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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901746/brain-mri-fiber-tracking-reveals-white-matter-alterations-in-hypertensive-patients-without-damage-at-conventional-neuroimaging
#1
Lorenzo Carnevale, Valentina D'Angelosante, Alessandro Landolfi, Giovanni Grillea, Giulio Selvetella, Marianna Storto, Giuseppe Lembo, Daniela Carnevale
Aims: Hypertension is one of the main risk factor for dementia. The subtle damage provoked by chronic high blood pressure in the brain is usually evidenced by conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in terms of white matter (WM) hyperintensities or cerebral atrophy. However, it is clear that by the time brain damage is visible, it may be too late hampering neurodegeneration. Aim of this study was to characterize a signature of early brain damage induced by hypertension, before the neurodegenerative injury manifests...
June 12, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887295/tip-of-the-tongue-states-predict-enhanced-feedback-processing-and-subsequent-memory
#2
Paul A Bloom, David Friedman, Judy Xu, Matti Vuorre, Janet Metcalfe
This article investigates the relations among the tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) state, event related potentials (ERPs) to correct feedback to questions, and subsequent memory. ERPs were used to investigate neurocognitive responses to feedback to general information questions for which participants had expressed either being or not being in a TOT state. For questions in which participants were unable to answer within 3 s, they indicated whether they were experiencing a TOT state and then were immediately provided with the correct answer...
June 7, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884845/williams-syndrome-neuroanatomical-score-associates-with-gtf2ird1-in-large-scale-magnetic-resonance-imaging-cohorts-a-proof-of-concept-for-multivariate-endophenotypes
#3
Chun Chieh Fan, Andrew J Schork, Timothy T Brown, Barbara E Spencer, Natacha Akshoomoff, Chi-Hua Chen, Joshua M Kuperman, Donald J Hagler, Vidar M Steen, Stephanie Le Hellard, Asta Kristine Håberg, Thomas Espeseth, Ole A Andreassen, Anders M Dale, Terry L Jernigan, Eric Halgren
Despite great interest in using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for studying the effects of genes on brain structure in humans, current approaches have focused almost entirely on predefined regions of interest and had limited success. Here, we used multivariate methods to define a single neuroanatomical score of how William's Syndrome (WS) brains deviate structurally from controls. The score is trained and validated on measures of T1 structural brain imaging in two WS cohorts (training, n = 38; validating, n = 60)...
June 8, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879225/ecohiv-infection-of-mice-establishes-latent-viral-reservoirs-in-t-cells-and-active-viral-reservoirs-in-macrophages-that-are-sufficient-for-induction-of-neurocognitive-impairment
#4
Chao-Jiang Gu, Alejandra Borjabad, Eran Hadas, Jennifer Kelschenbach, Boe-Hyun Kim, Wei Chao, Ottavio Arancio, Jin Suh, Bruce Polsky, JoEllyn McMillan, Benson Edagwa, Howard E Gendelman, Mary Jane Potash, David J Volsky
Suppression of HIV replication by antiretroviral therapy (ART) or host immunity can prevent AIDS but not other HIV-associated conditions including neurocognitive impairment (HIV-NCI). Pathogenesis in HIV-suppressed individuals has been attributed to reservoirs of latent-inducible virus in resting CD4+ T cells. Macrophages are persistently infected with HIV but their role as HIV reservoirs in vivo has not been fully explored. Here we show that infection of conventional mice with chimeric HIV, EcoHIV, reproduces physiological conditions for development of disease in people on ART including immunocompetence, stable suppression of HIV replication, persistence of integrated, replication-competent HIV in T cells and macrophages, and manifestation of learning and memory deficits in behavioral tests, termed here murine HIV-NCI...
June 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868121/health-profiles-of-mosaic-versus-non-mosaic-fmr1-premutation-carrier-mothers-of-children-with-fragile-x-syndrome
#5
Marsha R Mailick, Arezoo Movaghar, Jinkuk Hong, Jan S Greenberg, Leann S DaWalt, Lili Zhou, Jonathan Jackson, Paul J Rathouz, Mei W Baker, Murray Brilliant, David Page, Elizabeth Berry-Kravis
The FMR1 premutation is of increasing interest to the FXS community, as questions about a primary premutation phenotype warrant research attention. 100 FMR1 premutation carrier mothers (mean age = 58; 67-138 CGG repeats) of adults with fragile X syndrome were studied with respect to their physical and mental health, motor, and neurocognitive characteristics. We explored the correlates of CGG repeat mosaicism in women with expanded alleles. Mothers provided buccal swabs from which DNA was extracted and the FMR1 CGG genotyping was performed (Amplidex Kit, Asuragen)...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846253/infantile-hemangiomas-what-have-we-learned-from-propranolol
#6
Rachael Hagen, Erica Ghareeb, Omid Jalali, Zachary Zinn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Infantile hemangiomas are the most common vascular tumor of infancy. Treatment of infantile hemangiomas was revolutionized when propranolol, a nonselective β-blocker, was reported to be effective therapy. In this review, we highlight the lessons learned using propranolol to treat infantile hemangiomas. We also describe the ongoing effort to understand the mechanism of action of propranolol. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the pathogenesis of infantile hemangiomas is not fully understood, maternal hypoxic stress and embolization of placental tissue are suggested to be critical components in their development...
May 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790237/towards-a-new-classification-of-stable-phase-schizophrenia-into-major-and-simple-neuro-cognitive-psychosis-results-of-unsupervised-machine-learning-analysis
#7
Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sira Sriswasdi, Supaksorn Thika, Drozdstoy Stoyanov, Sunee Sirivichayakul, André F Carvalho, Michel Geffard, Michael Maes
RATIONALE: Deficit schizophrenia, as defined by the Schedule for Deficit Syndrome, may represent a distinct diagnostic class defined by neurocognitive impairments coupled with changes in IgA/IgM responses to tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs). Adequate classifications should be based on supervised and unsupervised learning rather than on consensus criteria. METHODS: This study used machine learning as means to provide a more accurate classification of patients with stable phase schizophrenia...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781879/cognitive-burden-of-common-non-antiretroviral-medications-in-hiv-infected-women
#8
Leah H Rubin, Kendra K Radtke, Seenae Eum, Bani Tamraz, Krithika N Kumanan, Gayle Springer, Pauline M Maki, Kathryn Anastos, Daniel Merenstein, Roksana Karim, Kathleen M Weber, Deborah Gustafson, Ruth M Greenblatt, Jeffrey R Bishop
OBJECTIVE: The aging HIV population has increased comorbidity burden and consequently non-antiretroviral (ARV) medication utilization. Many non-ARV medications have known neurocognitive-adverse effects ("NC-AE medications"). We assessed the cognitive effects of NC-AE medications in HIV+ and HIV- women. METHODS: 1558 participants (1037 HIV+; mean age 46) from the Women's Interagency HIV Study completed a neuropsychological test battery between 2009 and 2011...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781658/rapid-instruction-based-task-learning-ritl-in-schizophrenia
#9
Julia M Sheffield, Hannes Ruge, Sridhar Kandala, Deanna M Barch
Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate broad impairments in neurocognitive functioning as measured through laboratory-based tasks. Neuropsychological measures depend on rapid instruction-based task learning (RITL), the ability to rapidly translate task instruction into goal-directed behavior. Here, the authors present the first known investigation of RITL in schizophrenia and aim to test whether RITL deficits exist in schizophrenia, are associated with abnormal brain activation, and contribute to the generalized cognitive deficit...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781392/adolescent-athletes-with-learning-disability-display-atypical-maturational-trajectories-on-concussion-baseline-testing-implications-based-on-a-finnish-sample
#10
Kati Peltonen, Matti Vartiainen, Tiina Laitala-Leinonen, Sanna Koskinen, Teemu Luoto, Jon Pertab, Laura Hokkanen
Previous research has reported lower cognitive test scores on baseline testing in athletes reporting multiple previous concussions or a history of learning disability (LD). Age also has an important influence on cognitive performance. While these factors have been considered individually in previous studies, the present study is the first to explore the interaction of age, self-reported LD, and history of concussion on baseline Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT®) in a nationwide study of adolescent athletes...
May 21, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773978/effects-of-sevoflurane-exposure-during-mid-pregnancy-on-learning-and-memory-in-offspring-rats-beneficial-effects-of-maternal-exercise
#11
Ziyi Wu, Xingyue Li, Yi Zhang, Dongyi Tong, Lili Wang, Ping Zhao
Fetal exposure to general anesthetics may pose significant neurocognitive risks but methods to mitigate against these detrimental effects are still to be determined. We set out, therefore, to assess whether single or repeated in utero exposure to sevoflurane triggers long-term cognitive impairments in rat offspring. Since maternal exercise during pregnancy has been shown to improve cognition in offspring, we hypothesized that maternal treadmill exercise during pregnancy would protect against sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772485/neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-subjects-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-meta-analysis
#12
Wei Zheng, Qing-E Zhang, Dong-Bin Cai, Chee H Ng, Gabor S Ungvari, Yu-Ping Ning, Yu-Tao Xiang
Findings of neurocognitive dysfunction in subjects at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis (CHR-P) have been controversial. This meta-analysis systematically examined studies of neurocognitive functions using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) in CHR-P. An independent literature search of both English and Chinese databases was conducted by two reviewers. Standardized mean difference (SMD) was calculated using a random effects model to evaluate the effect size of the meta-analytic results. Six case-control studies (n = 396) comparing neurocognitive functions between CHR-P subjects (n = 197) and healthy controls (n = 199) using the MCCB were identified; 4 (66...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763451/episodic-memory-and-delayed-recall-are-significantly-more-impaired-in-younger-patients-with-deficit-schizophrenia-than-in-elderly-patients-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#13
Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sookjaroen Tangwongchai, Thitiporn Supasitthumrong, Sira Sriswasdi, Michael Maes
BACKGROUND: Both amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and schizophrenia, in particular deficit schizophrenia, are accompanied by cognitive impairments. The aim of the present study was to examine the cognitive differences between aMCI and (non)deficit schizophrenia. METHODS: Towards this end we recruited 60 participants with aMCI, 40 with deficit and 40 with nondeficit schizophrenia and 103 normal volunteers. Cognitive measures were assessed with the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD) using the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), Boston Naming Test (BNT), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Word list memory (WLM), Word list recall (WLRecall) and Word list recognition (WLRecognition)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762177/neuropsychological-phenotypes-among-men-with-and-without-hiv-disease-in-the-multicenter-aids-cohort-study
#14
Samantha A Molsberry, Yu Cheng, Lawrence Kingsley, Lisa Jacobson, Andrew J Levine, Eileen Martin, Eric N Miller, Cynthia A Munro, Ann Ragin, Ned Sacktor, James T Becker
OBJECTIVE: Mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remain prevalent in the combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) era. This study's objective was to identify neuropsychological subgroups within the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) based on the participant-based latent structure of cognitive function and to identify factors associated with subgroups. DESIGN: The MACS is a four-site longitudinal study of the natural and treated history of HIV disease among gay and bisexual men...
May 11, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737612/swift-certain-and-fair-justice-insights-from-behavioural-learning-and-neurocognitive-research
#15
Ashlee Curtis, George Youssef, Belinda Guadagno, Victoria Manning, Peter G Enticott, Dan I Lubman, Peter Miller
Increasingly, persons entering the criminal justice system are reporting substance-related concerns. It is therefore essential that interventions appropriately target the needs of substance-using offenders to ensure the rate of reoffending can be reduced. In this context, there is now a substantial literature demonstrating specific neurocognitive deficits among substance-using and offender populations, including, but not limited to, problems with executive function, rational decision making, consequential thinking and prospective memory...
April 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736060/improvement-in-neurocognitive-functions-and-serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-in-patients-with-depression-treated-with-antidepressants-and-yoga
#16
Naveen Gowrapura Halappa, Jagadisha Thirthalli, Shivarama Varambally, Mukund Rao, Rita Christopher, Gangadhar B Nanjundaiah
Context and Aims: Impairment in cognition is well-known in patients with major depressive disorder. This study examined the effect of yoga therapy with or without antidepressants and antidepressants alone on certain neuropsychological functions in patients with depression. Correlation between changes in neuropsychological test performance and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels was also explored. Materials and Methods: Antidepressant-naïve/antidepressant-free outpatients with depression received antidepressant medication alone ( n = 23) or yoga therapy with ( n = 26) or without ( n = 16) antidepressants...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732317/prophylactic-cranial-irradiation-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#17
Karine A Al Feghali, Rami A Ballout, Assem M Khamis, Elie A Akl, Fady B Geara
Background: We systematically reviewed the literature for trials addressing the efficacy of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with a curative intent. Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing PCI to no PCI in patients with NSCLC treated with a curative intent were eligible for inclusion. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed, and CENTRAL between 1946 and July 2016. We also received continual search alerts from PubMed through September 2017...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719356/defects-of-gamma-oscillations-in-auditory-steady-state-evoked-potential-of-schizophrenia
#18
Chenhui Sun, Ping Zhou, Changming Wang, Yu Fan, Qing Tian, Fang Dong, Fuchun Zhou, Chuanyue Wang
Background: Patients with schizophrenia have many cognitive deficits. Gamma oscillations exist in the human brain and are closely related to neurocognition. Auditory Steady-State Responses (ASSRs) is an electroneurophysiological index that could reflect gamma oscillations. It was found that the energy evoked by 40 Hz ASSRs in schizophrenic patients was significantly lower than that in healthy subjects. However, the correlation between ASSRs phase index and clinical symptoms and neurocognitive deficits has yet to be systematically studied...
February 25, 2018: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717483/neurocognitive-functioning-over-the-course-of-trauma-focused-psychotherapy-for-ptsd-changes-in-verbal-memory-and-executive-functioning
#19
Mirjam J Nijdam, Irene J M Martens, Johannes B Reitsma, Berthold P R Gersons, Miranda Olff
OBJECTIVES: Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have neurocognitive deficits in verbal memory and executive functioning. In this study, we examined whether memory and executive functioning changed over the course of treatment and which clinical variables were associated with change. DESIGN: Neuropsychological assessments were administered at baseline and endpoint of a randomized controlled trial as secondary outcome. METHODS: Trauma survivors (n = 88) diagnosed with PTSD received trauma-focused psychotherapy within a 17-week randomized controlled trial...
May 1, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716895/metabolic-syndrome-and-neurocognition-among-diverse-middle-aged-and-older-hispanics-latinos-hchs-sol-results
#20
Hector M González, Wassim Tarraf, Priscilla Vásquez, Ashley H Sanderlin, Natalya I Rosenberg, Sonia Davis, Carlos J Rodríguez, Linda C Gallo, Bharat Thyagarajan, Martha Daviglus, Tasneem Khambaty, Jianwen Cai, Neil Schneiderman
OBJECTIVE: Hispanics/Latinos have the highest risks for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the United States and are also at increased risk for Alzheimer disease. In this study, we examined associations among neurocognitive function, MetS, and inflammation among diverse middle-aged and older Hispanics/Latinos. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional data (2008-2011) from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos were analyzed to examine associations between neurocognition and MetS among diverse Hispanics/Latinos ( N = 9,136; aged 45-74 years)...
May 1, 2018: Diabetes Care
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