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Dematiaceous fungi

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396061/-chromomycosis-acquired-in-a-non-tropical-area-a-case-report
#1
M S Ouédraogo, M-D Vignon-Pennamen, M Battistella, A Levy, M Feuilhade de Chauvin, A Petit
BACKGROUND: Chromomycosis, or chromoblastomycosis, is caused by cutaneous inoculation of dematiaceous fungi of telluric or plant origin. It is generally seen in tropical or subtropical zones. Treatment of the condition is known to be complex. Herein we report a case of chromomycosis contracted in a temperate region of Eastern Europe/Central Asia that was effectively treated with oral itraconazole and terbinafine in combination with cryotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 44-year-old immunocompetent male subject consulted for a lesion on the buttocks that he had sustained 16 years earlier, and which, although never previously treated, had only become troublesome within the last few months...
April 7, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392288/fontana-masson-stain-in-fungal-infections
#2
Kelly Leigh West, Alan D Proia, Puja Kumari Puri
BACKGROUND: Fontana-Masson (FM) staining is a histopathology technique used to identify dematiaceous fungi. The result often guides initial species identification and antifungal treatment; however, there is evidence that nondematiaceous fungi might react with this stain. Few studies in the current literature address this issue. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to classify the FM staining patterns of common fungal pathogens for use by pathologists attempting to accurately identify fungi on histopathologic examination...
April 6, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355277/modulation-of-the-immune-response-by-fonsecaea-pedrosoi-morphotypes-in-the-course-of-experimental-chromoblastomycosis-and-their-role-on-inflammatory-response-chronicity
#3
Isaque Medeiros Siqueira, Raffael Júnio Araújo de Castro, Luiza Chaves de Miranda Leonhardt, Márcio Sousa Jerônimo, Aluízio Carlos Soares, Tainá Raiol, Christiane Nishibe, Nalvo Almeida, Aldo Henrique Tavares, Christian Hoffmann, Anamelia Lorenzetti Bocca
A common theme across multiple fungal pathogens is their ability to impair the establishment of a protective immune response. Although early inflammation is beneficial in containing the infection, an uncontrolled inflammatory response is detrimental and may eventually oppose disease eradication. Chromoblastomycosis (CBM), a cutaneous and subcutaneous mycosis, caused by dematiaceous fungi, is capable of inducing a chronic inflammatory response. Muriform cells, the parasitic form of Fonsecaea pedrosoi, are highly prevalent in infected tissues, especially in long-standing lesions...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329593/cutaneous-alternariosis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#4
Ravi Chandubhai Patel, Matthew Helm, Ikue Shimizu
Alternaria species are a type of dematiaceous fungi that cause a wide spectrum of disease with cutaneous infections being the most common. These infections are most common in immunocompromised individuals. However, only a few cases of primary cutaneous alternariosis have been reported in immunocompetent patients. We present a case of an otherwise healthy 13-year-old male who presented with primary cutaneous alternariosis on his left ankle that responded to the use of topical econazole and oral itraconazole...
October 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275534/disseminated-phaeohyphomycosis-in-a-dog
#5
Lana S Rothenburg, Timothy A Snider, Allison Wilson, Anthony W Confer, Akhilesh Ramachandran, Rinosh Mani, Theresa Rizzi, Laura Nafe
Phaeohyphomycosis is a rare but emerging disease caused by dematiaceous fungi. Here we describe the case of an immunosuppressed dog with disseminated phaeohyphomycosis secondary to Bipolaris spicifera infection. Regionally extensive infiltration of the paw pads, skin, myocardium, liver, renal interstitium and diaphragm was identified on histopathology. Candida glabrata and Fusarium oxysporum were also cultured from multiple sites post-mortem. The dog was treated with fluconazole, itraconazole, terbinafine and liposomal amphotericin B, but was euthanized due to its poor prognosis after 12 days of therapy...
March 2017: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217468/subcutaneous-phaeohyphomycosis-in-an-immunocompetent-individual-a-case-report
#6
Sudharani Chintagunta, Geetakiran Arakkal, Sudha V Damarla, Akshay K Vodapalli
Phaeohyphomycosis is a rare mycotic infection caused by various heterogenous groups of phaeoid (dematiaceous) fungi involving the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Common clinical manifestations are subcutaneous abscesses or cystic swellings. Here, we report a case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis presenting as multiple asymptomatic cystic swellings over the hands and feet without any predisposing factors. Histopathology showed granulomatous inflammation and special stain with Grocott's methanamine silver stain revealed broad pigmented hyphae...
January 2017: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149676/genomic-insight-into-pathogenicity-of-dematiaceous-fungus-corynespora-cassiicola
#7
Hong Keat Looi, Yue Fen Toh, Su Mei Yew, Shiang Ling Na, Yung-Chie Tan, Pei-Sin Chong, Jia-Shiun Khoo, Wai-Yan Yee, Kee Peng Ng, Chee Sian Kuan
Corynespora cassiicola is a common plant pathogen that causes leaf spot disease in a broad range of crop, and it heavily affect rubber trees in Malaysia (Hsueh, 2011; Nghia et al., 2008). The isolation of UM 591 from a patient's contact lens indicates the pathogenic potential of this dematiaceous fungus in human. However, the underlying factors that contribute to the opportunistic cross-infection have not been fully studied. We employed genome sequencing and gene homology annotations in attempt to identify these factors in UM 591 using data obtained from publicly available bioinformatics databases...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904058/two-cases-of-chromomycosis-identified-by-molecular-phylogenetic-analysis
#8
Takayo Mitomo, Yukiko Ushigome, Tomoo Fukuda, Yoko Kano, Tetsuo Shiohara
Chromomycosis is an infection caused by dematiaceous fungi. These fungi belong to several genera with varied clinical presentations and parasitic forms. The disease is roughly classified into three types: chromoblastomycosis, black-grain mycetoma, and phaeohyphomycosis. While there are many kinds of dematiaceous fungi, the major etiologic agent is Fonsecaea pedrosoi, which to date has accounted for 90% of chromoblastomycosis cases. The genus Fonsecaea has recently been assessed via rRNA ITS sequence analysis, and species have been classified into F...
2016: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833296/three-rare-cases-of-cutaneous-phaeohyphomycosis
#9
Aditi Chhonkar, Deepti Kataria, Swagata Tambe, Chitra S Nayak
Phaeohyphomycosis is a chronic infectious condition caused by dematiaceous fungi which usually involve the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis is characterised by papulonodules, verrucous, hyperkeratotic or ulcerated plaques, cysts, abscesses, pyogranuloma, non-healing ulcers or sinuses. In India, commonly associated genera are Exophiala, Phialophora, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Fonsecaea and Alternaria. This condition involves the presence of brown-walled hyphal structures in the dermis and epidermis...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735161/subcutaneous-phaeohyphomycosis-caused-by-cladophialophora-bantiana-after-abdominal-hernia-surgery
#10
Vipul M Patel, Bhavin Kapadiya, Viral Shah
Phaeohyphomycosis is a term used to describe infections caused by dematiaceous fungi, i.e. fungi which contain melanin in their cell wall. Cladophialophora bantiana has been implicated to cause brain abscess in immunocompromised patients. Infection caused by Cladophialophora bantiana in an immunocompetent host is relatively rare. Surgical site infection at abdominal subcutaneous tissue caused by Cladophialophora bantiana was noted in this case, which was rarely reported.
May 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726899/first-case-of-chromoblastomycosis-due-to-phoma-insulana
#11
Francisca Hernández-Hernández, Jaime Vargas-Arzola, Oliver Pedro Ríos-Cruz, Erika Córdova-Martínez, Patricia Manzano-Gayosso, Aristeo Segura-Salvador
Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic infection, caused by pigmented fungi affecting skin and subcutaneous tissues characterized by verrucous nodules or plaques. Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Cladophialophora carrionii are the prevalent agents in the endemic areas. Phoma is an uncommon agent of human infection and involved mainly with phaeohyphomycosis cases. The case of a patient with a history of laceration in foot followed by verrucous aspect and scaly lesions, which had evolved for 27 years is presented. On physical examination disease was clinically compatible with chromoblastomycosis and the microscopic examination of scales showed fumagoid cells...
October 7, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697164/biodiversity-of-mycobiota-throughout-the-brazil-nut-supply-chain-from-rainforest-to-consumer
#12
Marta H Taniwaki, Jens C Frisvad, Larissa S Ferranti, Aline de Souza Lopes, Thomas O Larsen, Maria Helena P Fungaro, Beatriz T Iamanaka
A total of 172 Brazil nut samples (114 in shell and 58 shelled) from the Amazon rainforest region and São Paulo state, Brazil was collected at different stages of the Brazil nut production chain: rainforest, street markets, processing plants and supermarkets. The mycobiota of the Brazil nut samples were evaluated and also compared in relation to water activity. A huge diversity of Aspergillus and Penicillium species were found, besides Eurotium spp., Zygomycetes and dematiaceous fungi. A polyphasic approach using morphological and physiological characteristics, as well as molecular and extrolite profiles, were studied to distinguish species among the more important toxigenic ones in Aspergillus section Flavi and A...
February 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628109/phaeohyphomycosis-caused-by-rhytidhysteron-rufulum-and-review-of-literature
#13
REVIEW
Jagdish Chander, Nidhi Singla, Reetu Kundu, Uma Handa, Anuradha Chowdhary
Phaeohyphomycosis is caused by a heterogeneous group of mycelial dematiaceous (phaeoid) fungi, which produce melanin pigment. This condition is often confused with chromoblastomycosis. Rhytidhysteron is a dematiaceous fungus, which has been recently found to be causing human infections. Till date only three cases of infection with Rhytidhysteron rufulum have been reported in the literature. All three cases have been from North India. Hereby, we present another two cases where Rhytidhysteron was isolated. Both the patients belonged to Chandigarh (India) and presented with subcutaneous lesions...
April 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562696/antifungal-susceptibilities-of-non-aspergillus-filamentous-fungi-causing-invasive-infection-in-australia-support-for-current-antifungal-guideline-recommendations
#14
Catriona L Halliday, Sharon C-A Chen, Sarah E Kidd, Sebastian van Hal, Belinda Chapman, Christopher H Heath, Andie Lee, Karina J Kennedy, Kathryn Daveson, Tania C Sorrell, C Orla Morrissey, Deborah J Marriott, Monica A Slavin
Antifungal susceptibilities of non-Aspergillus filamentous fungal pathogens cannot always be inferred from their identification. Here we determined, using the Sensititre(®) YeastOne(®) YO10 panel, the in vitro activities of nine antifungal agents against 52 clinical isolates of emergent non-Aspergillus moulds representing 17 fungal groups in Australia. Isolates comprised Mucorales (n = 14), Scedosporium/Lomentospora spp. (n = 18) and a range of hyaline hyphomycetes (n = 9) and other dematiaceous fungi (n = 11)...
October 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421992/impairment-of-immune-response-against-dematiaceous-fungi-in-card9-knockout-mice
#15
Weiwei Wu, Ruijun Zhang, Xiaowen Wang, Yinggai Song, Zhengyang Liu, Wenling Han, Ruoyu Li
Dematiaceous fungi are a large group of pathogens that can cause a wide range of diseases in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. Based on our previous finding of caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) mutations in patients with subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Phialophora verrucosa (P. verrucosa), we further investigated the exact role of CARD9 in the pathogenesis of phaeohyphomycosis using Card9 knockout (Card9 KO) mice. We showed that Card9 KO mice are profoundly susceptible to P...
October 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27394651/prototheca-species-and-pithomyces-chartarum-as-causative-agents-of-rhinitis-and-or-sinusitis-in-horses
#16
S Schöniger, N Roschanski, U Rösler, A Vidovic, M Nowak, O Dietz, M M Wittenbrink, H-A Schoon
Pyogranulomatous rhinitis associated with an algal infection was diagnosed in a 25-year-old gelding and a 23-year-old mare had necrotizing sinusitis with intralesional algae and pigmented fungi. Algae were identified immunohistochemically in both cases as Prototheca spp. In the gelding, further characterization by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing revealed that the organism was Prototheca zopfii genotype 2. Fungi from the mare were identified as Pithomyces chartarum by molecular analysis. Prototheca species are achlorophyllous algae and P...
August 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27337469/filamentous-fungi
#17
Margaret V Powers-Fletcher, Brian A Kendall, Allen T Griffin, Kimberly E Hanson
Filamentous mycoses are often associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Prompt diagnosis and aggressive treatment are essential for good clinical outcomes in immunocompromised patients. The host immune response plays an essential role in determining the course of exposure to potential fungal pathogens. Depending on the effectiveness of immune response and the burden of organism exposure, fungi can either be cleared or infection can occur and progress to a potentially fatal invasive disease. Nonspecific cellular immunity (i...
June 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330937/chromoblastomycosis-due-to-fonsecaea-monophora-misdiagnosed-as-sporotrichosis-and-cutaneous-tuberculosis-in-a-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patient
#18
Dongmei Shi, Wei Zhang, Guixia Lu, G Sybren de Hoog, Guanzhao Liang, Huan Mei, Hailin Zheng, Yongnian Shen, Weida Liu
Chromoblastomycosis is caused by dematiaceous fungi. It develops after inoculation of the organism into the skin. We report a case of chromoblastomycosis in a pulmonary tuberculosis patient without known history of trauma. The lesions were initially diagnosed as sporotrichosis and skin tuberculosis. Histopathology of scales and skin biopsy specimen revealed sclerotic bodies, the hallmark of chromoblastomycosis. The causative organism was identified as Fonsecaea monophora by rDNA ITS sequencing. The lesions recovered markedly after two month treatment with oral terbinafine 250 mg daily according to drug sensitive test in vitro in combination with local thermotherapy...
March 2016: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27302048/paleomycology-of-the-princeton-chert-iii-dictyosporic-microfungi-monodictysporites-princetonensis-gen-et-sp-nov-associated-with-decayed-rhizomes-of-an-eocene-semi-aquatic-fern
#19
Ashley A Klymiuk
This study builds on previous investigations of paleomycological diversity within permineralized plants of a significant Eocene paleobotanical locality, the Princeton Chert. The fungal body fossils described here occur in decayed rhizomes of the extinct semi-aquatic fern Dennstaedtiopsis aerenchymata Fungi include vegetative hyphae throughout the plant tissue, as well as a dense assemblage of >100 dematiaceous spores. The spores occur in a discrete zone surrounding two extraneous rootlets of other plants, which penetrated the fern tissue post-mortem...
June 13, 2016: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293256/chromoblastomycosis-associated-with-bone-and-central-nervous-involvement-system-in-an-immunocompetent-child-caused-by-exophiala-spinifera
#20
Sahana M Srinivas, Vykuntaraju K Gowda, S Mahantesh, Rajeshwari Mannapur, Sanjay K Shivappa
Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic granulomatous infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by specific group of dematiaceous fungi. The infection results from traumatic injury and is seen more commonly on feet and lower legs. It is rarely seen in children and metastatic spread to other systems is exceptionally rare. We report a 12-year-old immunocompetent male child diagnosed with chromoblastomycosis on the lower leg, who in a span of few months developed osteomyelitis and left hemiparesis. Fungal culture showed growth of Exophiala spinifera...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
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