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Laryssa Passos Sarmento Santos, Victor Guerreiro Bomfim, Camila Fagundes Bezerra, Natália Vieira Costa, Rafael Barreto Paes de Carvalho, Ricardo Sobral de Carvalho, Rogério da Hora Passos, Olivia Carla Bomfim Boaventura, André Luiz Nunes Gobatto
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a rare systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by vasculitis of the small arteries, the arterioles and the capillaries together with necrotizing granulomatous lesions. This case reports on a young female patient, previously diagnosed with granulomatosis with polyangiitis, who was admitted to the intensive care unit with seizures and hemodynamic instability due to a complete atrioventricular heart block. The event was associated with multiple episodes of sustained ventricular tachycardia without any structural heart changes or electrolyte disturbances...
July 2017: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
Noah A Stueven, Nicholas M Schlaeger, Aaron P Monte, Sheng-Ping L Hwang, Cheng-Chen Huang
Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer. Current challenges to melanoma therapy include the adverse effects from immunobiologics, resistance to drugs targeting the MAPK pathway, intricate interaction of many signal pathways, and cancer heterogeneity. Thus combinational therapy with drugs targeting multiple signaling pathways becomes a new promising therapy. Here, we report a family of stilbene-like compounds called A11 that can inhibit melanoma growth in both melanoma-forming zebrafish embryos and mouse melanoma cells...
October 14, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Soňa Jantová, Ema Paulovičová, Lucia Paulovičová, Michaela Janošková, Miroslav Pánik, Viktor Milata
The present study examined the cytotoxicity, anti-cancer reactivity, and immunomodulatory properties of new synthetically prepared fluoroquinolone derivative 6-fluoro-8-nitro-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylate (6FN) in vitro. The cytotoxicity/toxicity studies (concentrations in the range 1-100μM) are focused on the cervical cancer cells HeLa, murine melanoma cancer cells B16, non-cancer fibroblast NIH-3T3 cells and reconstructed human epidermis tissues EpiDerm™. The significant growth inhibition of cancer cells HeLa and B16 was detected...
October 6, 2017: Immunobiology
Abhishek D Garg, Patrizia Agostinis
The immunogenicity of cancer cells is an emerging determinant of anti-cancer immunotherapy. Beyond developing immunostimulatory regimens like dendritic cell-based vaccines, immune-checkpoint blockers, and adoptive T-cell transfer, investigators are beginning to focus on the immunobiology of dying cancer cells and its relevance for the success of anticancer immunotherapies. It is currently accepted that cancer cells may die in response to anti-cancer therapies through regulated cell death programs, which may either repress or increase their immunogenic potential...
November 2017: Immunological Reviews
Paula Carolina Bejo Wolkers, Marina Sayuri Yakuwa, Letícia Pancieri, Clesnan Mendes-Rodrigues, Maria Cândida de Carvalho Furtado, Débora Falleiros de Mello
OBJECTIVES: Identifying the use of child care situations, the vaccination situation and the reasons for non-vaccination, and characterizing whether mothers/guardians demonstrate notions about the right to special vaccines for children with type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. METHOD: A descriptive, cross-sectional study with analysis of quantitative data based on interviews with mothers/guardians, particularly regarding access to childcare and vaccination against influenza and pneumococcal 23-valent (PPSV)...
October 9, 2017: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
Shengbin Li, Gwantwa Mwakalundwa, Pamela J Skinner
T cells are critical to many immunological processes, including detecting and eliminating virus-infected cells, preventing autoimmunity, assisting in B-cell and plasma-cell production of antibodies, and detecting and eliminating cancer cells. The development of MHC-tetramer staining of antigen-specific T cells analyzed by flow cytometry has revolutionized our ability to study and understand the immunobiology of T cells. While extremely useful for determining the quantity and phenotype of antigen-specific T cells, flow cytometry cannot determine the spatial localization of antigen-specific T cells to other cells and structures in tissues, and current disaggregation techniques to extract the T cells needed for flow cytometry have limited effectiveness in non-lymphoid tissues...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Aytan Miranda Sipahi, Daniel Machado Baptista
Animal models and clinical studies have shown that helminth infections exert immunomodulatory activity, altering intestinal permeability and providing a potential beneficial action on autoimmune and inflammatory disorders in human beings, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and celiac disease. This is consistent with the theory that intestinal microbiota is responsible for shaping human immunological responses. With the arrival of the immunobiologic era and the use of antibodies, we propose a distinctive pathway for treating patients with IBD and celiac disease...
September 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Shelly J Samet, Stephen M Tompkins
The murine infection model is a cornerstone for influenza virus research and includes aspects such as disease pathogenesis, immunobiology, and vaccine and antiviral drug development. One compelling feature of the murine model is the availability of inbred mouse strains, each with a unique genetic makeup and potential for variable responses to influenza infection. Using highly controlled infection studies, the response to influenza virus infection is classified on a spectrum from susceptible to resistant, reflecting severe morbidity and high mortality, to limited or no morbidity and no mortality...
September 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Katia Cristina Kampa, Daphne Benatti Gonçalves Morsoletto, Marcela Rocha Loures, Alcindo Pissaia, Rodrigo Bremer Nones, Cláudia Alexandra Pontes Ivantes
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. In such pathologies, there is an increased production of alpha tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). Patients, in whom the conventional immunosuppressant treatment fails, require the use of immunobiological therapy, such as anti-TNF-α, a monoclonal antibody. Infliximab is an anti-TNF-α drug, a chimerical immunoglobulin, with a murine component, which is responsible for the generation of immunogenicity against the drug and formation of anti-TNF-α antibodies...
September 21, 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
N O Al-Harbi, A Nadeem, M M Al-Harbi, K M Zoheir, M A Ansari, A M El-Sherbeeny, K M Alanazi, M R Alotaibi, S F Ahmad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2017: Immunobiology
Stephen K Wikel
Significant new insights are being made into tick modulation of host immune defenses and the implications of those host defense changes on tick-borne pathogen transmission and establishment of infection. Understanding tick saliva complexity increased with construction and analyses of salivary gland cDNA libraries. High throughput next generation sequencing and advances in proteomics are revealing greater complexity of saliva, nature of gene families and differential gene expression patterns not previously attainable...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Peter F Weller, Lisa A Spencer
Eosinophils are a prominent cell type in particular host responses such as the response to helminth infection and allergic disease. Their effector functions have been attributed to their capacity to release cationic proteins stored in cytoplasmic granules by degranulation. However, eosinophils are now being recognized for more varied functions in previously underappreciated diverse tissue sites, based on the ability of eosinophils to release cytokines (often preformed) that mediate a broad range of activities into the local environment...
September 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
Yin Guo, Liming Luan, Naeem K Patil, Edward R Sherwood
Interleukin (IL)-15 is essential for natural killer (NK), NKT and memory (m) CD8(+) T cell development and function, and is currently under investigation as an immunotherapeutic agent for the treatment of cancer. Recently, the creation of IL-15 superagonist by complexing IL-15 and its high affinity receptor alpha (IL-15 Rα) in solution, inspired by the natural trans-presentation of IL-15, advances the potential of IL-15-based tumor immunotherapy. IL-15 superagonist shows promising advantages over monomeric IL-15 such as sustaining high circulating concentrations due to prolonged half-life and more potently stimulating NK and CD8(+) T effector lymphocytes...
September 1, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Aabra Ahmed, Arun-Angelo Patil, Devendra K Agrawal
The incidence of spinal cord injuries (SCI) is high every year. As the spinal cord is the highway that allows for the brain to control the rest of the body, spinal cord injuries greatly impact the quality of life of the patients. The SCI include the primary response consisting of the initial accident-induced damage and the secondary response that is characterized by damage due to inflammation and biological responses. Astrocytes are the first to act at the site of the injury, forming a glial scar and attracting immune cells...
September 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Madhu Nagappa, Monojit Debnath, Arun B Taly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Neurology India
Samata S Pandey, Dorian O Haskard, Ramzi Y Khamis
The identification of vulnerable coronary artery atherosclerotic plaques offers the prospect of either localized or systematic therapeutic targeting in order to prevent myocardial infarction. Molecular imaging of atherosclerosis adds to morphological imaging by focusing on the immunobiology hidden in and behind the endothelium and therefore may be able to improve the identification of prospective culprit lesions. Our focus has been on identifying arterial accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) by exploiting advances in knowledge of vascular pathobiology...
January 2017: Molecular Imaging
Sitansu Sekhar Nanda, Min Jik Kim, Kwangmeyung Kim, Georgia C Papaefthymiou, Subramanian Tamil Selvan, Dong Kee Yi
Quantum confinement in inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals produces brightly luminescent nanoparticles endowed with unique photo-physical properties, such as tunable optical properties. These have found widespread applications in nanotechnology. The ability to render such nanostructures biocompatible, while maintaining their tunable radiation in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum, renders them appropriate for bio-applications. Promising in vitro and in vivo diagnostic applications have been demonstrated, such as fluorescence-based detection of biological interactions, single molecule tracking, multiplexing and immunoassaying...
August 25, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Fee Bengsch, Dawson M Knoblock, Anni Liu, Florencia McAllister, Gregory L Beatty
The ability of some tumors to exclude effector T cells represents a major challenge to immunotherapy. T cell exclusion is particularly evident in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a disease where blockade of the immune checkpoint molecule CTLA-4 has not produced significant clinical activity. In PDAC, effector T cells are often scarce within tumor tissue and confined to peritumoral lymph nodes and lymphoid aggregates. We hypothesized that CTLA-4 blockade, despite a lack of clinical efficacy seen thus far in PDAC, might still alter T cell immunobiology, which would have therapeutic implications...
August 30, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Susmit Suvas
Substance P (SP) is an undecapeptide present in the CNS and the peripheral nervous system. SP released from the peripheral nerves exerts its biological and immunological activity via high-affinity neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R). SP is also produced by immune cells and acts as an autocrine or paracrine fashion to regulate the function of immune cells. In addition to its proinflammatory role, SP and its metabolites in combination with insulin-like growth factor-1 are shown to promote the corneal epithelial wound healing...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Alexander K Tsai, Asra Y Khan, Christina E Worgo, Lucy L Wang, Yuanyuan Liang, Eduardo Davila
Combination therapies have the potential to improve outcomes in melanoma patients but have not yet been clinically efficacious. Here, we used high-throughput flow cytometry-based screening to identify and characterize candidate therapies that might synergize with and augment T-cell immunotherapy efficacy. Two lead therapies, regorafenib (Reg) and NU7441, were selected based on their ability to alter a variety of immunomodulatory proteins, including CD55, CD73, CD155, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), and HLA class I in a heterogeneous panel of melanomas...
September 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
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