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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545616/peer-assisted-learning-pal-in-undergraduate-medical-education-an-overview
#1
REVIEW
Anne Herrmann-Werner, Regina Gramer, Rebecca Erschens, Christoph Nikendei, Annette Wosnik, Jan Griewatz, Stephan Zipfel, Florian Junne
Peer-assisted learning (PAL) has a long tradition and is nowadays implemented in the curricula of most medical faculties. Besides traditional areas of application like problem-based learning, anatomy, or CPR, more and more departments and institutes have established PAL as part of their everyday teaching. This narrative review provides some background information and basic definitions of PAL. It offers an overview on features and determinants as well as underlying learning theories and developments in PAL. In addition, motives for implementation are highlighted followed by a comparison of advantages and disadvantages...
April 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545500/strengthening-capacity-to-research-the-social-determinants-of-health-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-lessons-from-the-intrec-programme
#2
Nicholas Henschke, Anna Mirny, Joke A Haafkens, Heribert Ramroth, Siwi Padmawati, Martin Bangha, Lisa Berkman, Laksono Trisnantoro, Yulia Blomstedt, Heiko Becher, Osman Sankoh, Peter Byass, John Kinsman
BACKGROUND: The INDEPTH Training & Research Centres of Excellence (INTREC) collaboration developed a training programme to strengthen social determinants of health (SDH) research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It was piloted among health- and demographic researchers from 9 countries in Africa and Asia. The programme followed a blended learning approach and was split into three consecutive teaching blocks over a 12-month period: 1) an online course of 7 video lectures and assignments on the theory of SDH research; 2) a 2-week qualitative and quantitative methods workshop; and 3) a 1-week data analysis workshop...
May 25, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543944/anterior-cingulate-cortex-supports-effort-allocation-toward-a-qualitatively-preferred-option
#3
Evan E Hart, Julian O Gerson, Yael Zoken, Marisella Garcia, Alicia Izquierdo
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is known to be involved in effortful choice, yet its role in cost-benefit evaluation of qualitatively different rewards (more/less preferred), beyond magnitude differences (larger/smaller), is poorly understood. Selecting between qualitatively different options is a decision type commonly faced by humans. Here we assessed the role of ACC on a task that has primarily been used to probe striatal function in motivation. Rats were trained to stable performance on a progressive ratio schedule for sucrose pellets and were then given sham surgeries (control) or excitotoxic NMDA-lesions of ACC...
May 20, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541893/sequential-optimization-for-efficient-high-quality-object-proposal-generation
#4
Ziming Zhang, Yun Liu, Xi Chen, Yanjun Zhu, Ming-Ming Cheng, Venkatesh Saligrama, Philip H S Torr
We are motivated by the need for a generic object proposal generation algorithm which achieves good balance between object detection recall, proposal localization quality and computational efficiency. We propose a novel object proposal algorithm, BING++, which inherits the virtue of good computational efficiency of BING [1] but significantly improves its proposal localization quality. At high level we formulate the problem of object proposal generation from a novel probabilistic perspective, based on which our BING++ manages to improve the localization quality by employing edges and segments to estimate object boundaries and update the proposals sequentially...
May 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541201/palmprint-recognition-based-on-complete-direction-representation
#5
Wei Jia, Bob Zhang, Jingting Lu, Yihai Zhu, Yang Zhao, Wangmeng Zuo, Haibin Ling
Direction information serves as one of the most important features for palmprint recognition. In the past decade, many effective direction representation (DR)-based methods have been proposed and achieved promising recognition performance. However, due to an incomplete understanding for DR, these methods only extract DR in one direction level and one scale. Hence, they did not fully utilized all potentials of DR. In addition, most researchers only focused on the DR extraction in spatial coding domain, and rarely considered the methods in frequency domain...
May 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539420/a-selective-role-for-dopamine-in-learning-to-maximize-reward-but-not-to-minimize-effort-evidence-from-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Vasilisa Skvortsova, Bertrand Degos, Marie-Laure Welter, Marie Vidailhet, Mathias Pessiglione
Instrumental learning is a fundamental process through which agents optimize their choices, taking into account various dimensions of available options, such as the possible reward or punishment outcomes, and the costs associated with potential actions. While the implication of dopamine in learning from choice outcomes is well established, less is known about its role in learning the action costs such as effort. Here, we tested the ability of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) to maximize monetary rewards and minimize physical efforts in a probabilistic instrumental learning task...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537951/an-interprofessional-course-on-substance-use-disorders-for-health-professions-students
#7
Andrew J Muzyk, Chris Tew, Allie Thomas-Fannin, Sanjai Dayal, Reina Maeda, Nicole Schramm-Sapyta, Kathryn M Andolsek, Shelley Holmer
PROBLEM: Substance use disorders (SUDs) affect millions of Americans. Nevertheless, there is insufficient health care resource allocation for these patients. One reason may be the lack of education and training about SUDs in health professions programs. APPROACH: The authors developed a required, interprofessional SUDs course for health professions students completing a one-month psychiatry clerkship within the Duke University Health System starting in November 2015...
May 23, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536062/a-systematic-review-of-gamification-in-e-health
#8
REVIEW
Lamyae Sardi, Ali Idri, José Luis Fernández-Alemán
Gamification is a relatively new trend that focuses on applying game mechanics to non-game contexts in order to engage audiences and to inject a little fun into mundane activities besides generating motivational and cognitive benefits. While many fields such as Business, Marketing and e-Learning have taken advantage of the potential of gamification, the digital healthcare domain has also started to exploit this emerging trend. This paper aims to summarize the current knowledge regarding gamified e-Health applications...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534818/a-review-of-the-impact-of-maternal-obesity-on-the-cognitive-function-and-mental-health-of-the-offspring
#9
REVIEW
Laura Contu, Cheryl A Hawkes
Globally, more than 20% of women of reproductive age are currently estimated to be obese. Children born to obese mothers are at higher risk of developing obesity, coronary heart disease, diabetes, stroke, and asthma in adulthood. Increasing clinical and experimental evidence suggests that maternal obesity also affects the health and function of the offspring brain across the lifespan. This review summarizes the current findings from human and animal studies that detail the impact of maternal obesity on aspects of learning, memory, motivation, affective disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and neurodegeneration in the offspring...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534722/a-survey-of-established-veterinary-clinical-skills-laboratories-from-europe-and-north-america-present-practices-and-recent-developments
#10
Marc Dilly, Emma K Read, Sarah Baillie
Developing competence in clinical skills is important if graduates are to provide entry-level care but it is dependent on having had sufficient hands-on practice. Clinical skills laboratories provide opportunities for students to learn on simulators and models in a safe environment and to supplement training with animals. Interest in facilities for developing veterinary clinical skills has increased in recent years as many veterinary colleges face challenges in training their students with traditional methods alone...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532665/evaluation-of-the-behavioral-characteristics-of-the-mdx-mouse-model-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-through-operant-conditioning-procedures
#11
Matthew Lewon, Christina M Peters, Pam M Van Ry, Dean J Burkin, Kenneth W Hunter, Linda J Hayes
The mdx mouse is an important nonhuman model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) research. Characterizing the behavioral traits of the strain relative to congenic wild-type (WT) mice may enhance our understanding of the cognitive deficits observed in some humans with DMD and contribute to treatment development and evaluation. In this paper we report the results of a number of experiments comparing the behavior of mdx to WT mice in operant conditioning procedures designed to assess learning and memory. We found that mdx outperformed WT in all learning and memory tasks involving food reinforcement, and this appeared to be related to the differential effects of the food deprivation motivating operation on mdx mice...
May 19, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532653/hippocampal-ca1-local-field-potential-oscillations-induced-by-olfactory-cue-of-liked-food
#12
Nifareeda Samerphob, Dania Cheaha, Surapong Chatpun, Ekkasit Kumarnsit
Eating motivation is induced not only by negative energy balance but also food related cues. However, neural processing for acquisition of learned food preference remains to be established. This study aimed to identify hippocampal neural signaling in response to olfactory cue (chocolate scent) after completion of repetitive chocolate sessions. Male Swiss albino mice implanted with intracranial electrode into the hippocampus were used for local field potential (LFP) recording. Animals were given chocolate sessions (a piece of 2 g chocolate per each mouse to eat on day 1, 3, 5 and 7)...
May 19, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529706/expresso-a-database-and-web-server-for-exploring-the-interaction-of-transcription-factors-and-their-target-genes-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-using-chip-seq-peak-data
#13
Delasa Aghamirzaie, Karthik Raja Velmurugan, Shuchi Wu, Doaa Altarawy, Lenwood S Heath, Ruth Grene
Motivation: The increasing availability of chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) data enables us to learn more about the action of transcription factors in the regulation of gene expression. Even though in vivo transcriptional regulation often involves the concerted action of more than one transcription factor, the format of each individual ChIP-Seq dataset usually represents the action of a single transcription factor. Therefore, a relational database in which available ChIP-Seq datasets are curated is essential...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528939/aga-white-paper-training-and-implementation-of-endoscopic-image-enhancement-technologies
#14
Neil Gupta, Joel V Brill, Marcia Canto, Daniel DeMarco, Brian M Fennerty, Loren Laine, David Lieberman, Charles Lightdale, Elizabeth Montgomery, Robert Odze, Douglas Rex, Prateek Sharma, Jeffrey L Tokar, Michael L Kochman
Endoscopic image-enhancement technologies provide opportunities to visualize normal and abnormal tissues within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in a manner that complements conventional white light endoscopic imaging. The additional information that is obtained enables the endoscopist to better identify, delineate, and characterize lesions and can facilitate targeted biopsies or, in some cases, eliminate the need to send samples for histologic analysis. Some of these technologies have been available for more than a decade, but despite this fact, there is limited use of these technologies by endoscopists...
June 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526190/disseminating-effective-clinician-communication-techniques-engaging-clinicians-to-want-to-learn-how-to-engage-patients
#15
Kathryn I Pollak, Anthony L Back, James A Tulsky
Patient-clinician communication that promotes patient engagement enhances health care quality. Yet, disseminating effective communication interventions to practicing clinicians remains challenging. Current methods do not have large and sustainable effects. In this paper, we argue that both top-down approaches (mandated by institutions) should be coupled with bottom-up approaches that address clinician motivation, confidence, and barriers. We need to engage clinicians in the same way we ask them to engage patients - strategically and with empathy...
May 9, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526031/breast-cancer-relatives-physical-activity-intervention-needs-and-preferences-qualitative-results
#16
Sheri J Hartman, Rochelle K Rosen
BACKGROUND: While many risk factors for breast cancer, such as family history, are not modifiable, some, however, can be modified. The study used formative qualitative research to learn about the physical activity intervention preferences and needs of first-degree female relatives (FDFRs) of breast cancer patients; that information was then used to develop a targeted physical activity intervention. METHODS: Twenty FDFRs first completed a 12-week physical activity intervention and then attended two sequential focus groups (7 groups total)...
May 19, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524729/preschoolers-physical-activity-participation-across-a-yearlong-mastery-motivational-climate-intervention
#17
Danielle D Wadsworth, Mary E Rudisill, Peter A Hastie, Jacqueline M Irwin, Mynor G Rodriguez-Hernandez
PURPOSE: This study sought to determine how children's participation in physical activity during a mastery-motivational climate changed during a 20-week intervention and to compare it to children's free-play activity during a typical day at their local day-care facility. METHOD: Twelve 4-year-old children participated in a mastery-motivational climate physical activity program delivered 2 days a week for 20 weeks during a period of 8 months. All children were fitted with an Actigraph GT3X triaxial accelerometer...
May 19, 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524258/cardiotocography-interpretation-skills-and-the-association-with-size-of-maternity-unit-years-of-obstetric-work-experience-and-healthcare-professional-background-a-national-cross-sectional-study
#18
Line Thellesen, Jette Led Sorensen, Morten Hedegaard, Susanne Rosthoej, Nina Palmgren Colov, Kristine Sylvan Andersen, Thomas Bergholt
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to examine whether cardiotocography (CTG) knowledge, interpretation skills and decision-making measured by a written assessment were associated with size of maternity unit, years of obstetric work experience and healthcare professional background. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A national cross-sectional study in the setting of a CTG teaching intervention involving all 24 maternity units in Denmark. Participants were midwives (n=1260) and specialists (n=269) and residents (n=142) in obstetrics and gynecology who attended a one-day CTG course and answered a 30-item multiple-choice question test...
May 19, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523218/valence-and-magnitude-ambiguity-in-feedback-processing
#19
Ruolei Gu, Xue Feng, Lucas S Broster, Lu Yuan, Pengfei Xu, Yue-Jia Luo
BACKGROUND: Outcome feedback which indicates behavioral consequences are crucial for reinforcement learning and environmental adaptation. Nevertheless, outcome information in daily life is often totally or partially ambiguous. Studying how people interpret this kind of information would provide important knowledge about the human evaluative system. METHODS: This study concentrates on the neural processing of partially ambiguous feedback, that is, either its valence or magnitude is unknown to participants...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521573/students-motivation-toward-feedback-seeking-in-the-clinical-workplace
#20
Lubberta H de Jong, Robert P Favier, Cees P M van der Vleuten, Harold G J Bok
In medical education, students are increasingly regarded as active seekers of feedback rather than passive recipients. Previous research showed that in the intentions of students to seek feedback, a learning and performance goal can be distinguished. In this study, we investigated the intentions (defined as level and orientation of motivation) of different performing students (low, average, and high performing students) to seek feedback in the clinical workplace using Self-Determination Theory. We conducted a quantitative study with students in their clinical clerkships and grouped them based on their performance...
May 19, 2017: Medical Teacher
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