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Camilo Fernandez, Robert Hsu, Gary Sander, Azad Hussain, Rupert Barshop, Shengxu Li, Tian Shu, Tao Zhang, Patrycja Galazka, Wei Chen, Lydia Bazzano, Thomas D Giles
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to compare the estimation of central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) obtained by two different noninvasive devices, in addition to its comparisons with measured peripheral systolic blood pressure (pSBP), in a biracial (Black/White) community-based cohort. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Estimations of cSBP by applanation tonometry were obtained in 586 participants of the Bogalusa Heart Study (mean age: 43.5 years; 69% White, 54% women) using two different commonly used instruments: Omron HEM-9000AI and SphygmoCor CPV...
November 29, 2016: Blood Pressure Monitoring
Alessandra N Bazzano, Lisa Littrell, Stephen Lambert, Cody Roi
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence has indicated a potential role of vitamin D3 in a range of neuropsychiatric outcomes, as well as on cognitive function, but conflicting data have left that role uncertain. Understanding potential associations of vitamin D status with psychiatric illness will allow clinicians to better assess therapeutic options. Few studies have examined vitamin D status among a racially diverse group of psychiatric patients who have been hospitalized, and none has done so in the southern US where socioeconomic inequality is high...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Esther M Leerkes, Lindsey R Gedaly, Nan Zhou, Susan Calkins, Vincent C Henrich, Andrew Smolen
In this paper, we examine the associations between specific candidate genes (DRD2, DRD4, COMT, biallelic and tri-allelic 5HTTLPR, and OXTR) and infant attachment outcomes as main effects and in conjunction with maternal sensitivity. The sample included 200 infants (97 European American, 94 African-American, and 9 biracial) and their mothers. Maternal sensitivity and overtly negative maternal behavior were observed when infants were 6 months and 1 year old in distress-eliciting contexts, attachment was assessed via the Strange Situation at age 1, and DNA samples were collected when children were 2 years old...
November 16, 2016: Attachment & Human Development
Do Hyun Kim, Jihyun Jeon, Chang Gi Park, Sudhir Sriram, Kwang Sun Lee
Despite a remarkable increase in Asian births in the U.S., studies on their birth outcomes have been lacking. We investigated outcomes of births to Asian parents and biracial Asian/White parents in the U.S. From the U.S. birth data (1992-2012), we selected singleton births to Korean, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Asian Indian, and Vietnamese. These births were divided into three groups; births to White mother/Asian father, Asian mother/White father, and births to the both ethnic Asian parents. We compared birth outcomes of these 18 subgroups to those of the White mother/White father group...
December 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Katie A Meyer, Thomas Z Benton, Brian J Bennett, David R Jacobs, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Myron D Gross, J Jeffrey Carr, Penny Gordon-Larsen, Steven H Zeisel
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies implicate trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO; a gut microbiota-dependent nutrient metabolite) in cardiovascular disease risk. There is a lack of population-based data on the role of TMAO in advancing early atherosclerotic disease. We tested the prospective associations between TMAO and coronary artery calcium (CAC) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). METHODS AND RESULTS: Data were from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA), a biracial cohort of US adults recruited in 1985-1986 (n=5115)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Megan J Cohen, Jennifer L Curran, Thao-Ly T Phan, Kirk Reichard, George A Datto
BACKGROUND: Noncompletion of preoperative bariatric programs is a significant problem among adolescents. Adult studies suggest that psychological factors contribute to noncompletion of preoperative bariatric programs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the association between adolescent psychological functioning and completion of the preoperative phase of a bariatric program. SETTING: The study was conducted at a tertiary care children's hospital affiliated with a university medical center...
August 18, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Cara A Palmer, Candice A Alfano
It is increasingly clear that seminal sleep-affective relationships begin to take root in childhood, yet studies exploring how nighttime sleep characteristics relate to daytime affective symptoms, both in clinical and healthy populations of children, are lacking. The current study sought to explore these relationships by investigating whether trait-like and/or daily reports of affective and somatic symptoms of children with generalized anxiety disorder and matched controls relate to sleep architecture. Sixty-six children (ages 7-11; 54...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Gabriel E Rudebusch, Guzmán L Espejo, José L Zafra, Miriam Peña-Alvarez, Sarah N Spisak, Kotaro Fukuda, Zheng Wei, Masayoshi Nakano, Marina A Petrukhina, Juan Casado, Michael M Haley
The reduced and oxidized states of an open-shell diindeno[b,i]anthracene (DIAn) derivative have been investigated by experimental and theoretical techniques. As a result of moderate biradical character and the ability of cyclopenta-fused scaffolds to stabilize both positive and negative charges, DIAn exhibits rich redox chemistry with four observable and isolable charged states. Structural and electronic properties of the DIAn system are brought to light by UV-vis-NIR and Raman spectroelectrochemical measurements...
September 28, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Nathalie Moise, Yulia Khodneva, Joshua Richman, Daichi Shimbo, Ian Kronish, Monika M Safford
BACKGROUND: Depression is a relapsing and remitting disease. Prior studies on the association between depressive symptoms and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been limited by single measurements, and few if any have examined both incident coronary heart disease and stroke in a large biracial national cohort. We aimed to assess whether time-dependent depressive symptoms conferred increased risk of incident CVD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 2003 to 2007, 22 666 black and white participants (aged ≥45 years) without baseline CVD in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study were recruited...
August 12, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Natalie A Bello, Susan Cheng, Brian Claggett, Amil M Shah, Chiadi E Ndumele, Gabriela Querejeta Roca, Angela B S Santos, Deepak Gupta, Orly Vardeny, David Aguilar, Aaron R Folsom, Kenneth R Butler, Dalane W Kitzman, Josef Coresh, Scott D Solomon
BACKGROUND: Obesity increases cardiovascular risk. However, the extent to which various measures of body composition are associated with abnormalities in cardiac structure and function, independent of comorbidities commonly affecting obese individuals, is not clear. This study sought to examine the relationship between body mass index, waist circumference, and percent body fat with conventional and advanced measures of cardiac structure and function. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 4343 participants of the ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) who were aged 69 to 82 years, free of coronary heart disease and heart failure, and underwent comprehensive echocardiography...
August 2016: Circulation. Heart Failure
Rouhollah Namazi Rizi, Maziar Noei
Boron nitride (BN) nanochains were successfully synthesized recently. In this work, we investigate the electronic, energetic, and structural properties of BN nanochains and nanorings by means of density functional theory calculations. Our calculations support the experimental findings and offer additional physical insights into these new nanostructured materials. We show that BN nanochains are biracial compounds that tend to be closed and form a ring. They have single and double bonds alternately throughout the chain...
September 2016: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Anna M Kucharska-Newton, Priya Palta, Sheila Burgard, Michael E Griswold, Jennifer L Lund, Benjamin D Capistrant, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Karen Bandeen-Roche, B Gwen Windham
BACKGROUND: Factors that may contribute to the development of frailty in late life have not been widely investigated. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study cohort presents an opportunity to examine relationships of midlife risk factors with frailty in late life. However, we first present findings on the validation of an established frailty phenotype in this predominantly biracial population of older adults. METHODS: Among 6,080 participants, we defined frailty based upon the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) criteria incorporating measures of weight loss, exhaustion, slow walking speed, low physical activity, and low grip strength...
July 28, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
John W McEvoy, Yuan Chen, Chiadi E Ndumele, Scott D Solomon, Vijay Nambi, Christie M Ballantyne, Roger S Blumenthal, Josef Coresh, Elizabeth Selvin
IMPORTANCE: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) is a biomarker of cardiovascular risk and could be approved in the United States for clinical use soon. However, data linking long-term temporal change in hs-cTnT to outcomes are limited, particularly in primary prevention settings. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of 6-year change in hs-cTnT with incident coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure (HF), and all-cause mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This prospective observational cohort study, performed from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 2011, included 8838 participants with biracial representation from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study who were initially free of CHD and HF and who had hs-cTnT measured twice, 6 years apart...
August 1, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
Ibiye Owei, Nkiru Umekwe, Jim Wan, Samuel Dagogo-Jack
Dyslipidemia and dysglycemia are etiologically associated, but the direction, chronology, and mechanisms of the association are not fully understood. We, therefore, analyzed data from 335 healthy adults (184 black, 151 white) enrolled in the Pathobiology of Prediabetes in A Biracial Cohort study. Subjects underwent oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and were enrolled if they had normal fasting and 2-h plasma glucose levels. Assessments during year 1 included anthropometry, fasting lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion...
November 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Trenette Clark Goings, Emily Butler-Bente, Tricia McGovern, Matthew O Howard
Most substance-use prevention interventions are based on the implicit assumption that risk and protective factors for substance use are the same for biracial and monoracial youth. However, preliminary research suggests this assumption may be untrue. This study compared the prevalence and correlates of substance use among Black, White, and biracial Black-White youth. Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent and Adult Health, which is a longitudinal investigation using stratified random sampling to study health behaviors...
2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Pamela J Schreiner, David R Jacobs, Nathan D Wong, Catarina I Kiefe
BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional analyses suggest that total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) trends that had been declining are now reversing. We examined longitudinal data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study to examine secular trends in total cholesterol, LDL-c, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and triglycerides over 25 years. We also assessed whether modifiable lifestyle factors (body mass index, physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking, and lipid-lowering medications) are associated with these trends...
July 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Shahid I Sheikh, Judy Pitts, Nancy A Ryan-Wenger, Karen S McCoy, Don Hayes
BACKGROUND: Exposure to household domestic animals such as cats and dogs in early life may have some role in pathogenesis of asthma. Racial differences exist in the prevalence of asthma. We hypothesized that there may also be racial differences in pet ownership in families with asthma. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted from June 2011 to December 2014 on 823 of 850 (97%) families of children with asthma for pet ownership. Comparisons among racial groups were done using chi square analysis and one-way analysis of variance...
August 2016: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Sandra Yu Rueger, Rachel George
Research on adolescent depression has overwhelmingly focused on risk factors, such as stressful negative events and cognitive vulnerabilities, but much important information can be gained by focusing on protective factors. Thus, the current study aimed to broaden understanding on adolescent depression by considering the role of two positive elements as protective factors, attributional style for positive events and self-esteem, in a model of depression. The sample included 491 middle school students (52 % female; n = 249) with an age range from 12 to 15 years (M = 13...
June 23, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Hemal Bhatt, Christopher M Gamboa, Monika M Safford, Elsayad Z Soliman, Stephen P Glasser
The association of atrial fibrillation (AF) with the severity and control of hypertension (HTN) remains unclear. We analyzed data from the national biracial cohort of REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke study. The AF prevalence ratios were estimated and full multivariable adjustment included demographics, risk factors, medication adherence, HTN duration, and antihypertensive medication classes. Of the 30,018 study participants (8.6% with AF), 4386 had normotension (4.3% with AF), 5916 had prehypertension (4...
July 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
Danielle M Young, Diana T Sanchez, Leigh S Wilton
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates how racial identity and phenotypicality (i.e., racial ambiguity) shape the perception of biracial individuals in both White and Black perceivers. We investigated complex racial categorization and its downstream consequences, such as perceptions of discrimination. METHOD: We manipulated racial phenotypicality (Black or racially ambiguous) and racial identity (Black or biracial) to test these cues' influence on Black and White race categorizations in a sample of both White (n = 145) and Black (n = 152) identified individuals...
June 6, 2016: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
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