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Dematiaceous fungi

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904058/two-cases-of-chromomycosis-identified-by-molecular-phylogenetic-analysis
#1
Takayo Mitomo, Yukiko Ushigome, Tomoo Fukuda, Yoko Kano, Tetsuo Shiohara
Chromomycosis is an infection caused by dematiaceous fungi. These fungi belong to several genera with varied clinical presentations and parasitic forms. The disease is roughly classified into three types: chromoblastomycosis, black-grain mycetoma, and phaeohyphomycosis. While there are many kinds of dematiaceous fungi, the major etiologic agent is Fonsecaea pedrosoi, which to date has accounted for 90% of chromoblastomycosis cases. The genus Fonsecaea has recently been assessed via rRNA ITS sequence analysis, and species have been classified into F...
2016: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833296/three-rare-cases-of-cutaneous-phaeohyphomycosis
#2
Aditi Chhonkar, Deepti Kataria, Swagata Tambe, Chitra S Nayak
Phaeohyphomycosis is a chronic infectious condition caused by dematiaceous fungi which usually involve the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis is characterised by papulonodules, verrucous, hyperkeratotic or ulcerated plaques, cysts, abscesses, pyogranuloma, non-healing ulcers or sinuses. In India, commonly associated genera are Exophiala, Phialophora, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Fonsecaea and Alternaria. This condition involves the presence of brown-walled hyphal structures in the dermis and epidermis...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735161/subcutaneous-phaeohyphomycosis-caused-by-cladophialophora-bantiana-after-abdominal-hernia-surgery
#3
Vipul M Patel, Bhavin Kapadiya, Viral Shah
Phaeohyphomycosis is a term used to describe infections caused by dematiaceous fungi, i.e. fungi which contain melanin in their cell wall. Cladophialophora bantiana has been implicated to cause brain abscess in immunocompromised patients. Infection caused by Cladophialophora bantiana in an immunocompetent host is relatively rare. Surgical site infection at abdominal subcutaneous tissue caused by Cladophialophora bantiana was noted in this case, which was rarely reported.
May 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726899/first-case-of-chromoblastomycosis-due-to-phoma-insulana
#4
Francisca Hernández-Hernández, Jaime Vargas-Arzola, Oliver Pedro Ríos-Cruz, Erika Córdova-Martínez, Patricia Manzano-Gayosso, Aristeo Segura-Salvador
Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic infection, caused by pigmented fungi affecting skin and subcutaneous tissues characterized by verrucous nodules or plaques. Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Cladophialophora carrionii are the prevalent agents in the endemic areas. Phoma is an uncommon agent of human infection and involved mainly with phaeohyphomycosis cases. The case of a patient with a history of laceration in foot followed by verrucous aspect and scaly lesions, which had evolved for 27 years is presented. On physical examination disease was clinically compatible with chromoblastomycosis and the microscopic examination of scales showed fumagoid cells...
October 7, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697164/biodiversity-of-mycobiota-throughout-the-brazil-nut-supply-chain-from-rainforest-to-consumer
#5
Marta H Taniwaki, Jens C Frisvad, Larissa S Ferranti, Aline de Souza Lopes, Thomas O Larsen, Maria Helena P Fungaro, Beatriz T Iamanaka
A total of 172 Brazil nut samples (114 in shell and 58 shelled) from the Amazon rainforest region and São Paulo state, Brazil was collected at different stages of the Brazil nut production chain: rainforest, street markets, processing plants and supermarkets. The mycobiota of the Brazil nut samples were evaluated and also compared in relation to water activity. A huge diversity of Aspergillus and Penicillium species were found, besides Eurotium spp., Zygomycetes and dematiaceous fungi. A polyphasic approach using morphological and physiological characteristics, as well as molecular and extrolite profiles, were studied to distinguish species among the more important toxigenic ones in Aspergillus section Flavi and A...
February 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628109/phaeohyphomycosis-caused-by-rhytidhysteron-rufulum-and-review-of-literature
#6
Jagdish Chander, Nidhi Singla, Reetu Kundu, Uma Handa, Anuradha Chowdhary
Phaeohyphomycosis is caused by a heterogeneous group of mycelial dematiaceous (phaeoid) fungi, which produce melanin pigment. This condition is often confused with chromoblastomycosis. Rhytidhysteron is a dematiaceous fungus, which has been recently found to be causing human infections. Till date only three cases of infection with Rhytidhysteron rufulum have been reported in the literature. All three cases have been from North India. Hereby, we present another two cases where Rhytidhysteron was isolated. Both the patients belonged to Chandigarh (India) and presented with subcutaneous lesions...
September 15, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562696/antifungal-susceptibilities-of-non-aspergillus-filamentous-fungi-causing-invasive-infection-in-australia-support-for-current-antifungal-guideline-recommendations
#7
Catriona L Halliday, Sharon C-A Chen, Sarah E Kidd, Sebastian van Hal, Belinda Chapman, Christopher H Heath, Andie Lee, Karina J Kennedy, Kathryn Daveson, Tania C Sorrell, C Orla Morrissey, Deborah J Marriott, Monica A Slavin
Antifungal susceptibilities of non-Aspergillus filamentous fungal pathogens cannot always be inferred from their identification. Here we determined, using the Sensititre(®) YeastOne(®) YO10 panel, the in vitro activities of nine antifungal agents against 52 clinical isolates of emergent non-Aspergillus moulds representing 17 fungal groups in Australia. Isolates comprised Mucorales (n = 14), Scedosporium/Lomentospora spp. (n = 18) and a range of hyaline hyphomycetes (n = 9) and other dematiaceous fungi (n = 11)...
October 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421992/impairment-of-immune-response-against-dematiaceous-fungi-in-card9-knockout-mice
#8
Weiwei Wu, Ruijun Zhang, Xiaowen Wang, Yinggai Song, Zhengyang Liu, Wenling Han, Ruoyu Li
Dematiaceous fungi are a large group of pathogens that can cause a wide range of diseases in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. Based on our previous finding of caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) mutations in patients with subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Phialophora verrucosa (P. verrucosa), we further investigated the exact role of CARD9 in the pathogenesis of phaeohyphomycosis using Card9 knockout (Card9 KO) mice. We showed that Card9 KO mice are profoundly susceptible to P...
October 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27394651/prototheca-species-and-pithomyces-chartarum-as-causative-agents-of-rhinitis-and-or-sinusitis-in-horses
#9
S Schöniger, N Roschanski, U Rösler, A Vidovic, M Nowak, O Dietz, M M Wittenbrink, H-A Schoon
Pyogranulomatous rhinitis associated with an algal infection was diagnosed in a 25-year-old gelding and a 23-year-old mare had necrotizing sinusitis with intralesional algae and pigmented fungi. Algae were identified immunohistochemically in both cases as Prototheca spp. In the gelding, further characterization by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing revealed that the organism was Prototheca zopfii genotype 2. Fungi from the mare were identified as Pithomyces chartarum by molecular analysis. Prototheca species are achlorophyllous algae and P...
August 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27337469/filamentous-fungi
#10
Margaret V Powers-Fletcher, Brian A Kendall, Allen T Griffin, Kimberly E Hanson
Filamentous mycoses are often associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Prompt diagnosis and aggressive treatment are essential for good clinical outcomes in immunocompromised patients. The host immune response plays an essential role in determining the course of exposure to potential fungal pathogens. Depending on the effectiveness of immune response and the burden of organism exposure, fungi can either be cleared or infection can occur and progress to a potentially fatal invasive disease. Nonspecific cellular immunity (i...
June 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330937/chromoblastomycosis-due-to-fonsecaea-monophora-misdiagnosed-as-sporotrichosis-and-cutaneous-tuberculosis-in-a-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patient
#11
Dongmei Shi, Wei Zhang, Guixia Lu, G Sybren de Hoog, Guanzhao Liang, Huan Mei, Hailin Zheng, Yongnian Shen, Weida Liu
Chromoblastomycosis is caused by dematiaceous fungi. It develops after inoculation of the organism into the skin. We report a case of chromoblastomycosis in a pulmonary tuberculosis patient without known history of trauma. The lesions were initially diagnosed as sporotrichosis and skin tuberculosis. Histopathology of scales and skin biopsy specimen revealed sclerotic bodies, the hallmark of chromoblastomycosis. The causative organism was identified as Fonsecaea monophora by rDNA ITS sequencing. The lesions recovered markedly after two month treatment with oral terbinafine 250 mg daily according to drug sensitive test in vitro in combination with local thermotherapy...
March 2016: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27302048/paleomycology-of-the-princeton-chert-iii-dictyosporic-microfungi-monodictysporites-princetonensis-gen-et-sp-nov-associated-with-decayed-rhizomes-of-an-eocene-semi-aquatic-fern
#12
Ashley A Klymiuk
This study builds on previous investigations of paleomycological diversity within permineralized plants of a significant Eocene paleobotanical locality, the Princeton Chert. The fungal body fossils described here occur in decayed rhizomes of the extinct semi-aquatic fern Dennstaedtiopsis aerenchymata Fungi include vegetative hyphae throughout the plant tissue, as well as a dense assemblage of >100 dematiaceous spores. The spores occur in a discrete zone surrounding two extraneous rootlets of other plants, which penetrated the fern tissue post-mortem...
June 13, 2016: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293256/chromoblastomycosis-associated-with-bone-and-central-nervous-involvement-system-in-an-immunocompetent-child-caused-by-exophiala-spinifera
#13
Sahana M Srinivas, Vykuntaraju K Gowda, S Mahantesh, Rajeshwari Mannapur, Sanjay K Shivappa
Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic granulomatous infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by specific group of dematiaceous fungi. The infection results from traumatic injury and is seen more commonly on feet and lower legs. It is rarely seen in children and metastatic spread to other systems is exceptionally rare. We report a 12-year-old immunocompetent male child diagnosed with chromoblastomycosis on the lower leg, who in a span of few months developed osteomyelitis and left hemiparesis. Fungal culture showed growth of Exophiala spinifera...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27235544/a-multi-proxy-approach-to-evaluate-biocidal-treatments-on-biodeteriorated-majolica-glazed-tiles
#14
M L Coutinho, A Z Miller, P M Martin-Sanchez, J Mirão, A Gomez-Bolea, B Machado-Moreira, L Cerqueira-Alves, V Jurado, C Saiz-Jimenez, A Lima, A J L Phillips, F Pina, M F Macedo
The Fishing House located on the grounds of the Marquis of Pombal Palace, Oeiras, Portugal, was built in the 18(th) century. During this epoch, Portuguese gardens, such as the one surrounding the Fishing House, were commonly ornamented with glazed wall tile claddings. Currently, some of these outdoor tile panels are covered with dark coloured biofilms, contributing to undesirable aesthetic changes and eventually inducing chemical and physical damage to the tile surfaces. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the investigated biofilms are mainly composed of green algae, cyanobacteria and dematiaceous fungi...
May 28, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27194840/a-rare-case-of-phaeohyphomycosis-caused-by-fonsecaea-pedrosoi-in-a-child-with-nephrotic-syndrome
#15
C Nayyar, N Gulati, B L Sherwal
Dematiaceous fungi are the etiological agents of phaeohyphomycosis and are now increasingly being recognized for causing disease in humans. A high level of suspicion and routine fungal cultures are required to identify these cases. There is no consensus regarding their management. Here, an unusual presentation of phaeohyphomycosis (secondary to Fonsecaea pedrosoi) presenting as a disseminated infection in a case of nephrotic syndrome is described.
May 2016: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27162115/molecular-typing-using-polymorphisms-of-the-polyketide-synthase-gene-pks1-of-strains-in-japan-morphologically-identified-as-fonsecaea-pedrosoi
#16
Tsuyoshi Ushigami, Kazushi Anzawa, Takashi Mochizuki
Fonsecaea pedrosoi sensu lato is a major causative agent of dematiaceous fungal infection in Japan. Recent sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the ribosomal RNA gene has shown that this species can be separated into three species: F. pedrosoi sensu stricto, F. monophora and F. nubica. The cell walls of dematiaceous fungi including the genus Fonsecaea contain melanin, which is important for their virulence. Polyketide synthase (PKS1) is an enzyme required for melanin synthesis...
May 10, 2016: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27105660/scolecobasidium-granulomatous-pneumonia-and-abscess-an-emerging-opportunistic-fungal-pathogen-a-case-report
#17
P Pundhir, C Tuda, C Vincentelli, D Morlote, C Rivera
Scolecobasidium sp. are commensal soil and water thermophilic dematiaceous fungi. They are commonly isolated as contaminants from respiratory secretions due to their abundant presence in water supplies, but they are also rare yet emerging culprits producing severe opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals. The most consistent presentations reported in literature are life-threatening pulmonary and cerebral granulomatous lesions.
April 22, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023523/targeted-disruption-of-melanin-biosynthesis-genes-in-the-human-pathogenic-fungus-lomentospora-prolificans-and-its-consequences-for-pathogen-survival
#18
Ayat Al-Laaeiby, Michael J Kershaw, Tina J Penn, Christopher R Thornton
The dematiaceous (melanised) fungus Lomentospora (Scedosporium) prolificans is a life-threatening opportunistic pathogen of immunocompromised humans, resistant to anti-fungal drugs. Melanin has been shown to protect human pathogenic fungi against antifungal drugs, oxidative killing and environmental stresses. To determine the protective role of melanin in L. prolificans to oxidative killing (H₂O₂), UV radiation and the polyene anti-fungal drug amphotericin B, targeted gene disruption was used to generate mutants of the pathogen lacking the dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin biosynthetic enzymes polyketide synthase (PKS1), tetrahydroxynapthalene reductase (4HNR) and scytalone dehydratase (SCD1)...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27011447/-a-fine-needle-aspiration-cytology-in-time-saves-nine-cutaneous-phaeohyphomycosis-caused-by-exophiala-jeanselmei-in-a-renal-transplant-patient-diagnosis-by-fine-needle-aspiration-cytology
#19
Prashant Joshi, Shipra Agarwal, Geetika Singh, Immaculata Xess, Dipankar Bhowmik
Infections by dematiaceous fungi are an emerging group of infectious diseases worldwide with a variety of clinical presentations. Though generally localized, they can disseminate in immunocompromised settings, therefore, early diagnosis and prompt therapy can prevent significant morbidity and mortality in these patients. Fungi of genus Exophiala are common causative organisms; however, Exophiala jeanselmei (E. jeanselmei) has not yet been reported from environmental sources in India. We present here the case of a renal transplant recipient who presented with an innocuous lesion on the foot, diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as phaeohyphomycosis, and promptly treated with excision and antifungal therapy...
January 2016: Journal of Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26980516/demadb-an-integrated-dematiaceous-fungal-genomes-database
#20
Chee Sian Kuan, Su Mei Yew, Chai Ling Chan, Yue Fen Toh, Kok Wei Lee, Wei-Hien Cheong, Wai-Yan Yee, Chee-Choong Hoh, Soon-Joo Yap, Kee Peng Ng
Many species of dematiaceous fungi are associated with allergic reactions and potentially fatal diseases in human, especially in tropical climates. Over the past 10 years, we have isolated more than 400 dematiaceous fungi from various clinical samples. In this study, DemaDb, an integrated database was designed to support the integration and analysis of dematiaceous fungal genomes. A total of 92 072 putative genes and 6527 pathways that identified in eight dematiaceous fungi (Bipolaris papendorfii UM 226, Daldinia eschscholtzii UM 1400, D...
2016: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
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