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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678060/knowledge-driven-interpretation-of-multi-view-data-in-medicine
#1
Parvathy Sudhir Pillai, Lei Feng, Tze-Yun Leong
We propose a new approach to clinical decision support with interpretable recommendations from multi-view data. We introduce a Bayesian network structure learning method to help identify the relevant factors and their relationships. Guided by minimal domain knowledge, this method highlights the significant associations among the demography, medical and family history, lifestyle, and biomarker data to facilitate informed clinical decisions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method for detecting mild neurocognitive disorder in the elderly from a real-life dataset in Singapore...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663261/evaluation-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-changes-and-neurocognitive-effects-of-asymptomatic-vitamin-b12-deficiency
#2
Ali Zeynal Abidin Tak, Erdal Dayan, Hacı Taner Bulut
Vitamin B12 plays an important role in the mechanisms which are responsible for myelinization in the central nervous system. It can particularly lead to hematological and neuropsychiatric symptoms when serum levels fall due to insufficient intake with diet or absorption problems. The purpose of this study was to show the cognitive effects in vitamin B12 deficiency cases that have not reached clinical symptom level using neuropsychological tests, and to show possible cerebral neuronal damage using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) method...
April 16, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656802/impact-on-the-brain-of-the-inflammatory-response-to-surgery
#3
Sarah Saxena, Mervyn Maze
The brain is both the orchestrator as well as the target of the innate immune system's response to the aseptic trauma of surgery. When trauma-induced inflammation is not appropriately regulated persistent neuro-inflammation interferes with the synaptic plasticity that underlies the learning and memory aspects of cognition. The complications that ensue, include postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) at two poles of a constellation that is now termed perioperative neurocognitive disorders...
April 12, 2018: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656335/role-of-microglia-under-cardiac-and-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-i-r-injury
#4
REVIEW
Poomarin Surinkaew, Passakorn Sawaddiruk, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Both cerebral and cardiac ischemia causes loss of cerebral blood flow, which may lead to neuronal cell damage, neurocognitive impairment, learning and memory difficulties, neurological deficits, and brain death. Although reperfusion is required immediately to restore the blood supply to the brain, it could lead to several detrimental effects on the brain. Several studies demonstrate that microglia activity increases following cerebral and cardiac ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the effects of microglial activation in the brain following I/R remains unclear...
April 14, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652955/-neurodevelopmental-assessment-of-patients-with-congenital-hypothyroidism
#5
Alicia Núñez, Paula Bedregal, Carlos Becerra, Francisca Grob L
Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common cause of preventable cognitive disability worldwide. Generally, it is produced by an alteration in the embryogenesis of the thyroid gland or by an alteration in the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which determine that affected patients have low or absent thyroid hormone concentrations. The importance of this fact is that brain development during the first three years of life is highly dependent on thyroid hormones. Prior to the implementation of national neonatal screening programs around the world, 8 to 27% of children with CH had an IQ lower than 70...
December 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649712/sexual-abuse-but-not-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-is-associated-with-neurocognitive-deficits-in-south-african-traumatized-adolescents
#6
Sarah V Biedermann, Stefanie Meliss, Candice Simmons, Jani Nöthling, Sharain Suliman, Soraya Seedat
OBJECTIVES: Neurocognitive impairments are commonly observed in adults suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The picture is less clear in adolescents. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may have an independent influence on neuropsychological test performance and provide partial explanatory power of the inconsistent findings. We hypothesized that adolescents with PTSD who have also suffered sexual abuse would have most pronounced deficits on neurocognitive testing. METHODS: In a cross-sectional design, 105 traumatized South African adolescents, of whom 52 fulfilled criteria of PTSD and 34 reported CSA, were studied...
April 9, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627173/room-to-move-plasticity-in-early-auditory-information-processing-and-auditory-learning-in-schizophrenia-revealed-by-acute-pharmacological-challenge
#7
Neal R Swerdlow, Savita G Bhakta, Gregory A Light
Many patients with chronic psychotic disorders including schizophrenia (SZ) maintain meaningful levels of plasticity (i.e., capacity for change) within neurocognition-relevant brain mechanisms, as evidenced by gains in neurocognition and function after interventions such as targeted cognitive training. However, like many clinical features of these disorders, therapeutic responses in SZ are heterogeneous, and prospectively identifying treatment-sensitive individuals and individualized treatment modalities remains an unmet challenge...
April 4, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618054/influence-of-residual-disease-following-surgical-resection-in-newly-diagnosed-glioblastoma-on-clinical-neurocognitive-and-patient-reported-outcomes
#8
William A Hall, Stephanie L Pugh, Jeffrey S Wefel, Terri S Armstrong, Mark R Gilbert, David G Brachman, Maria Werner-Wasik, Merideth M Wendland, Paul D Brown, Samuel T Chao, Kevin S Roof, H Ian Robins, Minesh P Mehta, Walter J Curran, Benjamin Movsas
BACKGROUND: The influence of subtotal resection (STR) on neurocognitive function (NCF), quality of life, and symptom burden in glioblastoma is unknown. If bevacizumab preferentially benefits patients with STR is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine these uncertainties. METHODS: NCF and patient reported outcomes (PRO) were prospectively collected in NRG Oncology RTOG 0525 and 0825. Changes in NCF and PRO measures from baseline to prespecified times were examined by Wilcoxon test, and mixed effects longitudinal modeling, to assess differences between patients who received STR vs gross-total resection...
March 30, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614390/can-neuropsychological-testing-facilitate-differential-diagnosis-between-at-risk-mental-state-arms-for-psychosis-and-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#9
Erich Studerus, Salvatore Corbisiero, Nadine Mazzariello, Sarah Ittig, Letizia Leanza, Laura Egloff, Katharina Beck, Ulrike Heitz, Christina Andreou, Rolf-Dieter Stieglitz, Anita Riecher-Rössler
BACKGROUND: Patients with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis and patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have many overlapping signs and symptoms and hence can be difficult to differentiate clinically. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the differential diagnosis between ARMS and adult ADHD could be improved by neuropsychological testing. METHODS: 168 ARMS patients, 123 adult ADHD patients and 109 healthy controls (HC) were recruited via specialized clinics of the University of Basel Psychiatric Hospital...
March 31, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601060/revealing-neurocomputational-mechanisms-of-reinforcement-learning-and-decision-making-with-the-hbayesdm-package
#10
Woo-Young Ahn, Nathaniel Haines, Lei Zhang
Reinforcement learning and decision-making (RLDM) provide a quantitative framework and computational theories with which we can disentangle psychiatric conditions into the basic dimensions of neurocognitive functioning. RLDM offer a novel approach to assessing and potentially diagnosing psychiatric patients, and there is growing enthusiasm for both RLDM and computational psychiatry among clinical researchers. Such a framework can also provide insights into the brain substrates of particular RLDM processes, as exemplified by model-based analysis of data from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or electroencephalography (EEG)...
October 2017: Comput Psychiatr
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600747/the-effectiveness-of-a-hospital-based-school-liaison-program-a-comparative-study-of-parental-perception-of-school-supports-for-children-with-pediatric-cancer-and-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#11
Lisa Northman, Marybeth Morris, Caitlyn Loucas, Sarah Ross, Anna C Muriel, Dongjing Guo, Wendy B London, Peter Manley, Nicole J Ullrich
Childhood survivors of central nervous system (CNS) cancers (defined as cancers whose diagnosis or treatment affect the CNS) are at increased risk for educational related difficulties, as are children affected by neurofibromatosis type 1. This study evaluated the effectiveness of and satisfaction with a model of psychoeducation, consultation, and advocacy provided by a School Liaison Program (SLP) for families and schools of children with CNS-involved cancers compared with a control group of parents of children with a diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1 who did not receive school-based services...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570016/early-and-middle-childhood-developmental-cognitive-and-psychiatric-outcomes-of-malawian-children-affected-by-retinopathy-positive-cerebral-malaria
#12
Michael J Boivin, Arpita Mohanty, Alla Sikorskii, Maclean Vokhiwa, Jed G Magen, Melissa Gladstone
The objective is to determine the short -and long-term developmental, cognitive, and psychiatric effects of retinopathy positive cerebral malaria (CM-R) among young children in a prospective study assessing them around the onset of disease and again 2 years at preschool and again at school age. In total, 109 children were recruited from the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi, (N = 49) with CM-R and non-malaria controls  (N = 60). Children were assessed for overall motor, language, and social skills using the Malawi Developmental Assessment Tool (MDAT) at preschool age...
March 23, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566796/cerebral-embolic-risk-during-transcatheter-mitral-valve-interventions-an-unaddressed-and-unmet-clinical-need
#13
REVIEW
Matteo Pagnesi, Damiano Regazzoli, Marco B Ancona, Antonio Mangieri, Giuseppe Lanzillo, Francesco Giannini, Nicola Buzzatti, Bernard D Prendergast, Susheel Kodali, Alexandra J Lansky, Antonio Colombo, Azeem Latib
As new transcatheter mitral valve (MV) interventions continuously evolve, potential procedure-related adverse events demand careful investigation. The risk of cerebral embolic damage is ubiquitous in any left-sided structural heart intervention (and potentially linked to long-term neurocognitive sequelae); therefore, efforts to evaluate these aspects in the field of catheter-based MV procedures are justified. Given the peculiarities of MV anatomy, MV disease, and MV procedures, the lessons learned from other transcatheter heart interventions (i...
March 26, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564536/long-term-neurocognitive-improvement-after-late-right-hemispherectomy-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Alessandra Moletto, Irene Bagnasco, Patrizia Dassi, Piernanda Vigliano
OBJECTIVE: To study the long-term neurocognitive changes of a right-handed girl with intractable epilepsy after late right hemispherectomy and compare them with data in the literature. METHOD: The girl was affected by an epileptic encephalopathy associated with right fronto-temporo-parietal polymicrogyria; she was submitted to right hemispherectomy at the age of 5 and examined with cognitive and neuropsychological tests at the age of 17 years. The girl took advantage of neurocognitive rehabilitation for several years; she is currently seizure-free and off therapy...
March 21, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559950/a-longitudinal-study-of-neurocognition-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-compared-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Monica H Breitve, Luiza J Chwiszczuk, Kolbjørn Brønnick, Minna J Hynninen, Bjørn H Auestad, Dag Aarsland, Arvid Rongve
Introduction: There are relatively few longitudinal studies on the differences in cognitive decline between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and the majority of existing studies have suboptimal designs. Aim: We investigated the differences in cognitive decline in AD compared to DLB over 4 years and cognitive domain predictors of progression. Methods: In a longitudinal study, 266 patients with first-time diagnosis of mild dementia were included and followed annually...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556248/growth-of-triple-negative-and-progesterone-positive-breast-cancer-causes-oxidative-stress-and-down-regulates-neuroprotective-transcription-factor-npas4-and-npas4-regulated-genes-in-hippocampal-tissues-of-tumorgraft-mice-an-aging-connection
#16
Anna Kovalchuk, Yaroslav Ilnytskyy, Rocio Rodriguez-Juarez, Amanda Katz, David Sidransky, Bryan Kolb, Olga Kovalchuk
While the refinement of existing and the development of new chemotherapeutic regimens has significantly improved cancer treatment outcomes and patient survival, chemotherapy still causes many persistent side effects. Central nervous system (CNS) toxicity is of particular concern, as cancer patients experience significant deficits in memory, learning, cognition, and decision-making. These chemotherapy-induced cognitive changes are termed chemo brain, and manifest in more than half of cancer survivors. Moreover, recent studies have emerged suggesting that neurocognitive deficits manifest prior to cancer diagnosis and treatment, and thus may be associated with tumor presence, a phenomenon recently termed "tumor brain...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547978/a-neurocomputational-account-of-reward-and-novelty-processing-and-effects-of-psychostimulants-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#17
Arjun Sethi, Valerie Voon, Hugo D Critchley, Mara Cercignani, Neil A Harrison
Computational models of reinforcement learning have helped dissect discrete components of reward-related function and characterize neurocognitive deficits in psychiatric illnesses. Stimulus novelty biases decision-making, even when unrelated to choice outcome, acting as if possessing intrinsic reward value to guide decisions toward uncertain options. Heightened novelty seeking is characteristic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, yet how this influences reward-related decision-making is computationally encoded, or is altered by stimulant medication, is currently uncertain...
March 13, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527624/deficit-schizophrenia-is-a-discrete-diagnostic-category-defined-by-neuro-immune-and-neurocognitive-features-results-of-supervised-machine-learning
#18
Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sira Sriswasdi, Supaksorn Thika, Sunee Sirivichayakul, André F Carvalho, Michel Geffard, Marta Kubera, Michael Maes
Deficit schizophrenia is characterized by neurocognitive impairments and changes in the patterning of IgA/IgM responses to plasma tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs). In the current study, supervised pattern recognition methods, including logistic regression analysis (LRA), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA), were used to examine whether deficit schizophrenia is a discrete diagnostic class with respect to Consortium To Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) tests and IgA/IgM responses to noxious (NOX) and generally more protective (PRO) TRYCATs...
March 11, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522863/neuropsychological-benefits-of-computerized-cognitive-rehabilitation-training-in-ugandan-children-surviving-severe-malaria-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
REVIEW
Michael J Boivin, Noeline Nakasujja, Alla Sikorskii, Horacio Ruiseñor-Escudero, Itziar Familiar-Lopez, Kimberley Walhof, Esther M van der Lugt, Robert O Opoka, Bruno Giordani
BACKGROUND: Computerized cognitive rehabilitation training (CCRT) may be beneficial for alleviating persisting neurocognitive deficits in Ugandan severe malaria survivors. We completed a randomized controlled trial of CCRT for both severe malaria and non-malaria cohorts of children. METHODS: 150 school-age severe malaria and 150 non-malaria children were randomized to three treatment arms: 24 sessions of Captain's Log CCRT for attention, working memory and nonverbal reasoning, in which training on each of 9 tasks difficulty increased with proficiency; a limited CCRT arm that did not titrate to proficiency but randomly cycled across the simplest to moderate level of training; and a passive control arm...
March 6, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522770/therapeutic-evaluation-of-solid-lipid-nanoparticle-of-quercetin-in-pentylenetetrazole-induced-cognitive-impairment-of-zebrafish
#20
Narahari Rishitha, Arunachalam Muthuraman
BACKGROUND: Quercetin is a major flavonoid in various plants. It possesses the multiple pharmacological actions like vascular integrity and regulatory action of the blood-brain barrier. AIMS: The present study is focused on evaluating the role of solid lipid nanoparticle of quercetin in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced cognitive impairment of Danio rerio species. MAIN METHODS: The memory impairment of zebrafish was induced by exposing of PTZ in 7...
March 6, 2018: Life Sciences
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