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Immunobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229147/effects-of-dermal-wounding-on-distal-primary-tumor-immunobiology-in-mice
#1
Leah M Pyter, Daniel B McKim, Yasmin Husain, Humberto Calero, Jonathan P Godbout, John F Sheridan, Phillip T Marucha, Christopher G Engeland
BACKGROUND: Before primary oral tumors are treated, various prophylactic procedures that require tissue repair are often necessary (e.g. biopsies, tooth extractions, radiation, and tracheotomies). Wound healing and tumor growth harness similar immune/inflammatory mechanisms. Our previous work indicates that tumors impair wound healing, although the extent to which tissue repair conversely influences tumor growth is poorly understood. Here, we test the hypothesis that dermal wound healing exacerbates primary tumor growth and influences tumor immunobiology...
January 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224776/development-of-a-sybr-green-i-real-time-pcr-for-detection-and-quantitation-of-orthopoxvirus-by-using-ectromelia-virus
#2
Wenyu Cheng, Xiaobing He, Huaijie Jia, Guohua Chen, Cong Wang, Jun Zhang, Zhizhong Jing
Ectromelia virus (ECTV) is the causative agent of mousepox, which has devastating effects in laboratory-mouse colonies and causes economic loss in biomedical research. More importantly, ECTV has been extensively used as an excellent model for studies of the pathogenesis and immunobiology of human smallpox. A rapid and sensitive SYBR Green I-based real-time PCR assay was developed and used for the detection and quantitation of orthopoxvirus by using ECTV in this study. Primers targeted to the highly conserved region of major core protein P4b gene of orthopoxvirus were designed and the standard plasmid was constructed...
December 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178588/early-barriers-to-neonatal-porcine-islet-engraftment-in-a-dual-transplant-model
#3
K P Samy, R P Davis, Q Gao, B M Martin, M Song, J Cano, A B Farris, A McDonald, E K Gall, C R Dove, F V Leopardi, T How, K D Williams, G R Devi, B H Collins, A D Kirk
Porcine islet xenografts have the potential to provide an inexhaustible source of islets for β cell replacement. Proof-of-concept has been established in nonhuman primates. However, significant barriers to xenoislet transplantation remain, including, the poorly understood instant blood mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR), and a thorough understanding of early xeno-specific immune responses. A paucity of data exist comparing xeno-specific immune responses to allo-islet responses in primates. We recently developed a dual islet transplant model, which enables direct histological comparison of early engraftment immunobiology...
November 25, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177855/modeling-primary-human-monocytes-with-the-trans-differentiation-cell-line-blaer1
#4
Moritz M Gaidt, Francesca Rapino, Thomas Graf, Veit Hornung
Monocytes and macrophages play a pivotal role in the induction and shaping of immune responses. Expressing a broad array of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), monocytes and macrophages constitute an integral component of the innate branch of the immune system. Traditionally, the majority of innate immune sensing and signaling pathways have been studied in macrophages of the murine system. This is largely due to the fact that genetic loss-of-function studies are amenable in this species. On the other hand, human cell lines of the monocyte-macrophage cell lineage have been widely used to study myeloid cells in vitro...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159704/neuroimmune-regulation-of-jc-virus-by-intracellular-and-extracellular-agnoprotein
#5
Michael Craigie, Stephanie Cicalese, Ilker Kudret Sariyer
JC virus (JCV) is a human polyomavirus and the etiologic agent of the demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PML is observed in patients with underlying immunocompromising conditions, suggesting that neuro-immune interactions between peripheral immune cells and neuro-glia play an important role in controlling viral reactivation in the brain. There is little known about the immunobiology of JCV reactivation in glial cells and the role of immune, glial, and viral players in this regulation...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150562/the-role-of-mhc-e-in-t-cell-immunity-is-conserved-among-humans-rhesus-macaques-and-cynomolgus-macaques
#6
Helen L Wu, Roger W Wiseman, Colette M Hughes, Gabriela M Webb, Shaheed A Abdulhaqq, Benjamin N Bimber, Katherine B Hammond, Jason S Reed, Lina Gao, Benjamin J Burwitz, Justin M Greene, Fidel Ferrer, Alfred W Legasse, Michael K Axthelm, Byung S Park, Simon Brackenridge, Nicholas J Maness, Andrew J McMichael, Louis J Picker, David H O'Connor, Scott G Hansen, Jonah B Sacha
MHC-E is a highly conserved nonclassical MHC class Ib molecule that predominantly binds and presents MHC class Ia leader sequence-derived peptides for NK cell regulation. However, MHC-E also binds pathogen-derived peptide Ags for presentation to CD8(+) T cells. Given this role in adaptive immunity and its highly monomorphic nature in the human population, HLA-E is an attractive target for novel vaccine and immunotherapeutic modalities. Development of HLA-E-targeted therapies will require a physiologically relevant animal model that recapitulates HLA-E-restricted T cell biology...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150430/interferon-%C3%AE-signaling-in-melanocytes-and-melanoma-cells-regulates-expression-of-ctla-4
#7
Xuan Mo, Hanghang Zhang, Sarah Preston, Kayla Martin, Bo Zhou, Nish Vadalia, Ana M Gamero, Jonathan Soboloff, Italo Tempera, M Raza Zaidi
CTLA-4 is a cell surface receptor on T cells that functions as an immune checkpoint molecule to enforce tolerance to cognate antigens. Anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapy is highly effective at reactivating T cell responses against melanoma, which is postulated to be due to targeting CTLA-4 on T cells. Here we report that CTLA-4 is also highly expressed by most human melanoma cell lines, as well as in normal human melanocytes. Interferon-gamma (IFNG) signaling activated the expression of the human CTLA-4 gene in a melanocyte and melanoma cell-specific manner...
November 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145972/cancer-immunotherapy-getting-brainy-visualizing-the-distinctive-cns-metastatic-niche-to-illuminate-therapeutic-resistance
#8
Mark Owyong, Niloufar Hosseini-Nassab, Gizem Efe, Alexander Honkala, Renske J E van den Bijgaart, Vicki Plaks, Bryan Ronain Smith
The advent of cancer immunotherapy (CIT) and its success in treating primary and metastatic cancer may offer substantially improved outcomes for patients. Despite recent advancements, many malignancies remain resistant to CIT, among which are brain metastases, a particularly virulent disease with no apparent cure. The immunologically unique niche of the brain has prompted compelling new questions in immuno-oncology such as the effects of tissue-specific differences in immune response, heterogeneity between primary tumors and distant metastases, and the role of spatiotemporal dynamics in shaping an effective anti-tumor immune response...
November 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118006/the-immunobiology-of-cd27-and-ox40-and-their-potential-as-targets-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#9
Sarah L Buchan, Anne Rogel, Aymen Al-Shamkhani
In recent years monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) able to reinvigorate anti-tumor T cell immunity have heralded a paradigm shift in cancer treatment. The most high profile of these mAbs block the inhibitory checkpoint receptors PD-1 and CTLA-4 and have improved life expectancy for patients across a range of tumor types. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that failure of some patients to respond to checkpoint inhibition is due to inadequate T-cell priming. For full T-cell activation two signals must be received and ligands providing the second of these signals, termed costimulation, are often lacking in tumors...
November 8, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108874/corrigendum-to-hmgb1-modulates-lewis-cell-autophagy-and-promotes-cell-survival-via-rage-hmgb1-erk1-2-positive-feedback-during-nutrient-depletion-immunobiology-220-may-5-2015-539-44
#10
Z Su, T Wang, H Zhu, P Zhang, R Han, Y Liu, P Ni, H Shen, W Xu, H Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108822/the-immunobiology-and-clinical-features-of-type-1-autoimmune-polyglandular-syndrome-aps-1
#11
REVIEW
Can-Jie Guo, Patrick S C Leung, Weici Zhang, Xiong Ma, M Eric Gershwin
Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is a subtype of the autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome characterized by the simultaneous or sequential dysfunction of multiple endocrine or non-endocrine glands. A clinical diagnosis of APS-1 is typically based on the presence of at least two of three following criteria: chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism and adrenal insufficiency. The first identified causative mutated gene for APS-1 is autoimmune regulator (AIRE) encoding a critical transcription factor, which is primarily expressed in the medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) for generating central immune tolerance...
November 3, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099650/new-insights-into-graft-versus-host-disease-and-graft-rejection
#12
Eric Perkey, Ivan Maillard
Allogeneic transplantation of foreign organs or tissues has lifesaving potential, but can lead to serious complications. After solid organ transplantation, immune-mediated rejection mandates the use of prolonged global immunosuppression and limits the life span of transplanted allografts. After bone marrow transplantation, donor-derived immune cells can trigger life-threatening graft-versus-host disease. T cells are central mediators of alloimmune complications and the target of most existing therapeutic interventions...
November 3, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097600/pd-l1
#13
REVIEW
Anthousa Kythreotou, Abdul Siddique, Francesco A Mauri, Mark Bower, David J Pinato
Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is the principal ligand of programmed death 1 (PD-1), a coinhibitory receptor that can be constitutively expressed or induced in myeloid, lymphoid, normal epithelial cells and in cancer. Under physiological conditions, the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction is essential in the development of immune tolerance preventing excessive immune cell activity that can lead to tissue destruction and autoimmunity. PD-L1 expression is an immune evasion mechanism exploited by various malignancies and is generally associated with poorer prognosis...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092744/dual-requirement-for-stat-signaling-in-dendritic-cell-immunobiology
#14
Gloria Donninelli, Isabella Sanseverino, Cristina Purificato, Sandra Gessani, Maria Cristina Gauzzi
Dendritic cells (DC) represent an attractive target for therapeutic manipulation of the immune system and enhancement of insufficient immune response in cancer. STAT family members play key roles in the differentiation and activation of DC, a feature that is currently being exploited in DC-based therapies. We previously reported that the small-molecule Stattic, originally developed as a STAT3-specific inhibitor, also inhibits STAT1 and STAT2 phosphorylation in DC exposed to cytokines or LPS. Aim of this study was to investigate the functional consequences of in vitro treatment with Stattic on DC immunobiology...
October 27, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081774/immunobiological-activity-of-synthetically-prepared-immunodominant-galactomannosides-structurally-mimicking-aspergillus-galactomannan
#15
Ema Paulovičová, Lucia Paulovičová, Martin Hrubiško, Vadim B Krylov, Dmitry A Argunov, Nikolay E Nifantiev
The study is oriented at the in vitro evaluation of the immunobiological activity and efficacy of synthetically prepared isomeric pentasaccharides representing fragments of Aspergillus fumigatus cell-wall galactomannan and containing β-(1→5)-linked tetragalactofuranoside chain attached to O-6 (GM-1) or O-3 (GM-2) of a spacer-armed mannopyranoside residue. These compounds were studied as biotinylated conjugates which both demonstrated immunomodulatory activities on the RAW 264.7 cell line murine macrophages as in vitro innate immunity cell model...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061646/kras-mutation-and-consensus-molecular-subtypes-2-and-3-are-independently-associated-with-reduced-immune-infiltration-and-reactivity-in-colorectal-cancer
#16
Neeraj Lal, Brian S White, Ghaleb Goussous, Oliver J Pickles, Michael Mason, Andrew D Beggs, Philippe Taniere, Benjamin E Willcox, Justin Guinney, Gary Middleton
PURPOSE: KRAS mutation is a common canonical mutation in CRC, found at differing frequencies in all Consensus Molecular Subtypes (CMS). The independent immunobiological impacts of RAS mutation and CMS are unknown. Thus, we explored the immunobiological effects of KRAS mutation across the CMS spectrum. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Transcriptional analysis of immune genes/signatures was performed with RNA-seq using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the KFSYSCC data set. Multivariate analysis included KRAS status, CMS, tumour location, MSI status, and neoantigen load...
October 23, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044308/heart-conduction-system-defects-and-sustained-ventricular-tachycardia-complications-in-a-patient-with-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#17
Laryssa Passos Sarmento Santos, Victor Guerreiro Bomfim, Camila Fagundes Bezerra, Natália Vieira Costa, Rafael Barreto Paes de Carvalho, Ricardo Sobral de Carvalho, Rogério da Hora Passos, Olivia Carla Bomfim Boaventura, André Luiz Nunes Gobatto
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a rare systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by vasculitis of the small arteries, the arterioles and the capillaries together with necrotizing granulomatous lesions. This case reports on a young female patient, previously diagnosed with granulomatosis with polyangiitis, who was admitted to the intensive care unit with seizures and hemodynamic instability due to a complete atrioventricular heart block. The event was associated with multiple episodes of sustained ventricular tachycardia without any structural heart changes or electrolyte disturbances...
July 2017: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042215/a-novel-stilbene-like-compound-that-inhibits-melanoma-growth-by-regulating-melanocyte-differentiation-and-proliferation
#18
Noah A Stueven, Nicholas M Schlaeger, Aaron P Monte, Sheng-Ping L Hwang, Cheng-Chen Huang
Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer. Current challenges to melanoma therapy include the adverse effects from immunobiologics, resistance to drugs targeting the MAPK pathway, intricate interaction of many signal pathways, and cancer heterogeneity. Thus combinational therapy with drugs targeting multiple signaling pathways becomes a new promising therapy. Here, we report a family of stilbene-like compounds called A11 that can inhibit melanoma growth in both melanoma-forming zebrafish embryos and mouse melanoma cells...
December 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030009/immunobiological-efficacy-and-immunotoxicity-of-novel-synthetically-prepared-fluoroquinolone-ethyl-6-fluoro-8-nitro-4-oxo-1-4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylate
#19
Soňa Jantová, Ema Paulovičová, Lucia Paulovičová, Michaela Janošková, Miroslav Pánik, Viktor Milata
The present study examined the cytotoxicity, anti-cancer reactivity, and immunomodulatory properties of new synthetically prepared fluoroquinolone derivative 6-fluoro-8-nitro-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylate (6FN) in vitro. The cytotoxicity/toxicity studies (concentrations in the range 1-100μM) are focused on the cervical cancer cells HeLa, murine melanoma cancer cells B16, non-cancer fibroblast NIH-3T3 cells and reconstructed human epidermis tissues EpiDerm™. The significant growth inhibition of cancer cells HeLa and B16 was detected...
October 6, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027218/cell-death-and-immunity-in-cancer-from-danger-signals-to-mimicry-of-pathogen-defense-responses
#20
REVIEW
Abhishek D Garg, Patrizia Agostinis
The immunogenicity of cancer cells is an emerging determinant of anti-cancer immunotherapy. Beyond developing immunostimulatory regimens like dendritic cell-based vaccines, immune-checkpoint blockers, and adoptive T-cell transfer, investigators are beginning to focus on the immunobiology of dying cancer cells and its relevance for the success of anticancer immunotherapies. It is currently accepted that cancer cells may die in response to anti-cancer therapies through regulated cell death programs, which may either repress or increase their immunogenic potential...
November 2017: Immunological Reviews
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