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Immunobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444931/complete-remission-with-reduction-of-high-risk-clones-following-haploidentical-nk-cell-therapy-against-mds-and-aml
#1
Andreas T Björklund, Mattias Carlsten, Ebba Sohlberg, Lisa L Liu, Trevor Clancy, Mohsen Karimi, Sarah Cooley, Jeffrey S Miller, Monika Klimkowska, Marie Schaffer, Emma Watz, Kristina I Wikstrom, Pontus Blomberg, Bjorn E Wahlin, Marzia Palma, Lotta Hansson, Per Ljungman, Eva Hellström-Lindberg, Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren, Karl-Johan Malmberg
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety, efficacy and immunobiological correlates of allogeneic NK cell-based therapy in primary chemotherapy-refractory or relapsed high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), secondary AML (MDS/AML), and de novo AML patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Sixteen patients received fludarabine/cyclophosphamide conditioning combined with total lymphoid irradiation followed by adoptive immunotherapy with IL-2-activated haploidentical NK cells. RESULTS: NK cell infusions were well tolerated with only transient adverse events observed in the 16 patients...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429758/the-immunobiology-of-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cell-mait-function-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis-regulation-by-cholic-acid-induced-interleukin-7
#2
Xiang Jiang, Min Lian, Yanmei Li, Weici Zhang, Qixia Wang, Yiran Wei, Jun Zhang, Weihua Chen, Xiao Xiao, Qi Miao, Zhaolian Bian, Dekai Qiu, Jingyuan Fang, Aftab A Ansari, Patrick S C Leung, Ross L Coppel, Ruqi Tang, M Eric Gershwin, Xiong Ma
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are novel innate-like T cells constituting a significant proportion of circulating and hepatic T cells. Herein, we extensively examine the phenotypical and functional alterations of MAIT cells and their regulation in a cohort of 56 patients with Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC) and 53 healthy controls (HC). Additionally alterations of MAIT cells were assessed before and after UDCA treatment. Finally the localization of MAIT cell in liver was examined using specific tetramer staining and the underlying mechanisms of these alterations in PBC were explored...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408707/precision-cut-human-liver-slice-cultures-as-an-immunological-platform
#3
Xia Wu, Jessica B Roberto, Allison Knupp, Heidi L Kenerson, Camtu D Truong, Sebastian Y Yuen, Katherine J Brempelis, Marianne Tuefferd, Antony Chen, Helen Horton, Raymond S Yeung, Ian N Crispe
The liver is the central metabolic organ in the human body, and also plays an essential role in innate and adaptive immunity. While mouse models offer significant insights into immune-inflammatory liver disease, human immunology differs in important respects. It is not easy to address those differences experimentally. Therefore, to improve the understanding of human liver immunobiology and pathology, we have established precision-cut human liver slices to study innate immunity in human tissue. Human liver slices collected from resected livers could be maintained in ex vivo culture over a two-week period...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406361/precision-medicine-in-the-treatment-of-primary-immunodeficiency-diseases
#4
Jennifer W Leiding, Mark Ballow
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Since the 1990s with the advances in molecular biology, a number of genetic defects have been described. The International Union of Immunological Sciences has recently updated the classification of genetic defects associated with primary immune deficiencies that now number 354. With the ever-expanding list of new monogenic disorders and a better understanding of the immunobiology and function of these defective genes, new therapies have emerged particularly aimed at the autoimmune and inflammatory conditions that plague these patients...
February 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389898/when-immune-cells-turn-bad-tumor-associated-microglia-macrophages-in-glioma
#5
REVIEW
Saskia Roesch, Carmen Rapp, Steffen Dettling, Christel Herold-Mende
As a substantial part of the brain tumor microenvironment (TME), glioma-associated microglia/macrophages (GAMs) have an emerging role in tumor progression and in controlling anti-tumor immune responses. We review challenges and improvements of cell models and highlight the contribution of this highly plastic cell population to an immunosuppressive TME, besides their well-known functional role regarding glioma cell invasion and angiogenesis. Finally, we summarize first therapeutic interventions to target GAMs and their effect on the immunobiology of gliomas, focusing on their interaction with T cells...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379577/aminosugar-based-immunomodulator-lipid-a-synthetic-approaches
#6
REVIEW
Alla Zamyatina
The immediate immune response to infection by Gram-negative bacteria depends on the structure of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS, also known as endotoxin), a complex glycolipid constituting the outer leaflet of the bacterial outer membrane. Recognition of picomolar quantities of pathogenic LPS by the germ-line encoded Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) complex triggers the intracellular pro-inflammatory signaling cascade leading to the expression of cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins and reactive oxygen species which manifest an acute inflammatory response to infection...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367713/secondary-malignancies-after-high-dose-chemotherapy-in-germ-cell-tumor-patients-a-34-year-retrospective-study-of-the-european-society-for-blood-and-marrow-transplantation-ebmt
#7
Andrea Necchi, Salvatore Lo Vullo, Simona Secondino, Giovanni Rosti, Manuela Badoglio, Patrizia Giannatempo, Daniele Raggi, Francesco Lanza, Christian Chabannon, Chiara Bonini, Luigi Mariani, Paolo Pedrazzoli
We aimed to assess the incidence and risk factors of secondary malignancy (SM) in the young adult patients who received high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) for germ cell tumors (GCT). The EBMT database was interrogated. Criteria for patient selection included adult male GCT and HDCT administered in any line of therapy. Cumulative incidence methods were used to estimate the time-to-SM diagnosis. Univariable Fine and Gray proportional hazard regression evaluated risk factors of SM occurrence. From 1981 to 2015, 9153 autografts were identified...
January 24, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363156/transcriptional-patterns-associated-with-bdca3-expression-on-bdca1-myeloid-dendritic-cells
#8
Evelyn van der Aa, Paula J Biesta, Andrea M Woltman, Sonja I Buschow
Myeloid dendritic cells, including BDCA3hi DCs and BDCA1+ DCs and (hereafter dubbed DC1 and DC2 for clarity), play a pivotal role in the induction and regulation of immune responses. Interestingly, a fraction of DC2 also expresses low to intermediate levels of BDCA3. It is unknown whether BDCA3+ DC2 also share other traits with DC1 that are absent in BDCA3- DC2 and/or whether BDCA3 expression renders DC2 functionally distinct from their BDCA3-lacking counterparts. Here, we used expression analysis on a predefined set of immunology-related genes to determine divergence between BDCA3-expressing and BDCA3-negative DC2 and their relation to bona fide BDCA3hi DC1...
December 13, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360721/preclinical-data-supporting-antitumor-activity-of-pd-1-blockade
#9
Michael A Curran
Antibodies that block the PD-1 coinhibitory receptor on T cells or its primary ligand, PD-L1, have demonstrated unprecedented efficacy across a diverse array of both solid and hematologic malignancies in the clinic. These advances were built on a foundation of murine preclinical tumor model studies, which both demonstrated the therapeutic potential of PD-1/PD-L1 antibody blockade and also provided critical insights into the cellular and molecular processes underlying their capacity to elicit immune-mediated tumor regressions...
January 2018: Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359577/phage-therapy-in-allergic-disorders
#10
Andrzej Górski, Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak, Marzanna Łusiak-Szelachowska, Ryszard Międzybrodzki, Beata Weber-Dąbrowska, Jan Borysowski
Allergic disorders pose a growing challenge to medicine and our society. Therefore, novel approaches to prevention and therapy are needed. Recent progress in studies on bacterial viruses (phages) has provided new data indicating that they have significant immunomodulating activities. We show how those activities could be translated into beneficial effects in allergic disorders and present initial clinical data that support this hope. Impact statement Allergic disorders pose a growing challenge to medicine and our society, so new approaches to prevention and therapy are urgently needed...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352666/handling-processing-and-disposal-of-stem-cell-products-in-europe-a-survey-by-the-cellular-therapy-and-immunobiology-working-party-of-the-european-society-for-blood-and-marrow-transplantation
#11
Andreas Holbro, Helen Baldomero, Francesco Lanza, Christian Chabannon, John A Snowden, Andreas Buser, Laura Infanti, Nina Worel, Anna Sureda, Manuela Badoglio, Jakob Passweg, Chiara Bonini
BACKGROUND: There is considerable heterogeneity in processing of stem cells for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation across Europe. The Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (FACT)-Joint Accreditation Committee International Society for Cellular Therapy and European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) (JACIE) standards provide minimum guidelines that, however, leave room for significant variations in practices at the individual transplantation center (TC)...
January 15, 2018: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350342/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-of-the-bone-marrow-and-natural-killer-cells-cell-interactions-and-cross-modulation
#12
Mehdi Najar, Mohammad Fayyad-Kazan, Nathalie Meuleman, Dominique Bron, Hussein Fayyad-Kazan, Laurence Lagneaux
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells that have shown promise for several different therapeutic applications. As they are able to modulate the function of several types of immune cells, BM-MSCs are highly important in the field of cell-based immunotherapy. Understanding BM-MSC-natural killer (NK) cell interactions is crucial for improving their therapeutic efficiency. Here, we observed that the type of NK cell-activating cytokine (e.g., IL-2, IL-12, IL-15 and IL-21) strongly influenced the outcomes of their interactions with BM-MSCs...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346215/challenges-and-perspectives-for-immunotherapy-in-adenocarcinoma-of-the-pancreas-the-cancer-immunity-cycle
#13
Markus Kieler, Matthias Unseld, Daniela Bianconi, Gerald Prager
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal disease with a devastating 5-year overall survival of only approximately 7%. Although just 4% of all malignant diseases are accounted to PDAC, it will become the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths before 2030. Immunotherapy has proven to be a promising therapeutic option in various malignancies such as melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), microsatellite instability-high gastrointestinal cancer, urinary tract cancer, kidney cancer, and others...
February 2018: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327186/environmental-pollutants-pathogens-and-immune-system-in-earthworms
#14
Shyamasree Ghosh
Earthworms also known as farmer's friends are natural tillers of soil. They belong to Phylum Annelida and class Oligochaeta. Acid soils with organic matter and surface humus maintain the largest fauna of worms and earthworms. Due to their habitat in soil, they are constantly exposed to microbes and pollution generated by anthropogenic sources. Studies have revealed that damage of the immune system of earthworms can lead to alterations of both morphological and cellular characteristics of worms, activation of signalling pathways and can strongly influence their survival...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324042/mosquito-immunobiology-the-intersection-of-vector-health-and-vector-competence
#15
Lyric C Bartholomay, Kristin Michel
As holometabolous insects that occupy distinct aquatic and terrestrial environments in larval and adult stages and utilize hematophagy for nutrient acquisition, mosquitoes are subjected to a wide variety of symbiotic interactions. Indeed, mosquitoes play host to endosymbiotic, entomopathogenic, and mosquito-borne organisms, including protozoa, viruses, bacteria, fungi, fungal-like organisms, and metazoans, all of which trigger and shape innate infection-response capacity. Depending on the infection or interaction, the mosquito may employ, for example, cellular and humoral immune effectors for septic infections in the hemocoel, humoral infection responses in the midgut lumen, and RNA interference and programmed cell death for intracellular pathogens...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302887/analysis-of-immunobiologic-markers-in-primary-and-recurrent-glioblastoma
#16
Maryam Rahman, Jesse Kresak, Changlin Yang, Jianping Huang, Wesley Hiser, Paul Kubilis, Duane Mitchell
Glioblastoma (GBM) generates a varied immune response and understanding the immune microenvironment may lead to novel immunotherapy treatments modalities. The goal of this study was to evaluate the expression of immunologic markers of potential clinical significance in primary versus recurrent GBM and assess the relationship between these markers and molecular characteristics of GBM. Human GBM samples were evaluated and analyzed with immunohistochemistry for multiple immunobiologic markers (CD3, CD8, FoxP3, CD68, CD163, PD1, PDL1, CTLA4, CD70)...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296702/a-functional-dc-cross-talk-promotes-human-ilc-homeostasis-in-humanized-mice
#17
Silvia Lopez-Lastra, Guillemette Masse-Ranson, Oriane Fiquet, Sylvie Darche, Nicolas Serafini, Yan Li, Mathilde Dusséaux, Helene Strick-Marchand, James P Di Santo
Humanized mice harboring human hematopoietic systems offer a valuable small-animal model to assess human immune responses to infection, inflammation, and cancer. Human immune system (HIS) mice develop a broad repertoire of antigen receptor bearing B and T cells that can participate in adaptive immune responses after immunization. In contrast, analysis of innate immune components, including innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and natural killer (NK) cells, is limited in current HIS mouse models, partly because of the poor development of these rare lymphoid subsets...
April 11, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287601/mtor-inhibition-improves-the-immunomodulatory-properties-of-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-inducing-cox-2-and-pge2
#18
Binsheng Wang, Yu Lin, Yongxian Hu, Wei Shan, Senquan Liu, Yulin Xu, Hao Zhang, Shuyang Cai, Xiaohong Yu, Zhen Cai, He Huang
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for the treatment of various inflammatory disorders due to their profound immunomodulatory properties. However, the immunosuppressive capacity of MSCs needs activation by an inflammatory microenvironment, which may negatively impact the therapeutic effect because of increased immunogenicity. Here we explore the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling on the immunosuppressive capacity of MSCs, and its impact on immunogenicity in the inflammatory microenvironment...
December 29, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278673/immunotherapy-for-glioblastoma-on-the-sidelines-or-in-the-game
#19
David A Reardon, Kai Wucherpfennig, E Antonio Chiocca
The successful eradication of multiple tumor types, often in a durable manner, has recently validated the bona fide potential of an effectively mobilized immune response as a cancer therapy. Critical questions at present, therefore, include deciphering why some patients respond while others do not, as well as why certain cancers respond while others like glioblastoma do not. Glioblastoma remains a major unmet need in medical oncology and is considered incurable with less than 10% of patients surviving five years from diagnosis...
November 2017: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276510/recent-successes-and-future-directions-in-immunotherapy-of-cutaneous-melanoma
#20
REVIEW
Hassan Sadozai, Thomas Gruber, Robert Emil Hunger, Mirjam Schenk
The global health burden associated with melanoma continues to increase while treatment options for metastatic melanoma are limited. Nevertheless, in the past decade, the field of cancer immunotherapy has witnessed remarkable advances for the treatment of a number of malignancies including metastatic melanoma. Although the earliest observations of an immunological antitumor response were made nearly a century ago, it was only in the past 30 years, that immunotherapy emerged as a viable therapeutic option, in particular for cutaneous melanoma...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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