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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036632/mapping-compulsivity-in-the-dsm-5-obsessive-compulsive-and-related-disorders-cognitive-domains-neural-circuitry-and-treatment
#1
Naomi A Fineberg, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, M Matilde Vaghi, Paula Banca, Claire M Gillan, Valerie Voon, Samuel R Chamberlain, Cinosi Eduardo, Reid Jemma, Sonia Shahper, Edward T Bullmore, Barbara J Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins
Compulsions are repetitive, stereotyped thoughts and behaviors designed to reduce harm. Growing evidence suggests that the neurocognitive mechanisms mediating behavioural inhibition (motor inhibition, cognitive inflexibility) reversal learning and habit formation (shift from goal-directed to habitual responding) contribute toward compulsive activity in a broad range of disorders. In obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), distributed network perturbation appears focussed around the pre-frontal cortex, caudate, putamen and associated neuro-circuitry...
September 23, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035999/effects-on-18f-fdg-pet-ct-brain-glucose-metabolism-in-rectal-cancer-patients-undergoing-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#2
Alexei M C Machado, Theara C Fagundes, Arnoldo Mafra, Rodrigo G Silva, Ana Carolina G Castro, Marcelo Mamede
PURPOSE: Retrospective study of the effects of anticancer treatment on the brain metabolism of patients diagnosed with rectal cancer based on a large and homogeneous sample of 40 paired F-FDG PET/CT volumes taken from 20 patients. The results are compared to the ones presented by related works to help elucidating the mechanisms of neurotoxicity associated to a decrease in memory, learning and motor skills. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with rectal adenocarcinoma were scanned before and after neoadjuvant chemoradiation based exclusively on 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin...
October 13, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034489/modification-of-automatic-alcohol-approach-tendencies-in-alcohol-dependent-patients-with-mild-or-major-neurocognitive-disorder
#3
Anke Loijen, Mike Rinck, Serge J W Walvoort, Roy P C Kessels, Eni S Becker, Jos I M Egger
BACKGROUND: To examine the applicability of an alcohol-avoidance training procedure in patients with alcohol dependence and alcohol-induced neurocognitive disorders, we trained two groups that differed in the degree of cognitive impairment: One group fulfilled the DSM-5 criteria for Alcohol-Induced Mild Neurocognitive Disorder, and one group was diagnosed with Korsakoff's syndrome (Alcohol-Induced Major Neurocognitive Disorder, Confabulatory/Amnesic subtype; DSM-5). The intervention is assumed to match the preserved cognitive capacity for implicit learning in both groups...
October 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033857/an-update-overview-on-brain-imaging-studies-of-internet-gaming-disorder
#4
REVIEW
Aviv M Weinstein
There are a growing number of studies on structural and functional brain mechanisms underlying Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies showed that IGD adolescents and adults had reduced gray matter volume in regions associated with attention motor coordination executive function and perception. Adolescents with IGD showed lower white matter (WM) integrity measures in several brain regions that are involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition, and emotional regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020372/tolcapone-enhanced-neurocognition-in-healthy-adults-neural-basis-and-predictors
#5
Savita G Bhakta, Gregory A Light, Jo A Talledo, Bryan Balvaneda, Erica Hughes, Alexis Alvarez, Brinda K Rana, Jared W Young, Neal R Swerdlow
Background: Failure of pro-cognitive drug trials in schizophrenia (SZ) may reflect the clinical heterogeneity of SZ, underscoring the need to identify biomarkers of treatment sensitivity. We used an experimental medicine design to test the pro-cognitive effects of a putative pro-cognitive agent, tolcapone using an electroencephalogram (EEG)-based cognitive control task in healthy subjects. Methods: Healthy men and women (N=27; ages 18-35 yrs), homozygous for either the Met/Met or Val/Val rs4680 genotype, received placebo and tolcapone 200 mg orally across 2 test days separated by 1 week in a double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced, within-subject design...
August 21, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017620/familial-aggregation-of-matrics-consensus-cognitive-battery-scores-in-a-large-sample-of-outpatients-with-schizophrenia-and-their-unaffected-relatives
#6
A Mucci, S Galderisi, M F Green, K Nuechterlein, P Rucci, D Gibertoni, A Rossi, P Rocca, A Bertolino, P Bucci, G Hellemann, M Spisto, D Palumbo, E Aguglia, G Amodeo, M Amore, A Bellomo, R Brugnoli, B Carpiniello, L Dell'Osso, F Di Fabio, M di Giannantonio, G Di Lorenzo, C Marchesi, P Monteleone, C Montemagni, L Oldani, R Romano, R Roncone, P Stratta, E Tenconi, A Vita, P Zeppegno, M Maj
BACKGROUND: The increased use of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) to investigate cognitive dysfunctions in schizophrenia fostered interest in its sensitivity in the context of family studies. As various measures of the same cognitive domains may have different power to distinguish between unaffected relatives of patients and controls, the relative sensitivity of MCCB tests for relative-control differences has to be established. We compared MCCB scores of 852 outpatients with schizophrenia (SCZ) with those of 342 unaffected relatives (REL) and a normative Italian sample of 774 healthy subjects (HCS)...
October 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993979/methamphetamine-augments-concurrent-astrocyte-mitochondrial-stress-oxidative-burden-and-antioxidant-capacity-tipping-the-balance-in-hiv-associated-neurodegeneration
#7
Kathleen Borgmann, Anuja Ghorpade
Methamphetamine (METH) use, with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 comorbidity, exacerbates neurocognitive decline. Oxidative stress is a probable neurotoxic mechanism during HIV-1 central nervous system infection and METH abuse, as viral proteins, antiretroviral therapy and METH have each been shown to induce mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the mechanisms regulating mitochondrial homeostasis and overall oxidative burden in astrocytes are not well understood in the context of HIV-1 infection and METH abuse...
October 9, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988611/prevalence-of-neurocognitive-dysfunction-and-its-effects-on-postoperative-outcomes-in-total-joint-arthroplasty
#8
Emmanuel Edusei, Kelvin Y Kim, Afshin A Anoushiravani, Stephen Yu, David Steiger, James D Slover
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of neurocognitive dysfunction (NCD) and its effects on postoperative outcomes have not been well characterized following total joint arthroplasty (TJA) population. This study aims at better understand this relationship. METHODS: Patients were evaluated for neurocognitive function using the grooved pegboard test for the dominant (PEG-D) and nondominant hand (PEG-N), and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The patient scores for each test was compared to age-controlled normative values in order to identify NCD...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981565/validity-of-a-computerized-cognitive-battery-in-children-and-adolescents-with-neurological-diagnoses
#9
Vickie Plourde, Marianne Hrabok, Elisabeth M S Sherman, Brian L Brooks
Objective: Little is known about the validity of computerized cognitive batteries, such as CNS Vital Signs (CNSVS), in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to examine convergent and divergent validity of the CNSVS in a clinical pediatric sample with neurological diagnoses. Method: Participants included 123 pediatric patients assessed in a tertiary care setting as part of clinical care. CNSVS (Memory, Psychomotor Speed, Reaction Time, Complex Attention, and Cognitive Flexibility domains, and a Neurocognition Index) and paper-and-pencil neuropsychological measures assessing learning, memory, processing speed, reaction time, attention, and executive functioning were administered...
August 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969657/correction-to-sensorimotor-learning-neurocognitive-mechanisms-and-individual-differences
#10
R D Seidler, R G Carson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961751/selective-patterns-of-cognitive-impairment-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-6-and-idiopathic-late-onset-cerebellar-ataxia
#11
Zubir S Rentiya, Brian C Jung, Junun Bae, Christine M Liszewski, Ann Fishman, Annie X Du, Russell L Margolis, Sarah H Ying
Purpose: To determine cognitive impairment patterns in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) compared to patients with idiopathic late-onset cerebellar ataxia (ILOCA). Methods: Neurocognitive testing was conducted on 21 SCA6, nine ILOCA, and 27 controls subjects. Intergroup differences were assessed using the Wilcoxon signed-ranked test or Student's t-test. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on nine cognitive variables, and Hotelling's T-squared test assessed group-specific differences...
September 7, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956311/-the-visual-association-test-to-study-episodic-memory-in-clinical-geriatric-psychology
#12
Han Diesfeldt, Marleen Prins, Gijs Lauret
The Visual Association Test (VAT) is a brief learning task that consists of six line drawings of pairs of interacting objects (association cards). Subjects are asked to name or identify each object and later are presented with one object from the pair (the cue) and asked to name the other (the target). The VAT was administered in a consecutive sample of 174 psychogeriatric day care participants with mild to major neurocognitive disorder. Comparison of test performance with normative data from non-demented subjects revealed that 69% scored within the range of a major deficit (0-8 over two recall trials), 14% a minor, and 17% no deficit (9-10, and ≥10 respectively)...
September 27, 2017: Tijdschrift Voor Gerontologie en Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950153/cognitive-outcomes-in-prenatal-methamphetamine-exposed-children-aged-six-to-seven-years
#13
Maja A Kwiatkowski, Kirsten A Donald, Dan J Stein, Jonathan Ipser, Kevin G F Thomas, Annerine Roos
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine use among pregnant women has become a significant problem. Research delineating the cognitive outcomes of prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) in early childhood is limited, however. The aim of this study was to examine effects of PME on cognition in six-to-seven-year-old children. METHODS: PME children (n=23) and unexposed controls (n=22) completed a battery of neurocognitive tests, which included the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Boston Naming Test, Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, and Grooved Pegboard Test...
August 24, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934108/markers-of-microbial-translocation-and-immune-activation-predict-cognitive-processing-speed-in-heavy-drinking-men-living-with-hiv
#14
Mollie A Monnig, Christopher W Kahler, Patricia A Cioe, Peter M Monti, Kenneth H Mayer, David W Pantalone, Ronald A Cohen, Bharat Ramratnam
HIV infection and alcohol use disorder are associated with deficits in neurocognitive function. Emerging evidence points to pro-inflammatory perturbations of the gut-brain axis as potentially contributing to neurocognitive impairment in the context of HIV and chronic heavy alcohol use. This study examined whether plasma markers of microbial translocation (LPS) from the gastrointestinal tract and related immune activation (sCD14, EndoCAb) were associated with neurocognition in 21 men living with HIV who were virally suppressed on antiretroviral therapy...
September 21, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928644/near-infrared-spectroscopy-based-frontal-lobe-neurofeedback-integrated-in-virtual-reality-modulates-brain-and-behavior-in-highly-impulsive-adults
#15
Justin Hudak, Friederike Blume, Thomas Dresler, Florian B Haeussinger, Tobias J Renner, Andreas J Fallgatter, Caterina Gawrilow, Ann-Christine Ehlis
Based on neurofeedback (NF) training as a neurocognitive treatment in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we designed a randomized, controlled functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) NF intervention embedded in an immersive virtual reality classroom in which participants learned to control overhead lighting with their dorsolateral prefrontal brain activation. We tested the efficacy of the intervention on healthy adults displaying high impulsivity as a sub-clinical population sharing common features with ADHD...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922080/factors-associated-with-residential-mobility-during-pregnancy
#16
Doris K Amoah, Vikki Nolan, George Relyea, James G Gurney, Xinhua Yu, Frances A Tylavsky, Fawaz Mzayek
Our objective was to determine the factors associated with residential moving during pregnancy, as it may increase stress during pregnancy and affect birth outcomes. Data were obtained from the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE) study. Participants were recruited from December 2006 to June 2011 and included 1,448 pregnant women. The average gestational age at enrollment was 23 weeks. The primary outcome of residential mobility was defined as any change in address during pregnancy...
September 18, 2017: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914327/repeated-2-sevoflurane-administration-in-7%C3%A2-and-60-day-old-rats-neurotoxicity-and-neurocognitive-dysfunction
#17
He Huang, Cun-Ming Liu, Jie Sun, Wen-Jie Jin, Yu-Qing Wu, Jing Chen
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane is one of the most widely used inhalation anesthetics in pediatric anesthesia. A large number of studies have demonstrated that repeated treatment with high concentrations or long durations of sevoflurane anesthesia during the neonatal period can induce neuroapoptosis and long-term learning disability. In clinical practice, we observed that a subset of patients underwent minor surgery under sevoflurane anesthesia more than once from birth to adolescence. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate whether a 2% concentration of sevoflurane (clinically relevant usage of sevoflurane) for 1 h (a short duration) can induce neuroapoptosis and neurocognitive dysfunction in adolescent rats that received sevoflurane (2% for 1 h) during the neonatal period...
September 15, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902459/exome-sequences-of-multiplex-multigenerational-families-reveal-schizophrenia-risk-loci-with-potential-implications-for-neurocognitive-performance
#18
Mark Z Kos, Melanie A Carless, Juan Peralta, Joanne E Curran, Ellen E Quillen, Marcio Almeida, August Blackburn, Lucy Blondell, David R Roalf, Michael F Pogue-Geile, Ruben C Gur, Harald H H Göring, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar, Raquel E Gur, Laura Almasy
Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness, involving disruptions in thought and behavior, with a worldwide prevalence of about one percent. Although highly heritable, much of the genetic liability of schizophrenia is yet to be explained. We searched for susceptibility loci in multiplex, multigenerational families affected by schizophrenia, targeting protein-altering variation with in silico predicted functional effects. Exome sequencing was performed on 136 samples from eight European-American families, including 23 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899524/adherence-to-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-improves-attention-psychomotor-function-and-sleepiness-a-bias-reduction-method-with-further-assessment-of-apples
#19
Tyson H Holmes, Clete A Kushida
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Variable adherence to prescribed therapies for sleep disorders is commonplace. This study was designed to integrate three available statistical technologies (instrumental variables, residual inclusion, and shrinkage) to allow sleep investigators to employ data on variable adherence in the estimation of the causal effect of treatment as received on clinical outcomes. PATIENTS/METHODS: Using data from the Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES), regression adjustment for observed and unobserved confounders was applied to two primary neurocognitive outcomes, plus two measures of sleepiness...
September 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888583/food-and-drug-administration-warning-on-anesthesia-and-brain-development-implications-for-obstetric-and-fetal-surgery
#20
Olutoyin A Olutoye, Byron Wycke Baker, Michael A Belfort, Oluyinka O Olutoye
There has been growing concern about the detrimental effects of certain anesthetic agents on the developing brain. Preclinical studies in small animal models as well as nonhuman primates suggested loss or death of brain cells and consequent impaired neurocognitive function following anesthetic exposure in neonates and late gestation fetuses. Human studies in this area are limited and currently inconclusive. On Dec. 14, 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a warning regarding impaired brain development in children following exposure to certain anesthetic agents used for general anesthesia, namely the inhalational anesthetics isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane, and the intravenous agents propofol and midazolam, in the third trimester of pregnancy...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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