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Dematiaceous fungi

Shalini Singh, Ankita Shrivastav, Manisha Agarwal, Arpan Gandhi, Rahul Mayor, Lagan Paul
BACKGROUND: Scleral buckling is an established modality of treating retinal detachment. Being an external implant the buckle may be prone to infections. We report such a case with a delayed presentation and a rare etiology. CASE PRESENTATION: A 45 year old male presented with redness, foreign body sensation and discharge for one month in his right eye. The patient had undergone a retinal detachment surgery elsewhere 14 years back without any visual gain. Right eye demonstrated no perception of light and the best corrected visual acuity in the left eye was 6/6, N6...
February 9, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Ram Gopalakrishnan, Nandini Sethuraman, R Madhumitha, Kalpesh Sukhwani, Nitin Bansal, Indira Poojary, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis is an infection caused by a number of dematiaceous fungi, characterised by the presence of melanised hyphae in the invaded tissue. Cladophialophora bantiana is the most common species affecting the humans, which has a predilection for causing the central nervous system infections resulting in high mortality. We hereby report a success story of two cases of brain abscess caused by C. bantiana who were treated with surgical source reduction and voriconazole therapy.
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Hulya Nalcacioglu, Y Kamil Yakupoglu, Gurkan Genc, Nursen Belet, Sema Gulnar Sensoy, Asuman Birinci, Ozan Ozkaya
Renal transplant recipients are on long-term potent immunosuppressive therapy, which makes them highly vulnerable to opportunistic fungal infections. Dematiaceous, or dark-pigmented saprophytic fungi, are being increasingly seen as opportunistic pathogens of mycoses in immunosuppressed patients. One of these is Aureobasidium pullulans, which is a black yeast-like dematiaceous fungus found ubiquitously in the environment that can cause various opportunistic human infections. Most infections occur by traumatic inoculation, such as keratitis and cutaneous lesions; disseminated mycoses are very rare and occur only in severely immunocompromised patients...
February 1, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
Priscila Dallé da Rosa, Claudete Locatelli, Karla Scheid, Diane Marinho, Lúcia Kliemann, Alexandre Fuentefria, Luciano Zubaran Goldani
Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a rare ocular pathogen. We report a patient with fungal keratitis caused by L. theobromae. The patient was a 75-year-old male, a farmer with diabetes type II, and no previous history of ocular trauma. Histopathology analysis revealed the presence fungi invading Descemet's membrane of the cornea. The fungus was characterized by septate, highly bulged fungal filaments involving full corneal thickness in the corresponding histopathology specimens. A dematiaceous mold was isolated and initally identified as L...
January 30, 2018: Mycopathologia
I Ghiaie Asl, M Motamedi, G R Shokuhi, N Jalalizand, A Farhang, H Mirhendi
Background and Purpose: Cladosporium species are ubiquitous, saprobic, dematiaceous fungi, only infrequently associated with human and animal opportunistic infections. Materials and Methods: Airborne samples were collected using the settle plate method, and soil samples were obtained from a depth of 5-10 cm of the superficial soil layer. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) plates, incubated at 25°C, and examined daily for fungal colonies for two to three weeks...
March 2017: Advances in Medical Mycology (Iran)
Rasoul Mohammadi, Abdolrasoul Mohammadi, Fereshteh Ashtari, Farzin Khorvash, Atousa Hakamifard, Afsane Vaezi, Javad Javidnia, Jacques F Meis, Hamid Badali
Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis is frequently a fatal disease caused by truly neurotropic dematiaceous fungi. Although rare, this infection occurs especially among immunocompetent patients, and the clinical symptoms are often misdiagnosed as a cerebral tumour or bacterial brain abscess. The appropriate diagnosis and therapy of cerebral infections by melanized fungi are very challenging if they are caused by mysterious fungi with unknown ecological niche. We reported the second case of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis due to Rhinocladiella mackenziei in Iran and the first culture-confirmed case...
December 5, 2017: Mycoses
André Vicente, Fátima Pedrosa Domellöf, Berit Byström
PURPOSE: To report a case of Exophiala phaeomuriformis mycotic keratitis in a patient from a subarctic climate region. Dematiaceous fungi (black yeasts) have been gaining importance as corneal keratitis and ulcer causative agents in certain regions, but no cases have been described in Scandinavia. METHODS: Case report of a patient with a persistent corneal erosion that eventually presented a brown-pigmented infiltrate. The patient had a history of several months of topical therapy comprising medication for glaucoma, corticosteroids and antibiotics...
November 29, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
Carla Cristina Gomes Lourenço, Janaina Lana Alves, Eduardo Guatimosim, Adans Colman, Robert Weingart Barreto
A severe leaf spot, turning to foliage blight, was observed on leaves of Maranta leuconeura growing in a garden in Brazil (state of Rio de Janeiro) in 2015. A dematiaceous hyphomycete bearing a morphology typical of a helminthosporoid fungi was regularly found in association with diseased tissues. The fungus was isolated and pathogenicity was demonstrated through the completion of Koch's postulates. A morphology and molecular analysis led to the conclusion that the fungus belonged to the genus Bipolaris, which is characterized by having fusiform conidia, externally thickened and truncate hila and a bipolar pattern of germination...
September 2017: Mycobiology
S K, S Das, D Pandhi, G Rai, M A Ansari, C Gupta, S Haque, S A Dar
Identification of dematiaceous fungi responsible for black-grain mycetoma has remained cumbersome and time consuming for years leading to delayed diagnosis and thereby increased agony to patients. Moreover, difficult morphology of some of these fungi demanding enough expertise for species identification in addition to culture-negativity has often led to misdiagnosis and hence inapt treatment to the patients. We report the identification of Madurella mycetomatis from culture-negative black granules discharged from foot nodular lesions of a 27 years old male using PCR followed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region...
December 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Xiaowen Wang, Ruijun Zhang, Weiwei Wu, Yinggai Song, Zhe Wan, Wenling Han, Ruoyu Li
Phaeohyphomycosis is a group of severe infections caused by dematiaceous fungi. We previously identified CARD9 deficiencies in four Chinese patients with phaeohyphomycosis caused by Phialophora verrucosa. In this study, we sought to identify the genetic and immunological mechanisms underlying rare dematiaceous fungal infections in three otherwise healthy patients with phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala spinifera, Ochroconis musae, and Corynespora cassiicola. CARD9 sequencing in these patients revealed one novel mutation (p...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Satish Haridasan, Sreejith Parameswaran, Srinivas Hanuman Bheemanathi, Laxmisha Chandrasekhar, Bibilash Babu Suseela, Rakesh Singh, Jayasurya Rabindranath, Rajesh Kumar Padhi, Ezhilnilavan Sampath, Avinash Kumar Dubey, Priyamvada Sivan Pillai Puthenpurackal
BACKGROUND: Superficial and deep fungal infections are more frequent in transplant recipients primarily because of the failure of cell-mediated immunity and lesser amount of antigen-presenting Langerhans cells in their epidermis. Here, we report seven cases of post-renal transplant subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis, all of which manifested within 1 year after transplantation and were unresponsive to prolonged courses of itraconazole. This is the first case series, to our knowledge, of phaeohyphomycosis in transplant recipients in India...
December 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Constanza Bay, Tamara González, Gonzalo Munoz, Paulette Legarraga, Cecilia Vizcaya, Katia Abarca
There are very few reports of pediatric patients with infections by dematiaceous filamentous fungi. In this publication we report a case of invasive fungal infection of the nasal septum by Curvularia spicifera in a pediatric patient with acute myeloid leukemia. The patient presented with a painful scabby wound in the nasal vestibule. Culture and universal PCR were consistent with Curvularia spicifera. Early management with surgical debridement and bi-associated antifungal therapy achieved complete resolution of the lesions, with no evidence of dissemination and relapses...
June 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Sana Arif, John R Perfect
Immunocompromised patients are at high risk for invasive fungal infections (IFIs); although Aspergillus remains the most common IFI caused by molds, other fungi, such as Mucorales, dematiaceous molds, and Fusarium spp, are being seen with increasing frequency. Presentations can vary, but sinopulmonary and disseminated infections are common. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of these infections is rudimentary. Fungal cultures and histopathology remain the backbone of diagnostics, as no good serologic markers are available...
September 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
Reshu Agarwal, Gagandeep Singh, Arnab Ghosh, Kaushal Kumar Verma, Mragnayani Pandey, Immaculata Xess
Chromoblastomycosis (CBM) is a chronic, progressive, cutaneous and subcutaneous fungal infection following the traumatic implantation of certain dematiaceous fungi. The disease has worldwide prevalence with predominant cases reported from humid tropical and subtropical regions of America, Asia, and Africa. Diagnosis is often delayed or misdirected either due to poor degree of clinical suspicions or clinical simulation of dermatological conditions. The infection is not uncommon in India and several case reports from the sub-Himalayan belt and western and eastern coasts of India have been published; however, very few have reviewed the cases...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Quinci Plumlee, Courtney Meason-Smith, Alexandra Dieterly, Gabriel Gomez, Brian F Porter, Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann
Many previously unrecognized fungi are emerging as potential pathogens. One such group is dematiaceous fungi of the Chaetomiaceae family (phylum Ascomycota, class Sordariomycetes). These fungi are rare causes of opportunistic, neurotropic phaeohyphomycosis in humans but are not known to cause similar infections in animals. The aims of this study were to investigate equine hyphal mycotic encephalitis, characterize key histopathologic features, and classify causative organisms with molecular diagnostic techniques...
September 2017: Veterinary Pathology
Márcia M R Teixeira, Claudia B Assunção, Renata R Gomes, Fabiana Rocha-Silva, Sônia M de Figueiredo, Elen R R Teixeira, Adriana S Carneiro, Rogério J M B Júnior, Vânia Vicente, Rachel Basques Caligiorne
Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis is a form of infection caused by dematiaceous fungi and frequently reported in the literature. It is considered as an emerging mycosis because it is increasingly reported among immunosuppressive patients. The most commonly cited etiologic agent is Exophiala jeanselmei, followed by Alternaria spp. We present a case of a 48-year-old woman, with a history of lepromatous leprosy, using corticosteroid in immunosuppressive doses due to a type 2 repetitive reaction leprosy outbreak, revealing subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis lesions...
May 30, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Minglan Shi, Xiqing Li, Jiao Feng, Shulin Jia, Xing Xiao, Chunmei Chen, Cindy Fransisca, Liyan Xi, Junmin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Chromoblastomycosis (CBM) is a chronic fungal disease. In China, the principle etiologic agent was a group of dematiaceous fungi, including Fonsecaea monophora, Fonsecaea nubica, and Cladophialophora carrionii. Although the Fonsecaea species have similar morphology, their pathogenicity is quite different. This study aims to establish a new solution for early identification of Fonsecaea species because of their distinctive potential infection risk. METHODS: Five reference strains and 35 clinical isolates from patients with CBM, preserved in our laboratory, were used in this study...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Elise B Russell, Marcus N Gunew, Michelle M Dennis, Catriona L Halliday
CASE SUMMARY: A case of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by Cladophialophora bantiana is described in a 15-week-old domestic shorthair kitten. RELEVANCE AND NOVEL INFORMATION: Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis is a rare condition in cats caused by dematiaceous fungi. This report describes the clinical and histopathological findings in the youngest case documented in a feline, provides a brief review of aetiology, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis and demonstrates the importance of molecular diagnostics in accurate mycotic species identification...
July 2016: JFMS Open Reports
S Lahiri Mukhopadhyay, A Mahadevan, V H Bahubali, R Dawn Bharath, A R Prabhuraj, S Maji, N Siddaiah
Cladophialophora bantiana, a dematiaceous neurotropic mold causes rare and lethal brain abscess, commonly in immunocompetent hosts. We report a rare and probably a case of disseminated infection with this black mold in an immunosuppressed individual from India. A 55-year-old diabetic male presented with severe headache, blurred-vision, behavioural abnormalities, eye-pain and ear-discharge. He was undergoing treatment for hypertension, prostatomegaly and obstructive pulmonary disease. He was on steroids for the past six years for uveitis...
May 3, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
M S Ouédraogo, M-D Vignon-Pennamen, M Battistella, A Levy, M Feuilhade de Chauvin, A Petit
BACKGROUND: Chromomycosis, or chromoblastomycosis, is caused by cutaneous inoculation of dematiaceous fungi of telluric or plant origin. It is generally seen in tropical or subtropical zones. Treatment of the condition is known to be complex. Herein we report a case of chromomycosis contracted in a temperate region of Eastern Europe/Central Asia that was effectively treated with oral itraconazole and terbinafine in combination with cryotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 44-year-old immunocompetent male subject consulted for a lesion on the buttocks that he had sustained 16 years earlier, and which, although never previously treated, had only become troublesome within the last few months...
April 7, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
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