Read by QxMD icon Read

Motivation and learning

Isra Black, Ásgeir Rúnar Helgason
BACKGROUND: Morbidity arising from unprepared bereavement is a problem that affects close personal relations of individuals at the end-of-life. The bereavement studies literature demonstrates that a lack of preparedness for a loved one's death is a risk factor for secondary psychological morbidity among survivors. Short awareness time of death negatively correlates to preparedness for bereavement. The absence of disclosure of end-of-life diagnosis and prognosis to close personal relations ('death talk') between patients and loved ones, or health professionals and loved ones, may contribute to short awareness time of death...
March 21, 2018: BMC Palliative Care
Tian Tian, Chang Li, Jinkang Xu, Jiayi Ma
Detecting urban areas from very high resolution (VHR) remote sensing images plays an important role in the field of Earth observation. The recently-developed deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs), which can extract rich features from training data automatically, have achieved outstanding performance on many image classification databases. Motivated by this fact, we propose a new urban area detection method based on DCNNs in this paper. The proposed method mainly includes three steps: (i) a visual dictionary is obtained based on the deep features extracted by pre-trained DCNNs; (ii) urban words are learned from labeled images; (iii) the urban regions are detected in a new image based on the nearest dictionary word criterion...
March 18, 2018: Sensors
Iris Bomilcar, Robin G Morris, Richard G Brown, Daniel C Mograbi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Lack of awareness about impairments is commonly found in Alzheimer disease (AD), but recent evidence suggests that patients may respond to the experience of illness despite limited awareness. In this study, we explored whether implicit emotional responses to experiences of failure in cognitive tasks would result in longer-term change in behavior. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with AD were seen 1 week after a previous session in which they performed computer tasks that had been manipulated to be either too difficult (failure condition) or very easy (success condition) for them...
March 2018: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
Seth Wiener, Kiwako Ito, Shari R Speer
This study examines the perceptual trade-off between knowledge of a language's statistical regularities and reliance on the acoustic signal during L2 spoken word recognition. We test how early learners track and make use of segmental and suprasegmental cues and their relative frequencies during non-native word recognition. English learners of Mandarin were taught an artificial tonal language in which a tone's informativeness for word identification varied according to neighborhood density. The stimuli mimicked Mandarin's uneven distribution of syllable+tone combinations by varying syllable frequency and the probability of particular tones co-occurring with a particular syllable...
March 1, 2018: Language and Speech
Shaheen A Abdulkareem, Ellen-Wien Augustijn, Yaseen T Mustafa, Tatiana Filatova
BACKGROUND: Millions of people worldwide are exposed to deadly infectious diseases on a regular basis. Breaking news of the Zika outbreak for instance, made it to the main media titles internationally. Perceiving disease risks motivate people to adapt their behavior toward a safer and more protective lifestyle. Computational science is instrumental in exploring patterns of disease spread emerging from many individual decisions and interactions among agents and their environment by means of agent-based models...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Kimberly S Chiew, Jordan Hashemi, Lee K Gans, Laura Lerebours, Nathaniel J Clement, Mai-Anh T Vu, Guillermo Sapiro, Nicole E Heller, R Alison Adcock
Volitional exploration and learning are key to adaptive behavior, yet their characterization remains a complex problem for cognitive science. Exploration has been posited as a mechanism by which motivation promotes memory, but this relationship is not well-understood, in part because novel stimuli that motivate exploration also reliably elicit changes in neuromodulatory brain systems that directly alter memory formation, via effects on neural plasticity. To deconfound interrelationships between motivation, exploration, and memory formation we manipulated motivational state prior to entering a spatial context, measured exploratory responses to the context and novel stimuli within it, and then examined motivation and exploration as predictors of memory outcomes...
2018: PloS One
Cian Walsh, Patrick Ryan, Daniel Flynn
Background: This article presents a detailed idiographic analysis of Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) clinicians' experiences of team consultation meetings. DBT is an evidence-based psychological intervention with a demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Team consultation meetings encompass one of the primary components involved in this treatment model; where DBT clinicians regularly meet to discuss client work and enhance further learning...
2018: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
Ying Liu, Brent Logan, Ning Liu, Zhiyuan Xu, Jian Tang, Yanzhi Wang
In this paper, we propose the first deep reinforcement learning framework to estimate the optimal Dynamic Treatment Regimes from observational medical data. This framework is more flexible and adaptive for high dimensional action and state spaces than existing reinforcement learning methods to model real life complexity in heterogeneous disease progression and treatment choices, with the goal to provide doctor and patients the data-driven personalized decision recommendations. The proposed deep reinforcement learning framework contains a supervised learning step to predict the most possible expert actions; and a deep reinforcement learning step to estimate the long term value function of Dynamic Treatment Regimes...
August 2017: Healthcare Informatics: the Business Magazine for Information and Communication Systems
Allison Brown, Aditya Nidumolu, Alexandra Stanhope, Justin Koh, Matthew Greenway, Lawrence Grierson
BACKGROUND: Quality Improvement (QI) training for health professionals is essential to strengthen health systems. However, QI training during medical school is constrained by students' lack of contextual understanding of the health system and an already saturated medical curriculum. The Program for Improvement in Medical Education (PRIME), an extracurricular offered at the Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicineat McMaster University (Hamilton, Canada), addresses these obstacles by having first-year medical students engage in QI by identifying opportunities for improvement within their own education...
March 19, 2018: BMJ Quality & Safety
Kristoffer H Madsen, Laerke G Krohne, Xin-Lu Cai, Yi Wang, Raymond C K Chan
Functional magnetic resonance imaging is capable of estimating functional activation and connectivity in the human brain, and lately there has been increased interest in the use of these functional modalities combined with machine learning for identification of psychiatric traits. While these methods bear great potential for early diagnosis and better understanding of disease processes, there are wide ranges of processing choices and pitfalls that may severely hamper interpretation and generalization performance unless carefully considered...
March 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Matteo Lo Monte, Candida Manelfi, Marica Gemei, Daniela Corda, Andrea Rosario Beccari
Motivation: ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification implicated in several crucial cellular processes, ranging from regulation of DNA repair and chromatin structure to cell metabolism and stress responses. To date, a complete understanding of ADP-ribosylation targets and their modification sites in different tissues and disease states is still lacking. Identification of ADP-ribosylation sites is required to discern the molecular mechanisms regulated by this modification. This motivated us to develop a computational tool for the prediction of ADP-ribosylated sites...
March 15, 2018: Bioinformatics
Hugo Placido da Silva
With the advent of low-cost computing platforms, such as Arduino ( and Raspberry Pi (, it has become clear that lowering the cost barrier and shortening the learning curve, with the backing of a motivated community, would play a transformational role in the way people learn, experiment, and create imaginative solutions to outstanding problems that can benefit from embedded systems.
March 2018: IEEE Pulse
Vanessa Bates, Ashim Maharjan, Jessica Millar, David K Bilkey, Ryan D Ward
Maternal immune activation (MIA) during gestation is a significant risk factor for development of schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental diseases. In animal models of this risk factor, MIA during pregnancy can produce offspring that recapitulate certain aspects of the behavioral and neurophysiological impairments seen in schizophrenia. Here, the authors tested the effect of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C)-induced MIA in a task that explicitly assays the interaction between motivation and cognition...
February 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
Nicole M Sachs, Joel Miller
The specific responsivity principle advises us to provide offenders with treatment that takes into account their responsiveness to treatment, tied for example to their learning style, motivation, and gender. We examine challenges to service engagement and attendance in a community-based program in a reentry setting, and consider how far they correspond with these factors. Drawing on qualitative accounts of parolee engagement in services provided by parolees, service providers, case managers, and parole officers, we identify a number of difficulties faced by clients...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Andrew Leung Luk, Adrian Fai To Yau
Background: Overseas studies suggest that 10-20% of doctors are depressed, 30-45% have burnout, and many report dissatisfaction with work-life balance. A local study on public doctors showed that 31.4% of the respondents satisfied the criteria for high burnout. Young, but moderately experienced doctors who need to work shifts appeared most vulnerable. This study aims to explore the experiences of those public doctors who have managed their work difficulties and maintained professional enthusiasm for references in medical education and continuing professional training...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Elliot T Berkman
The ways that people set, pursue, and eventually succeed or fail in accomplishing their goals are central issues for consulting psychology. Goals and behavior change have long been the subject of empirical investigation in psychology, and have been adopted with enthusiasm by the cognitive and social neurosciences in the last few decades. Though relatively new, neuroscientific discoveries have substantially furthered the scientific understanding of goals and behavior change. This article reviews the emerging brain science on goals and behavior change, with particular emphasis on its relevance to consulting psychology...
March 2018: Consulting Psychology Journal
Polona Mivšek, Anna-Mari Äimälä, Boštjan Žvanut, Jouni Tuomi
OBJECTIVES: Midwifery education is very demanding considering the professional competencies student midwives are required to develop. It can cause different levels of stress to students and affect their learning abilities. With the JDCS (Job Demands-Control-Social support) model adapted for educational purposes we aimed to estimate the midwifery students' coping abilities with study related stress. RESEARCH DESIGN: A quantitative study was conducted using a questionnaire that evaluated perceived demand (9 items), perceived control (10 items), and perceived social support (10 items) with a 5-point Likert scale...
February 21, 2018: Midwifery
Gwyn Bevan, Alice Evans, Sabina Nuti
This paper explores what motivates improved health care performance. Previously, many have thought that performance would either improve via choice and competition or by relying on trust and altruism. But neither assumption is supported by available evidence. So instead we explore a third approach of reciprocal altruism with sanctions for unacceptably poor performance and rewards for high performance. These rewards and sanctions, however, are not monetary, but in the form of reputational effects through public reporting of benchmarking of performance...
March 16, 2018: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
Kelli N O'Laughlin, Shada A Rouhani, Julius Kasozi, Kelsy E Greenwald, Nicholas R Perkons, Zikama M Faustin, Ingrid V Bassett, Norma C Ware
Background: Refugees living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa suffer unique hardships that may increase their vulnerability to interruptions in antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: To investigate refugees' experiences adhering to ART, we conducted inperson interviews with refugees on ART ( n  = 73) and HIV clinic staff ( n  = 4) in Nakivale Refugee Settlement in southwest Uganda from March to July 2011. Three analysts used a conventional content analysis approach to evaluate these data...
2018: Conflict and Health
Michiko Sakaki, Ayano Yagi, Kou Murayama
Curiosity is a fundamental part of human motivation that supports a variety of human intellectual behaviors ranging from early learning in children to scientific discovery. However, there has been little attention paid to the role of curiosity in aging populations. By bringing together broad but sparse neuroscientific and psychological literature on curiosity and related concepts (e.g., novelty seeking in older adults), we propose that curiosity, although it declines with age, plays an important role in maintaining cognitive function, mental health, and physical health in older adults...
March 12, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"