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Bioethic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212642/beyond-cultural-stereotyping-views-on-end-of-life-decision-making-among-religious-and-secular-persons-in-the-usa-germany-and-israel
#1
Mark Schweda, Silke Schicktanz, Aviad Raz, Anita Silvers
BACKGROUND: End-of-life decision making constitutes a major challenge for bioethical deliberation and political governance in modern democracies: On the one hand, it touches upon fundamental convictions about life, death, and the human condition. On the other, it is deeply rooted in religious traditions and historical experiences and thus shows great socio-cultural diversity. The bioethical discussion of such cultural issues oscillates between liberal individualism and cultural stereotyping...
February 17, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207365/using-social-media-as-a-research-recruitment-tool-ethical-issues-and-recommendations
#2
Luke Gelinas, Robin Pierce, Sabune Winkler, I Glenn Cohen, Holly Fernandez Lynch, Barbara E Bierer
The use of social media as a recruitment tool for research with humans is increasing, and likely to continue to grow. Despite this, to date there has been no specific regulatory guidance and there has been little in the bioethics literature to guide investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) faced with navigating the ethical issues such use raises. We begin to fill this gap by first defending a nonexceptionalist methodology for assessing social media recruitment; second, examining respect for privacy and investigator transparency as key norms governing social media recruitment; and, finally, analyzing three relatively novel aspects of social media recruitment: (i) the ethical significance of compliance with website "terms of use"; (ii) the ethics of recruiting from the online networks of research participants; and (iii) the ethical implications of online communication from and between participants...
March 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198641/the-human-subject-vulnerable-populations-and-medical-history-the-problem-of-presentism-and-the-discourse-of-bioethics
#3
J T H Connor
This discussion considers recent historical works of eugenics and sterilization in Canada, but it is not an historiographic review essay or critique per se of this literature. Rather, by focussing on the topic of historic diagnostic categories such as "feeble-minded," "idiot," and "moron," methodological issues such as historical presentism and its possible interactions with the discourse of modern bioethics are examined. The conclusions derived are meant only to be cautionary, and are neither prescriptive nor proscriptive...
February 15, 2017: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196989/the-unesco-movement-for-bioethics-in-medical-education-and-the-indian-scenario
#4
EDITORIAL
Smita N Deshpande
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195536/patient-autonomy-within-real-or-valid-consent-samira-kohli-s-case
#5
Supriya Subramani
In bioethics literature, the primary justification for the requirement of informed consent has been the protection of autonomous choices. To allow patients to be autonomous decision-makers, physicians are supposed to disclose and share information related to all treatment, procedures and risks. Advocates of the autonomy-based informed consent model argue that in informed consent cases, the disclosure of information should be according to the reasonable person standard or reasonable patient standard, rather than the average competent physician standard...
January 18, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190789/in-the-25th-year-of-bioethics-publishing-new-challenges-of-the-post-truth-era
#6
Amar Jesani
As IJME enters its 25th year of publication, all of us closely associated with the journal look back on this journey with a degree of satisfaction. Not only has the only bioethics journal published from India survived for 24 years, it has also produced some extraordinary successes. As you read this issue, we will be celebrating the 12th year of the biennial National Bioethics Conferences - the sixth NBC will take place in Pune from January 13 to 15, 2017.
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180264/preimplantation-and-prenatal-diagnosis-wrongful-birth-and-wrongful-life-a-global-view-of-bioethical-and-legal-controversies
#7
Paola Frati, Vittorio Fineschi, Mariantonia Di Sanzo, Raffaele La Russa, Matteo Scopetti, Filiberto M Severi, Emanuela Turillazzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178909/doctoring-undercover-updating-the-educational-tradition-of-shadowing
#8
Claire D Clark
BACKGROUND: Premedical students are educated in basic biological and health sciences. As a complement to traditional premedical coursework, medical school applicants are encouraged to shadow practitioners, with the hope that observation will introduce students to the culture and practice of healthcare. Yet the shadowing experience varies widely across practitioners and institutions; resources that guide students' critical reflection and structure the experience are scarce. DEVELOPMENT: A pilot experiential learning course, Doctoring Undercover: Shadowing and the Culture of Medicine, was developed to fill this gap...
2017: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176639/personalized-medicine-in-the-paediatric-population-the-balance-between-pharmacogenetics-progress-and-bioethics
#9
Stefania Schiavone, Margherita Neri, Cristoforo Pomara, Irene Riezzo, Luigia Trabace, Emanuela Turillazzi
Personalized medicine (PM) is becoming increasingly important in contemporary clinical and research scenarios. In the context of PM, pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics are aimed at the genetic personalization of drug response. Extrinsic and intrinsic factors may explain inter-individual variability in drug response. Among such factors, age seems to specifically intervene to modulate drug response since normal developmental changes may influence the exposure-response relation. Consequently, the potential benefit of pharmacogenomics (PGx) in the paediatric population is considerable...
February 7, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144901/investigating-public-trust-in-expert-knowledge-narrative-ethics-and-engagement
#10
Silvia Camporesi, Maria Vaccarella, Mark Davis
"Public Trust in Expert Knowledge: Narrative, Ethics, and Engagement" examines the social, cultural, and ethical ramifications of changing public trust in the expert biomedical knowledge systems of emergent and complex global societies. This symposium was conceived as an interdisciplinary project, drawing on bioethics, the social sciences, and the medical humanities. We settled on public trust as a topic for our work together because its problematization cuts across our fields and substantive research interests...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134411/-deep-continuous-palliative-sedation-in-the-opinion-adopted-by-the-italian-national-bioethics-committee-deep-palliative-sedation
#11
Fabio Cembrani
The Author examines the recent opinion delivered by the Italian National Committee for Bioethics on deep palliative sedation. In particular, it examines its strengths and ample shade that show its ideology, once again, in contrast with the right of every human being to die with dignity.
November 2016: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128248/bioethics-democracy-in-vitro
#12
Insoo Hyun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125491/executive-summary-transforming-moral-distress-into-moral-resilience-in-nursing
#13
Cynda Hylton Rushton, Kathy Schoonover-Shoffner, Maureen Shawn Kennedy
: To examine practices for addressing moral distress, a collaborative project was developed by the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics, the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, the American Journal of Nursing, and the Journal of Christian Nursing, along with the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses and the American Nurses Association. Its purpose was to identify strategies that individuals and systems can use to mitigate the detrimental effects of moral distress and foster moral resilience. On August 11 and 12, 2016, an invitational symposium, State of the Science: Transforming Moral Distress into Moral Resilience in Nursing, was held at the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing in Baltimore, Maryland...
February 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110028/surgical-ethical-and-psychosocial-considerations-in-human-head-transplantation
#14
REVIEW
Allen Furr, Mark A Hardy, Juan P Barret, John H Barker
Transplanting a head and brain is perhaps the final frontier of organ transplantation. The goal of body-to-head transplantation (BHT) is to sustain the life of individuals who suffer from terminal disease, but whose head and brain are healthy. Ideally BHT could provide a lifesaving treatment for several conditions where none currently exists. BHT is no ordinary experiment, to transfer a head to another body involves extraordinarily complex medical challenges as well as ethical and existential dilemmas that were previously confined to the imagination of writers of fiction...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107163/should-us-physicians-support-the-decriminalization-of-commercial-sex
#15
Emily F Rothman
According to the World Health Organization, "commercial sex" is the exchange of money or goods for sexual services, and this term can be applied to both consensual and nonconsensual exchanges. Some nonconsensual exchanges qualify as human trafficking. Whether the form of commercial sex that is also known as prostitution should be decriminalized is being debated contentiously around the world, in part because the percentage of commercial sex exchanges that are consensual as opposed to nonconsensual, or trafficked, is unknown...
January 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107159/caring-for-the-trafficked-patient-ethical-challenges-and-recommendations-for-health-care-professionals
#16
Wendy L Macias-Konstantopoulos
Human trafficking is an egregious human rights violation with profound negative physical and psychological consequences, including communicable diseases, substance use disorders, and mental illnesses. The health needs of this population are multiple, complex, and influenced by past and present experiences of abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Effective health care services for trafficked patients require clinicians to consider individual patients' needs, wishes, goals, priorities, risks, and vulnerabilities as well as public health implications and even resource allocation...
January 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092712/-global-bioethics-and-biocultural-ethics
#17
Ricardo Rozzi
The biocultural ethic recovers an understanding of the vital links between the life habits of the coinhabitants (humans and other-than-human) that share a habitat. The ″3Hs″ formal framework of the biocultural ethics provides a conceptual and methodological tool to understand and to better manage complex eco-social or biocultural systems in heterogeneous regions of the planet. From the global bioethics originally proposed by V.R. Potter, the integration of theory and praxis promoted by Alfredo Pradenas in the Bioethics Society of Chile, and the conceptual framework of biocultural ethics (including traditions of philosophical thought, scientific and Amerindians), I develop a comparative analysis of: 1...
September 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092711/-the-future-of-ecology-wisdom-as-the-speculative-centre-of-environmental-ethics
#18
Luca Valera
This article argues that it is necessary to go back to Potter's proposal to rediscover a concept of bioethics wider than medical ethics, and strongly connected to environmental ethics. The two disciplines share, among others, the following dimensions: the consciousness of the sin as a consequence of recent technological developments; the need for a salvation; the need for a science of survival; wisdom as a possible solution. Referring to the latter, the work of Van Rennselaer Potter (father of bioethics) and Arne Næss (father of deep ecology, and in a broader sense, of environmental ethics) are particularly linked: it seems that wisdom should be the virtue providing answers about our way of dwelling the world...
September 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092708/-applying-ethics-placating-ethics-or-applying-ourselves-to-ethics-a-critical-view-of-environmental-ethics-as-applied-ethics
#19
Alejandro Serani Merlo
There is actually a pervasive tendency to consider environmental ethics and bioethics as specific cases pertaining to a supposed kind of ″applied ethics″. Application can be understood in two different meanings: a concrete sense, as in technical applications, and a psychological meaning, as when we mentally apply ourselves to a task. Ethics has been always thought as a practical knowledge, in a ″praxical″ sense and not in a ″poietic″ one. Ethics has to do with ″ends″ not with ″means″; in this sense ethics is ″useless″...
September 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092706/-editor-s-note-the-man-as-integrating-center-of-bioethics
#20
EDITORIAL
Luis Miguel Pastor García
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
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