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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934192/metabolomics-and-cognition-in-african-american-adults-in-midlife-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#1
J Bressler, B Yu, T H Mosley, D S Knopman, R F Gottesman, A Alonso, A R Sharrett, L M Wruck, E Boerwinkle
Clinical studies have shown alterations in metabolic profiles when patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease dementia were compared to cognitively normal subjects. Associations between 204 serum metabolites measured at baseline (1987-1989) and cognitive change were investigated in 1035 middle-aged community-dwelling African American participants in the biracial Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Cognition was evaluated using the Delayed Word Recall Test (DWRT; verbal memory), the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST; processing speed) and the Word Fluency Test (WFT; verbal fluency) at visits 2 (1990-1992) and 4 (1996-1998)...
July 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928241/vital-exhaustion-and-sudden-cardiac-death-in-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#2
Brittany M Bogle, Nona Sotoodehnia, Anna M Kucharska-Newton, Wayne D Rosamond
OBJECTIVE: Vital exhaustion (VE), a construct defined as lack of energy, increased fatigue and irritability, and feelings of demoralisation, has been associated with cardiovascular events. We sought to examine the relation between VE and sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. METHODS: The ARIC Study is a predominately biracial cohort of men and women, aged 45-64 at baseline, initiated in 1987 through random sampling in four US communities...
September 19, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902662/circadian-hemodynamics-in-men-and-women-with-high-blood-pressure-dipper-vs-nondipper-and-racial-differences
#3
Andrew Sherwood, LaBarron K Hill, James A Blumenthal, Alan L Hinderliter
OBJECTIVE: The 'nondipping' pattern of circadian blood pressure (BP) variation is an established independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Although this phenomenon has been widely studied, its underlying circadian hemodynamics of cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) have not been well characterized. We evaluated the hypothesis that BP nondipping would be associated with a blunted night-time reduction in SVR in a biracial sample of 140 (63 African-American and 77 white) men and women with elevated clinic BP (130-159/85-99 mmHg)...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898389/racial-differences-in-the-association-between-apolipoprotein-e-risk-alleles-and-overall-and-total-cardiovascular-mortality-over-18%C3%A2-years
#4
Kumar B Rajan, Lisa L Barnes, Robert S Wilson, Elizabeth A McAninch, Jennifer Weuve, Dominique Sighoko, Denis A Evans
OBJECTIVES: To examine the difference in the association between apolipoprotein (APO)E allele and overall and cardiovascular mortality between African Americans (AAs) and European Americans (EAs). DESIGN: Longitudinal, cohort study of 18 years. SETTING: Biracial urban US population sample. PARTICIPANTS: 4,917, 68% AA and 32% EA. MEASUREMENTS: APOE genotype and mortality based on National Death Index...
September 12, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890305/relationships-between-blood-pressure-and-blood-glucose-among-offspring-of-parents-with-type-2-diabetes-prediction-of-incident-dysglycemia-in-a-biracial-cohort
#5
Chimaroke Edeoga, Ibiye Owei, Krishmita Siwakoti, Nkiru Umekwe, Fatoumatta Ceesay, Jim Wan, Sam Dagogo-Jack
AIMS: We assessed blood pressure (BP) and blood glucose (BG) values in healthy subjects, and examined baseline BP as a predictor of incident prediabetes during follow-up. METHODS: Participants in the Pathobiology of Prediabetes in a Biracial Cohort (POP-ABC) study underwent screening assessments (anthropometry, BP, OGTT) and were stratified into normal BP (NBP), prehypertension, or hypertension, and normal glucose regulation (NGR), prediabetes (IFG/IGT), or type 2 diabetes (T2D) status...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886993/smoking-and-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-the-reasons-for-geographic-and-racial-differences-in-stroke-regards-study
#6
Muhammad Imtiaz Ahmad, Candice D Mosley, Wesley T O'Neal, Suzanne E Judd, Leslie A McClure, Virginia J Howard, George Howard, Elsayed Z Soliman
BACKGROUND: Whether smoking increases the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) remains debatable due to inconsistent reports. METHODS: We examined the association between smoking and incident AF in 11,047 participants from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, one of the largest biracial, population-based cohort studies in the USA. Baseline (2003-2007) cigarette smoking status and amount (pack-years) were self-reported. Incident AF was determined by electrocardiography and history of a prior physician diagnosis at a follow-up examination conducted after a median of 10...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878939/insulin-sensitive-and-insulin-resistant-obese-and-non-obese-phenotypes-role-in-prediction-of-incident-pre-diabetes-in-a-longitudinal-biracial-cohort
#7
Ibiye Owei, Nkiru Umekwe, Casey Provo, Jim Wan, Samuel Dagogo-Jack
OBJECTIVE: We measured insulin sensitivity with euglycemic clamp (Si-clamp) in initially normoglycemic African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA), to probe the existence of subphenotypes of obesity and leanness, and their impact on incident dysglycemia during longitudinal follow-up. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: 320 healthy subjects (176 AA, 144 EA; mean age 44.2±10.6 years) underwent baseline assessments, including Si-clamp and homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and were stratified into: insulin-resistant obese (IRO) (body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m(2), Si-clamp <0...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838913/age-sex-and-racial-differences-in-neuroimaging-use-in-acute-stroke-a-population-based-study
#8
A Vagal, P Sanelli, H Sucharew, K A Alwell, J C Khoury, P Khatri, D Woo, M Flaherty, B M Kissela, O Adeoye, S Ferioli, F De Los Rios La Rosa, S Martini, J Mackey, D Kleindorfer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Limited information is available regarding differences in neuroimaging use for acute stroke work-up. Our objective was to assess whether race, sex, or age differences exist in neuroimaging use and whether these differences depend on the care center type in a population-based study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with stroke (ischemic and hemorrhagic) and transient ischemic attack were identified in a metropolitan, biracial population using the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Stroke Study in 2005 and 2010...
August 24, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837951/latent-classes-of-trait-affect-and-cognitive-affective-regulation-strategies-are-associated-with-depression-non-suicidal-self-injury-and-well-being
#9
Taylor A Burke, Brae Anne McArthur, Issar Daryanani, Lyn Y Abramson, Lauren B Alloy
BACKGROUND: The present study sought to better understand the unique profiles of late adolescents' affective functioning by exploring patterns of trait affect and cognitive affective regulation strategies. The study also examined whether these unique profiles significantly predicted depressive symptoms, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), and well-being outcomes. METHODS: Data from a sample of 590 late adolescents were examined (M = 19.14 years, SD = 1.41, 63% Female, 62% Caucasian, 38% African American/Biracial)...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735172/exposure-to-intimate-partner-violence-in-utero-and-infant-internalizing-behaviors-moderation-by-salivary-cortisol-alpha-amylase-asymmetry
#10
Cecilia Martinez-Torteya, G Anne Bogat, Joseph S Lonstein, Douglas A Granger, Alytia A Levendosky
Guided by the main tenets of contemporary models of the developmental origins of health and disease, this study evaluated whether individual differences in reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) moderate the effect of prenatal exposure to trauma on internalizing and externalizing behaviors during infancy. Participants were a community sample of 182 mothers (M age=25years, 43% Caucasian, 33% Black/African American, 24% Biracial/Other) and their infants (59% girls; M age=11...
July 20, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715786/background-lead-and-mercury-exposures-psychological-and-behavioral-problems-in-children
#11
Brooks B Gump, Matthew J Dykas, James A MacKenzie, Amy K Dumas, Bryce Hruska, Craig K Ewart, Patrick J Parsons, Christopher D Palmer, Kestutis Bendinskas
BACKGROUND: The potential harm from exposure to nonessential metals, particularly mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb), has been the focus of research for years. Initial interest focused on relatively high exposures; however, recent evidence suggests that even background exposures might have adverse consequences for child development. Identifying the extent of these consequences is now a priority. METHODS: We assessed blood Pb and Hg levels in a biracial sample of 9-11 year-old children (N = 203)...
October 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706501/bridges-or-barriers-conceptualization-of-the-role-of-multiple-identity-gateway-groups-in-intergroup-relations
#12
Aharon Levy, Tamar Saguy, Eran Halperin, Martijn van Zomeren
The modern era of globalization has been accompanied by a massive growth in interconnections between groups, and has led to the sharing of multiple identities by individuals and groups. Following these developments, research has focused on the issue of multiple identities, and has shed important light on how individuals who hold these complex forms of identity feel and behave, and on the reactions they elicit from members of other groups. However, the potential of groups with such multiple identities (e.g., biracials, immigrants, etc...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678637/transitioning-illicit-drug-preferences-and-emerging-user-identities-in-ohio-the-proliferation-of-methamphetamine-use-among-african-americans
#13
Karen Coen Flynn, Lee D Hoffer
Understanding the social dynamics of local methamphetamine markets is critical to improving community health and reducing social costs associated with illicit drug use. We examine a local drug market in Summit County, Ohio, wherein methamphetamine users ascribe themselves different ethnic identities from those long associated with the drug elsewhere in the United States. Qualitative interviews with 52 study participants demonstrate that very poor and homeless White males and females are now using methamphetamine; however, even more surprising is that 31 of the participants identified themselves as poor or homeless, male or female African, Native, biracial, or multiracial Americans...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675501/assessing-angels-in-the-nursery-a-pilot-study-of-childhood-memories-of-benevolent-caregiving-as-protective-influences
#14
Angela J Narayan, Chandra Ghosh Ippen, William W Harris, Alicia F Lieberman
This pilot study provides the first empirical test of the concept of "Angels in the Nursery" by examining whether childhood memories of benevolent caregiving experiences protect against heightened levels of psychopathology in high-risk mothers. The study hypothesized that (a) elaborated childhood memories of feeling loved by a caregiver ("angel memories") would moderate adulthood posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in mothers with childhood maltreatment histories, and (b) spontaneous traumatic intrusions ("ghost memories") would mediate childhood maltreatment and adulthood PTSD symptoms...
July 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639795/-you-re-one-of-us-black-americans-use-of-hypodescent-and-its-association-with-egalitarianism
#15
Arnold K Ho, Nour S Kteily, Jacqueline M Chen
Research on multiracial categorization has focused on majority group social perceivers (i.e., White Americans), demonstrating that they (a) typically categorize Black-White multiracials according to a rule of hypodescent, associating them more with their lower status parent group than their higher status parent group, and (b) do so at least in part to preserve the hierarchical status quo. The current work examines whether members of an ethnic minority group, Black Americans, also associate Black-White multiracials more with their minority versus majority parent group and if so, why...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639793/cigarette-smoking-trajectories-of-monoracial-and-biracial-blacks-testing-the-intermediate-hypothesis
#16
Trenette Clark Goings, Sebastian Teran Hidalgo, Matthew O Howard
Research on the cigarette-smoking patterns of biracial adolescents and young adults is severely limited. In this study, we tested the intermediate biracial substance-use hypothesis, which suggests that the prevalence of substance use among biracial individuals falls intermediate to their monoracial counterparts. We examined cigarette-smoking trajectories of a de-aggregated sample of biracial Black adolescents and young adults. We used longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent and Adult Health (Add Health; Harris et al...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639238/multiple-sclerosis-in-latin-americans-genetic-aspects
#17
REVIEW
Victor M Rivera
Latin Americans (LA) are a heterogeneous, multiethnic group of individuals who inhabit the continental countries in Latin America (LATAM), Caribbean islands and constitute the largest ethnic minority in the USA. Commonly used terminology and ethno racial classifications to define these groups may not be accurate. Risk for multiple sclerosis (MS) among LA is generally low to medium but frequencies are increasing in the American hemisphere. Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) in LA show diverse variants and genetic proportions among Mestizos, the most representative ethnic population, who themselves are the product of centuries of interracial mixing between Native Americans (or Amerindians), White Caucasian Europeans, and Black Africans...
August 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608792/sexually-transmitted-infection-prevention-with-long-acting-reversible-contraception-factors-associated-with-dual-use
#18
Erika L Thompson, Cheryl A Vamos, Stacey B Griner, Rachel Logan, Coralia Vázquez-Otero, Ellen M Daley
BACKGROUND: Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is extremely effective in preventing pregnancy; however, it does not provide sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention. Therefore, dual use is recommended for the prevention of STIs, in addition to pregnancy, by using LARC methods with condoms. This study assessed factors associated with LARC only use and dual-LARC and condom use among college women. METHODS: The National College Health Assessment-II Fall 2012 to 2013 was used for this analysis...
July 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585323/racial-differences-in-periodontal-disease-and-10-year-self-reported-tooth-loss-among-late-middle-aged-and-older-adults-the-dental-aric-study
#19
S Naorungroj, G D Slade, K Divaris, G Heiss, S Offenbacher, J D Beck
OBJECTIVE: To investigate racial differences in the associations between periodontitis and 10-year self-reported incident tooth loss in a biracial, community-based cohort of US late middle-aged and older adults. METHODS: Subjects were 3,466 dentate men and women aged 53-74 who underwent dental examinations from 1996 to1998. In 2012-2013, telephone interviewers asked participants about tooth loss in the preceding 10 years. Separate multivariable ordinal logistic regression models were used to calculate proportional odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) as estimates of association between periodontitis and tooth loss for Whites and African-Americans (AAs)...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523847/sex-differences-in-cardiovascular-risk-profiles-of-ischemic-stroke-patients-with-diabetes-in-the-greater-cincinnati-northern-kentucky-stroke-study
#20
Tracy E Madsen, Jane C Khoury, Kathleen A Alwell, Charles J Moomaw, Stacie L Demel, Matthew L Flaherty, Daniel Woo, Jason Mackey, Felipe De Los Rios La Rosa, Sharyl Martini, Simona Ferioli, Opeolu Adeoye, Pooja Khatri, Brett M Kissela, Dawn Kleindorfer
BACKGROUND: We aimed to compare sex-specific associations between cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes mellitus (DM) among patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Stroke Study (GCNKSS). METHODS: The GCNKSS ascertained AIS cases in 2005 and 2010 among adult (age ≥20 years) residents of a biracial population of 1.3 million. Past and current stroke risk factors were compared between those with and without DM using chi-square and multiple logistic regression to examine sex-specific profiles...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
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