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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933365/ketamine-decreases-sensitivity-of-male-rats-to-misleading-negative-feedback-in-a-probabilistic-reversal-learning-task
#1
Michal Rychlik, Eva Bollen, Rafal Rygula
RATIONALE: Depression is characterized by an excessive attribution of value to negative feedback. This imbalance in feedback sensitivity can be measured using the probabilistic reversal-learning (PRL) task. This task was initially designed for clinical research, but introduction of its rodent version provides a new and much needed translational paradigm to evaluate potential novel antidepressants. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we aimed at evaluating the effects of a compound showing clear antidepressant properties-ketamine (KET)-on the sensitivity of rats to positive and negative feedback in the PRL paradigm...
December 8, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926742/modeling-deficits-from-early-auditory-information-processing-to-psychosocial-functioning-in-schizophrenia
#2
Michael L Thomas, Michael F Green, Gerhard Hellemann, Catherine A Sugar, Melissa Tarasenko, Monica E Calkins, Tiffany A Greenwood, Raquel E Gur, Ruben C Gur, Laura C Lazzeroni, Keith H Nuechterlein, Allen D Radant, Larry J Seidman, Alexandra L Shiluk, Larry J Siever, Jeremy M Silverman, Joyce Sprock, William S Stone, Neal R Swerdlow, Debby W Tsuang, Ming T Tsuang, Bruce I Turetsky, David L Braff, Gregory A Light
Importance: Neurophysiologic measures of early auditory information processing (EAP) are used as endophenotypes in genomic studies and biomarkers in clinical intervention studies. Research in schizophrenia has established correlations among measures of EAP, cognition, clinical symptoms, and functional outcome. Clarifying these associations by determining the pathways through which deficits in EAP affect functioning would suggest when and where to therapeutically intervene. Objectives: To characterize the pathways from EAP to outcome and to estimate the extent to which enhancement of basic information processing might improve cognition and psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia...
December 7, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921860/effects-of-cognitive-remediation-therapy-on-neurocognition-and-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-an-italian-naturalistic-study
#3
Mariangela Lanfredi, Giacomo Deste, Clarissa Ferrari, Stefano Barlati, Laura Rosa Magni, Roberta Rossi, Luca de Peri, Marco Bonomi, Giuseppe Rossi, Antonio Vita
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has been reported to positively affect neurocognitive processes among patients with schizophrenia; however, the degree to which changes in cognition is linked to improved clinical symptoms, remains poorly understood. The current study aimed to investigate whether cognitive gains were associated to improvements in negative symptoms' severity in patients with schizophrenia living in two Italian psychiatric facilities. METHODS: Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were consecutively assigned to CRT (n = 33) and compared with an historical control group (n = 28)...
December 6, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875931/early-numeracy-skills-in-preschool-aged-children-a-review-of-neurocognitive-findings-and-implications-for-assessment-and-intervention
#4
Kimberly P Raghubar, Marcia A Barnes
OBJECTIVES: The goals are to (1) provide a review of the typical and atypical development of early numeracy; (2) present what is known about the neurocognitive underpinnings of early numeracy; and (3) discuss the implications for early assessment and intervention. METHOD: Studies on the development of typical and atypical early numeracy are reviewed with a particular focus on longitudinal findings including those from our work on spina bifida myelomeningocele. Implications of this research for assessment are presented...
November 23, 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872673/the-relationship-between-neurocognitive-functioning-and-occupational-functioning-in-bipolar-disorder-a-literature-review
#5
REVIEW
Walace Duarte, Rodrigo Becerra, Kate Cruise
Neurocognitive impairment in Bipolar Disorder (BD) has been widely reported, even during remission. Neurocognitive impairment has been identified as a contributing factor towards unfavourable psychosocial functioning within this population. The objective of this review was to investigate the association between neurocognitive impairment and occupational functioning in BD. A literature review of English-language journal articles from January 1990 to November 2013 was undertaken utilising the PsychINFO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge databases...
November 2016: Europe's journal of psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869500/lower-frailty-is-associated-with-successful-cognitive-aging-among-older-adults-with-hiv
#6
Lindsay Mk Wallace, Maria Ferrara, Thomas D Brothers, Sara Garlassi, Susan A Kirkland, Olga Theou, Stefano Zona, Cristina Mussini, David J Moore, Kenneth Rockwood, Giovanni Guaraldi
BACKGROUND: Aging with HIV poses unique and complex challenges, including avoidance of neurocognitive disorder. Our objective here is to identify the prevalence and predictors of successful cognitive aging (SCA) in sample of older adults with HIV. METHODS: One hundred three HIV-infected individuals aged 50 and older were recruited from the Modena HIV Metabolic Clinic in Italy. Participants were treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for at least one year and had suppressed plasma HIV viral load...
November 21, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867834/neurobiology-of-risk-for-bipolar-disorder
#7
REVIEW
Ayşegül Özerdem, Deniz Ceylan, Güneş Can
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic mental illness which follows a relapsing and remitting course and requires lifetime treatment. The lack of biological markers for BD is a major difficulty in clinical practice. Exploring multiple endophenotypes to fit in multivariate genetic models for BD is an important element in the process of finding tools to facilitate early diagnosis, early intervention, prevention of new episodes, and follow-up of treatment response in BD. Reviewing of studies on neuroimaging, neurocognition, and biochemical parameters in populations with high genetic risk for the illness can yield an integrative perspective on the neurobiology of risk for BD...
2016: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863321/cognitive-dysfunction-correlates-with-elevated-serum-s100b-concentration-in-drug-free-acutely-relapsed-patients-with-schizophrenia
#8
Song Chen, Li Tian, Nan Chen, Meihong Xiu, Zhiren Wang, Guigang Yang, Chuanyue Wang, Fude Yang, Yunlong Tan
S100B, a biomarker of glial dysfunction and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, has been proposed to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In the present study, we aimed at exploring the association of serum S100B levels with cognitive deficits using MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) in schizophrenia, by excluding the impact of antipsychotics. Sixty-two unmedicated patients with schizophrenia during their acute phases were divided into a drug-naïve group (n=34) and a drug-free group (n=28)...
September 22, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862862/variability-in-clinical-and-neuropsychological-features-of-individuals-with-map2k1-mutations
#9
Elizabeth I Pierpont, Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Mary Ella Pierpont
Mutations in MAP2K1, a gene expressed within the RAS-mitogen activated protein kinase (RAS/MAPK) pathway, are generally associated with the clinical phenotype of cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome. Here we describe two male patients (ages 16 and 20 years) with mutations in MAP2K1 and heterogeneous clinical presentations. Both young men had short stature, some facial features suggesting a RASopathy and minimal cardiac involvement. Detailed medical and neuropsychological findings are presented alongside a comprehensive review of features of patients with MAP2K1 mutations reported in the literature...
November 14, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859664/are-deficits-in-cognition-associated-with-psychotic-like-experiences-after-cannabis
#10
Emma Barkus, Paul Morrison, Marta Di Forti, Robin M Murray
: Not all individuals who smoke cannabis report psychotic-like experiences. Given that risk factors for psychotic disorders are multifaceted, precipitating factors to psychotic-like experiences after cannabis are likely to be equally complex. Reduced neurocognitive performance is associated with both psychosis risk and cannabis use. Therefore, it is possible cognitive performance may differentiate those who report psychotic-like experiences after cannabis from those who do not. We determined whether those reporting psychotic/dysphoric experiences after cannabis had reduced neurocognitive performance compared to those reporting primarily euphoric experiences...
November 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834864/chronic-binge-alcohol-administration-dysregulates-hippocampal-genes-involved-in-immunity-and-neurogenesis-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-macaques
#11
John K Maxi, Matt Dean, Jovanny Zabaleta, Krzysztof Reiss, Gregory J Bagby, Steve Nelson, Peter J Winsauer, Francesca Peruzzi, Patricia E Molina
Alcohol use disorders (AUD) exacerbate neurocognitive dysfunction in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV+) patients. We have shown that chronic binge alcohol (CBA) administration (13-14 g EtOH/kg/wk) prior to and during simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques unmasks learning deficits in operant learning and memory tasks. The underlying mechanisms of neurocognitive alterations due to alcohol and SIV are not known. This exploratory study examined the CBA-induced differential expression of hippocampal genes in SIV-infected (CBA/SIV+; n = 2) macaques in contrast to those of sucrose administered, SIV-infected (SUC/SIV+; n = 2) macaques...
November 9, 2016: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831897/actor-critic-off-policy-learning-for-optimal-control-of-multiple-model-discrete-time-systems
#12
Jan Skach, Bahare Kiumarsi, Frank L Lewis, Ondrej Straka
In this paper, motivated by human neurocognitive experiments, a model-free off-policy reinforcement learning algorithm is developed to solve the optimal tracking control of multiple-model linear discrete-time systems. First, an adaptive self-organizing map neural network is used to determine the system behavior from measured data and to assign a responsibility signal to each of system possible behaviors. A new model is added if a sudden change of system behavior is detected from the measured data and the behavior has not been previously detected...
November 2, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827891/factors-affecting-the-baseline-and-post-treatment-scores-on-the-hopkins-verbal-learning-test-revised-japanese-version-before-and-after-whole-brain-radiation-therapy
#13
Hirotake Saito, Kensuke Tanaka, Ayae Kanemoto, Toshimichi Nakano, Eisuke Abe, Hidefumi Aoyama
Our objectives were to (1) investigate the feasibility of the use of the Japanese version of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R); (2) identify the clinical factors influencing the HVLT-R scores of patients undergoing whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT); and (3) compare the neurocognitive function (NCF) after WBRT in different dose fractionation schedules. We administered the HVLT-R (Japanese version) before (baseline) and at four and eight months after WBRT in 45 patients who received either therapeutic (35Gy-in-14, n = 16; 30Gy-in-10, n = 18) or prophylactic (25Gy-in-10, n = 11) WBRT...
November 3, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824360/association-of-atp6v1b2-rs1106634-with-lifetime-risk-of-depression-and-hippocampal-neurocognitive-deficits-possible-novel-mechanisms-in-the-etiopathology-of-depression
#14
X Gonda, N Eszlari, I M Anderson, J F W Deakin, G Bagdy, G Juhasz
Current understanding and treatment of depression is limited to the monoaminergic theory with little knowledge of the involvement of other cellular processes. Genome-wide association studies, however, implicate several novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms with weak but replicable effects and unclarified mechanisms. We investigated the effect of rs1106634 of the ATPV1B2 gene encoding the vacuolar H+ATPase on lifetime and current depression and the possible mediating role of neuroticism by logistic and linear regression in a white European general sample of 2226 subjects...
November 8, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810614/are-major-depression-and-bipolar-disorder-neuropsychologically-distinct-a-meta-analysis-of-comparative-studies
#15
C Samamé, A G Szmulewicz, M P Valerio, D J Martino, S A Strejilevich
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological deficits are present in both major depression and bipolar disorder. So far, however, reports directly comparing these mood disorders with regard to cognitive outcomes have been scant and yielded inconsistent results. This work aims to combine the findings of comparative studies of cognition in major depression and bipolar disorder in order to explore whether these neuropsychiatric conditions present with distinct cognitive features. METHODS: The main online databases were extensively searched to retrieve reports assessing neurocognitive functioning in two groups of mood disorder patients, one with major depressive disorder and another with bipolar disorder, both in the same phase of illness...
October 28, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807176/hiv-tat-impairs-neurogenesis-through-functioning-as-a-notch-ligand-and-activation-of-notch-signaling-pathway
#16
Yan Fan, Xiang Gao, Jinhui Chen, Ying Liu, Johnny J He
: Alterations in adult neurogenesis have been noted in the brain of HIV-infected individuals and are likely linked to HIV-associated neurocognitive deficits, including those in learning and memory. But the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In the study, we took advantage of doxycycline-inducible and astrocyte-specific HIV-1 Tat transgenic mice (iTat) and determined the relationship between Tat expression and neurogenesis. Tat expression in astrocytes was associated with fewer neuron progenitor cells (NPCs), fewer immature neurons, and fewer mature neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of the mouse brain...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802831/persisting-neurobehavioral-effects-of-developmental-copper-exposure-in-wildtype-and-metallothionein-1-and-2-knockout-mice
#17
Ann Petro, Hannah G Sexton, Caroline Miranda, Anit Rastogi, Jonathan H Freedman, Edward D Levin
BACKGROUND: Metallothioneins (MT) are small proteins, which are crucial for the distribution of heavy and transition metals. Previously, we found in mice that knockout of MT 1 and 2 genes (MTKO) impaired spatial learning and potentiated the learning impairment caused by developmental mercury exposure. The current study examined the neurocognitive and neurochemical effects of MTKO with the developmental copper (Cu) supplementation. METHODS: Wildtype (WT) and MTKO mice were given supplemental Cu (0, 10 or 50 mg/l) in their drinking water during gestation and until weaning...
November 2, 2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785338/dose-dependent-effects-of-sevoflurane-exposure-during-early-lifetime-on-apoptosis-in-hippocampus-and-neurocognitive-outcomes-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#18
Xue Zhou, Wenda Li, Xiaohui Chen, Xiaoyu Yang, Zhibin Zhou, Dihan Lu, Xia Feng
Sevoflurane has become a main method for induction of anesthesia in pediatric populations. Preclinical evidence suggest the neurotoxic effect of volatile anesthetics on the developing brain including sevoflurane. This study investigates the effect of different doses of sevoflurane on the developing brain. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats of postnatal (P) day 7 were exposed to 0.3%, 1.3% and 2.3% sevoflurane for 6 hours. 6 hours after exposure, Nissl staining was performed to observe the morphological changes of the hippocampus and western-blot was done to evaluate the expression changes in cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783216/clinical-and-treatment-related-predictors-of-cognition-in-bipolar-disorder-focus-on-visual-paired-associative-learning
#19
Kalliopi Tournikioti, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Ioannis Michopoulos, Maria Alevizaki, Constantin R Soldatos, Dimitris Dikeos, Athanasios Douzenis
Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with impairment in cognitive domains such as verbal memory and executive functions. However, visual paired associative learning (PAL) has been far less researched. Neurocognitive dysfunction in BD patients has been related to several clinical factors, but data on the effect of medication are relatively scarce and inconsistent. The aim of our study was to explore the effect of clinical and treatment-related parameters on executive functions and visual memory/learning, including PAL, in BD...
October 25, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776568/relationship-of-lutein-and-zeaxanthin-levels-to-neurocognitive-functioning-an-fmri-study-of-older-adults
#20
Cutter A Lindbergh, Catherine M Mewborn, Billy R Hammond, Lisa M Renzi-Hammond, Joanne M Curran-Celentano, L Stephen Miller
OBJECTIVES: It is well known that the carotenoids lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) improve eye health and an accumulating evidence base suggests cognitive benefits as well. The present study investigated underlying neural mechanisms using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). It was hypothesized that lower L and Z concentrations would be associated with neurobiological inefficiency (i.e., increased activation) during cognitive performance. METHODS: Forty-three community-dwelling older adults (mean age=72 years; 58% female; 100% Caucasian) were asked to learn and recall pairs of unrelated words in an fMRI-adapted paradigm...
October 25, 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
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