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Immunobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775208/a-multikinase-and-dna-pk-inhibitor-combination-immunomodulates-melanomas-suppresses-tumor-progression-and-enhances-immunotherapies
#1
Alexander K Tsai, Asra Y Khan, Christina E Worgo, Lucy L Wang, Yuanyuan Liang, Eduardo Davila
Combination therapies have the potential to improve outcomes in melanoma patients but have not yet been clinically efficacious. Here, we used high-throughput flow cytometry-based screening to identify and characterize candidate therapies that might synergize with and augment T-cell immunotherapy efficacy. Two lead therapies, regorafenib and NU7441, were selected based on their ability to alter a variety of immunomodulatory proteins, including CD55, CD73, CD155, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), and HLA class I in a heterogeneous panel of melanomas...
August 3, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771750/comprehensive-t-cell-immunophenotyping-and-next-generation-sequencing-from-hpv-positive-and-negative-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinomas
#2
Kate Poropatich, Joel Fontanarosa, Suchitra Swaminathan, Dave Dittmann, Siqi Chen, Sandeep Samant, Bin Zhang
The success of PD-1 inhibition in achieving a clinical response in a subset of HNSCC patients emphasizes the need to better understand the immunobiology of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Immunophenotyping was performed on 30 patients with HNSCC (16 HPV-positive, 14 HPV-negative) from matched tissue from the primary tumor site, locally metastatic cervical lymph nodes (LN), uninvolved local cervical LN and peripheral blood. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell lymphocytes obtained from tissue were analyzed for expression levels of inhibitory receptors PD-1, TIM-3 and CTLA-4...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771603/expression-of-pd-l1-and-other-immunotherapeutic-targets-in-thymic-epithelial-tumors
#3
Kathryn C Arbour, Jarushka Naidoo, Keith E Steele, Ai Ni, Andre L Moreira, Natasha Rekhtman, Paul B Robbins, Joyson Karakunnel, Andreas Rimner, James Huang, Gregory J Riely, Matthew D Hellmann
INTRODUCTION: The thymus is a critical organ for the development of the adaptive immune system and thymic epithelial tumors (TETs; thymomas and thymic carcinomas) are often associated with auto-immune paraneoplastic conditions. However, the immunobiology of TETs is not well described. An evaluation of the tumor microenvironment, with particular focus on expression of immunotherapeutic targets, may facilitate and prioritize development of immunotherapy strategies for patients with TETs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754451/role-of-inflammation-and-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-cholangiocyte-pathophysiology
#4
REVIEW
Claudio, Debora Maria Giordano, Luca Maroni, Marco Marzioni
Cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells lining the bile ducts, are an important subset of liver cells. They are involved in the modification of bile volume and composition, and respond to endogenous and exogenous stimuli. Along the biliary tree, two different kinds of cholangiocytes exist: small and large cholangiocytes. Each type has different features and biological role in physiologic and pathologic conditions, and their immunobiology is important for understanding biliary diseases. Cholangiocytes provide the first line of defence against luminal microbes in the hepatobiliary system...
July 25, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744279/role-of-inactive-and-active-trypanosoma-cruzi-trans-sialidases-on-t-cell-homing-and-secretion-of-inflammatory-cytokines
#5
Leonardo Freire-de-Lima, Luciana B Gentile, Leonardo M da Fonseca, Kelli M da Costa, Jessica Santos Lemos, Lucas Rodrigues Jacques, Alexandre Morrot, Célio G Freire-de-Lima, Marise P Nunes, Christina M Takiya, Jose O Previato, Lucia Mendonça-Previato
Trans-sialidase from Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc-TS) belongs to a superfamily of proteins that may have enzymatic activity. While enzymatically active members (Tc-aTS) are able to transfer sialic acid from the host cell sialyl-glycoconjugates onto the parasite or to other molecules on the host cell surface, the inactive members (Tc-iTS) are characterized by their lectinic properties. Over the last 10 years, several papers demonstrated that, individually, Tc-aTS or Tc-iTS is able to modulate several biological events...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703920/neutrophil-specific-antigens-immunobiology-and-implications-in-transfusion-medicine-and-blood-disorders
#6
Parviz Lalezari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695282/host-genetic-variation-and-hiv-disease-from-mapping-to-mechanism
#7
REVIEW
Vivek Naranbhai, Mary Carrington
This review aims to provide a summary of current knowledge of host genetic effects on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Mapping of simple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) has been largely successful in HIV, but more complex genetic associations involving haplotypic or epigenetic variation, for example, remain elusive. Mechanistic insights explaining SNP associations are incomplete, but continue to be forthcoming. The number of robust immunogenetic correlates of HIV is modest and their discovery mostly predates the genome-wide era...
August 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693173/predictive-and-prognostic-significance-of-cd8-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-patients-with-luminal-b-her-2-negative-breast-cancer-treated-with-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#8
Khalid Al-Saleh, Nashwa Abd El-Aziz, Arwa Ali, Waleed Abozeed, Ahmed Abd El-Warith, Ahmed Ibraheem, Jawaher Ansari, Ammar Al-Rikabi, Sufia Husain, Jean-Marc Nabholtz
The immunobiology of breast cancer (BC) subtypes, including luminal cancer, remains unclear. Cluster of differentiation (CD)8(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) are essential components of tumor-specific cellular adaptive immunity. However, only few studies have addressed the significance of cluster of differentiation 8(+)(CD8(+)) TIL in patients with luminal BC. The present study aimed to evaluate the predictive and prognostic significance of CD8(+) TIL in patients with luminal B/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER 2)-negative BC treated with anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC)...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684084/specific-immunotherapy-in-allergic-rhinitis
#9
G Mortuaire, J Michel, J F Papon, O Malard, D Ebbo, L Crampette, R Jankowski, A Coste, E Serrano
Allergic rhinitis is a common condition, with significant impact on quality of life depending on severity and quality of control. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (allergen-SIT) is the only known treatment able to alter the natural course of allergic rhinitis. Although well known to allergologists, it has yet to be fully adopted by the ENT community. This review, based on the most recent meta-analyses and clinical studies, shows that SIT significantly reduces symptoms and medication requirements (nasal corticosteroids, H1-antihistamines) in allergic rhinitis...
July 3, 2017: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679300/the-emerging-role-of-immune-checkpoint-based-approaches-in-aml-and-mds
#10
Prajwal Boddu, Hagop Kantarjian, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, James Allison, Padmanee Sharma, Naval Daver
The development of immune checkpoint inhibitors represents a major breakthrough in the field of cancer therapeutics. Pursuant to their success in melanoma and numerous solid tumor malignancies, these agents are being investigated in hematological malignancies including acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Although AML/MDS have traditionally been considered to be less immunogenic than solid tumor malignancies, recent pre-clinical models suggest a therapeutic role for immune checkpoint inhibition in these diseases...
July 6, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673462/cell-free-dna-induced-alteration-of-autophagy-response-and-tlr9-signaling-their-relation-to-amelioration-of-dss-colitis
#11
Györgyi Műzes, Anna L Kiss, Zsolt Tulassay, Ferenc Sipos
BACKGROUND: The influence of cell-free DNA (fDNA) administration on the TLR9-autophagy regulatory crosstalk within inflammatory circumstances remains unclear. AIMS: To examine the immunobiologic effects of iv. fDNA injection on the TLR9-mediated autophagy response in murine DSS-colitis. METHODS: Different types of modified fDNAs were administered to DSS-colitic mice. Disease and histological activities, spleen index were measured. Changes of the TLR9-associated and autophagy-related gene expression profiles of lamina proprial cells and splenocytes were assayed by quantitative real-time PCR, and validated by immunohistochemistries...
June 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660480/dendritic-cell-based-immunotherapy-a-basic-review-and-recent-advances
#12
REVIEW
João Constantino, Célia Gomes, Amílcar Falcão, Bruno Miguel Neves, Maria Teresa Cruz
Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered a very promising arm to activate the immune system in immunotherapeutic strategies against cancer. DCs are the most powerful antigen-presenting cells (APCs), being highly efficient at generating robust immune responses. They are also considered the center of the immune system, since they provide a crucial link between both innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, DC-based cancer immunotherapy aims to take advantage of these unique characteristics of DCs to better fight cancer...
August 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656012/pathobiology-and-immunobiology-of-acanthamoeba-keratitis-insights-from-animal-models%C3%A2
#13
REVIEW
Sudha Neelam, Jerry Y Niederkorn
Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare but sight-threatening disease caused by pathogenic species of Acanthamoeba. Despite its ubiquitous nature, the incidence of AK is relatively low compared to other forms of infectious keratitis. Although contact lens wear is a major risk factor, exposure to contaminated water and ocular trauma are also associated with AK. Once a patient develops AK the prognosis is very poor unless an aggressive treatment regimen is initiated early. Some of the intriguing features of AK are the lack of immunological memory, resistance of the dormant cyst form to treatment, differences between the pathogenic strains and soil isolates of Acanthamoeba and the unique role of the innate immune system in controlling this disease...
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649250/immunity-in-protochordates-the-tunicate-perspective
#14
REVIEW
Nicola Franchi, Loriano Ballarin
Tunicates are the closest relatives of vertebrates, and their peculiar phylogenetic position explains the increasing interest toward tunicate immunobiology. They are filter-feeding organisms, and this greatly influences their defense strategies. The majority of the studies on tunicate immunity were carried out in ascidians. The tunic acts as a first barrier against pathogens and parasites. In addition, the oral siphon and the pharynx represent two major, highly vascularized, immune organs, where circulating hemocytes can sense non-self material and trigger immune responses that, usually, lead to inflammation and phagocytosis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615731/the-role-of-il-6-in-host-defence-against-infections-immunobiology-and-clinical-implications
#15
REVIEW
Stefan Rose-John, Kevin Winthrop, Leonard Calabrese
IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with broad-ranging effects within the integrated immune response. One of the roles of IL-6 is to support immunocompetence, defined as the ability of a host to respond to infections. Understanding the precise role of this cytokine in immunocompetence requires a critical appraisal of data derived from both preclinical and clinical studies. Primary immunodeficiency diseases involving IL-6 or its signalling pathways reveal that IL-6 is critical in the defence against numerous types of pathogens...
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588282/comparison-and-immunobiological-characterization-of-retinoic-acid-inducible-gene-i-like-receptor-expression-in-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#16
Gordana Raicevic, Mehdi Najar, Hélène Busser, Emerence Crompot, Dominique Bron, Michel Toungouz, Laurence Lagneaux
Due to their immunomodulatory and regenerative properties, Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have generated major interests in several clinical settings including transplantation and inflammatory diseases. MSC functions can be influenced by their tissue origin. Their microenvironment strongly affects their biology notably through TLR sensing. In this study, we show that MSC isolated from four different sources express another type of cytosolic pathogen recognition receptors known as retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLR)...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579320/t-cell-immunity-and-zika-virus-vaccine-development
#17
REVIEW
Noemia S Lima, Morgane Rolland, Kayvon Modjarrad, Lydie Trautmann
The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic has created an urgent need for a safe and effective vaccine. There is still a dearth of knowledge about ZIKV immunity, but years of investigation into the immunobiology of other flaviviruses has helped to accelerate the development of a ZIKV vaccine. Although the humoral immune response generates the primary correlate of protection from disease, robust T cell responses could enhance ZIKV vaccine efficacy. Additionally, pre-existing immunity to related flaviviruses could generate cross-reactive T cells that may affect immune responses upon vaccination...
June 1, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572258/immunotherapy-for-breast-cancer-what-are-we-missing
#18
EDITORIAL
Robert H Vonderheide, Susan M Domchek, Amy S Clark
The recent demonstration of modest single-agent activity of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) antibodies in patients with breast cancer has generated hope that breast cancer can be made amenable to immunotherapy. Depending on the subtype of breast cancer, it is now clear in both primary and metastatic disease that the extent of tumor-infiltrating T cells is not only prognostic for survival but predictive of response to nonimmune, standard therapies. Despite these findings, immune cytolytic activity in spontaneous breast tumors, the burden of nonsynonymous tumor mutations, and the predicted load of neoepitopes-factors linked to response to checkpoint blockade in other malignancies-are all relatively modest in breast cancer compared with melanoma or lung cancer...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531117/immunobiology-of-newcastle-disease-virus-and-its-use-for-prophylactic-vaccination-in-poultry-and-as-adjuvant-for-therapeutic-vaccination-in-cancer-patients
#19
REVIEW
Volker Schirrmacher
Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important diseases of poultry worldwide. In the last decades, molecular research has gained a lot of new information about its causative agent, newcastledisease virus (NDV). In poultry industry, certain strains of NDV have been used for preventive vaccination for more than 60 years. NDV has also been applied to cancer patients with beneficial effects for about 50 years, but this is less well known. The molecular basis for these differential effects of NDV in birds and man have been elucidated in the last decades and are explained in this review...
May 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529904/mini-review-of-conventional-and-hypofractionated-radiation-therapy-combined-with-immunotherapy-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Allison M Campbell, Roy H Decker
A successful antitumoral response requires immunological activation as well as an antigenic pool capable of stimulating both the innate and the adaptive immune system. Recent advances in immunotherapy have been aimed at boosting the activation status of the innate and adaptive immune system, including cytokine administration, monoclonal antibodies engineered to target high yield elements in oncogenic signaling pathways, cancer vaccines, and checkpoint inhibitors. Herein, we examine the ways that radiation therapy induced cell death provides a pool of stimulus antigen, and draw parallels from the immunobiology of autoimmunity to explore how the immunogenicity of antigen derived from radiation-induced cell death might augment the antitumoral response...
April 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
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