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Immunobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914981/complement-a-primer-for-the-coming-therapeutic-revolution
#1
REVIEW
Scott R Barnum
The complement system is an important part of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Originally characterized as a single serum component contributing to the killing of bacteria, we now know that there are close to sixty complement proteins, multiple activation pathways and a wide range of effector functions mediated by complement. The system plays a critical role in host defense against bacteria, viruses, fungi and other pathogens. However, inappropriate complement activation contributes to the pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases and many inflammatory syndromes...
November 30, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910858/immunosuppression-in-liver-tumors-opening-the-portal-to-effective-immunotherapy
#2
REVIEW
P Guha, J Reha, S C Katz
We have recently witnessed substantial progress with immunotherapy for selected diseases. Checkpoint inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells are among the most promising agents. Whereas much of the early success with CAR-T cells has been demonstrated with hematological malignancies, important barriers remain for the application of CAR-T cell therapies for the management of metastatic solid tumors. The challenges are particularly apparent when considering primary and metastatic tumors in the liver...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881837/systemic-and-mucosal-immune-responses-following-oral-adenoviral-delivery-of-influenza-vaccine-to-the-human-intestine-by-radio-controlled-capsule
#3
Leesun Kim, C Josefina Martinez, Katie A Hodgson, George R Trager, Jennifer R Brandl, Erik P Sandefer, Walter J Doll, Dave Liebowitz, Sean N Tucker
There are several benefits of oral immunization including the ability to elicit mucosal immune responses that may protect against pathogens that invade through a mucosal surface. Our understanding of human immune biology is hampered by the difficulty in isolating mucosal cells from humans, and the fact that animal models may or may not completely mirror human intestinal immunobiology. In this human pharmacodynamic study, a novel adenovirus vector-based platform expressing influenza hemagglutinin was explored...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865205/human-hepatic-stellate-cells-and-inflammation-a-regulated-cytokine-network-balance
#4
Mehdi Najar, Hussein Fayyad-Kazan, Wissam H Faour, Adil El Taghdouini, Gordana Raicevic, Mustapha Najimi, Michel Toungouz, Leo A van Grunsven, Etienne Sokal, Laurence Lagneaux
AIM: Uncertainty about the safety of cell therapy continues to be a major challenge to the medical community. Inflammation and the associated immune response represent a major safety concern hampering the development of long-term clinical therapy. In vivo interactions between the cell graft and the host immune system are mediated by functional environmental sensors and stressors that play significant roles in the immunobiology of the graft. Within this context, human liver stellate cells (HSC) demonstrated marked immunological plasticity that has main importance for future liver cell therapy application...
November 16, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863552/generation-of-potent-porcine-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells-modcs-by-modified-culture-protocol
#5
Teerawut Nedumpun, Patcharee Ritprajak, Sanipa Suradhat
In vitro derivation of dendritic cells (DCs) is an alternative approach to overcome the low frequency of primary DCs and the difficulty of isolation techniques for studying DC immunobiology. To date, the conventional culture protocol of porcine monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) has been widely used. However, this protocol is not practical due to the requirement of a substantial number of blood monocytes, and the process often interferes with DC maturation. To improve in vitro porcine MoDC generation, we modified the previous conventional DC generation protocol, based on the human and mouse primary DC culture system, and compared phenotypic and functional features of MoDCs derived from the modified protocol to the conventional protocol...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861679/-evaluation-of-the-cold-chain-for-vaccine-conservation-in-primary-healthcare-centers-in-the-south-and-midwest-regions-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-city-brazil-in-2011-2012
#6
Dante Raglione, Gustavo Antônio Marcolongo Bezerra, Marta Heloísa Lopes, Maria Lígia Bacciotte Ramos Nerger, Tereza Cristina Guimarães, Ana Marli Christovam Sartori
OBJECTIVE: to assess the cold chain capacity, health workers' immunobiological product conservation knowledge and practices in Primary Healthcare Centers (PHC) in São Paulo city, Brazil. METHODS: this descriptive study included 24 randomly selected PHC in the South and Midwest regions of the city; between December 2011 and July 2012, we interviewed the health workers on their vaccine conservation knowledge/practice and observed the local infrastructure, using a form developed for this project; we assigned points to items of the form and classified each PHC as sufficient, regular or insufficient...
January 2016: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861678/-evaluation-of-vaccination-coverage-rapid-monitoring-in-the-west-minas-gerais-extended-health-region-brazil-2012
#7
Guilherme Rodrigues Diniz Santos, Suelem Santos Silva, Eliete Albano de Azevedo Guimarães, Ricardo Bezerra Cavalcante, Valéria Conceição de Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the results of the Rapid Monitoring of the Coverage (RMC) of the childhood vaccination schedule in West Minas Gerais Extended Health Region, Brazil, in 2012. METHODS: this was a descriptive study of RMC data available on the Unified Health System Information Department website; coverage of the childhood vaccination schedule was examined in 6 Health Micro-Regions. RESULTS: RMC involved 7,728 children aged between 6 months and 4 years and 11 months old; all micro-regions had at least one immunobiologic product with vaccination coverage below that recommended by the Ministry of Health; the most cited reason for non-vaccination was lack of time (21...
January 2016: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846725/-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-from-immunobiology-to-immunotherapy
#8
O Bílek, L Bohovicová, R Demlová, A Poprach, R Lakomý, L Zdražilová-Dubská
BACKGROUND: The treatment of early or locally advanced stages of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is based on surgical resection or radiotherapy. Metastatic disease is always incurable, treatment is palliative, systemic based on chemotherapy or target therapy. NSCLC is the most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and new therapeutic approaches are needed. Based on the emerging data on the role of immune system in shaping of tumor outbreak and outcome, immunotherapy is currently in the center of interest of cancer research and therapy of solid cancers including NSCLC...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846572/a-large-fraction-of-hla-class-i-ligands-are-proteasome-generated-spliced-peptides
#9
Juliane Liepe, Fabio Marino, John Sidney, Anita Jeko, Daniel E Bunting, Alessandro Sette, Peter M Kloetzel, Michael P H Stumpf, Albert J R Heck, Michele Mishto
The proteasome generates the epitopes presented on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules that elicit CD8(+) T cell responses. Reports of proteasome-generated spliced epitopes exist, but they have been regarded as rare events. Here, however, we show that the proteasome-generated spliced peptide pool accounts for one-third of the entire HLA class I immunopeptidome in terms of diversity and one-fourth in terms of abundance. This pool also represents a unique set of antigens, possessing particular and distinguishing features...
October 21, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836246/emerging-role-of-immunotherapy-in-urothelial-carcinoma-immunobiology-biomarkers
#10
REVIEW
Randy F Sweis, Matthew D Galsky
Urothelial bladder cancer is one of the first cancers recognized to be immunogenic since 40 years ago when the use of bacillus Calmette-Guerin was shown to prevent recurrence. Since that time, our knowledge of immune biology of cancer has expanded tremendously, and patients with bladder cancer finally have new active immunotherapeutic drugs on the horizon. Anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) therapy has shown impressively durable responses in urothelial bladder cancer (UBC), but the reported response rates warrant improvement...
December 2016: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828625/clinical-management-of-localized-bcg-adverse-events-in-children
#11
Thais das Neves Fraga Moreira, Maria Isabel de Moraes-Pinto, Beatriz Tavares Costa-Carvalho, Anete Sevciovic Grumach, Lily Yin Weckx
BCG adverse events (BCG-AE) are rare conditions with no well-established treatment. This study aims to describe clinical characteristics and outcome of localized BCG-AE. Children with BCG-AEs who were treated at the Reference Center for Special Immunobiologicals of the Federal University of São Paulo from 2009 to 2011 were included. Patients were followed monthly until 3 months after healing. One hundred and twenty-seven patients with localized BCG-AE were followed: 67 (52.7%) had suppurative lymphadenitis; 30 (23...
November 3, 2016: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826123/novel-strategies-of-adoptive-immunotherapy-how-natural-killer-cells-may-change-the-treatment-of-elderly-patients-with-acute-myeloblastic-leukemia
#12
REVIEW
Roberto M Lemoli, Sarah Parisi, Antonio Curti
Although many attempts have been made to identify novel molecular-targeted therapies for patients with acute myeloid leukemia, their translation into the clinic have had limited impact. In particular, the question of effective and curative treatments for elderly patients, who are not eligible for stem cell transplantation, remains an unmet medical need. To answer this question, a wide range of immunologic therapeutic strategies, mostly T cell based, have been proposed and investigated. At present, however, the clinical results have been largely unsatisfactory...
November 5, 2016: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813829/vascular-and-immunobiology-of-the-circulatory-sphingosine-1-phosphate-gradient
#13
Keisuke Yanagida, Timothy Hla
Vertebrates are endowed with a closed circulatory system, the evolution of which required novel structural and regulatory changes. Furthermore, immune cell trafficking paradigms adapted to the barriers imposed by the closed circulatory system. How did such changes occur mechanistically? We propose that spatial compartmentalization of the lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) may be one such mechanism. In vertebrates, S1P is spatially compartmentalized in the blood and lymphatic circulation, thus comprising a sharp S1P gradient across the endothelial barrier...
October 21, 2016: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810335/establishing-a-dose-response-relationship-between-acute-resistance-exercise-and-the-immune-system-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Adam Michael Szlezak, Siri Lauluten Szlezak, James Keane, Lotti Tajouri, Clare Minahan
Exercise immunology research has traditionally focussed on aerobic-exercise, however it has become apparent in more recent years that resistance-exercise can also considerably affect host immunobiology. To date however, no systematic process has been used to establish a dose-response relationship between resistance-exercise and the immune system. The present systematic review was thus conducted to determine the dose-response effects of a bout of resistance-exercise on acute leukocyte counts. In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic literature search was conducted in the electronic databases, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar, over the date range of 1989-2016...
November 1, 2016: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802388/identification-of-mhc-bound-peptides-from-dendritic-cells-infected-with-salmonella-enterica-strain-sl1344-implications-for-a-non-typhoidal-salmonella-vaccine
#15
Karuna P Karunakaran, Hong Yu, Xiaozhou Jiang, Queenie Chan, Michael F Goldberg, Marc K Jenkins, Leonard J Foster, Robert C Brunham
Worldwide Salmonella enterica infections result in substantial morbidity and mortality and is the major cause of infant bacteremia in sub Saharan Africa. Diseases caused by Salmonella are treatable with antibiotics but successful antibiotic treatment has become difficult due to antimicrobial resistance and collateral effects on the microbiome. An effective vaccine together with public health efforts may be a better strategy to control these infections. Protective immunity against Salmonella depends primarily on CD4 T cell-mediated immune responses and therefore identifying relevant T cell antigens is necessary for Salmonella vaccine development...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787804/extensive-phenotypic-analysis-transcription-factor-profiling-and-effector-cytokine-production-of-human-mait-cells-by-flow-cytometry
#16
Joana Dias, Johan K Sandberg, Edwin Leeansyah
The mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a large and relatively recently described innate-like antimicrobial T cell subset in humans. The study of human MAIT cells is still in its infancy, and many aspects of MAIT cell immunobiology in health and disease remain unexplored. Here, we describe methodological approaches and protocols to investigate the expression of a broad spectrum of surface receptors on human MAIT cells, and to examine their unique transcription factor profile, as well as their antimicrobial effector function using multicolor flow cytometry-based techniques...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783386/characterization-of-resident-lymphocytes-in-human-pancreatic-islets
#17
Miljana Radenkovic, Kristina Uvebrant, Oskar Skog, Luis Sarmiento, Jeanette Avartsson, Peter Storm, Petter Vickman, Per-Anders Bertilsson, Malin Fex, Olle Korsgren, Corrado M Cilio
The current view of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is that it is an immune-mediated disease where lymphocytes infiltrate the pancreatic islets, promote killing of beta cells and cause overt diabetes. Although tissue resident immune cells have been demonstrated in several organs, the composition of lymphocytes in human healthy pancreatic islets have been scarcely studied. Here we aimed to investigate the phenotype of immune cells associated to human islets of non-diabetic organ donors. A flow cytometry analysis of isolated islets from perfused pancreases (n=38) was employed to identify alpha, beta, T, NK and B cells...
October 26, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742843/a-human-corneal-epithelial-cell-line-model-for-limbal-stem-cell-biology-and-limbal-immunobiology
#18
Bakiah Shaharuddin, Sajjad Ahmad, Nani Md Latar, Simi Ali, Annette Meeson
: : Limbal stem cell (LSC) deficiency is a visually debilitating condition caused by abnormal maintenance of LSCs. It is treated by transplantation of donor-derived limbal epithelial cells (LECs), the success of which depends on the presence and quality of LSCs within the transplant. Understanding the immunobiological responses of these cells within the transplants could improve cell engraftment and survival. However, human corneal rings used as a source of LSCs are not always readily available for research purposes...
October 14, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742793/toxicity-and-efficacy-probability-interval-design-for-phase-1-adoptive-cell-therapy-dose-finding-clinical-trials
#19
Daniel H Li, James B Whitmore, Wentian Guo, Yuan Ji
Recent trials of adoptive cell therapy (ACT), such as the chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells therapy, have demonstrated promising therapeutic effects for cancer patients. A main issue in the product development is to decide appropriate dose of ACT. Traditional phase 1 trial designs for cytotoxic agents explicitly assume that toxicity increases monotonically with dose levels and implicitly assume the same for efficacy to justify dose escalation. ACT usually induces rapid responses, and the monotonic dose-response assumption is unlikely to hold due to its immunobiological activities...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738982/immunobiology-and-host-response-to-hev
#20
Yihua Zhou
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute self-limiting hepatitis in most cases and chronic infection in rare circumstances. It is believed to be noncytopathic, so immunologically mediated events should play important roles in its pathogenesis and infection outcomes. The anti-HEV antibody response was clarified when the major antigenic determinants on the ORF2 polypeptide were determined, which are located in its C-terminal portion. This subregion also forms the conformational neutralization epitopes. Robust anti-HEV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG responses usually develop 3-4 weeks after infection in experimentally infected nonhuman primates...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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