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Motivation and learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431192/a-personal-connection-promoting-positive-attitudes-towards-teaching-and-learning
#1
Heidi L Lujan, Stephen E DiCarlo
Students' attitudes towards teaching and learning must be addressed with the same seriousness and effort as we address content. Establishing a personal connection and addressing our students' basic psychological needs will produce positive attitudes towards teaching and learning and develop life-long learners. It will also promote constructive student-teacher relationships that have a profound influence on our students' approach towards school. To begin this process, consider the major tenets of the Self-Determination Theory...
April 21, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425087/peer-connect-for-african-american-breast-cancer-survivors-and-caregivers-a-train-the-trainer-approach-for-peer-support
#2
Marlyn Allicock, Lindsey Haynes-Maslow, La-Shell Johnson, William R Carpenter, Anissa I Vines, Denise G Belle, Ray Phillips, Michele W Cherry
Racial disparities in breast cancer survivorship are a major concern nationally. How survivors cope with cancer and re-frame their lives is a critical part of survivorship. Community-academic research partnerships may facilitate access to much-needed psychosocial support for African American survivors and caregivers in rural areas, but drivers of successful intervention implementation are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to describe the training and evaluation of Community Coaches and Guides (i...
April 19, 2017: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424062/health-system-factors-influencing-management-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-four-european-union-countries-learning-from-country-experiences
#3
Gerard de Vries, Svetla Tsolova, Laura F Anderson, Agnes C Gebhard, Einar Heldal, Vahur Hollo, Laura Sánchez-Cambronero Cejudo, Daniela Schmid, Bert Schreuder, Tonka Varleva, Marieke J van der Werf
BACKGROUND: In the European Union and European Economic Area only 38% of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients notified in 2011 completed treatment successfully at 24 months' evaluation. Socio-economic factors and patient factors such as demographic characteristics, behaviour and attitudes are associated with treatment outcomes. Characteristics of healthcare systems also affect health outcomes. This study was conducted to identify and better understand the contribution of health system components to successful treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis...
April 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424027/the-value-of-european-exchange-programs-for-early-career-family-doctors
#4
Bernadeta Bridgwood, Hannah Willoughby, Madeleine Attridge, Eugene Tang
The Hippokrates Exchange programme (HEP) is designed to give early career General Practitioners (Associates in Training (AITs)/First5s) first-hand experience into concepts of a primary healthcare system outside of their host country. The aim is to improve GP knowledge and skills, inspire professional development and promote a global approach to primary care. Although an increasing number are taking up this opportunity, their views and experiences of international exchanges are not well described. The aim of the study was to explore the experiences of AITs/First5s following their HEP exchanges...
April 20, 2017: Education for Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423792/acronym-disambiguation-in-spanish-electronic-health-narratives-using-machine-learning-techniques
#5
Ignacio Rubio-López, Roberto Costumero, Héctor Ambit, Consuelo Gonzalo-Martín, Ernestina Menasalvas, Alejandro Rodríguez González
Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are now being massively used in hospitals what has motivated current developments of new methods to process clinical narratives (unstructured data) making it possible to perform context-based searches. Current approaches to process the unstructured texts in EHRs are based in applying text mining or natural language processing (NLP) techniques over the data. In particular Named Entity Recognition (NER) is of paramount importance to retrieve specific biomedical concepts from the text providing the semantic type of the concept retrieved...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423455/simulation-and-curriculum-design-a-global-survey-in-dental-education
#6
S Perry, M F Burrow, W K Leung, S M Bridges
BACKGROUND: Curriculum reforms are being driven by globalisation and international standardisation. Although new information technologies such as dental haptic virtual reality (VR) simulation systems have provided potential new possibilities for clinical learning in dental curricula, infusion into curricula requires careful planning. METHODS: This study aimed to identify current patterns in the role and integration of simulation in dental degree curricula internationally...
April 19, 2017: Australian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422060/clarifying-the-ghrelin-system-s-ability-to-regulate-feeding-behaviours-despite-enigmatic-spatial-separation-of-the-ghsr-and-its-endogenous-ligand
#7
REVIEW
Alexander Edwards, Alfonso Abizaid
Ghrelin is a hormone predominantly produced in and secreted from the stomach. Ghrelin is involved in many physiological processes including feeding, the stress response, and in modulating learning, memory and motivational processes. Ghrelin does this by binding to its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), a receptor found in relatively high concentrations in hypothalamic and mesolimbic brain regions. While the feeding and metabolic effects of ghrelin can be explained by the effects of this hormone on regions of the brain that have a more permeable blood brain barrier (BBB), ghrelin produced within the periphery demonstrates a limited ability to reach extrahypothalamic regions where GHSRs are expressed...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416452/associated-motivational-salience-impacts-early-sensory-processing-of-human-faces
#8
Wiebke Hammerschmidt, Holger Sennhenn-Reulen, Annekathrin Schacht
Facial expressions of emotion have an undeniable processing advantage over neutral faces, discernible both at behavioral level and in emotion-related modulations of several event-related potentials (ERPs). Recently it was proposed that also inherently neutral stimuli might gain salience through associative learning mechanisms. The present study investigated whether acquired motivational salience leads to processing advantages similar to biologically determined origins of inherent emotional salience by applying an associative learning paradigm to human face processing...
April 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414998/a-qualitative-study-on-using-concept-maps-in-problem-based-learning
#9
Zenobia C Y Chan
BACKGROUND: The visual arts, including concept maps, have been shown to be effective tools for facilitating student learning. However, the use of concept maps in nursing education has been under-explored. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore how students develop concept maps and what these concept maps consist of, and their views on the use of concept maps as a learning activity in a PBL class. DESIGN: A qualitative approach consisting of an analysis of the contents of the concept maps and interviews with students...
April 12, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413697/acute-ethanol-exposure-during-late-mouse-neurodevelopment-results-in-long-term-deficits-in-memory-retrieval-but-not-in-social-responsiveness
#10
Katherine Houlé, Myshake Abdi, Erin B D Clabough
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal alcohol exposure can result in neurological changes in affected individuals and may result in the emergence of a broad spectrum of neurobehavioral abnormalities termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The effects of ethanol exposure during development are both time and dose dependent. Although many animal models of FASD use more chronic ethanol exposure, acute developmental alcohol exposure may also cause long-lasting neuronal changes. Our research employed behavioral measures to assess the effects of a single early postnatal ethanol intoxication event in mice...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406662/explicit-and-implicit-reinforcement-learning-across-the-psychosis-spectrum
#11
Deanna M Barch, Cameron S Carter, James M Gold, Sheri L Johnson, Ann M Kring, Angus W MacDonald, Diego A Pizzagalli, J Daniel Ragland, Steven M Silverstein, Milton E Strauss
Motivational and hedonic impairments are core features of a variety of types of psychopathology. An important aspect of motivational function is reinforcement learning (RL), including implicit (i.e., outside of conscious awareness) and explicit (i.e., including explicit representations about potential reward associations) learning, as well as both positive reinforcement (learning about actions that lead to reward) and punishment (learning to avoid actions that lead to loss). Here we present data from paradigms designed to assess both positive and negative components of both implicit and explicit RL, examine performance on each of these tasks among individuals with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder with psychosis, and examine their relative relationships to specific symptom domains transdiagnostically...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406113/creating-a-longitudinal-database-in-medical-education-perspectives-from-the-pioneers
#12
Rashmi A Kusurkar, Gerda Croiset
The Jefferson Longitudinal Study of Medical Education (JLSME) is the longest running database in medical education and covers the collection and measurement of background, learning, performance, and psychosocial variables before, during, and after medical school. Recently, our research group at VU University Medical Center School of Medical Sciences launched a longitudinal study in medical education, called the "Student Motivation and Success Study." While setting up this study, we faced many challenges and learning about the JLSME helped us gain a fresh perspective on our work...
September 2016: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404484/health-research-capacity-building-in-georgia-a%C3%A2-case-based-needs-assessment
#13
A Squires, T Chitashvili, M Djibuti, L Ridge, D Chyun
OBJECTIVES: Research capacity building in the health sciences in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has typically focused on bench-science capacity, but research examining health service delivery and health workforce is equally necessary to determine the best ways to deliver care. The Republic of Georgia, formerly a part of the Soviet Union, has multiple issues within its healthcare system that would benefit from expended research capacity, but the current research environment needs to be explored prior to examining research-focused activities...
March 6, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399689/the-cognitive-neuroscience-of-placebo-effects-concepts-predictions-and-physiology
#14
Stephan Geuter, Leonie Koban, Tor D Wager
Placebos have been used ubiquitously throughout the history of medicine. Expectations and associative learning processes are important psychological determinants of placebo effects, but their underlying brain mechanisms are only beginning to be understood. We examine the brain systems underlying placebo effects on pain, autonomic, and immune responses. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), insula, amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray emerge as central brain structures underlying placebo effects...
April 7, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399002/understanding-the-role-and-impact-of-effective-country-and-community-leadership-in-progress-toward-the-global-plan
#15
Charles Lyons, Yogan Pillay
Individual leadership and leaders have played pivotal roles in the history of efforts to end the AIDS epidemic. The goal of this article is to reflect on and understand how leadership and leaders have impacted and enabled the success of the Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping their Mothers Alive (Global Plan). To accomplish this goal, multiple interviews were conducted with individuals in positions of leadership who had been identified as people whose actions drove progress...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397314/supporting-clinical-leadership-through-action-the-nurse-consultant-role
#16
Elizabeth Rosser, Rachael Grey, Deborah Neal, Julie Reeve, Caroline Smith, Janine Valentine
The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of an action learning set (ALS) to enhance clinical leadership and extend their scope and confidence more strategically. BACKGROUND: As the most senior clinical role in most healthcare systems, the consultant nurse role is a solitary one. They are required to develop personal resilience, commitment and a belief in their ability to lead, with new consultants needing a strong support network to succeed. DESIGN: Following a two year ALS, four nurse consultants, one therapy consultant, and a university educationalist engaged in a co-operative inquiry approach using four cycles of discussion, reflection, analysis and action over an 18 month period from March 2015 - July 2016, to learn how to change and enhance their working practices...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395588/health-promotion-in-medical-education-lessons-from-a-major-undergraduate-curriculum-implementation
#17
Ann Wylie, Kathleen Leedham-Green
Despite the economic, environmental and patient-related imperatives to prepare medical students to become health promoting doctors, health promotion remains relatively deprioritised in medical curricula. This paper uses an in-depth case study of a health promotion curriculum implementation at a large UK medical school to provide insights into the experiences of teachers and learners across a range of topics, pedagogies, and teaching & assessment modalities. Topics included smoking cessation, behavioural change approaches to obesity, exercise prescribing, social prescribing, maternal and child health, public and global health; with pedagogies ranging from e-learning to practice-based project work...
April 10, 2017: Education for Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395376/-rehabilitation-of-children-and-adolescents-with-chronic-skin-diseases
#18
R Stachow, M Küppers-Chinnow, S Scheewe
Chronic skin diseases are a common indication for inpatient rehabilitation in children and adolescents. Atopic eczema and psoriasis play the most important role. But other rare congenital dermatoses such as ichthyoses or epidermolysis bullosa can also be rehabilitated. Patients with skin diseases are often considerably stigmatized and report a limited quality of life and participation. The somatic and psychosocial development of the children is also often severely affected by severe forms of the diseases. The concept of inpatient rehabilitation is, on the one hand, the development of an individually adapted topical therapy plan, which often follows a step concept and is adapted to the severity of the skin symptoms...
April 2017: Die Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392765/the-emerging-neuroscience-of-intrinsic-motivation-a-new-frontier-in-self-determination-research
#19
REVIEW
Stefano I Di Domenico, Richard M Ryan
Intrinsic motivation refers to people's spontaneous tendencies to be curious and interested, to seek out challenges and to exercise and develop their skills and knowledge, even in the absence of operationally separable rewards. Over the past four decades, experimental and field research guided by self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan and Deci, 2017) has found intrinsic motivation to predict enhanced learning, performance, creativity, optimal development and psychological wellness. Only recently, however, have studies begun to examine the neurobiological substrates of intrinsic motivation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389493/learning-outcomes-for-communication-skills-across-the-health-professions-a-systematic-literature-review-and-qualitative-synthesis
#20
Charlotte Denniston, Elizabeth Molloy, Debra Nestel, Robyn Woodward-Kron, Jennifer L Keating
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify and analyse communication skills learning outcomes via a systematic review and present results in a synthesised list. Summarised results inform educators and researchers in communication skills teaching and learning across health professions. DESIGN: Systematic review and qualitative synthesis. METHODS: A systematic search of five databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL plus and Scopus), from first records until August 2016, identified published learning outcomes for communication skills in health professions education...
April 7, 2017: BMJ Open
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