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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474511/organizational-strategies-partially-account-for-race-related-differences-in-list-recall-performance
#1
Michelle E Fox, Tanya F Panwala, Tricia Z King
Objective: Organizational strategies have been shown to improve one's ability to recall items from a list. Specifically, use of semantic clustering, the tendency to group items by category when recalling them, predicts better free recall of word lists after short and long delays. The present study utilized a healthy adult sample to examine use of efficient memory strategies as a predictor of differences in neurocognitive findings between African American and white participants. Method: Participants provided demographic information and completed the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) and Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence-Second Edition (WASI-2)...
February 21, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473799/learning-memory-deficits-and-impaired-neuronal-maturation-attributed-to-acrylamide
#2
Seulah Lee, Hee Ra Park, Joo Yeon Lee, Jung-Hyun Cho, Hye Min Song, Ah Hyun Kim, Wonjong Lee, Yujeong Lee, Seung-Cheol Chang, Hyung Sik Kim, Jaewon Lee
Acrylamide (ACR) is a neurotoxin known to produce neurotoxicity characterized by ataxia, skeletal muscle weakness, cognitive impairment, and numbness of the extremities. Previously, investigators reported that high-dose (50 mg/kg) ACR impaired hippocampal neurogenesis and increased neural progenitor cell death; however, the influence of subchronic environmentally relevant low dose-(2, 20, or 200 μg/kg) ACRs have not been examined in adult neurogenesis or cognitive function in mice. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether low-dose ACR adversely affected mouse hippocampal neurogenesis and neurocognitive functions...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463267/hippocampus-sparing-radiotherapy-using-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-vmat-to-the-primary-brain-tumor-the-result-of-dosimetric-study-and-neurocognitive-function-assessment
#3
Kyung Su Kim, Chan Woo Wee, Jin-Yong Seok, Joo Wan Hong, Jin-Beom Chung, Keun-Yong Eom, Jae-Sung Kim, Chae-Yong Kim, Young Ho Park, Yu Jung Kim, In Ah Kim
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that hippocampal-sparing radiotherapy via volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) could preserve the neurocognitive function (NCF) of patients with primary brain tumors treated with radiotherapy. METHODS: We reviewed data from patients with primary brain tumors who underwent hippocampal-sparing brain radiotherapy via VMAT between February 2014 and December 2015. The optimization criteria for the contralateral hippocampus was a maximum dose (Dmax ) of less than 17 Gy...
February 20, 2018: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461331/the-effect-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-on-hypoperfusion-in-psychotic-bipolar-depression-a-case-study
#4
Céline Julie De Smet, Bernard Sabbe, J F E Oldenburg
The pharmacological treatment of bipolar depression has low response rates. Twenty percent to 30% of patients have an insufficient response to medication. The guidelines suggest that electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the next step. The aim of this case study is to evaluate the effect of ECT on the perfusion of the brain in bipolar depression, while monitoring effects on mood and cognition. We present a case study of 56-year-old female patient who suffered from a psychotic depression and cognitive impairment...
February 14, 2018: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458297/-r-fluoxetine-enhances-cognitive-flexibility-and-hippocampal-cell-proliferation-in-mice
#5
Subhi Marwari, Gavin S Dawe
Fluoxetine is a clinically successful antidepressant. It is a racemic mixture of (R) and (S) stereoisomers. In preclinical studies, chronic treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) had antidepressant effects correlated with increased hippocampal cell proliferation in adult rodents. However, the contribution of the enantiomers of fluoxetine is largely unknown. We investigated the effects of treatment with (R)- and (S)-fluoxetine on cognitive behavioral paradigms and examined cell proliferation in the hippocampus of C57BL/6J female mice...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432797/ethological-and-multi-behavioral-analysis-of-learning-and-memory-performance-in-laboratory-rodent-models
#6
REVIEW
Hiroyuki Arakawa, Yoshio Iguchi
Behavioral studies using animal models have widely contributed to advancing our understanding of the neuroregulatory mechanisms of human cognitive states and disorders. A variety of behavioral tests and theoretical models have been developed that provide a standardized toolbox of behavioral test paradigms available to researchers, and thus allow rapid progress in studies of the molecular-genetic bases of behavior relevant to neurocognitive diseases. However, a growing effort to utilize standardized paradigms has overlooked the diverse behavioral characteristics of test rodents expressed in standardized test situations...
February 9, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430559/developmental-lead-and-or-prenatal-stress-exposures-followed-by-different-types-of-behavioral-experience-result-in-the-divergence-of-brain-epigenetic-profiles-in-a-sex-brain-region-and-time-dependent-manner-implications-for-neurotoxicology
#7
Deborah A Cory-Slechta, Marissa Sobolewski, G Varma, J S Schneider
Over a lifetime, early developmental exposures to neurocognitive risk factors, such as lead (Pb) exposures and prenatal stress (PS), will be followed by multiple varied behavioral experiences. Pb, PS and behavioral experience can each influence brain epigenetic profiles. Our recent studies show a greater level of complexity, however, as all three factors interact within each sex to generate differential adult variation in global post-translational histone modifications (PTHMs), which may result in fundamentally different consequences for life-long learning and behavioral function...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427284/a-single-high-dose-of-methamphetamine-reduces-monoamines-and-impairs-egocentric-and-allocentric-learning-and-memory-in-adult-male-rats
#8
Arnold Gutierrez, Michael T Williams, Charles V Vorhees
Methamphetamine (MA) alters dopamine markers and cognitive function in heavy users. In rodents, there are MA dosing regimens that induce concordant effects using repeated administration at spaced intervals. These regimens are effective but complicate experiments designed to disentangle the effects of the drug on different brain regions in relation to their cognitive effects because of treatment spacing. In an effort to simplify the model, we tested whether a single dose of MA could induce the same monoamine and cognitive effects as multiple, spaced dosing without affecting survival...
February 9, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424258/anti-leukemic-treatment-induced-neurotoxicity-in-long-term-survivors-of-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-impact-of-reduced-central-nervous-system-radiotherapy-and-intermediate-to-high-dose-methotrexate
#9
Olga Zając-Spychała, Mikolaj Pawlak, Katarzyna Karmelita-Katulska, Jakub Pilarczyk, Katarzyna Jończyk-Potoczna, Agnieszka Przepióra, Katarzyna Derwich, Jacek Wachowiak
The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term neurodevelopmental consequences of currently applied acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) therapy containing chemotherapy alone or combined with 12 Gy radiotherapy. Seventy-nine children aged 6.3-21.7 years diagnosed with ALL and treated according to ALL IC-BFM 2002 have been studied. The control group consisted of 23 children newly diagnosed with ALL. We assessed subcortical gray matter volume using automatic MRI segmentation and cognitive performance to identify differences between three therapeutic schemes and patients prior to treatment...
February 9, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423356/stem-cell-therapies-for-the-resolution-of-radiation-injury-to-the-brain
#10
Sarah M Smith, Charles L Limoli
Purpose of review: To encapsulate past and current research efforts focused on stem cell transplantation strategies to resolve radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction. Recent Findings: Transplantation of human stem cells in the irradiated brain was first shown to resolve radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction in a landmark paper by Acharya et al., appearing in PNAS in 2009. Since that time, work from the same laboratory as well as other groups have reported on the beneficial (as well as detrimental) effects of stem cell grafting after cranial radiation exposure...
December 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422299/a-randomized-controlled-trial-examining-a-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-intervention-enhanced-with-cognitive-remediation-to-improve-work-and-neurocognition-outcomes-among-persons-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#11
Marina Kukla, Morris D Bell, Paul H Lysaker
This single blind, three-armed randomized controlled trial compared cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) enhanced with cognitive remediation (CBT+CR) to CBT alone and an active control condition on work and neurocognition outcomes for persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Seventy-five adult outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomized to three study conditions (N=25 per group). The CBT intervention was the Indianapolis Vocational Intervention program (IVIP), consisting of weekly group and individual sessions focused on work-related content...
February 5, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415770/early-brain-connectivity-alterations-and-cognitive-impairment-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Emma Muñoz-Moreno, Raúl Tudela, Xavier López-Gil, Guadalupe Soria
BACKGROUND: Animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are essential to understanding the disease progression and to development of early biomarkers. Because AD has been described as a disconnection syndrome, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based connectomics provides a highly translational approach to characterizing the disruption in connectivity associated with the disease. In this study, a transgenic rat model of AD (TgF344-AD) was analyzed to describe both cognitive performance and brain connectivity at an early stage (5 months of age) before a significant concentration of β-amyloid plaques is present...
February 7, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414494/neuroanatomical-morphometric-characterization-of-sex-differences-in-youth-using-statistical-learning
#13
Farshid Sepehrband, Kirsten M Lynch, Ryan P Cabeen, Clio Gonzalez-Zacarias, Lu Zhao, Mike D'Arcy, Carl Kesselman, Megan M Herting, Ivo D Dinov, Arthur W Toga, Kristi A Clark
Exploring neuroanatomical sex differences using a multivariate statistical learning approach can yield insights that cannot be derived with univariate analysis. While gross differences in total brain volume are well-established, uncovering the more subtle, regional sex-related differences in neuroanatomy requires a multivariate approach that can accurately model spatial complexity as well as the interactions between neuroanatomical features. Here, we developed a multivariate statistical learning model using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to predict sex from MRI-derived regional neuroanatomical features from a single-site study of 967 healthy youth from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC)...
February 1, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411628/neuropsychological-performance-in-patients-with-asymptomatic-hiv-1-infection
#14
Martha Martínez-Banfi, Jorge I Vélez, M Victoria Perea, Ricardo García, Pedro J Puentes-Rozo, Moises Mebarak Chams, Valentina Ladera
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) lead to neurocognitive disorders; however, there is still much knowledge to be gained regarding HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. The purpose of this study was to assess the cognitive performance, instrumental activities of daily living, depression, and anxiety in patients with asymptomatic HIV-1 infections compared with seronegative participants without neurocognitive impairment. We studied a sample consisted of 60 patients with asymptomatic HIV-1 infections and 60 seronegative participants without neurocognitive impairment from the city of Barranquilla, Colombia, with a mean age of 36...
February 7, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407718/neurocognitive-correlates-of-treatment-response-in-children-with-tourette-s-disorder
#15
Susanna W Chang, Joseph F McGuire, John T Walkup, Douglas W Woods, Lawrence Scahill, Sabine Wilhelm, Alan L Peterson, James Dziura, John Piacentini
This paper examined neurocognitive functioning and its relationship to behavior treatment response among youth with Tourette's Disorder (TD) in a large randomized controlled trial. Participants diagnosed with TD completed a brief neurocognitive battery assessing inhibitory functions, working memory, and habit learning pre- and post-treatment with behavior therapy (CBIT, Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics) or psychoeducation plus supportive therapy (PST). At baseline, youth with tics and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) exhibited some evidence of impaired working memory and simple motor inhibition relative to youth with tics without ADHD...
March 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407284/meta-analysis-of-neurocognition-in-young-psychosis-patients-with-current-cannabis-use
#16
REVIEW
Sophia E R Bogaty, Rico S C Lee, Ian B Hickie, Daniel F Hermens
OBJECTIVE: Adult psychosis patients (i.e. over the age of 25 years) who are also lifetime cannabis users (CANN±) appear to exhibit superior cognition compared to never-using patients (CANN-). The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the cognitive differences between CANN- and patients who currently use cannabis (CANN+) (i.e. during the CANN± patients' cannabis-using stage). Specifically, focusing on young patients under the age of 25 years, the typical stage of both psychosis- and cannabis-onset...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398058/neurocognitive-function-in-children-with-primary-hypertension-after-initiation-of-antihypertensive-therapy
#17
Marc B Lande, Donald L Batisky, Juan C Kupferman, Joshua Samuels, Stephen R Hooper, Bonita Falkner, Shari R Waldstein, Peter G Szilagyi, Hongyue Wang, Jennifer Staskiewicz, Heather R Adams
OBJECTIVE: To determine the change in neurocognitive test performance in children with primary hypertension after initiation of antihypertensive therapy. STUDY DESIGN: Subjects with hypertension and normotensive control subjects had neurocognitive testing at baseline and again after 1 year, during which time the subjects with hypertension received antihypertensive therapy. Subjects completed tests of general intelligence, attention, memory, executive function, and processing speed, and parents completed rating scales of executive function...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396070/cognitive-performance-of-20-healthy-humans-supplemented-with-l-homoarginine-for-4%C3%A2-weeks
#18
Mirjam Schönhoff, Gabriele Weineck, Julia Hoppe, Sönke Hornig, Kathrin Cordts, Dorothee Atzler, Christian Gerloff, Rainer Böger, Axel Neu, Edzard Schwedhelm, Chi-Un Choe
l-homoarginine (l-hArg) is an endogenous non-proteinogenic amino acid. Low l-hArg concentrations are associated with increased all-cause mortality, fatal strokes, and worse outcome after stroke. On the other hand, oral supplementation with l-hArg in mice improved neurological deficits and preserved cardiac function in experimental models of stroke and heart failure, respectively. Recently, oral supplementation with 125 mg daily l-hArg capsules in healthy volunteers demonstrated increased l-hArg plasma levels...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379089/the-alpha7-nicotinic-receptor-contributes-to-gp120-induced-neurotoxicity-implications-in-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#19
Coral M Capó-Vélez, Bryan Morales-Vargas, Aurian García-González, José G Grajales-Reyes, Manuel Delgado-Vélez, Bismark Madera, Carlos A Báez-Pagán, Orestes Quesada, José A Lasalde-Dominicci
Currently, there are no specific therapies to treat HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The HIV-1 envelope, gp120, induces neuropathological changes similar to those in HAND patients; furthermore, it triggers an upregulation of the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR), facilitating intracellular calcium overload and neuronal cell death. Using a gp120IIIB-transgenic mouse (gp120-tgm) model, we demonstrate that α7-nAChRs are upregulated on striatal neurons. Activation of α7-nAChRs leads to an increase in both intracellular calcium and percentage of apoptotic cells, which can be abrogated by antagonizing the receptor, suggesting a role for α7-nAChRs in gp120-induced neurotoxicity...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378936/child-first-language-and-adult-second-language-are-both-tied-to-general-purpose-learning-systems
#20
Phillip Hamrick, Jarrad A G Lum, Michael T Ullman
Do the mechanisms underlying language in fact serve general-purpose functions that preexist this uniquely human capacity? To address this contentious and empirically challenging issue, we systematically tested the predictions of a well-studied neurocognitive theory of language motivated by evolutionary principles. Multiple metaanalyses were performed to examine predicted links between language and two general-purpose learning systems, declarative and procedural memory. The results tied lexical abilities to learning only in declarative memory, while grammar was linked to learning in both systems in both child first language and adult second language, in specific ways...
January 29, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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