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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458213/selective-targeting-and-degradation-of-doxorubicin-loaded-folate-functionalized-dna-nanocages
#1
Sofia Raniolo, Giulia Vindigni, Alessio Ottaviani, Valeria Unida, Federico Iacovelli, Antonio Manetto, Mariangela Figini, Lorenzo Stella, Alessandro Desideri, Silvia Biocca
Selective targeting is a crucial property of nanocarriers used for drug delivery in cancer therapy. We generated biotinylated octahedral DNA nanocages functionalized with folic acid through bio-orthogonal conjugation chemistry. Molecular modelling indicated that a distance of about 2.5 nm between folic acid and DNA nanocage avoids steric hindrance with the folate receptor. HeLa cells, a folate receptor positive tumour cell line, internalize folate-DNA nanocages with efficiency greater than 40 times compared to cells not expressing the folate receptors...
February 16, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458141/long-non-coding-rnas-within-the-tumour-microenvironment-and-their-role-in-tumour-stroma-cross-talk
#2
Filippo Del Vecchio, Gui Han Lee, Joamir Hawezi, Rahul Bhome, Sian Pugh, Emre Sayan, Gareth Thomas, Graham Packham, John Primrose, Martin Pichler, Alexander Mirnezami, George Calin, Marc Bullock
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a diverse class of RNA transcripts which have limited protein coding potential. They perform a variety of cellular functions in health, but have also been implicated during malignant transformation. A further theme in recent years is the critical role of the tumour microenvironment and the dynamic interactions between cancer and stromal cells in promoting invasion and disease progression. Whereas the contribution of deregulated lncRNAs within cancer cells has received considerable attention, their significance within the tumour microenvironment is less well understood...
February 16, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457843/the-tumour-stroma-ratio-in-colon-cancer-the-biological-role-and-its-prognostic-impact
#3
REVIEW
Gabi W van Pelt, Tessa P Sandberg, Hans Morreau, Hans Gelderblom, J Han J M van Krieken, Rob A E M Tollenaar, Wilma E Mesker
The tumour microenvironment consists of a complex mixture of non-neoplastic cells including fibroblasts, immune cells and endothelial cells embedded in the proteins of the extracellular matrix. The tumour microenvironment plays an active role in tumour behaviour. By interacting with cancer cells, it influences disease progression and the metastatic capacity of the tumour. Tumours with a high amount of stroma correspond to poor patient prognosis. The tumour-stroma ratio (TSR) is a strong independent prognostic tool in colon cancer and provides additional value to the current clinically used TNM classification...
February 19, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457531/shedding-new-light-on-rhoa-signalling-as-a-drug-target-in-vivo-using-a-novel-rhoa-fret-biosensor-mouse
#4
Max Nobis, David Herrmann, Sean C Warren, Douglas Strathdee, Thomas R Cox, Kurt I Anderson, Paul Timpson
The small GTPase RhoA is a master regulator of signalling in cell-extracellular matrix interactions. RhoA signalling is critical to many cellular processes including migration, mechanotransduction, and is often disrupted in carcinogenesis. Investigating RhoA activity in a native tissue environment is challenging using conventional biochemical methods; we therefore developed a RhoA-FRET biosensor mouse, employing the adaptable nature of intravital imaging to a variety of settings. Mechnotransduction was explored in the context of osteocyte processes embedded in the calvaria responding in a directional manner to compression stress...
February 18, 2018: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457293/ginsenoside-rh2-inhibits-prostate-cancer-cell-growth-through-suppression-of-microrna-4295-that-activates-cdkn1a
#5
Qiruo Gao, Junhua Zheng
OBJECTIVES: Ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2) has demonstrative therapeutic effects on a variety of diseases, including some tumours. However, the effects of GRh2 on prostate cancer (PC) cell growth remain unknown, and were, thus, addressed in the present study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PC3 and DU145 PC cell lines were exposed to GRh2. Cell proliferation was assessed in an MTT assay and by BrdU incorporation. Apoptosis of the cells were assessed by TUNEL staining. Total RNA was assessed by RT-qPCR...
February 19, 2018: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457254/primordial-odontogenic-tumour-report-of-two-cases
#6
Asma Almazyad, Chia-Cheng Li, Roberto Onner Cruz Tapia, Javier Portilla Robertson, David Collette, Sook-Bin Woo
Primordial odontogenic tumour (POT) is a rare mixed odontogenic neoplasm that is composed of primitive ecto-mesenchyme resembling dental papilla, surfaced by odontogenic epithelium resembling inner enamel epithelium, without hard tissue formation. Most reported cases have presented in the posterior mandible as a well-demarcated radiolucency associated with an unerupted tooth in the first two decades of life. AIM: To describe the clinico-pathological features of two more cases of POT. METHODS AND RESULTS: Each presented as an asymptomatic well-delineated radiolucency in the mandible in a 15-year-old female and an 18-year-old male respectively...
February 19, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456962/neuroectodermally-derived-neoplasm-of-tonsil-difficulty-in-histomorphological-diagnosis
#7
Albina Venus, Sangita Sharma Mehta
Esthesioneuroblastomas are rare neuroectodermally derived neoplasms occurring in the upper nasal septum or cribriform plate. They have been rarely reported in other sites, when they are called ectopic esthesioneuroblastomas. Due to the scarcity of reports, publications and molecular/genetic studies of these tumours, their diagnosis is likely to be missed when they are ectopic. Similar to the case report in this journal by Zahedi et al., we had a case of neuroectodermally derived neoplasm of the tonsil, which was difficult to diagnose, due to the site of occurrence being unknown for these tumours...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456956/juvenile-nasopharyngeal-angiofibroma-combined-approach-for-excision-transpalatal-and-endoscopic-a-new-perspective
#8
Ritu Gupta, Satya Prakash Agarwal
Juvenile angiofibroma is a rare, highly vascular, histologically benign but locally invasive tumour, affecting predominantly male adolescents. To describe our experience in diagnosis of angiofibroma and treatment by combined endoscopic and transpalatal route. We analysed a case series of 50 patients of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in Fisch stages I and II who presented at our institute during a period of four years 2011-2014, their clinical presentation, their treatment by combined transpalatal and endoscopic approach, intraoperative and post operative course, complications and tumour recurrence...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456861/critical-airway-compression-caused-by-a-large-mediastinal-tumour-with-spontaneous-haemorrhage
#9
Shih-Peng Liu, Hung-Che Chien, Chun-Ku Chen, Chih-Cheng Hsieh, Chien-Sheng Huang
We report the case of a 77-year-old woman presenting with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, which was then interpreted as an acute, life-threatening critical airway compression by a huge mediastinal tumour without appropriate diagnosis. Emergency extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was cannulated for sufficient respiratory support after spontaneous circulation was regained. After the multidisciplinary team, involving thoracic surgeons, discussed the resectability of the mediastinal tumour, the patient underwent successful resection of the mediastinal tumour through a median sternotomy...
April 2018: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456766/letter-to-the-editor-blood-processing-and-sample-storage-have-negligible-effects-on-methylation
#10
Kira Groen, Rodney A Lea, Vicki E Maltby, Rodney J Scott, Jeannette Lechner-Scott
DNA methylation is a dynamic epigenetic mechanism. Researchers aiming to assess archived DNA samples are expressing concern about the effect of technical factors on methylation, as this may confound results. We reviewed recent reports examining this issue in blood samples and concluded that variation in collection, storage, and processing of blood DNA confers negligible effects on both global methylation and methylation status of specific genes. These results are concordant with studies that have investigated the effect of sample storage and processing on methylation in other tissues, such as tumour, sperm, and placenta samples...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456617/solitary-breast-neurofibroma-imaging-aspects
#11
Anna Rotili, Federica De Maria, Benedetta Di Venosa, Mariacristina Ghioni, Maria Pizzamiglio, Enrico Cassano, Michela Moratti
Neurofibromas are benign peripheral nerve sheath tumours, which are usually solitary and sporadic. Solitary neurofibromas of the breast are rare. The most common location of a breast neurofibroma is the nipple-areola complex. We report a rare case of a 56-year-old woman with a solitary neurofibroma of the right breast sulcus.
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456406/health-related-quality-of-life-anxiety-depression-and-impulsivity-in-patients-with-advanced-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumours
#12
Alexandra R Lewis, Xin Wang, Laurice Magdalani, Paolo D'Arienzo, Colsom Bashir, Was Mansoor, Richard Hubner, Juan W Valle, Mairéad G McNamara
AIM: To compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL), anxiety, depression, and impulsivity scores in patients with and without carcinoid syndrome (CS), and correlated them with serum 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels. METHODS: Patients with advanced gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEPNET), with and without CS completed HRQoL QLQ-C30 and QLQ-GI.NET21, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) questionnaires...
February 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455924/gec-estro-acrop-recommendations-in-skin-brachytherapy
#13
Jose L Guinot, Agata Rembielak, Jose Perez-Calatayud, Silvia Rodríguez-Villalba, Janusz Skowronek, Luca Tagliaferri, Benjamin Guix, Victor Gonzalez-Perez, Vincenzo Valentini, György Kovacs
PURPOSE: The aim of this publication is to compile available literature data and expert experience regarding skin brachytherapy (BT) in order to produce general recommendations on behalf of the GEC-ESTRO Group. METHODS: We have done an exhaustive review of published articles to look for general recommendations. RESULTS: Randomized controlled trials, systemic reviews and meta-analysis are lacking in literature and there is wide variety of prescription techniques successfully used across the radiotherapy centers...
February 15, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455869/overexpression-of-slc1a5-in-lymph-node-metastases-outperforms-assessment-in-the-primary-as-a-negative-prognosticator-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#14
Agnes Csanadi, Annika Oser, Konrad Aumann, Vera Gumpp, Justyna Rawluk, Ursula Nestle, Claudia Kayser, Sebastian Wiesemann, Martin Werner, Gian Kayser
Despite recent advances in therapeutic options, lung cancer is the leading cause of death among malignant diseases worldwide. Glutamine-dependence is an established attribute in cancer tissue with emerging importance as a diagnostic and therapeutic target. We analysed the expression of SLC1a5, a major glutamine transporter, in the primary tumour and corresponding nodal metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to investigate its biological impact. Expression of SLC1a5 was analysed by immunohistochemistry in 259 NSCLC and in 142 nodal metastases and correlated with clinicopathological parameters including overall survival...
February 15, 2018: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455670/the-rationale-for-druggability-of-ccdc6-tyrosine-kinase-fusions-in-lung-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Aniello Cerrato, Roberta Visconti, Angela Celetti
Gene fusions occur in up to 17% of solid tumours. Oncogenic kinases are often involved in such fusions. In lung cancer, almost 30% of patients carrying an activated oncogene show the fusion of a tyrosine kinase to an heterologous gene. Several genes are partner in the fusion with the three kinases ALK, ROS1 and RET in lung. The impaired function of the partner gene, in combination with the activation of the kinase, may alter the cell signaling and promote the cancer cell addiction to the oncogene. Moreover, the gene that is partner in the fusion to the kinase may affect the response to therapeutics and/or promote resistance in the cancer cells...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455665/pten-ptenp1-regulating-the-regulator-of-rtk-dependent-pi3k-akt-signalling-new-targets-for-cancer-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Nahal Haddadi, Yiguang Lin, Glena Travis, Ann M Simpson, Eileen M McGowan, Najah T Nassif
Regulation of the PI-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling pathway is essential for maintaining the integrity of fundamental cellular processes, cell growth, survival, death and metabolism, and dysregulation of this pathway is implicated in the development and progression of cancers. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are major upstream regulators of PI3K/Akt signalling. The phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), a well characterised tumour suppressor, is a prime antagonist of PI3K and therefore a negative regulator of this pathway...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455663/targeting-tumour-microenvironment-by-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor
#17
REVIEW
Hor-Yue Tan, Ning Wang, Wing Lam, Wei Guo, Yibin Feng, Yung-Chi Cheng
Tumour microenvironment (TME) is a key determinant of tumour growth and metastasis. TME could be very different for each type and location of tumour and TME may change constantly during tumour growth. Multiple counterparts in surrounding microenvironment including mesenchymal-, hematopoietic-originated cells as well as non-cellular components affect TME. Thus, therapeutics that can disrupt the tumour-favouring microenvironment should be further explored for cancer therapy. Previous efforts in unravelling the dysregulated mechanisms of TME components has identified numerous protein tyrosine kinases, while its corresponding inhibitors have demonstrated potent modulatory effect on TME...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455549/multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-2a-men-2a-syndrome
#18
J Breza, J Breza
INTRODUCTION: In the MEN 2A syndrome, which is the most common of the three types of MEN, three endocrine systems are affected simultaneously or subsequently by the development of tumours manifested by medullary thyroid gland carcinoma, pheochromocytoma (often bilateral) and hyperparathyroidism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 27 patients from 3 families affected by MEN 2A syndrome were examined clinically (by detecting the effects of catecholamine overproduction), biochemically (screening for metanephrine and normetanephrine in the serum), visualization (CT, MRI, MIBG, PET CT) and some of them also genetically (DNA fragment analysis obtained by PCR amplification)...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455490/-clinical-application-of-anterior-thoracoscopically-assisted-surgery-with-posterior-one-stage-total-en-block-spondylectomy-for-thoracic-spinal-tumor
#19
Wen Xue, Xiao-Li Guan, Zeng-Ping Wang, Zhong-Yu Hao, Lin Liu, Yao-Wen Qian
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clincial effects and feasibility of anterior thoracoscopically assisted surgery (TAS) with posterior one-stage total en block spondylectomy(TES) for thoracic spinal tumour. METHODS: From October 2014 to January 2016, 4 patients with thoracic spinal tumour were treated by anterior thoracoscopically assisted surgery with posterior one-stage total en block spondylectomy. There were 2 males and 2 females, aged 16, 35, 46, 60 years. Courses of disease were 1, 4, 6, 9 months...
September 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455416/pharmacological-inhibition-of-the-skeletal-ikk%C3%AE-reduces-breast-cancer-induced-osteolysis
#20
Silvia Marino, Ryan T Bishop, Patrick Mollat, Aymen I Idris
IKKβ has previously been implicated in breast cancer bone metastasis and bone remodelling. However, the contribution of IKKβ expressed by bone cells of the tumour microenvironment to breast cancer-induced osteolysis has yet to be investigated. Here, we studied the effects of the verified selective IKKβ inhibitors IKKβIII or IKKβV on osteoclast formation and osteoblast differentiation in vitro and in vivo, human and mouse breast cancer cells' support for osteoclast formation and signalling in vitro and osteolysis ex vivo and in immunocompetent mice after supracalvarial injection of human MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium or intra-cardiac injection of syngeneic 4T1 breast cancer cells...
February 17, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
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