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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923259/-established-therapies-and-new-therapeutic-strategies-in-alcoholic-liver-disease
#1
Helmut Karl Seitz, Sebastian Mueller
Chronical alcohol abuse causes more than 200 diseases and/or symptoms and among these alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is of special importance since it occurs frequently and may be life-threatening. In Europe alcohol consumption as well as ALD increased as compared to the rest of the world. It has been estimated that in Europe approximately 500 000 people die every year due to ALD. ALD consists of alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatocellar cancer (HCC ). Alcohol hepatitis (AH) is a clinical feature with jaundice and liver failure and a high mortality...
December 6, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923250/clinical-evaluation-of-the-first-automated-assay-for-the-detection-of-stimulating-tsh-receptor-autoantibodies
#2
S Allelein, M Ehlers, S Goretzki, D Hermsen, J Feldkamp, M Haase, T Dringenberg, C Schmid, H Hautzel, M Schott
Until recently, stimulating TSH receptor autoantibodies (sTRAbs) could only be measured by bioassays. A new assay system, which directly detects sTRAb in sera by applying bridge technology, has been established and is now available as automated chemiluminescence (bridge) immunoassay. We evaluated the automated bridge assay in clinical routine and compared it with a conventional automated TRAb assay (competition assay). Altogether, 226 Graves' disease (GD), 57 autoimmune thyroiditis, 74 non-autoimmune nodular goiter and 49 thyroid cancer patients, as well as 41 healthy controls were retrospectively evaluated...
December 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923228/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-anal-self-sampling-for-human-papillomavirus-screening-in-hiv-infected-patients
#3
Catherine Tamalet, Isabelle Ravaux, Catherine Dhiver, Amelie Menard, Philippe Colson, Andreas Stein
OBJECTIVES: Anal cancer incidence is increasing among HIV-positive patients. No consensus currently exists for the screening of anal dysplasia. This study aimed at evaluating the feasibility and acceptability of anal self-sampling and assessing the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types among HIV-positive patients from Marseille University Hospitals. METHODS: Between October 2013 and March 2014, during their regular visits for the monitoring of their HIV infection in an HIV outpatient clinical unit of Marseille University Hospitals, patients were asked to self-sample anal swabs for HPV detection...
December 7, 2016: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923104/development-of-a-sensitive-luciferase-based-sandwich-elisa-system-for-the-detection-of-human-extracellular-matrix-1-protein
#4
Ya Li, Yanqing Li, Junli Zhao, Xiaojing Zheng, Qinwen Mao, Haibin Xia
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been one of the main methods for detecting an antigen in an aqueous sample for more than four decades. Nowadays, one of the biggest concerns for ELISA is still how to improve the sensitivity of the assay, and the luciferase-luciferin reaction system has been noticed as a new detection method with high sensitivity. In this study, a luciferin-luciferase reaction system was used as the detection method for a sandwich ELISA system. It was shown that this new system led to an increase in the detection sensitivity of at least two times when compared with the traditional horseradish peroxidase (HRP) detection method...
December 6, 2016: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923066/somatic-genomics-and-clinical-features-of-lung-adenocarcinoma-a-retrospective-study
#5
Jianxin Shi, Xing Hua, Bin Zhu, Sarangan Ravichandran, Mingyi Wang, Cu Nguyen, Seth A Brodie, Alessandro Palleschi, Marco Alloisio, Gianluca Pariscenti, Kristine Jones, Weiyin Zhou, Aaron J Bouk, Joseph Boland, Belynda Hicks, Adam Risch, Hunter Bennett, Brian T Luke, Lei Song, Jubao Duan, Pengyuan Liu, Takashi Kohno, Qingrong Chen, Daoud Meerzaman, Crystal Marconett, Ite Laird-Offringa, Ian Mills, Neil E Caporaso, Mitchell H Gail, Angela C Pesatori, Dario Consonni, Pier Alberto Bertazzi, Stephen J Chanock, Maria Teresa Landi
BACKGROUND: Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most common histologic subtype of lung cancer and has a high risk of distant metastasis at every disease stage. We aimed to characterize the genomic landscape of LUAD and identify mutation signatures associated with tumor progression. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed an integrative genomic analysis, incorporating whole exome sequencing (WES), determination of DNA copy number and DNA methylation, and transcriptome sequencing for 101 LUAD samples from the Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE) study...
December 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923049/expression-of-lncrnas-in-low-grade-gliomas-and-glioblastoma-multiforme-an-in-silico-analysis
#6
Brian J Reon, Jordan Anaya, Ying Zhang, James Mandell, Benjamin Purow, Roger Abounader, Anindya Dutta
BACKGROUND: Each year, over 16,000 patients die from malignant brain cancer in the US. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently been shown to play critical roles in regulating neurogenesis and brain tumor progression. To better understand the role of lncRNAs in brain cancer, we performed a global analysis to identify and characterize all annotated and novel lncRNAs in both grade II and III gliomas as well as grade IV glioblastomas (glioblastoma multiforme [GBM]). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We determined the expression of all lncRNAs in over 650 brain cancer and 70 normal brain tissue RNA sequencing datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and other publicly available datasets...
December 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923047/precision-cancer-diagnostics-tracking-genomic-evolution-in-clinical-trials
#7
Francisco Beca, Andrew H Beck
In a Perspective, Francisco Beca and Andrew Beck discuss Charles Swanton and colleagues' accompanying Research Article on somatic mutations in patients with inflammatory breast cancer treated in a Phase II clinical trial.
December 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923045/tumor-evolution-in-two-patients-with-basal-like-breast-cancer-a-retrospective-genomics-study-of-multiple-metastases
#8
Katherine A Hoadley, Marni B Siegel, Krishna L Kanchi, Christopher A Miller, Li Ding, Wei Zhao, Xiaping He, Joel S Parker, Michael C Wendl, Robert S Fulton, Ryan T Demeter, Richard K Wilson, Lisa A Carey, Charles M Perou, Elaine R Mardis
BACKGROUND: Metastasis is the main cause of cancer patient deaths and remains a poorly characterized process. It is still unclear when in tumor progression the ability to metastasize arises and whether this ability is inherent to the primary tumor or is acquired well after primary tumor formation. Next-generation sequencing and analytical methods to define clonal heterogeneity provide a means for identifying genetic events and the temporal relationships between these events in the primary and metastatic tumors within an individual...
December 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923043/clonal-evolutionary-analysis-during-her2-blockade-in-her2-positive-inflammatory-breast-cancer-a-phase-ii-open-label-clinical-trial-of-afatinib-vinorelbine
#9
Gerald Goh, Ramona Schmid, Kelly Guiver, Wichit Arpornwirat, Imjai Chitapanarux, Vinod Ganju, Seock-Ah Im, Sung-Bae Kim, Arunee Dechaphunkul, Jedzada Maneechavakajorn, Neil Spector, Thomas Yau, Mehdi Afrit, Slim Ben Ahmed, Stephen R Johnston, Neil Gibson, Martina Uttenreuther-Fischer, Javier Herrero, Charles Swanton
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare, aggressive form of breast cancer associated with HER2 amplification, with high risk of metastasis and an estimated median survival of 2.9 y. We performed an open-label, single-arm phase II clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01325428) to investigate the efficacy and safety of afatinib, an irreversible ErbB family inhibitor, alone and in combination with vinorelbine in patients with HER2-positive IBC. This trial included prospectively planned exome analysis before and after afatinib monotherapy...
December 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923036/cotargeting-of-cyp-19-aromatase-and-emerging-pivotal-signalling-pathways-in-metastatic-breast-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Stine Daldorff, Randi Margit Ruud Mathiesen, Olav Erich Yri, Hilde Presterud Ødegård, Jürgen Geisler
Aromatase inhibition is one of the cornerstones of modern endocrine therapy of oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) metastatic breast cancer (MBC). The nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors anastrozole and letrozole, as well as the steroidal aromatase inactivator exemestane, are the preferred drugs and established worldwide in all clinical phases of the disease. However, although many patients suffering from MBC experience an initial stabilisation of their metastatic burden, drug resistance and disease progression occur frequently, following in general only a few months on treatment...
December 6, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923030/patient-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-cancer-research-and-precision-oncology
#11
Eirini P Papapetrou
Together with recent advances in the processing and culture of human tissue, bioengineering, xenotransplantation and genome editing, Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) present a range of new opportunities for the study of human cancer. Here we discuss the main advantages and limitations of iPSC modeling, and how the method intersects with other patient-derived models of cancer, such as organoids, organs-on-chips and patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). We highlight the opportunities that iPSC models can provide beyond those offered by existing systems and animal models and present current challenges and crucial areas for future improvements toward wider adoption of this technology...
December 6, 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923017/expression-of-microrna-328-functions-as-a-biomarker-for-recurrence-of-early-gastric-cancer-egc-after-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-esd-by-modulating-cd44
#12
Hui-Guang Xue, Ai-Hua Yang, Xue-Guo Sun, Yan-Yan Lu, Zi-Bin Tian
BACKGROUND This study investigated the molecular mechanism of the effect of CD44 on the recurrence of EGC after ESD, including the potential regulator and signaling pathways of CD44. MATERIAL AND METHODS We searched the miRNA online database (www.mirdb.org) with the "seed sequence" located within the 3'-UTR of the target gene, and performed luciferase assay to test the miRNA/mRNA relationship. We also determined the expression of CD44 in the EGC and control samples. In addition, statistical analysis was used to explore the role of miR-328 as a biomarker to predict the recurrence after ECD...
December 6, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922981/second-opinion-expert-pathology-in-endometrial-cancer-potential-clinical-implications
#13
Friederike Grevenkamp, Felix Kommoss, Friedrich Kommoss, Sigurd Lax, Falko Fend, Diethelm Wallwiener, Birgitt Schönfisch, Bernhard Krämer, Sara Y Brucker, Florin-Andrei Taran, Annette Staebler, Stefan Kommoss
OBJECTIVE: In cancer patients, the pathology report serves as an important basis for treatment. Therefore, a correct cancer diagnosis is crucial, and diagnostic discrepancies may be of clinical relevance. It was the aim of this study to perform a specialized histopathology review and to investigate potential clinical implications of expert second opinion pathology in endometrial cancer. METHODS: Patients treated for endometrial carcinoma at the Tübingen University Women's hospital between 2003 and 2013 were identified...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922980/variations-in-treatment-of-cervical-cancer-according-to-tumor-morphology-population-based-cohort-analysis-of-english-national-cancer-registration-data
#14
Marta Emmett, Carolynn Gildea, Andrew Nordin, Lynn Hirschowitz, Jason Poole
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate differences in the treatment of cervical cancer by tumor morphology after accounting for demographic, diagnostic, and tumor factors. METHODS: Retrospective population-based observational study using linked cancer registration and treatment data from administrative data sources of women diagnosed with cervical cancer (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition C53, malignant behavior) during 2009 and 2010 in England...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922978/significance-of-monocyte-counts-at-recurrence-on-survival-outcome-of-women-with-endometrial-cancer
#15
Hiroko Machida, Madushka Yohan De Zoysa, Tsuyoshi Takiuchi, Marianne S Hom, Katherine E Tierney, Koji Matsuo
OBJECTIVE: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are known to have adverse effects on the survival of women with endometrial cancer. Because monocytes function as progenitors of macrophages, this study examined the association between monocyte count at the first recurrence/progression of endometrial cancer and survival time after recurrence/progression (SAR). METHODS: This is a retrospective study evaluating 141 consecutive cases of recurrent endometrial cancer after surgical staging (n = 114) and progression after nonsurgical management (n = 27)...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922977/survival-impact-of-ovarian-preservation-on-women-with-early-stage-endometrial-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Haifeng Gu, Jundong Li, Yangkui Gu, Hua Tu, Yun Zhou, Jihong Liu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article was to investigate the survival impact of ovarian preservation in surgically treated patients with early-stage endometrial cancer using a meta-analysis. METHODS: Major online databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, as well as Grey Literature database, were searched to collect studies on the effects of ovarian preservation compared with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) for surgical treatment in endometrial cancer patients...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922976/intraoperative-frozen-section-of-ovarian-tumors-a-6-year-review-of-performance-and-potential-pitfalls-in-an-australian-tertiary-referral-center
#17
Rhett Morton, Lyndal Anderson, Jonathan Carter, Selvan Pather, Samir A Saidi
OBJECTIVES: Intraoperative frozen section (IFS) offers a rapid test to guide the extent of surgery, which is essential for optimal treatment of ovarian cancer. This study evaluated the diagnostic performance and influence of IFS in the surgical management of ovarian tumors. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of IFS of adnexal lesions from 2008 to 2013, with diagnoses classified as benign, borderline, or malignant. The diagnostic performance of IFS was calculated, with a focus on primary epithelial tumors...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922921/the-effects-of-muscle-relaxation-and-therapeutic-walking-on-depression-suicidal-ideation-and-quality-of-life-in-breast-cancer-patients-receiving-chemotherapy
#18
Fan-Ko Sun, Chao-Ming Hung, YuChun Yao, Chu-Yun Lu, Chun-Ying Chiang
BACKGROUND: The suicide rate of cancer patients is high in Taiwan. Breast cancer has a high incidence rate and is the leading cause of cancer in women. There is a lack of research examining breast cancer-related depression, suicidal ideation, and quality of life. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of muscle relaxation and therapeutic walking on depression, suicidal ideation, and quality of life in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. METHODS: An experimental approach was adopted...
December 5, 2016: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922917/adherence-to-oral-administration-of-endocrine-treatment-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-a-qualitative-study
#19
Laura Iacorossi, Francesca Gambalunga, Alessandra Fabi, Diana Giannarelli, Anna Marchetti, Michela Piredda, Maria Grazia De Marinis
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the world, and it is also the leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Nevertheless, breast cancer survival has increased as a result of improvements in early diagnosis and therapy, for example, oral endocrine therapy. Despite the importance of adherence to endocrine therapy, its trend appears complex and multidimensional and therefore has many loopholes and missing information. OBJECTIVE: The study aims to explore the experiences of adherence to endocrine therapy in women with breast cancer and their perceptions of the challenges they face in adhering to their medication prescribed...
December 5, 2016: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922916/longitudinal-trends-in-anxiety-depression-and-quality-of-life-during-different-intermittent-periods-of-adjuvant-breast-cancer-chemotherapy
#20
Zhang Jiayuan, Zhou Yuqiu, Feng Ziwei, Xu Yong, Zeng Guangchun
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy (CT) is an important adjuvant treatment that has been widely used for breast cancer (BC) patients. However, no research has focused on trends in emotions and quality of life (QOL) during intermittent periods between CT sessions that are critical for recovery. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinal trends in anxiety, depression, and QOL during the different intermittent periods between adjuvant CT for BC. METHODS: A longitudinal study design was adopted...
December 5, 2016: Cancer Nursing
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