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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138193/stoic-beliefs-and-health-development-and-preliminary-validation-of-the-pathak-wieten-stoicism-ideology-scale
#1
Elizabeth B Pathak, Sarah E Wieten, Christopher W Wheldon
INTRODUCTION: We developed and validated a new parsimonious scale to measure stoic beliefs. Key domains of stoicism are imperviousness to strong emotions, indifference to death, taciturnity and self-sufficiency. In the context of illness and disease, a personal ideology of stoicism may create an internal resistance to objective needs, which can lead to negative consequences. Stoicism has been linked to help-seeking delays, inadequate pain treatment, caregiver strain and suicide after economic stress...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116943/the-pparg-pro12ala-polymorphism-and-20-year-cognitive-decline-race-and-sex-heterogeneity
#2
Nancy A West, Jonathan V Tingle, Jeannette Simino, Elizabeth Selvin, Jan Bressler, Thomas H Mosley
Previous reports suggest race/ethnic and sex heterogeneity in the association between the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) gene and cognitive decline. Tests of verbal memory, processing speed, and verbal fluency and a composite global Z-score were used to assess cognitive performance longitudinally in a large (n=11,620) biracial cohort of older adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Neurocognitive Study from midlife to older age. Linear mixed models were used to estimate associations between the Ala12 allele and cognitive performance over 20 years of follow-up...
November 7, 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114921/association-of-early-left-ventricular-dysfunction-with-advanced-magnetic-resonance-white-matter-and-gray-matter-brain-measures-the-cardia-study
#3
Anderson C Armstrong, Majon Muller, Bharath Ambale-Ventakesh, Michael Halstead, Satoru Kishi, Nick Bryan, Stephen Sidney, Luís C L Correia, Samuel S Gidding, Lenore J Launer, João A C Lima
INTRODUCTION: Relations between heart failure and clinically manifested stroke are well known, but the associations between heart and brain early abnormalities are not totally clear. AIMS: We explore relations of subclinical brain abnormalities with early cardiac dysfunction in a large healthy middle-aged biracial cohort. METHODS: The CARDIA study enrolled 5115 young adults aged 18-30 years at baseline (1985-1986). We assessed 719 Caucasian and African American participants of the CARDIA study, with echocardiograms and brain MRI at follow-up year 25 (2010-2011)...
November 8, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101255/midlife-systemic-inflammation-late-life-white-matter-integrity-and-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#4
Keenan A Walker, Melinda C Power, Ron C Hoogeveen, Aaron R Folsom, Christie M Ballantyne, David S Knopman, B Gwen Windham, Elizabeth Selvin, Clifford R Jack, Rebecca F Gottesman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is currently unclear whether midlife systemic inflammation promotes the development of white matter (WM) abnormalities and small vessel disease in the elderly. We examined the association of midlife systemic inflammation with late-life WM hyperintensity volume, deep and periventricular WM microstructural integrity (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity [MD]), cerebral infarcts, and microbleeds in a biracial prospective cohort study. METHODS: Linear and logistic regression examined the relation between midlife high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP)-a nonspecific marker of inflammation-and brain magnetic resonance imaging markers assessed 21 years later in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study...
November 3, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093073/midlife-systemic-inflammatory-markers-are-associated-with-late-life-brain-volume-the-aric-study
#5
Keenan A Walker, Ron C Hoogeveen, Aaron R Folsom, Christie M Ballantyne, David S Knopman, B Gwen Windham, Clifford R Jack, Rebecca F Gottesman
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the temporal relationship between systemic inflammation and neurodegeneration, we examined whether a higher level of circulating inflammatory markers during midlife was associated with smaller brain volumes in late life using a large biracial prospective cohort study. METHODS: Plasma levels of systemic inflammatory markers (fibrinogen, albumin, white blood cell count, von Willebrand factor, and Factor VIII) were assessed at baseline in 1,633 participants (mean age 53 [5] years, 60% female, 27% African American) enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study...
November 1, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049398/gravidity-is-not-associated-with-telomere-length-in-a-biracial-cohort-of-middle-aged-women-the-coronary-artery-risk-development-in-young-adults-cardia-study
#6
Abbi D Lane-Cordova, Eli Puterman, Erica P Gunderson, Cheeling Chan, Lifang Hou, Mercedes Carnethon
OBJECTIVE: Having experienced 2-3 births is associated with reduced mortality versus women with <2 or ≥4 births. The effect of 2-3 births on lifespan may be associated with delayed cellular aging. We hypothesized telomere length, a marker of cellular aging, would be longer in women who had 2-3 pregnancies. METHODS: Leukocyte telomere length was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in 620 women in CARDIA at the year 15 and 20 exams, expressed as the ratio of telomere repeat copy number to single-copy gene copy number (T/S)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045312/validation-of-the-nonlaboratory-based-framingham-cardiovascular-disease-risk-assessment-algorithm-in-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-dataset
#7
Jacob K Kariuki, Eileen M Stuart-Shor, Suzanne G Leveille, Philimon Gona, Jerry Cromwell, Laura L Hayman
BACKGROUND: Nonlaboratory-based (non-LB) algorithms have been developed to facilitate absolute cardiovascular risk assessment in resource-constrained settings. The non-LB Framingham algorithm, which substitute BMI for lipids in laboratory-based Framingham, exhibits best performance among non-LB algorithms. However, its external validity has not been evaluated. AIM: To examine the validity of non-LB Framingham algorithm in Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities dataset, and contrast performance with the laboratory-based Framingham algorithm...
December 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992958/positive-childhood-experiences-predict-less-psychopathology-and-stress-in-pregnant-women-with-childhood-adversity-a-pilot-study-of-the-benevolent-childhood-experiences-bces-scale
#8
Angela J Narayan, Luisa M Rivera, Rosemary E Bernstein, William W Harris, Alicia F Lieberman
This pilot study examined the psychometric properties of the Benevolent Childhood Experiences (BCEs) scale, a new instrument designed to assess positive early life experiences in adults with histories of childhood maltreatment and other adversities. A counterpart to the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) questionnaire, the BCEs was developed to be multiculturally-sensitive and applicable regardless of socioeconomic position, urban-rural background, or immigration status. Higher levels of BCEs were hypothesized to predict lower levels of psychopathology and stress beyond the effects of ACES in a sample of ethnically diverse, low-income pregnant women...
October 6, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963767/body-mass-index-trajectories-in-young-adulthood-predict-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-middle-age-the-cardia-cohort-study
#9
Lisa B VanWagner, Sadiya S Khan, Hongyan Ning, Juned Siddique, Cora E Lewis, John J Carr, Miriam B Vos, Elizabeth Speliotes, Norah A Terrault, Mary E Rinella, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Norrina B Allen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is an epidemic. Identifying modifiable risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease development is essential to design effective prevention programmes. We tested whether 25-year patterns of body mass index change are associated with midlife non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. METHODS: In all, 4423 participants from Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults, a prospective population-based biracial cohort (age 18-30), underwent body mass index measurement at baseline (1985-1986) and 3 or more times over 25 years...
September 29, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934192/metabolomics-and-cognition-in-african-american-adults-in-midlife-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#10
J Bressler, B Yu, T H Mosley, D S Knopman, R F Gottesman, A Alonso, A R Sharrett, L M Wruck, E Boerwinkle
Clinical studies have shown alterations in metabolic profiles when patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease dementia were compared to cognitively normal subjects. Associations between 204 serum metabolites measured at baseline (1987-1989) and cognitive change were investigated in 1035 middle-aged community-dwelling African American participants in the biracial Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Cognition was evaluated using the Delayed Word Recall Test (DWRT; verbal memory), the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST; processing speed) and the Word Fluency Test (WFT; verbal fluency) at visits 2 (1990-1992) and 4 (1996-1998)...
July 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928241/vital-exhaustion-and-sudden-cardiac-death-in-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#11
Brittany M Bogle, Nona Sotoodehnia, Anna M Kucharska-Newton, Wayne D Rosamond
OBJECTIVE: Vital exhaustion (VE), a construct defined as lack of energy, increased fatigue and irritability, and feelings of demoralisation, has been associated with cardiovascular events. We sought to examine the relation between VE and sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. METHODS: The ARIC Study is a predominately biracial cohort of men and women, aged 45-64 at baseline, initiated in 1987 through random sampling in four US communities...
September 19, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902662/circadian-hemodynamics-in-men-and-women-with-high-blood-pressure-dipper-vs-nondipper-and-racial-differences
#12
Andrew Sherwood, LaBarron K Hill, James A Blumenthal, Alan L Hinderliter
OBJECTIVE: The 'nondipping' pattern of circadian blood pressure (BP) variation is an established independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Although this phenomenon has been widely studied, its underlying circadian hemodynamics of cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) have not been well characterized. We evaluated the hypothesis that BP nondipping would be associated with a blunted night-time reduction in SVR in a biracial sample of 140 (63 African-American and 77 white) men and women with elevated clinic BP (130-159/85-99 mmHg)...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898389/racial-differences-in-the-association-between-apolipoprotein-e-risk-alleles-and-overall-and-total-cardiovascular-mortality-over-18%C3%A2-years
#13
Kumar B Rajan, Lisa L Barnes, Robert S Wilson, Elizabeth A McAninch, Jennifer Weuve, Dominique Sighoko, Denis A Evans
OBJECTIVES: To examine the difference in the association between apolipoprotein (APO)E allele and overall and cardiovascular mortality between African Americans (AAs) and European Americans (EAs). DESIGN: Longitudinal, cohort study of 18 years. SETTING: Biracial urban US population sample. PARTICIPANTS: 4,917, 68% AA and 32% EA. MEASUREMENTS: APOE genotype and mortality based on National Death Index...
September 12, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890305/relationships-between-blood-pressure-and-blood-glucose-among-offspring-of-parents-with-type-2-diabetes-prediction-of-incident-dysglycemia-in-a-biracial-cohort
#14
Chimaroke Edeoga, Ibiye Owei, Krishmita Siwakoti, Nkiru Umekwe, Fatoumatta Ceesay, Jim Wan, Sam Dagogo-Jack
AIMS: We assessed blood pressure (BP) and blood glucose (BG) values in healthy subjects, and examined baseline BP as a predictor of incident prediabetes during follow-up. METHODS: Participants in the Pathobiology of Prediabetes in a Biracial Cohort (POP-ABC) study underwent screening assessments (anthropometry, BP, OGTT) and were stratified into normal BP (NBP), prehypertension, or hypertension, and normal glucose regulation (NGR), prediabetes (IFG/IGT), or type 2 diabetes (T2D) status...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886993/smoking-and-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-the-reasons-for-geographic-and-racial-differences-in-stroke-regards-study
#15
Muhammad Imtiaz Ahmad, Candice D Mosley, Wesley T O'Neal, Suzanne E Judd, Leslie A McClure, Virginia J Howard, George Howard, Elsayed Z Soliman
BACKGROUND: Whether smoking increases the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) remains debatable due to inconsistent reports. METHODS: We examined the association between smoking and incident AF in 11,047 participants from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, one of the largest biracial, population-based cohort studies in the USA. Baseline (2003-2007) cigarette smoking status and amount (pack-years) were self-reported. Incident AF was determined by electrocardiography and history of a prior physician diagnosis at a follow-up examination conducted after a median of 10...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878939/insulin-sensitive-and-insulin-resistant-obese-and-non-obese-phenotypes-role-in-prediction-of-incident-pre-diabetes-in-a-longitudinal-biracial-cohort
#16
Ibiye Owei, Nkiru Umekwe, Casey Provo, Jim Wan, Samuel Dagogo-Jack
OBJECTIVE: We measured insulin sensitivity with euglycemic clamp (Si-clamp) in initially normoglycemic African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA), to probe the existence of subphenotypes of obesity and leanness, and their impact on incident dysglycemia during longitudinal follow-up. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: 320 healthy subjects (176 AA, 144 EA; mean age 44.2±10.6 years) underwent baseline assessments, including Si-clamp and homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and were stratified into: insulin-resistant obese (IRO) (body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m(2), Si-clamp <0...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838913/age-sex-and-racial-differences-in-neuroimaging-use-in-acute-stroke-a-population-based-study
#17
A Vagal, P Sanelli, H Sucharew, K A Alwell, J C Khoury, P Khatri, D Woo, M Flaherty, B M Kissela, O Adeoye, S Ferioli, F De Los Rios La Rosa, S Martini, J Mackey, D Kleindorfer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Limited information is available regarding differences in neuroimaging use for acute stroke work-up. Our objective was to assess whether race, sex, or age differences exist in neuroimaging use and whether these differences depend on the care center type in a population-based study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with stroke (ischemic and hemorrhagic) and transient ischemic attack were identified in a metropolitan, biracial population using the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Stroke Study in 2005 and 2010...
August 24, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837951/latent-classes-of-trait-affect-and-cognitive-affective-regulation-strategies-are-associated-with-depression-non-suicidal-self-injury-and-well-being
#18
Taylor A Burke, Brae Anne McArthur, Issar Daryanani, Lyn Y Abramson, Lauren B Alloy
BACKGROUND: The present study sought to better understand the unique profiles of late adolescents' affective functioning by exploring patterns of trait affect and cognitive affective regulation strategies. The study also examined whether these unique profiles significantly predicted depressive symptoms, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), and well-being outcomes. METHODS: Data from a sample of 590 late adolescents were examined (M = 19.14 years, SD = 1.41, 63% Female, 62% Caucasian, 38% African American/Biracial)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735172/exposure-to-intimate-partner-violence-in-utero-and-infant-internalizing-behaviors-moderation-by-salivary-cortisol-alpha-amylase-asymmetry
#19
Cecilia Martinez-Torteya, G Anne Bogat, Joseph S Lonstein, Douglas A Granger, Alytia A Levendosky
Guided by the main tenets of contemporary models of the developmental origins of health and disease, this study evaluated whether individual differences in reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) moderate the effect of prenatal exposure to trauma on internalizing and externalizing behaviors during infancy. Participants were a community sample of 182 mothers (M age=25years, 43% Caucasian, 33% Black/African American, 24% Biracial/Other) and their infants (59% girls; M age=11...
October 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715786/background-lead-and-mercury-exposures-psychological-and-behavioral-problems-in-children
#20
Brooks B Gump, Matthew J Dykas, James A MacKenzie, Amy K Dumas, Bryce Hruska, Craig K Ewart, Patrick J Parsons, Christopher D Palmer, Kestutis Bendinskas
BACKGROUND: The potential harm from exposure to nonessential metals, particularly mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb), has been the focus of research for years. Initial interest focused on relatively high exposures; however, recent evidence suggests that even background exposures might have adverse consequences for child development. Identifying the extent of these consequences is now a priority. METHODS: We assessed blood Pb and Hg levels in a biracial sample of 9-11 year-old children (N = 203)...
October 2017: Environmental Research
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