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Megan J Cohen, Jennifer L Curran, Thao-Ly T Phan, Kirk Reichard, George A Datto
BACKGROUND: Noncompletion of preoperative bariatric programs is a significant problem among adolescents. Adult studies suggest that psychological factors contribute to noncompletion of preoperative bariatric programs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the association between adolescent psychological functioning and completion of the preoperative phase of a bariatric program. SETTING: The study was conducted at a tertiary care children's hospital affiliated with a university medical center...
August 18, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Cara A Palmer, Candice A Alfano
It is increasingly clear that seminal sleep-affective relationships begin to take root in childhood, yet studies exploring how nighttime sleep characteristics relate to daytime affective symptoms, both in clinical and healthy populations of children, are lacking. The current study sought to explore these relationships by investigating whether trait-like and/or daily reports of affective and somatic symptoms of children with generalized anxiety disorder and matched controls relate to sleep architecture. Sixty-six children (ages 7-11; 54...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Gabriel E Rudebusch, Guzmán L Espejo, José L Zafra, Miriam Peña-Alvarez, Sarah N Spisak, Kotaro Fukuda, Zheng Wei, Masayoshi Nakano, Marina A Petrukhina, Juan Casado, Michael M Haley
The reduced and oxidized states of an open-shell diindeno[b,i]anthracene (DIAn) derivative have been investigated by experimental and theoretical techniques. As a result of moderate biradical character and the ability of cyclopenta-fused scaffolds to stabilize both positive and negative charges, DIAn exhibits rich redox chemistry with four observable and isolable charged states. Structural and electronic properties of the DIAn system are brought to light by UV-vis-NIR and Raman spectroelectrochemical measurements...
September 28, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Nathalie Moise, Yulia Khodneva, Joshua Richman, Daichi Shimbo, Ian Kronish, Monika M Safford
BACKGROUND: Depression is a relapsing and remitting disease. Prior studies on the association between depressive symptoms and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been limited by single measurements, and few if any have examined both incident coronary heart disease and stroke in a large biracial national cohort. We aimed to assess whether time-dependent depressive symptoms conferred increased risk of incident CVD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 2003 to 2007, 22 666 black and white participants (aged ≥45 years) without baseline CVD in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study were recruited...
August 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Natalie A Bello, Susan Cheng, Brian Claggett, Amil M Shah, Chiadi E Ndumele, Gabriela Querejeta Roca, Angela B S Santos, Deepak Gupta, Orly Vardeny, David Aguilar, Aaron R Folsom, Kenneth R Butler, Dalane W Kitzman, Josef Coresh, Scott D Solomon
BACKGROUND: Obesity increases cardiovascular risk. However, the extent to which various measures of body composition are associated with abnormalities in cardiac structure and function, independent of comorbidities commonly affecting obese individuals, is not clear. This study sought to examine the relationship between body mass index, waist circumference, and percent body fat with conventional and advanced measures of cardiac structure and function. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 4343 participants of the ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) who were aged 69 to 82 years, free of coronary heart disease and heart failure, and underwent comprehensive echocardiography...
August 2016: Circulation. Heart Failure
Rouhollah Namazi Rizi, Maziar Noei
Boron nitride (BN) nanochains were successfully synthesized recently. In this work, we investigate the electronic, energetic, and structural properties of BN nanochains and nanorings by means of density functional theory calculations. Our calculations support the experimental findings and offer additional physical insights into these new nanostructured materials. We show that BN nanochains are biracial compounds that tend to be closed and form a ring. They have single and double bonds alternately throughout the chain...
September 2016: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Anna M Kucharska-Newton, Priya Palta, Sheila Burgard, Michael E Griswold, Jennifer L Lund, Benjamin D Capistrant, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Karen Bandeen-Roche, B Gwen Windham
BACKGROUND: Factors that may contribute to the development of frailty in late life have not been widely investigated. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study cohort presents an opportunity to examine relationships of midlife risk factors with frailty in late life. However, we first present findings on the validation of an established frailty phenotype in this predominantly biracial population of older adults. METHODS: Among 6,080 participants, we defined frailty based upon the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) criteria incorporating measures of weight loss, exhaustion, slow walking speed, low physical activity, and low grip strength...
July 28, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
John W McEvoy, Yuan Chen, Chiadi E Ndumele, Scott D Solomon, Vijay Nambi, Christie M Ballantyne, Roger S Blumenthal, Josef Coresh, Elizabeth Selvin
IMPORTANCE: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) is a biomarker of cardiovascular risk and could be approved in the United States for clinical use soon. However, data linking long-term temporal change in hs-cTnT to outcomes are limited, particularly in primary prevention settings. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of 6-year change in hs-cTnT with incident coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure (HF), and all-cause mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This prospective observational cohort study, performed from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 2011, included 8838 participants with biracial representation from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study who were initially free of CHD and HF and who had hs-cTnT measured twice, 6 years apart...
August 1, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
Ibiye Owei, Nkiru Umekwe, Jim Wan, Samuel Dagogo-Jack
Dyslipidemia and dysglycemia are etiologically associated, but the direction, chronology, and mechanisms of the association are not fully understood. We, therefore, analyzed data from 335 healthy adults (184 black, 151 white) enrolled in the Pathobiology of Prediabetes in A Biracial Cohort study. Subjects underwent oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and were enrolled if they had normal fasting and 2-h plasma glucose levels. Assessments during year 1 included anthropometry, fasting lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion...
July 17, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Trenette Clark Goings, Emily Butler-Bente, Tricia McGovern, Matthew O Howard
Most substance-use prevention interventions are based on the implicit assumption that risk and protective factors for substance use are the same for biracial and monoracial youth. However, preliminary research suggests this assumption may be untrue. This study compared the prevalence and correlates of substance use among Black, White, and biracial Black-White youth. Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent and Adult Health, which is a longitudinal investigation using stratified random sampling to study health behaviors...
2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Pamela J Schreiner, David R Jacobs, Nathan D Wong, Catarina I Kiefe
BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional analyses suggest that total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) trends that had been declining are now reversing. We examined longitudinal data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study to examine secular trends in total cholesterol, LDL-c, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and triglycerides over 25 years. We also assessed whether modifiable lifestyle factors (body mass index, physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking, and lipid-lowering medications) are associated with these trends...
July 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Shahid I Sheikh, Judy Pitts, Nancy A Ryan-Wenger, Karen S McCoy, Don Hayes
BACKGROUND: Exposure to household domestic animals such as cats and dogs in early life may have some role in pathogenesis of asthma. Racial differences exist in the prevalence of asthma. We hypothesized that there may also be racial differences in pet ownership in families with asthma. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted from June 2011 to December 2014 on 823 of 850 (97%) families of children with asthma for pet ownership. Comparisons among racial groups were done using chi square analysis and one-way analysis of variance...
August 2016: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Sandra Yu Rueger, Rachel George
Research on adolescent depression has overwhelmingly focused on risk factors, such as stressful negative events and cognitive vulnerabilities, but much important information can be gained by focusing on protective factors. Thus, the current study aimed to broaden understanding on adolescent depression by considering the role of two positive elements as protective factors, attributional style for positive events and self-esteem, in a model of depression. The sample included 491 middle school students (52 % female; n = 249) with an age range from 12 to 15 years (M = 13...
June 23, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Hemal Bhatt, Christopher M Gamboa, Monika M Safford, Elsayad Z Soliman, Stephen P Glasser
The association of atrial fibrillation (AF) with the severity and control of hypertension (HTN) remains unclear. We analyzed data from the national biracial cohort of REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke study. The AF prevalence ratios were estimated and full multivariable adjustment included demographics, risk factors, medication adherence, HTN duration, and antihypertensive medication classes. Of the 30,018 study participants (8.6% with AF), 4386 had normotension (4.3% with AF), 5916 had prehypertension (4...
July 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
Danielle M Young, Diana T Sanchez, Leigh S Wilton
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates how racial identity and phenotypicality (i.e., racial ambiguity) shape the perception of biracial individuals in both White and Black perceivers. We investigated complex racial categorization and its downstream consequences, such as perceptions of discrimination. METHOD: We manipulated racial phenotypicality (Black or racially ambiguous) and racial identity (Black or biracial) to test these cues' influence on Black and White race categorizations in a sample of both White (n = 145) and Black (n = 152) identified individuals...
June 6, 2016: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
Nora Montalvo-Liendo, Andrew Grogan-Kaylor, Sandra Graham-Bermann
INTRODUCTION: While there is a long-standing tradition of research on the predictors of depression among women exposed to violence, little of this research has been conducted across ethnic and racial groups. METHOD: A cross-sectional study comparing a total of 191 women with a history of intimate partner violence were recruited from commercial, medical, and educational settings and by contact with agencies serving the needs of abused women, for example, shelters, community outreach...
June 2016: Hispanic Health Care International: the Official Journal of the National Association of Hispanic Nurses
Anica Bowe
The 12-item general health questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used in the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE; N = 15,770) to collect measures on adolescent mental health. Given the debate in current literature regarding the dimensionality of the GHQ-12, this study examined the cultural sensitivity of the instrument at the item level for each of the 7 major ethnic groups within the database. This study used a hybrid approach of ordinal logistic regression and item response theory (IRT) to examine the presence of differential item functioning (DIF) on the questionnaire...
May 5, 2016: Psychological Assessment
Kristin J Carothers, Jessica A Arizaga, Jocelyn Smith Carter, Jeremy Taylor, Kathryn E Grant
The present study addresses the lack of specificity and diversity highlighted in recent stress literature reviews by examining active coping in relationships between exposure to violence and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in a sample of urban youth from predominantly low-income, African American and Latino backgrounds. Two hundred and forty-one youth (mean age at Time 1 = 13 years; 66 % female; 41 % African American, 28 % Latino, 14 % European American, 6 % Asian American, 7 % mixed/biracial, 1 % American Indian/native American, ...
July 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Dmitry Kats, Mehul D Patel, Priya Palta, Michelle L Meyer, Alden L Gross, Eric A Whitsel, David Knopman, Alvaro Alonso, Thomas H Mosley, Gerardo Heiss
OBJECTIVE: social support has demonstrated cross-sectional associations with greater cognitive function and a protective effect against cognitive decline in older adults, but exploration of its temporal role in cognitive ageing from mid-life to older adulthood has been limited. We aimed to quantify the associations of social support, assessed at mid-life, with cognitive function in mid-life and with cognitive decline into late life among African Americans and Caucasians. METHODS: data from the community-based, prospective Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort of 15,792 biracial participants were examined for baseline and longitudinal associations of mid-life social support with global cognition at mid-life and with 20-year change in global cognition, respectively, stratified by race...
July 2016: Age and Ageing
Carrington R Wendell, Shari R Waldstein, Michele K Evans, Alan B Zonderman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Examine age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status as modifiers of the association between carotid intimal medial thickness (IMT) and neurocognitive performance in a socioeconomically diverse, biracial, urban, adult population. METHODS: Participants were 1712 community-dwelling adults (45% men, 56% African-American, 38% below poverty threshold, aged 30-64 years) enrolled in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study...
June 2016: Atherosclerosis
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