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Motivation and learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334324/the-rite-of-passage-of-becoming-a-humanitarian-health-worker-experiences-of-retention-in-sweden
#1
Sara Albuquerque, Anneli Eriksson, Helle M Alvesson
BACKGROUND: Low retention of humanitarian workers poses constraints on humanitarian organisations' capacity to respond effectively to disasters. Research has focused on reasons for humanitarian workers leaving the sector, but little is known about the factors that can elucidate long-term commitment. OBJECTIVE: To understand what motivates and supports experienced humanitarian health workers to remain in the sector. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 experienced nurses who had been on at least three field missions with Médecins Sans Frontières Sweden...
2018: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333328/learning-tree-structured-detection-cascades-for-heterogeneous-networks-of-embedded-devices
#2
Hamid Dadkhahi, Benjamin M Marlin
In this paper, we present a new approach to learning cascaded classifiers for use in computing environments that involve networks of heterogeneous and resource-constrained, low-power embedded compute and sensing nodes. We present a generalization of the classical linear detection cascade to the case of tree-structured cascades where different branches of the tree execute on different physical compute nodes in the network. Different nodes have access to different features, as well as access to potentially different computation and energy resources...
August 2017: KDD: Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330931/teaching-learning-tips-4-motivation-and-emotion-in-learning
#3
Elizabeth R Lemoine, Janelle S Nassim, Jasmine Rana, Susan Burgin
Challenge: Trainees' motivational and emotional states can influence their learning and career decisions, but historically these "affective" learning factors have received little attention in medical education. In this "Tips" piece, we outline strategies to positively influence trainees' intrinsic motivation and emotion toward their training to ultimately enhance their overall learning experience.
February 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329259/extreme-overvalued-beliefs-how-violent-extremist-beliefs-become-normalized
#4
Tahir Rahman
Extreme overvalued beliefs (EOB) are rigidly held, non-deusional beliefs that are the motive behind most acts of terrorism and mass shootings. EOBs are differentiated from delusions and obsessions. The concept of an overvalued idea was first described by Wernicke and later applied to terrorism by McHugh. Our group of forensic psychiatrists (Rahman, Resnick, Harry) refined the definition as an aid in the differential diagnosis seen in acts of violence. The form and content of EOBs is discussed as well as group effects, conformity, and obedience to authority...
January 12, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329023/women-s-experiences-with-using-a-smartphone-app-the-pregnant-app-to-manage-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-in-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Jeanette B Skar, Lisa M Garnweidner-Holme, Mirjam Lukasse, Laura Terragni
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with controlling their blood glucose values and receiving health and nutrition information using a smartphone app (the Pregnant+ app). DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: The study utilised the interpretative phenomenological analysis method. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 participants among those participating to the randomised controlled trial...
December 27, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327468/why-do-people-become-health-workers-analysis-from-life-histories-in-4-post-conflict-and-post-crisis-countries
#6
Sophie Witter, Haja Wurie, Justine Namakula, Wilson Mashange, Yotamu Chirwa, Alvaro Alonso-Garbayo
While there is a growing body of literature on how to attract and retain health workers once they are trained, there is much less published on what motivates people to train as health professions in the first place in low- and middle-income countries and what difference this makes to later retention. In this article, we examine patterns in expressed motivation to join the profession across different cadres, based on 103 life history interviews conducted in northern Uganda, Sierra Leone, Cambodia, and Zimbabwe...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327211/twelve-lessons-learned-for-effective-research-partnerships-between-patients-caregivers-clinicians-academic-researchers-and-other-stakeholders
#7
Holly O Witteman, Selma Chipenda Dansokho, Heather Colquhoun, Angela Fagerlin, Anik M C Giguere, Sholom Glouberman, Lynne Haslett, Aubri Hoffman, Noah M Ivers, France Légaré, Jean Légaré, Carrie A Levin, Karli Lopez, Victor M Montori, Jean-Sébastien Renaud, Kerri Sparling, Dawn Stacey, Robert J Volk
Research increasingly means that patients, caregivers, health professionals, other stakeholders, and academic investigators work in partnership. This requires effective collaboration rooted in mutual respect, involvement of all participants, and good communication. Having conducted such partnered research over multiple projects, and having recently completed a project together funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, we collaboratively developed a list of 12 lessons we have learned about how to ensure effective research partnerships...
January 4, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325777/data-driven-model-reference-control-of-mimo-vertical-tank-systems-with-model-free-vrft-and-q-learning
#8
Mircea-Bogdan Radac, Radu-Emil Precup, Raul-Cristian Roman
This paper proposes a combined Virtual Reference Feedback Tuning-Q-learning model-free control approach, which tunes nonlinear static state feedback controllers to achieve output model reference tracking in an optimal control framework. The novel iterative Batch Fitted Q-learning strategy uses two neural networks to represent the value function (critic) and the controller (actor), and it is referred to as a mixed Virtual Reference Feedback Tuning-Batch Fitted Q-learning approach. Learning convergence of the Q-learning schemes generally depends, among other settings, on the efficient exploration of the state-action space...
January 8, 2018: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325658/tele-motivational-interviewing-for-cancer-survivors-feasibility-preliminary-efficacy-and%C3%A2-lessons-learned
#9
Ashlea Braun, James Portner, Elizabeth M Grainger, Emily B Hill, Gregory S Young, Steven K Clinton, Colleen K Spees
OBJECTIVE: Determine the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of tele-Motivational Interviewing (MI) for overweight cancer survivors. DESIGN: Six-month nonrandomized phase 2 clinical trial. SETTING: Urban garden and remote platforms. PARTICIPANTS: Overweight and obese cancer survivors post active treatment. INTERVENTION: Remote tele-MI from a trained registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN)...
January 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325569/the-relevance-of-clinical-ethnography-reflections-on-10%C3%A2-years-of-a-cultural-consultation-service
#10
Melissa Dominicé Dao, Sophie Inglin, Sarah Vilpert, Patricia Hudelson
BACKGROUND: Training health professionals in culturally sensitive medical interviewing has been widely promoted as a strategy for improving intercultural communication and for helping clinicians to consider patients' social and cultural contexts and improve patient outcomes. Clinical ethnography encourages clinicians to explore the patient's explanatory model of illness, recourse to traditional and alternative healing practices, healthcare expectations and social context, and to use this information to negotiate a mutually acceptable treatment plan...
January 11, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322357/community-peer-led-falls-prevention-presentations-what-do-the-experts-suggest
#11
Linda A M Khong, Richard G Berlach, Keith D Hill, Anne-Marie Hill
Falls among older adults are a major problem. Despite considerable progress in falls prevention research, older adults often show low motivation to engage in recommended preventive strategies. Peer-led falls prevention education for older adults may have potential for bridging the research evidence-practice gap, thereby promoting the uptake of falls prevention strategies. We evaluated peer educators' presentations of falls prevention education to community-dwelling older adults in regard to established criteria that were consistent with adult learning principles, the framework of health behaviour change, falls prevention guidelines, and recommendations for providing falls prevention information...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319384/-student-y-or-studious-an-exploration-of-students-perceptions-of-parallel-learning-in-preregistration-physiotherapy-education
#12
James Milligan, Kate Grafton, John A Hammond
BACKGROUND/AIM: Within the United Kingdom (UK), physiotherapy preregistration training is provided at both undergraduate and postgraduate level at 17 higher education institutions (HEIs). Some course teams approach this by teaching preregistration BSc and MSc students simultaneously to meet the same learning outcomes. This is often termed "parallel learning" and it is not known how students perceive this mode of learning. The aim of the study was to explore the perceived benefits and challenges to parallel learning of preregistration BSc and MSc physiotherapy students...
January 10, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318733/culture-change-and-mandating-quality-improvement
#13
Thomas Bartlett, Edward Hewertson, Michael Vassallo
BACKGROUND: A mandatory programme of quality improvement (QI) education was developed for newly qualified Foundation Year 1 (FY1) doctors to complete their curriculum requirements. Their perceptions were evaluated to refine the programme. METHODS: The programme delivered theoretical and experiential learning. Participants were asked to form groups and to come up with their own projects addressing the areas of need that they had identified. The 9-month group project included formal teaching and a formal presentation to the hospital...
January 10, 2018: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313292/does-practice-in-category-learning-increase-rule-use-or-exemplar-use-or-both
#14
Jean-Pierre Thibaut, Sabine Gelaes, Gregory L Murphy
Categorization research has demonstrated the use of both rules and remembered exemplars in classification, although there is disagreement over whether learners shift from one to the other or use both strategies simultaneously. Theoretical arguments can motivate predictions for both rule use and exemplar use increasing with more practice. We describe a single large experiment (n = 190) that manipulated the number of training items (category size), the number of presentations of each training item, and the similarity between the training and the transfer stimuli in order to discover when rules and exemplars are most likely to be used...
January 8, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310448/motivations-for-participation-in-an-online-social-media-community-for-diabetes
#15
Katherine White, Achamyeleh Gebremariam, Dana Lewis, Weston Nordgren, James Wedding, Josh Pasek, Ashley Garrity, Emily Hirschfeld, Joyce M Lee
BACKGROUND: Our objectives were to describe individuals' motivations for participation in an online social media community and to assess their level of trust in medical information provided by medical professionals and community members. METHODS: A purposive survey was delivered to participants recruited through posts on the CGM in the Cloud group, Twitter, and blogs. Individuals were asked a series of demographic and social media use questions. RESULTS: A total of 1268 members of the CGM in the Cloud community responded to the survey...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309578/the-role-of-community-health-workers-in-improving-hiv-treatment-outcomes-in-children-lessons-learned-from-the-zenith-trial-in-zimbabwe
#16
Joanna Busza, Ethel Dauya, Tsitsi Bandason, Victoria Simms, Chido Dziva Chikwari, Memory Makamba, Grace Mchugh, Shungu Munyati, Prosper Chonzi, Rashida A Ferrand
Reliance on community health workers (CHWs) for HIV care continues to increase, particularly in resource-limited settings. CHWs can improve HIV service use and adherence to treatment, but effectiveness of these programmes relies on providing an enabling work environment for CHWs, including reasonable workload, supportive supervision and adequate training and supplies. Although criteria for effective CHW programmes have been identified, these have rarely been prospectively applied to design and evaluation of new interventions...
January 3, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308526/-evaluation-of-simulated-mandibular-models-in-skill-training-of-implantology-for-dental-undergraduates
#17
Feng-Wei Xu, Jiang Shang, Jian Song, Ping-Gong DU, Zhong-Hao Liu
PURPOSE: To explore the effects of simulated mandibular models in skill training of implantology for dental undergraduate. METHODS: Pre-clinical teaching of oral implantology was implemented on simulation models for 51 undergraduates of grade 2013. Each undergraduate inserted a dental implant and took an impression in the simulation model under the teacher's guidance. After the training course, the scores were evaluated both objectively and subjectively. RESULTS: An average score of 91...
October 2017: Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue, Shanghai Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307543/neurotensin-speeds-inhibition-of-dopamine-neurons-through-temporal-modulation-of-gabaa-and-gabab-receptor-mediated-synaptic-input
#18
Christopher W Tschumi, Michael J Beckstead
Midbrain dopamine neurons play physiological roles in many processes including reward learning and motivated behavior, and are tonically inhibited by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic input from multiple brain regions. Neurotensin (NT) is a neuropeptide which acutely modulates midbrain dopamine neuron excitability through multiple mechanisms, one of which is a decrease of GABA-mediated inhibition. However, the mechanisms through which NT depresses GABA signaling are not known. Here we used whole cell patch-clamp electrophysiology of dopamine neurons in mouse brain slices to show that NT acts both presynaptically to increase GABAA and postsynaptically to decrease GABAB receptor-mediated currents in the substantia nigra...
January 4, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307257/adolescent-food-restriction-in-rats-alters-prefrontal-cortex-microglia-in-an-experience-dependent-manner
#19
Prabarna Ganguly, Vanessa Thompson, Kelsea Gildawie, Heather C Brenhouse
Microglia are resident immune cells of the brain that can regulate neural communication and excitability. Any environmental influence on microglial activity has the potential to alter subsequent neural physiology and behavior. Within the prefrontal cortex, several types of stressors have been shown to increase microglial expression of activation markers such as ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 (Iba-1), which suggests altered microglial activity. Recent reports in rodents suggest that exposure to forms of early-life stress such as maternal separation can alter microglial responsivity to subsequent challenges...
January 8, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303691/early-preparation-and-inspiration-for-stem-careers-preliminary-report-of-the-epidemiology-challenge-randomized-intervention-2014-2015
#20
Robin Taylor Wilson, Emma Watson, Mark Kaelin, Wendy Huebner
OBJECTIVES: Early Preparation and Inspiration for Careers in the Biomedical Sciences (EPIC) is a university-high school partnership for increasing high school student interest and persistence in the biomedical sciences. EPIC includes a year-long, project-based learning intervention, the Think Like an Epidemiologist Challenge (Epi Challenge). We describe the main components of the Epi Challenge and report on short-term changes in scientific literacy and science-related motivations and beliefs...
January 2018: Public Health Reports
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