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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719841/risk-of-treatment-related-mortality-in-cancer-patients-treated-with-ipilimumab-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Sheng Zhang, Fei Liang, Wenfeng Li, Qing Wang
BACKGROUND: Fatal adverse events (FAEs) have been reported in cancer patients receiving ipilimumab-a monoclonal antibody against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, but the risk of treatment-related mortality is unknown. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of ipilimumab to determine the overall risk of FAEs associated with ipilimumab. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, ClinicalTrial...
July 15, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719736/cd326-epcam-testing-by-flow-cytometric-berep4-antibody-is-a-useful-and-rapid-adjunct-to-histopathology
#2
Pranav Dorwal, Helen Moore, Pam Stewart, Barbara Harrison, Julie Monaghan
Flow cytometry has been traditionally used to diagnose leukaemia and lymphoma in peripheral blood, bone marrow, body fluids and tissue samples. The diagnosis of a malignant epithelial tumour is usually made by correlation between histopathologic appearance and the use of immunohistochemical staining. A CE approved BerEP4 antibody (anti-EpCAM, CD326) is available for flow cytometric testing, but has been evaluated predominantly in body fluids in the current literature. In this study, we have evaluated the performance of this antibody in detecting the presence of epithelial cells in tissue samples which have traditionally been reported as CD45 negative cells by flow cytometry...
July 18, 2017: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719590/pericyte-expressed-tie2-controls-angiogenesis-and-vessel-maturation
#3
Martin Teichert, Laura Milde, Annegret Holm, Laura Stanicek, Nicolas Gengenbacher, Soniya Savant, Tina Ruckdeschel, Zulfiyya Hasanov, Kshitij Srivastava, Junhao Hu, Stella Hertel, Arne Bartol, Katharina Schlereth, Hellmut G Augustin
The Tie receptors with their Angiopoietin ligands act as regulators of angiogenesis and vessel maturation. Tie2 exerts its functions through its supposed endothelial-specific expression. Yet, Tie2 is also expressed at lower levels by pericytes and it has not been unravelled through which mechanisms pericyte Angiopoietin/Tie signalling affects angiogenesis. Here we show that human and murine pericytes express functional Tie2 receptor. Silencing of Tie2 in pericytes results in a pro-migratory phenotype. Pericyte Tie2 controls sprouting angiogenesis in in vitro sprouting and in vivo spheroid assays...
July 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719575/non-canonical-notch3-signalling-limits-tumour-angiogenesis
#4
Shuheng Lin, Ana Negulescu, Sirisha Bulusu, Benjamin Gibert, Jean-Guy Delcros, Benjamin Ducarouge, Nicolas Rama, Nicolas Gadot, Isabelle Treilleux, Pierre Saintigny, Olivier Meurette, Patrick Mehlen
Notch signalling is a causal determinant of cancer and efforts have been made to develop targeted therapies to inhibit the so-called canonical pathway. Here we describe an unexpected pro-apoptotic role of Notch3 in regulating tumour angiogenesis independently of the Notch canonical pathway. The Notch3 ligand Jagged-1 is upregulated in a fraction of human cancer and our data support the view that Jagged-1, produced by cancer cells, is inhibiting the apoptosis induced by the aberrant Notch3 expression in tumour vasculature...
July 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719155/antipsychotic-treatment-is-associated-with-inflammatory-and-metabolic-biomarkers-alterations-among-first-episode-psychosis-patients-a-7-month-follow-up-study
#5
Roman Balõtšev, Liina Haring, Kati Koido, Vambola Leping, Kärt Kriisa, Mihkel Zilmer, Veiko Vasar, Anneli Piir, Aavo Lang, Eero Vasar
AIM: Second-generation antipsychotics are commonly used to treat schizophrenia, but may cause metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a subset of patients. The mechanisms of antipsychotic-related metabolic changes remain to be established, especially in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. METHODS: In the present study, we used a chip technology to measure metabolic (C-peptide, insulin, leptin, adiponectin and resistin) and inflammatory biomarkers (ferritin, interleukin-6, interleukin-1α, tumour necrosis factor-α and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) in the serum samples of a population of FEP patients before and after 7 months of antipsychotic drug treatment, compared to control subjects (CS)...
July 18, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719043/implementation-rates-of-uro-oncology-multi-disciplinary-meeting-decisions
#6
Ned Kinnear, Riley Smith, Derek B Hennessey, Damien Bolton, Shomik Sengupta
OBJECTIVES: To assess implementation rates of the consensus plans made at the uro-oncology multidisciplinary meeting (MDM) of an Australian tertiary centre, and analyse obstacles to implementation. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of all patients discussed at the uro-oncology MDM at our institution between 1 January to 30 June 2015. Rates of referral for MDM discussion following a new histological diagnosis of malignancy, categorised by tumour type, were assessed...
July 18, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718911/clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-validation-of-who-isup-grading
#7
Julien Dagher, Brett Delahunt, Nathalie Rioux-Leclercq, Lars Egevad, John R Srigley, Geoffrey Coughlin, Nigel Dunglinson, Troy Gianduzzo, Boon Kua, Greg Malone, Ben Martin, John Preston, Morgan Pokorny, Simon Wood, John Yaxley, Hemamali Samaratunga
AIM: In 2012, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) introduced a novel grading system for clear cell and papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) based upon increasing nucleolar prominence in grades 1 to 3, with the presence of extreme nuclear pleomorphism and/or tumour giant cells and/or sarcomatoid and/or rhabdoid differentiation as criteria for grade 4. This system is now incorporated in the latest World Health Organization renal tumour classification, being designated WHO/ISUP grading...
July 18, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718896/nomograms-for-preoperative-prediction-of-axillary-nodal-status-in-breast-cancer
#8
L Dihge, P-O Bendahl, L Rydén
BACKGROUND: Axillary staging in patients with breast cancer and clinically node-negative disease is performed by sentinel node biopsy (SLNB). The aim of this study was to integrate feasible preoperative variables into nomograms to guide clinicians in stratifying treatment options into no axillary staging for patients with non-metastatic disease (N0), SLNB for those with one or two metastases, and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for patients with three or more metastases. METHODS: Patients presenting to Skåne University Hospital, Lund, with breast cancer were included in a prospectively maintained registry between January 2009 and December 2012...
July 18, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718829/aspirin-prevention-of-colorectal-cancer-focus-on-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signalling-and-the-nucleolus
#9
REVIEW
Jingyu Chen, Lesley A Stark
Overwhelming evidence indicates that aspirin and related non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have anti-tumour activity and the potential to prevent cancer, particularly colorectal cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain hypothetical. Dysregulation of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) transcription factor is a common event in many cancer types which contributes to tumour initiation and progression by driving expression of pro-proliferative/anti-apoptotic genes. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge regarding NSAID effects on the NF-κB signalling pathway in pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions, and the evidence that these effects contribute to the anti-tumour activity of the agents...
July 18, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718774/effects-of-microchannel-confinement-on-acoustic-vaporisation-of-ultrasound-phase-change-contrast-agents
#10
Shengtao Lin, Ge Zhang, Chee Hau Leow, Meng-Xing Tang
The sub-micron phase change contrast agent (PCCA) composed of a perfluorocarbon liquid core can be activated into gaseous state and form stable echogenic microbubbles for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging. It has shown great promises in imaging microvasculature, tumour microenvironment, and cancer cells. Although PCCAs have been extensively studied for different diagnostic and therapeutic applications, the effect of biologically geometrical confinement on the acoustic vaporisation of PCCAs is still not clear...
July 18, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718513/the-fine-needle-aspiration-of-translocation-sarcomas
#11
C J VandenBussche, C L Adams, O G McDonald, S A Whitworth, S Z Ali
INTRODUCTION: Soft tissue sarcomas comprise a heterogeneous group of clinically aggressive cancers that are often hard to classify on limited cytological samples. "Translocation sarcomas" (TS) are a diverse subset of such cancers, different from pleomorphic sarcomas, and characterised by unique single chromosomal translocations in each sarcoma subtype. Interestingly, despite their high-grade biological behaviour, TS have deceptively monotonous and bland cytomorphology, therefore creating diagnostic issues on limited samples...
July 17, 2017: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718446/cancer-an-insurgency-of-clones
#12
David Gisselsson, Robert Egnell
Oncological therapy resembles a military force that eliminates the central power of a country (dominant clone of a cancer) to create a vacuum where insurgents (subclones) thrive and instigate rebellion (relapse). We suggest that military counterinsurgency doctrine can inspire a discussion of cancer that uniquely embraces both cancer cell evolution and tumour microenvironment.
February 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718434/undercover-agents-targeting-tumours-with-modified-platelets
#13
REVIEW
Stephanie R Hyslop, Emma C Josefsson
Platelets have long been recognised to colocalise with tumour cells throughout haematogenous metastasis. Interactions between these cells contribute to tumour cell survival and motility through the vasculature into other tissues. Now, the research focus is shifting towards developing means to exploit this relationship to provide accurate diagnostics and therapies. Alterations to platelet count, RNA profile, and platelet ultrastructure are associated with the presence of certain malignancies, and may be used for cancer detection...
March 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718378/microrna-613-is-downregulated-in-hcmv-positive-glioblastoma-and-inhibits-tumour-progression-by-targeting-arginase-2
#14
Yan Wang, Peng Zhao, Dongmeng Qian, Ming Hu, Li Zhang, Hailei Shi, Bin Wang
Glioblastoma is the most common and malignant tumour that occurs primarily in nervous system and has a high morbidity. Research on glioblastoma has recently focused on human cytomegalovirus, belonging to the beta subfamily of Herpesviridae that plays crucial roles in cancer development and progression. This study aimed to investigate the role of human cytomegalovirus-associated microRNA-613 in glioblastoma. In this study, we demonstrate that microRNA-613 expression was frequently reduced in human cytomegalovirus-positive glioblastoma specimens/cells compared with human cytomegalovirus-negative glioblastoma tissue/cells, and a significant correlation was observed between the reduction in microRNA-613 expression and the presence of unfavourable variables, including tumour size (p = 0...
July 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718364/evaluation-of-epigenetic-inactivation-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-receptors-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#15
Yuki Misawa, Kiyoshi Misawa, Hideya Kawasaki, Atsushi Imai, Daiki Mochizuki, Ryuji Ishikawa, Shiori Endo, Masato Mima, Takeharu Kanazawa, Toshihide Iwashita, Hiroyuki Mineta
The aim of this study was to determine the methylation status of the genes encoding the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors and to evaluate the usefulness of VEGFR methylation as a prognostic indicator in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. VEGFR messenger RNA expression and promoter methylation were examined in a panel of cell lines via quantitative reverse transcription and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Promoter methylation was compared with clinical characteristics in 128 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma samples...
July 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718351/exosomal-hsp60-a-potentially-useful-biomarker-for-diagnosis-assessing-prognosis-and-monitoring-response-to-treatment
#16
Caruso Bavisotto, F Cappello, Ajl Macario, E Conway de Macario, M Logozzi, S Fais, C Campanella
Cell-to-cell communication is imperative for life and it is mediated by sending and receiving information via the secretion and subsequent receptor-mediated detection of biological molecules. Exosomes (EXs) secreted from cells to the extracellular environment play an important role in intercellular communication in normal and pathological conditions. Areas covered: New evidence indicates that tumor cells-derived EXs contribute to cancer progression through the modulation of tumor microenvironment. The exosomal heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) is very likely a key player in intercellular cross-talk, particularly during the progress of diseases, such as cancer...
July 18, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718071/cancer-survival-in-adult-patients-in-spain-results-from-nine-population-based-cancer-registries
#17
M D Chirlaque, D Salmerón, J Galceran, A Ameijide, A Mateos, A Torrella, R Jiménez, N Larrañaga, R Marcos-Gragera, E Ardanaz, M Sant, P Minicozzi, C Navarro, M J Sánchez
INTRODUCTION: With the aim of providing cancer control indicators, this work presents cancer survival in adult (≥15 years) patients in Spain diagnosed during the period 2000-2007 from Spanish cancer registries participating in the EUROCARE project. METHODS: Cancer cases from nine Spanish population-based cancer registries were included and analysed as a whole. All primary malignant neoplasms diagnosed in adult patients were eligible for the analysis. Cancer patients were followed until 31 December 2008...
July 17, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718006/-extracorporeal-irradiation-reimplantation-of-bone-segments-in-the-treatment-of-malignant-bone-tumours
#18
REVIEW
A H Krieg
BACKGROUND: Malignant bone tumors themselves and the wide resection required because of them may cause huge bone defects in the bone segment involved. Autologous bone grafts are a reliable option to cover these defects in many cases but their availability is limited. Besides common alternative reconstruction methods, including the use of allografts and/or prostheses, especially extracoroporeal irradiation (ECI) and reimplantation of the bone segment involved is attracting increasingly more attention nowadays...
July 17, 2017: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717642/lung-adenocarcinoma-patients-of-young-age-have-lower-egfr-mutation-rate-and-poorer-efficacy-of-egfr-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors
#19
Shang-Gin Wu, Yih-Leong Chang, Chong-Jen Yu, Pan-Chyr Yang, Jin-Yuan Shih
Patients aged ≤50 years are rarely diagnosed with nonsmall cell lung cancer. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to understand the mutation status of EGFR and the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) treatment in young Asian patients with lung adenocarcinoma. We collected tumour specimens and malignant pleural effusions from lung adenocarcinoma patients from June 2005 to April 2014, recorded their clinical demographic data, and analysed EGFR mutations by reverse transcriptase PCR...
July 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717640/lung-microbiome-and-host-immune-tone-in-subjects-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-treated-with-inhaled-interferon-%C3%AE
#20
Jing Wang, Melissa Lesko, Michelle H Badri, Bianca C Kapoor, Benjamin G Wu, Yonghua Li, Gerald C Smaldone, Richard Bonneau, Zachary D Kurtz, Rany Condos, Leopoldo N Segal
Therapies targeting inflammation reveal inconsistent results in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Aerosolised interferon (IFN)-γ has been proposed as a novel therapy. Changes in the host airway microbiome are associated with the inflammatory milieu and may be associated with disease progression. Here, we evaluate whether treatment with aerosolised IFN-γ in IPF impacts either the lower airway microbiome or the host immune phenotype. Patients with IPF who enrolled in an aerosolised IFN-γ trial underwent bronchoscopy at baseline and after 6 months...
July 2017: ERJ Open Research
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