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Yasufumi Kawasaki, Kazuya Sato, Hiroko Hayakawa, Norihito Takayama, Hirofumi Nakano, Ryoji Ito, Kiyomi Mashima, Iekuni Oh, Daisuke Minakata, Ryoko Yamasaki, Kaoru Morita, Masahiro Ashizawa, Chihiro Yamamoto, Kaoru Hatano, Shin-Ichiro Fujiwara, Ken Ohmine, Kazuo Muroi, Yoshinobu Kanda
Xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) models in highly immunodeficient mice are currently being used worldwide to investigate human immune responses against foreign antigens in vivo. However, the individual roles of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, and donor/host hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the induction and development of GVHD have not been fully investigated. In the present study, we comprehensively investigated the immune responses of human T-cells and the antigen presentation capacity of donor/host hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic APCs in xenogeneic GVHD models using NOD/Shi-scid-IL2rgnull (NOG) mice...
April 17, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Michael R Pranzatelli
The concept and recognized components of "neuroinflammation" are expanding at the intersection of neurobiology and immunobiology. Chemokines (CKs), no longer merely necessary for immune cell trafficking and positioning, have multiple physiologic, developmental, and modulatory functionalities in the central nervous system (CNS) through neuron-glia interactions and other mechanisms affecting neurotransmission. They issue the "help me" cry of neurons and astrocytes in response to CNS injury, engaging invading lymphoid cells (T cells and B cells) and myeloid cells (dendritic cells, monocytes, and neutrophils) (adaptive immunity), as well as microglia and macrophages (innate immunity), in a cascade of events, some beneficial (reparative), others destructive (excitotoxic)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Fernanda Gouveia-Alves, Roseane Gouveia, Valéria C Ginani, Adriana Seber, Danielle A Kuramoto, Gabriel F A Murad, Fernanda G Spina, Antonio S Petrilli, Victor G Zecchin, Celso Granato, Fabianne Carlesse, M Isabel de Moraes-Pinto
BACKGROUND: Revaccination after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is necessary to compensate for the loss of immunological memory. The aims of this study were to evaluate the adherence to revaccination schedule and the humoral immune response to different vaccine antigens in HSCT pediatric and young adult patients. METHODS: Patients submitted to HSCT for over 3 years were recruited. After written informed consent, a questionnaire was filled in, the vaccination card was analyzed, a blood sample was collected and tested by ELISA for diphtheria, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus, measles, rubella and varicella antibodies...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Stephen Abolins, Luke Lazarou, Laura Weldon, Louise Hughes, Elizabeth C King, Paul Drescher, Michael J O Pocock, Julius C R Hafalla, Eleanor M Riley, Mark Viney
The immune state of wild animals is largely unknown. Knowing this and what affects it is important in understanding how infection and disease affects wild animals. The immune state of wild animals is also important in understanding the biology of their pathogens, which is directly relevant to explaining pathogen spillover among species, including to humans. The paucity of knowledge about wild animals' immune state is in stark contrast to our exquisitely detailed understanding of the immunobiology of laboratory animals...
April 13, 2018: PLoS Biology
Elizabeth A Washington, Stuart R Barber, Christina M Murray, Helen M S Davies, Wayne G Kimpton, Hung-Hsun Yen
Lymphatic cannulation models are useful tools for studying the immunobiology of the lymphatic system and the immunopathology of specific tissues in diseases. Sheep cannulations have been used extensively, as models for human physiology, fetal and neonatal development, human diseases, and for studies of ruminant pathobiology. The development of new and improved cannulation techniques in recent years has meant that difficult to access sites, such as mucosal associated tissues, are now more readily available to researchers...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Mariia P Rudyk, Valentyna V Pozur, Daryna O Voieikova, Yevheniia V Hurmach, Nataliia M Khranovska, Oksana V Skachkova, Vitalina M Svyatetska, Olexander G Fedorchuk, Larysa M Skivka, Tetiana V Berehova, Liudmyla I Ostapchenko
The important component of obesity pathogenesis is inflammatory activation of innate immune cells within adipose tissue and in other body locations. Both the course of obesity and innate immune reactivity are characterized by sex-associated differences. The aim of the work was a comparative investigation of metabolic profiles of phagocytes from different locations in male and female rats with MSG-induced obesity. The administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG) caused obesity, with sex-associated differences, that was more severe in male rats...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maide Ozen, Christopher Novak, Irina Burd
Pregnancy is a state of immunotolerance and loss of this immunotolerance may lead to fetal rejection, pregnancy complications, and neonatal complications. Immunobiology of pregnancy is complex and involves unique immune cell populations specific to pregnancy, changes in mucosal immune cells and peripheral immune system, and reciprocal adaptations between the mother and the fetus. The mechanisms required for sustaining a healthy feto-placental barrier and a healthy pregnancy such as activation of regulatory immune responses with a predominance of regulatory T cells lead to immune evasion and propagation of cancer...
March 25, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Jeffrey A Allen, Melvin Berger, Luis Querol, Krista Kuitwaard, Robert D Hadden
Despite the well-recognized importance of immunoglobulin therapy individualization during the treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), the pathway to best achieve optimization is unknown. There are many pharmacokinetic and immunobiologic variables that can potentially influence the appropriateness of any individual therapy. Although identification of specific autoantibodies and their targets has only been accomplished in a minority of patients with CIDP, already the diagnostic and treatment implications of specific autoantibody detection are being realized...
March 23, 2018: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
Jalil Mehrzad, Abbas Bahari, Mohammad Reza Bassami, Mahmoud Mahmoudi, Hesam Dehghani
The effects of naturally occurring levels of aflatoxin (AF) B1 on the expression of key molecules and function of dendritic cells (DCs) were investigated on human monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) by cell culture, RT-qPCR, and flow cytometry. An environmentally relevant level of AFB1 remarkably impaired the phagocytic capacity of MDDCs. Furthermore, AFB1 significantly affected the transcript levels of some key functional genes in MDDCs. It caused an up-regulation of key transcripts in cytochrome P450 (CYP) family, MyD88, NF-KB, TNF-α, TLR2, TLR4, COX-2, HLA-DR, CCR7, CD209, LFA3 and CD16...
March 20, 2018: Immunology Letters
Leif Å Söderström, Laura Tarnawski, Peder S Olofsson
Inflammation is associated with atherosclerotic plaque development and precipitation of myocardial infarction and stroke, and anti-inflammatory therapy may reduce disease severity. Costimulatory molecules are key regulators of immune cell activity and inflammation, and are associated with disease development in atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence indicates that a costimulatory molecule of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor superfamily, the checkpoint regulator CD137, promotes atherosclerosis and vascular inflammation in experimental models...
March 5, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Euan R O Allan, Jacob A Tennessen, Thomas J Sharpton, Michael S Blouin
Freshwater snails are the intermediate hosts for numerous parasitic worms which can have negative consequences for human health and agriculture. Understanding the transmission of these diseases requires a more complete characterization of the immunobiology of snail hosts. This includes the characterization of its microbiome and genetic factors which may interact with this important commensal community. Allelic variation in the Guadeloupe Resistance Complex (GRC) genomic region of Guadeloupean Biomphalaria glabrata influences their susceptibility to schistosome infection, and may have other roles in the snail immune response...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Zhi-Wei Lai, Ryan Kelly, Thomas Winans, Ivan Marchena, Ashwini Shadakshari, Julie Yu, Maha Dawood, Ricardo Garcia, Hajra Tily, Lisa Francis, Stephen V Faraone, Paul E Phillips, Andras Perl
BACKGROUND: Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus have T-cell dysfunction that has been attributed to the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Rapamycin inhibits antigen-induced T-cell proliferation and has been developed as a medication under the generic designation of sirolimus. We assessed safety, tolerance, and efficacy of sirolimus in a prospective, biomarker-driven, open-label clinical trial. METHODS: We did a single-arm, open-label, phase 1/2 trial of sirolimus in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus disease unresponsive to, or intolerant of, conventional medications at the State University of New York Upstate Medical University (Syracuse, NY, USA)...
March 15, 2018: Lancet
Simonetta Mattiucci, Paolo Cipriani, Arne Levsen, Michela Paoletti, Giuseppe Nascetti
This review addresses the biodiversity, biology, distribution, ecology, epidemiology, and consumer health significance of the so far known species of Anisakis, both in their natural hosts and in human accidental host populations, worldwide. These key aspects of the Anisakis species' biology are highlighted, since we consider them as main driving forces behind which most of the research in this field has been carried out over the past decade. From a public health perspective, the human disease caused by Anisakis species (anisakiasis) appears to be considerably underreported and underestimated in many countries or regions around the globe...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Ali Maisam Afzali, Thomas Müntefering, Heinz Wiendl, Sven G Meuth, Tobias Ruck
Histopathological analyses of muscle specimens from myositis patients indicate that skeletal muscle cells play an active role in the interaction with immune cells. Research over the last few decades has shown that skeletal muscle cells exhibit immunobiological properties that perfectly define them as non-professional antigen presenting cells. They are able to present antigens via major histocompatibility complex molecules, exhibit costimulatory molecules and secrete soluble molecules that actively shape the immune response in an either pro- or anti-inflammatory manner...
May 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Robin K Avery, Fernanda P Silveira, Kaitlin Benedict, Angela Ahlquist Cleveland, Carol A Kauffman, Mindy G Schuster, Erik R Dubberke, Shahid Husain, David Paterson, Tom Chiller, Peter Pappas
BACKGROUND: Most studies of post-transplant CMV infection have focused on either solid organ or hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. A large prospective cohort study involving both lung and HCT recipients provided an opportunity to compare the epidemiology and outcomes of CMV infections in these two groups. METHODS: Patients were followed for 30 months in a 6-center prospective cohort study. Data on demographics, CMV infections, tissue-invasive disease, recurrences, rejection, and immunosuppression were recorded...
March 7, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
R Rahmanzadeh, M S Weber, W Brück, S Navardi, M A Sahraian
For decades, B cells were ignored in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis, and the disease was always regarded as a T cell-mediated disorder. Recent evidence shows that there is an antigen-driven B-cell response in the central nervous system of patients with MS, and memory B cells/plasma cells are detectable in MS lesions. The striking efficacy of B cell-depleting therapies in reducing the inflammatory activity of the disease highlights that B cells may play more pathogenetic roles than expected. B cells express several unique characteristic markers on their surface, for example, CD19, CD20 molecules, that provide selective targets for monoclonal antibodies...
March 7, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Luciana Gomes Pedro Brandão, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano do Brasil, Silas de Oliveira Silva, Edson Elias da Silva, Guilherme Santoro Lopes
In the current effort to eliminate polio from the world, it is important to recognize and vaccinate susceptible groups, especially immunocompromised patients living in countries where attenuated polio vaccine is still used. In this report, we describe the frequency of protective antibodies in a small sample of adult SOT candidates in whom previous vaccination could be ascertained. Patients included in this report were selected among the participants of an ongoing prospective study carried out at the Reference Center for Special Immunobiologicals of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
February 28, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Karina Tozatto-Maio, Federica Giannotti, Myriam Labopin, Annalisa Ruggeri, Fernanda Volt, Annalisa Paviglianiti, Chantal Kenzey, Hiromi Hayashi, Jan Cornelissen, Mauricette Michallet, Dimitrios Karakasis, Eric Deconinck, Pierre-Simon Rohrlich, Regis Peffault de la Tour, Didier Blaise, Eefke Petersen, Maud D'Aveni, Henrik Sengeloev, Thierry Lamy, Nigel H Russell, Edouard Forcade, Charles F Craddock, Arnon Nagler, Eliane Gluckman, Vanderson Rocha
Usually, after double umbilical cord blood transplant (DUCBT) only one of the transplanted units persists long term. The characteristics of the winning cord blood unit (W-CBU) that determine unit dominance and how they influence the outcomes of DUCBT remain unclear. We retrospectively analysed 347 patients with acute leukaemia transplanted with a DUCBT (694 CBU) from 2005 to 2013 who had documented neutrophil engraftment and a W-CBU identified by chimerism analysis, in order to identify unit characteristics impacting on dominance...
February 22, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Naina Gour, Stephane Lajoie, Ursula Smole, Marquitta White, Donglei Hu, Pagé Goddard, Scott Huntsman, Celeste Eng, Angel Mak, Sam Oh, Jung-Hyun Kim, Annu Sharma, Sophie Plante, Ikhlass Haj Salem, Yvonne Resch, Xiao Xiao, Nu Yao, Anju Singh, Susanne Vrtala, Jamila Chakir, Esteban G Burchard, Andrew P Lane, Marsha Wills-Karp
The key factors underlying the development of allergic diseases-the propensity for a minority of individuals to develop dysfunctional responses to harmless environmental molecules-remain undefined. We report a pathway of immune counter-regulation that suppresses the development of aeroallergy and shrimp-induced anaphylaxis. In mice, signaling through epithelially expressed dectin-1 suppresses the development of type 2 immune responses through inhibition of interleukin-33 (IL-33) secretion and the subsequent recruitment of IL-13-producing innate lymphoid cells...
February 23, 2018: Science Immunology
Lenka Kavanová, Romana Moutelíková, Jana Prodělalová, Matin Faldyna, Miroslav Toman, Jiří Salát
Porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) causes lifelong latent infections in swine. The pathogen is occasionally associated with inclusion body rhinitis and pneumonia in piglets, reproductive disorders in pregnant sows and respiratory disease complex in older pigs. Immunosuppressive potential of PCMV infection is discussed. Macrophages were recognised as one of target cell types where propagation of virus occurs. The aim of present study was to set up model PCMV infection of monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs) in vitro for PCMV immunobiology research...
March 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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