the case of viral infection, recognition of the viral RNA is a crucial step, and many efforts have been made to understand which features of viral RNA are detected by the immune system. The biased viral RNA composition, measured as host-virus nucleotidic divergence, or CpG enrichment, has been proposed as salient signal. Peculiar structural features of these RNA could also be related to the immune system activation. Here, we gather multiple datasets and proceed to a meta-analysis to uncover the best predictors of immune system activation by viral RNA...
January 15, 2016: Virology
M A F Gillingham, A Courtiol, M Teixeira, M Galan, A Bechet, F Cezilly
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a cornerstone in the study of adaptive genetic diversity. Intriguingly, highly polymorphic MHC sequences are often not more similar within species than between closely related species. Divergent selection of gene duplicates, balancing selection maintaining trans-species polymorphism (TSP) that predate speciation and parallel evolution of species sharing similar selection pressures can all lead to higher sequence similarity between species. In contrast, high rates of concerted evolution increase sequence similarity of duplicated loci within species...
February 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
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