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Immunobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442214/regulatory-t-cells-as-suppressors-of-anti-tumor-immunity-role-of-metabolism
#1
REVIEW
Veronica De Rosa, Francesca Di Rella, Antonio Di Giacomo, Giuseppe Matarese
Novel concepts in immunometabolism support the hypothesis that glucose consumption is also used to modulate anti-tumor immune responses, favoring growth and expansion of specific cellular subsets defined in the past as suppressor T cells and currently reborn as regulatory T (Treg) cells. During the 1920s, Otto Warburg and colleagues observed that tumors consumed high amounts of glucose compared to normal tissues, even in the presence of oxygen and completely functioning mitochondria. However, the role of the Warburg Effect is still not completely understood, particularly in the context of an ongoing anti-tumor immune response...
April 11, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438676/factors-associated-with-long-term-risk-of-relapse-after-unrelated-cord-blood-transplantation-for-children-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-in-remission
#2
Kristin M Page, Myriam Labopin, Annalisa Ruggeri, Gerard Michel, Cristina Diaz de Heredia, Tracey O'Brien, Alessandra Picardi, Mouhab Ayas, Henrique Bittencourt, Ajay J Vora, Jesse Troy, Carmen Bonfim, Fernanda Volt, Eliane Gluckman, Peter Bader, Joanne Kurtzberg, Vanderson Rocha
For pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), relapse is an important cause of treatment failure after unrelated cord blood transplant (UCBT). Compared to other donor sources, relapse is similar or even reduced after UCBT despite less graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). We performed a retrospective analysis to identify risk factors associated with the 5-year cumulative incidence (CI) of relapse after UCBT. In this retrospective, registry-based study, we examined the outcomes of 640 children (<18 years) with ALL in first (n=257, 40%) or second complete remission (CR; n=383, 60%) who received myeloablative conditioning followed by a single-unit UCBT from 2000-2012...
April 21, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433705/maternal-immunisation-collaborating-with-mother-nature
#3
REVIEW
Arnaud Marchant, Manish Sadarangani, Mathieu Garand, Nicolas Dauby, Valerie Verhasselt, Lenore Pereira, Gordean Bjornson, Christine E Jones, Scott A Halperin, Kathryn M Edwards, Paul Heath, Peter J Openshaw, David W Scheifele, Tobias R Kollmann
Maternal immunisation has the potential to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases after birth. The success of tetanus, influenza, and pertussis immunisation during pregnancy has led to consideration of additional maternal immunisation strategies to prevent group B streptococcus and respiratory syncytial virus infections, among others. However, many gaps in knowledge regarding the immunobiology of maternal immunisation prevent the optimal design and application of this successful public health intervention...
April 19, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433702/group-b-streptococcus-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-immunisation-during-pregnancy-a-landscape-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Paul T Heath, Fiona J Culley, Christine E Jones, Beate Kampmann, Kirsty Le Doare, Marta C Nunes, Manish Sadarangani, Zain Chaudhry, Carol J Baker, Peter J M Openshaw
Group B streptococcus and respiratory syncytial virus are leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality worldwide. No licensed vaccines are available for either disease, but vaccines for both are under development. Severe respiratory syncytial virus disease can be prevented by passively administered antibody. The presence of maternal IgG antibody specific to respiratory syncytial virus is associated with reduced prevalence and severity of respiratory syncytial virus disease in the first few weeks of life, whereas maternal serotype-specific anticapsular antibody is associated with protection against both early-onset and late-onset group B streptococcus disease...
April 19, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426456/expression-and-localization-of-mir-21-and-mir-126-in-mucosal-tissue-from-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
Gorm Thorlacius-Ussing, Boye Schnack Nielsen, Vibeke Andersen, Kim Holmstrøm, Anders E Pedersen
BACKGROUND: microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that guide degradation of mRNA and regulate protein expression. miRNA based diagnostic biomarkers for ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are emerging but information about the cellular localization of many miRNAs is limited and more detailed histologic evaluation of miRNA expression patterns is needed to understand their immunobiological function. METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded colon biopsies from 10 patients with UC and 8 patients with CD together with 9 controls were examined by RT-qPCR and quantitative in situ hybridization (ISH)...
May 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422003/efficacy-and-safety-of-leflunomide-as-an-adjuvant-drug-in-refractory-dermatomyositis-with-primarily-cutaneous-activity
#6
Renata C de Souza, Fernando H C de Souza, Renata Miossi, Samuel K Shinjo
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate leflunomide as an adjuvant drug in refractory dermatomyositis (DM) with primarily cutaneous activity. METHODS: A retrospective, single-centre, cohort study including 18 adult patients with DM (classical or clinically amyopathic DM) and cutaneous activity from 2001 to 2016 was conducted. Patients were dependent on glucocorticoid and refractory to at least two full-dose immunosuppressants/immunomodulators or presented previous adverse events with immunobiological drugs...
April 18, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405194/modeling-natural-killer-cell-targeted-immunotherapies
#7
REVIEW
Silvia Lopez-Lastra, James P Di Santo
Animal models have extensively contributed to our understanding of human immunobiology and to uncover the underlying pathological mechanisms occurring in the development of diseases. However, mouse models do not reproduce the genetic and molecular complexity inherent in human disease conditions. Human immune system (HIS) mouse models that are susceptible to human pathogens and can recapitulate human hematopoiesis and tumor immunobiology provide one means to bridge the interspecies gap. Natural killer cells are the founding member of the innate lymphoid cell family...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400243/cancer-manipulation-of-host-physiology-lessons-from-pancreatic-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Constantinos P Zambirinis, George Miller
Homeostasis is a fundamental property of living organisms enabling the human body to withstand internal and external insults. In several chronic diseases, and especially in cancer, many homeostatic mechanisms are deranged. Pancreatic cancer in particular is notorious for its ability to invoke an intense fibroinflammatory stromal reaction facilitating its progression and resistance to treatment. In the past decade, several seminal discoveries have elucidated previously unrecognized modes of commandeering the host's defense systems...
April 8, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388991/advances-in-the-immunobiological-therapies-for-advanced-melanoma
#9
M C Pérez Gago, O Saavedra Santa Gadea, L de la Cruz-Merino
Metastatic or locally advanced unresectable melanoma carries a high morbidity and mortality. However, notable advances have been made in recent years in the systemic treatment of this disease, with the appearance of targeted therapy using tyrosine kinase inhibitors that block the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway, and of modern immunotherapy with immune-modulating monoclonal antibodies. In this paper, we provide an update of available data on new immune therapies and we review the clinical development that led to their approval for use in routine clinical practice...
April 4, 2017: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369702/the-unique-immunological-features-of-heparin-induced-thrombocytopenia
#10
REVIEW
Phillip Staibano, Donald M Arnold, Dawn M E Bowdish, Ishac Nazy
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a serious drug reaction that leads to a decrease in platelet count and a high risk of thrombosis. HIT patients produce pathogenic immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies that bind to complexes of platelet factor-4 (PF4) and heparin. HIT immune complexes crosslink Fc-receptors resulting in platelet and monocyte activation. These events lead to the release of procoagulant chemokines and tissue factor, which together create an intensely prothrombotic state. HIT represents an atypical immune response because it has features of both T cell-dependent and T cell-independent mechanisms...
April 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359914/starving-for-survival-how-catabolic-metabolism-fuels-immune-function
#11
REVIEW
Maria L Balmer, Christoph Hess
Infections disturb homeostasis and often induce a switch to catabolic organismal metabolism. During catabolism, increased systemic availability of glucose, fatty acids and ketone bodies is observed, and recent evidence indicates that these metabolites might serve an immunomodulatory function. However, whereas our understanding of direct pathogen recognition by the host immune system is quite detailed, much less is known about the immunobiology of the metabolic host response to infection. In this review article we briefly discuss how pathogens induce 'dys-homeostasis' systemically, locally, and within cells, and provide examples of how such changes can shape immune-functionality during the course of an infection...
March 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358049/cxcr3-monocytes-macrophages-are-required-for-establishment-of-pulmonary-metastases
#12
Kiah L Butler, Eleanor Clancy-Thompson, David W Mullins
We present a new foundational role for CXCR3(+) monocytes/macrophages in the process of tumor engraftment in the lung. CXCR3 is associated with monocytic and lymphocytic infiltration of inflamed or tumor-bearing lung. Although the requirement for tumor-expressed CXCR3 in metastatic engraftment has been demonstrated, the role of monocyte-expressed CXCR3 had not been appreciated. In a murine model of metastatic-like melanoma, engraftment was coordinate with CXCR3(+) monocyte/macrophage accumulation in the lungs and was sensitive to pharmacologic inhibition of CXCR3 signaling...
March 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337197/hypofractionated-irradiation-has-immune-stimulatory-potential-and-induces-a-timely-restricted-infiltration-of-immune-cells-in-colon-cancer-tumors
#13
Benjamin Frey, Michael Rückert, Julia Weber, Xaver Mayr, Anja Derer, Michael Lotter, Christoph Bert, Franz Rödel, Rainer Fietkau, Udo S Gaipl
In addition to locally controlling the tumor, hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) particularly aims to activate immune cells in the RT-modified microenvironment. Therefore, we examined whether hypofractionated RT can activate dendritic cells (DCs), induce immune cell infiltration in tumors, and how the chronology of immune cell migration into tumors occurs to gain knowledge for future definition of radiation breaks and inclusion of immunotherapy. Colorectal cancer treatments offer only limited survival benefit, and immunobiological principles for additional therapies need to be explored with preclinical models...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332622/b-lymphocytes-play-a-limited-role-in-clearance-of-campylobacter-jejuni-from-the-chicken-intestinal-tract
#14
Lizeth Lacharme-Lora, Gemma Chaloner, Rachel Gilroy, Suzanne Humphrey, Kirsty Gibbs, Sue Jopson, Elli Wright, William Reid, Julian Ketley, Tom Humphrey, Nicola Williams, Steven Rushton, Paul Wigley
Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis with contaminated poultry meat its main source. Control of C. jejuni is a priority for the poultry industry but no vaccines are available and their development hampered by poor understanding of the immunobiology of C. jejuni infection. Here we show the functional role of B lymphocytes in response to C. jejuni in the chicken through depletion of the B lymphocyte population (bursectomy) followed by challenge. B lymphocyte depletion has little effect on bacterial numbers in the ceca, the main site of colonisation, where C...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300922/paradoxical-psoriasis-after-the-use-of-anti-tnf-in-a-patient-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#15
Jaqueline Barbeito de Vasconcellos, Daniele do Nascimento Pereira, Thiago Jeunon de Sousa Vargas, Roger Abramino Levy, Geraldo da Rocha Castelar Pinheiro, Ígor Brum Cursi
The use of tumor necrosis factor antagonists (anti-TNF) has become a usual practice to treat various inflammatory diseases. Although indicated for the treatment of psoriasis, anti-TNF may paradoxically trigger a psoriasiform condition. We present a case of a female patient who, during the use of infliximab for rheumatoid arthritis, developed psoriasis. In an attempt to switch anti-TNF class, we observed a cumulative worsening of the lesions requiring suspension of the immunobiological agent and the introduction of other drugs for clinical control...
September 2016: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297580/a-human-corneal-epithelial-cell-line-model-for-limbal-stem-cell-biology-and-limbal-immunobiology
#16
Bakiah Shaharuddin, Sajjad Ahmad, Nani Md Latar, Simi Ali, Annette Meeson
Limbal stem cell (LSC) deficiency is a visually debilitating condition caused by abnormal maintenance of LSCs. It is treated by transplantation of donor-derived limbal epithelial cells (LECs), the success of which depends on the presence and quality of LSCs within the transplant. Understanding the immunobiological responses of these cells within the transplants could improve cell engraftment and survival. However, human corneal rings used as a source of LSCs are not always readily available for research purposes...
March 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293236/interferon-lambda-modulating-immunity-in-infectious-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Mohammedyaseen Syedbasha, Adrian Egli
Interferon lambdas (IFN-λs; IFNL1-4) modulate immunity in the context of infections and autoimmune diseases, through a network of induced genes. IFN-λs act by binding to the heterodimeric IFN-λ receptor (IFNLR), activating a STAT phosphorylation-dependent signaling cascade. Thereby hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes are induced, which modulate various immune functions via complex forward and feedback loops. When compared to the well-characterized IFN-α signaling cascade, three important differences have been discovered...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287857/assessment-of-immunomodulatory-activities-and-in-vitro-toxicity-of-new-quinolone-7-ethyl-9-ethyl-6-oxo-6-9-dihydro-1-2-5-selenadiazolo-3-4-h-quinoline-7-carboxylate
#18
Soňa Jantová, Ema Paulovičová, Lucia Paulovičová, Dominika Topoľská, Miroslav Pánik, Viktor Milata
Our previous studies on leukemia cells L1210 and cervical cancer HeLa cells revealed cytotoxic effects of the 7-ethyl 9-ethyl-6-oxo-6,9-dihydro[1,2,5]selenadiazolo[3,4-h]quinoline-7-carboxylate (E2h), a new synthetically prepared quinolone derivative, toward selected cancer cell lines. The aim of the present study was to examine the cytotoxicity of E2h toward next cell lines and tissues; that is, human cancer HL-60 and A549 cells, human non-cancer fibroblast BHNF-1 cells, and reconstructed human epidermis tissues...
March 13, 2017: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284598/porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-type-1-viruses-induce-hypoplasia-of-erythroid-cells-and-myeloid-cell-hyperplasia-in-the-bone-marrow-of-experimentally-infected-piglets-independently-of-the-viral-load-and-virulence
#19
Shyrley Paola Amarilla, Jaime Gómez-Laguna, Librado Carrasco, Irene M Rodríguez-Gómez, José M Caridad Y Ocerín, Simon P Graham, Jean-Pierre Frossard, Falko Steinbach, Francisco J Salguero
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSV) present a wide phenotypic and genetic diversity. Experimental infections have demonstrated viral replication, including highly pathogenic strains (HP-PRRSV), in primary lymphoid organs such as the thymus. However, studies of the bone marrow are scarce but necessary to help elucidate the immunobiology of PRRSV strains of differing virulence. In this study, whereas viral RNA was detected within the bone marrow of animals experimentally infected with both low virulent Lelystad (LV) and 215-06 PRRSV-1 strains and with the highly virulent SU1-bel strain, PRRSV positive cells were only occasionally detected in one SU1-bel infected animal...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261201/circulating-micrornas-as-potential-biomarkers-of-infectious-disease
#20
REVIEW
Carolina N Correia, Nicolas C Nalpas, Kirsten E McLoughlin, John A Browne, Stephen V Gordon, David E MacHugh, Ronan G Shaughnessy
microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding endogenous RNA molecules that regulate a wide range of biological processes by post-transcriptionally regulating gene expression. Thousands of these molecules have been discovered to date, and multiple miRNAs have been shown to coordinately fine-tune cellular processes key to organismal development, homeostasis, neurobiology, immunobiology, and control of infection. The fundamental regulatory role of miRNAs in a variety of biological processes suggests that differential expression of these transcripts may be exploited as a novel source of molecular biomarkers for many different disease pathologies or abnormalities...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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