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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216235/association-between-memory-impairment-and-brain-metabolite-concentrations-in-north-korean-refugees-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#1
Jung Eun Shin, Chi-Hoon Choi, Jong Min Lee, Jun Soo Kwon, So Hee Lee, Hyun-Chung Kim, Na Young Han, Soo-Hee Choi, So Young Yoo
Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) had experiences of enormous psychological stress that can result in neurocognitive and neurochemical changes. To date, the causal relationship between them remains unclear. The present study is to investigate the association between neurocognitive characteristics and neural metabolite concentrations in North Korean refugees with PTSD. A total of 53 North Korean refugees with or without PTSD underwent neurocognitive function tests. For neural metabolite scanning, magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been conducted...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210832/quality-of-caregiving-is-positively-associated-with-neurodevelopment-during-the-first-year-of-life-among-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-in-uganda
#2
Itziar Familiar, Shalean M Collins, Alla Sikorskii, Horacio Ruisenor-Escudero, Barnabas Natamba, Paul Bangirana, Elizabeth M Widen, Daniel Achidri, Harriet Achola, Daniel Onen, Michael Boivin, Sera L Young
OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate if maternal characteristics and infant developmental milieu were predictive of early cognitive development in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and un-exposed uninfected (HU) infants in Uganda. DESIGN: Longitudinal pregnancy study. METHODS: Ugandan women (n=228) were enrolled into the Postnatal Nutrition and Psychosocial Health Outcomes (PostNAPS) study with a 2:1 HIV-uninfected:infected ratio. Maternal socio-demographic, perceived social support, and depressive symptomatology were assessed...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195088/early-inhibitory-control-and-working-memory-abilities-of-children-prenatally-exposed-to-methadone
#3
Terri A Levine, Lianne J Woodward
BACKGROUND: Methadone maintenance is the most common method of treating opioid-dependent pregnant women. However, little is known about the impact of prenatal methadone exposure on child neurocognitive development. AIMS: To examine the early executive functioning of children born to methadone-maintained mothers, and to assess relations between executive functioning and later emotional and behavioral adjustment. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal study...
November 28, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194102/neurocognitive-profiling-of-adult-treatment-seekers-enrolled-in-a-clinical-trial-of-a-web-delivered-intervention-for-substance-use-disorders
#4
Efrat Aharonovich, Aimee N C Campbell, Matisyahu Shulman, Mei-Chen Hu, Tiffany Kyle, Theresa Winhusen, Edward V Nunes
OBJECTIVE: This study is a secondary descriptive analysis that explores and compares the cognitive profiles of adults entering treatment at geographically diverse community-based substance use disorder treatment facilities. METHODS: Performance on cognitive measures at baseline was compared across 5 primary substance subgroups of individuals (alcohol = 104; cocaine = 102; stimulants = 69; opioids = 108; marijuana = 114) enrolled in a web-based psychosocial treatment study conducted within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192940/-the-relationship-of-interleukin-18-and-interleukin-6-levels-with-cognitive-functions-in-bipolar-disorder
#5
Filiz Civil Arslan, Ahmet Tiryaki, Evrim Özkorumak Karagüzel, Gizem Aral, Oğuz Sarıoğlu, İmran İnce, Sertaç Çankaya, Ahmet Alver
OBJECTIVE: Impairment in immune functions is proposed as a key factor in the cognitive decline in bipolar disorder (BD) however there is scarcity of research on the impact of inflammation on cognitive functions. Our aim is to compare IL-18 and IL-6 levels in BD patients and controls and to study the relationship between IL-18 and IL-6 levels and cognitive impairment METHOD: Thirty-six euthymic BD-I patients and 38 age, sex and educational level matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187700/sevoflurane-preconditioning-ameliorates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-mice
#6
Maiko Satomoto, Zhongliang Sun, Yushi U Adachi, Hiroyuki Kinoshita, Koshi Makita
Systemic inflammation induces brain neuronal inflammation, in turn causing acute cognitive disorders. Furthermore, neuronal inflammation is one cause of postoperative cognitive disorder (POCD) and delirium. However, no sufficiently established pharmacological treatment is available for neurocognitive inflammation. This study evaluated the possible neuroprotective effects of preconditioning with sevoflurane anesthesia on cognition and neuroinflammatory changes in an animal model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammation...
November 29, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170578/investigating-changes-in-resting-state-connectivity-from-functional-mri-data-in-patients-with-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-using-mca-and-machine-learning
#7
Adora M DSouza, Anas Z Abidin, Axel Wismüller
Infection of the brain by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) causes irreversible damage to the synaptic connections resulting in cognitive impairment. Patients with HIV infection, showing signs of impairment in multiple cognitive domains, as assessed by neuropsychological testing, are said to exhibit symptoms of HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND). In this study, we use resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) data to distinguish between healthy subjects and subjects with symptoms of HAND. To this end, we first establish a measure of interaction between pairs of regional time-series by quantifying their non-linear functional connectivity using Mutual Connectivity Analysis (MCA)...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167591/identifying-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-using-large-scale-granger-causality-analysis-on-resting-state-functional-mri
#8
Adora M DSouza, Anas Z Abidin, Lutz Leistritz, Axel Wismüller
We investigate the applicability of large-scale Granger Causality (lsGC) for extracting a measure of multivariate information flow between pairs of regional brain activities from resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) and test the effectiveness of these measures for predicting a disease state. Such pairwise multivariate measures of interaction provide high-dimensional representations of connectivity profiles for each subject and are used in a machine learning task to distinguish between healthy controls and individuals presenting with symptoms of HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND)...
February 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162183/dimensions-of-childhood-adversity-have-distinct-associations-with-neural-systems-underlying-executive-functioning
#9
Margaret A Sheridan, Matthew Peverill, Amy S Finn, Katie A McLaughlin
Childhood adversity is associated with increased risk for psychopathology. Neurodevelopmental pathways underlying this risk remain poorly understood. A recent conceptual model posits that childhood adversity can be deconstructed into at least two underlying dimensions, deprivation and threat, that are associated with distinct neurocognitive consequences. This model argues that deprivation (i.e., a lack of cognitive stimulation and learning opportunities) is associated with poor executive function (EF), whereas threat is not...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158952/the-impact-of-attentional-focus-on-the-treatment-of-musculoskeletal-and-movement-disorders
#10
Christopher Hunt, Arsenio Paez, Eric Folmar
Treatment plans employed by physical therapists involved in musculoskeletal rehabilitation may follow a conventional medical-model approach, isolating care at the tissue level but neglecting consideration for neurocognitive contributions to recovery. Understanding and integration of motor learning concepts into physical therapy practice is integral for influencing the human movement system in the most effective manner. One such motor learning concept is the use of verbal instruction to influence the attentional focus of the learner...
November 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157996/longitudinal-interactions-between-brain-and-cognitive-measures-on-reading-development-from-6-months-to-14-years
#11
Kaisa Lohvansuu, Jarmo A Hämäläinen, Leena Ervast, Heikki Lyytinen, Paavo H T Leppänen
Dyslexia is a neurobiological disorder impairing learning to read. Brain responses of infants at genetic risk for dyslexia are abnormal already at birth, and associations from infant speech perception to preschool cognitive skills and reading in early school years have been documented, but there are no studies showing predicting power until adolescence. Here we show that in at-risk infants, brain activation to pseudowords at left hemisphere predicts 44% of reading speed at 14 years, and even improves the prediction after taking into account neurocognitive preschool measures of letter naming, phonology, and verbal short-term memory...
November 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154367/effects-of-amphetamine-on-sensorimotor-gating-and-neurocognition-in-antipsychotic-medicated-schizophrenia-patients
#12
Neal R Swerdlow, Savita G Bhakta, Jo A Talledo, Daniel M Franz, Erica L Hughes, Brinda K Rana, Gregory A Light
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle is being explored both as an indicator of target engagement for, and a biomarker predicting sensitivity to, pro-cognitive effects of drugs. We now report the effects of the pro-attentional drug, d-amphetamine, on PPI and neurocognition in antipsychotic-medicated schizophrenia patients and healthy subjects (HS) who were also tested in a targeted cognitive training (TCT) module. 44 HS and 38 schizophrenia patients completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of the effects of a single dose of amphetamine (10 mg po) on PPI and MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) performance; TCT results were previously reported from 60 of these subjects...
November 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149154/philosophical-issues-and-psychological-variables-that-influence-the-determination-of-opioid-effectiveness-a-narrative-review
#13
Daniel Michael Doleys
BACKGROUND: The prescribing of opioids in the chronic pain setting is often based on the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacogenetics of the drug obtained during development and clinical trials. However, the effectiveness of opioids varies widely and often appears to bear no relationship to the aforementioned variables. The impact of philosophical issues and psychological factors on determining how clinically effective opioid therapy is has often been over looked. OBJECTIVES: This manuscript provides a selective review and narrative summary of the philosophical issues and psychological factors which can influence opioid effectiveness...
November 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146683/pcsk9-variants-ldl-cholesterol-and-neurocognitive-impairment-the-reasons-for-geographic-and-racial-differences-in-stroke-regards-study
#14
Matthew T Mefford, Robert S Rosenson, Mary Cushman, Michael E Farkouh, Leslie A McClure, Virginia G Wadley, Marguerite R Irvin, Vera A Bittner, Monika M Safford, Ransi Somaratne, Keri L Monda, Paul Muntner, Emily B Levitan
Background -Despite concerns about adverse neurocognitive events raised by prior trials, pharmacologic PCSK9 inhibition was not associated with neurocognitive effects in a recent phase 3 randomized trial. PCSK9 loss-of-function (LOF) variants that result in life-long exposure to low LDL-C can provide information on the potential long-term effects of low LDL-C on neurocognitive impairment and decline. Methods -We investigated the association between PCSK9 LOF variants and neurocognitive impairment and decline among African-American REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study participants with (n=241) and without (n=10,454) C697X or Y142X LOF variants...
November 16, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131878/association-of-brain-structure-changes-and-cognitive-function-with-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-positive-individuals
#15
Ryan Sanford, Lesley K Fellows, Beau M Ances, D Louis Collins
Importance: Despite the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders continue to be a problem for treated HIV-positive individuals. The cause of this impairment remains unclear. Objective: To determine if detectable brain changes occur during a 2-year period in HIV-positive individuals who were aviremic and treated with cART. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this longitudinal case-control study, participants underwent neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessment approximately 2 years apart...
November 13, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121595/from-the-psychosis-prodrome-to-the-first-episode-of-psychosis-no-evidence-of-a-cognitive-decline
#16
Ricardo E Carrión, Deborah J Walder, Andrea M Auther, Danielle McLaughlin, Heather O Zyla, Steven Adelsheim, Roderick Calkins, Cameron S Carter, Bentson McFarland, Ryan Melton, Tara Niendam, J Daniel Ragland, Tamara G Sale, Stephan F Taylor, William R McFarlane, Barbara A Cornblatt
Cognitive deficits have an important role in the neurodevelopment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. However, there is a continuing debate as to whether cognitive impairments in the psychosis prodrome are stable predictors of eventual psychosis or undergo a decline due to the onset of psychosis. In the present study, to determine how cognition changes as illness emerges, we examined baseline neurocognitive performance in a large sample of helping-seeking youth ranging in clinical state from low-risk for psychosis through individuals at clinical high-risk (CHR) for illness to early first-episode patients (EFEP)...
January 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121332/frontostriatal-and-dopamine-markers-of-individual-differences-in-reinforcement-learning-a-multi-modal-investigation
#17
Roselinde H Kaiser, Michael T Treadway, Dustin W Wooten, Poornima Kumar, Franziska Goer, Laura Murray, Miranda Beltzer, Pia Pechtel, Alexis Whitton, Andrew L Cohen, Nathaniel M Alpert, Georges El Fakhri, Marc D Normandin, Diego A Pizzagalli
Prior studies have shown that dopamine (DA) functioning in frontostriatal circuits supports reinforcement learning (RL), as phasic DA activity in ventral striatum signals unexpected reward and may drive coordinated activity of striatal and orbitofrontal regions that support updating of action plans. However, the nature of DA functioning in RL is complex, in particular regarding the role of DA clearance in RL behavior. Here, in a multi-modal neuroimaging study with healthy adults, we took an individual differences approach to the examination of RL behavior and DA clearance mechanisms in frontostriatal learning networks...
October 31, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112973/reading-wild-minds-a-computational-assay-of-theory-of-mind-sophistication-across-seven-primate-species
#18
Marie Devaine, Aurore San-Galli, Cinzia Trapanese, Giulia Bardino, Christelle Hano, Michel Saint Jalme, Sebastien Bouret, Shelly Masi, Jean Daunizeau
Theory of Mind (ToM), i.e. the ability to understand others' mental states, endows humans with highly adaptive social skills such as teaching or deceiving. Candidate evolutionary explanations have been proposed for the unique sophistication of human ToM among primates. For example, the Machiavellian intelligence hypothesis states that the increasing complexity of social networks may have induced a demand for sophisticated ToM. This type of scenario ignores neurocognitive constraints that may eventually be crucial limiting factors for ToM evolution...
November 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111454/the-application-of-reward-learning-in-the-real-world-changes-in-the-reward-positivity-amplitude-reflect-learning-in-a-medical-education-context
#19
Chad C Williams, Kent G Hecker, Michael K Paget, Sylvain P Coderre, Kelly W Burak, Bruce Wright, Olave E Krigolson
Evidence ranging from behavioural adaptations to neurocognitive theories has made significant advances into our understanding of feedback-based learning. For instance, over the past twenty years research using electroencephalography has demonstrated that the amplitude of a component of the human event-related brain potential - the reward positivity - appears to change with learning in a manner predicted by reinforcement learning theory (Holroyd and Coles, 2002; Sutton and Barto, 1998). However, while the reward positivity (also known as the feedback related negativity) is well studied, whether the component reflects an underlying learning process or whether it is simply sensitive to feedback evaluation is still unclear...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111178/dose-dependent-neurocognitive-deficits-following-postnatal-day-10-hiv-1-viral-protein-exposure-relationship-to-hippocampal-anatomy-parameters
#20
Sylvia Fitting, Kristen A McLaurin, Rosemarie M Booze, Charles F Mactutus
Despite the availability of antiretroviral prophylactic treatment, pediatric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) continues to be a significant risk factor in the post-cART era. The time of infection (i.e., during pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding) may play a role in the development of neurocognitive deficits in pediatric HIV-1. HIV-1 viral protein exposure on postnatal day (P)1, preceding the postnatal brain growth spurt in rats, had deleterious effects on neurocognitive development and anatomical parameters of the hippocampus (Fitting et al...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
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