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Motivation and learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776084/deep-neural-networks-for-direct-featureless-learning-through-observation-the-case-of-two-dimensional-spin-models
#1
Kyle Mills, Isaac Tamblyn
We demonstrate the capability of a convolutional deep neural network in predicting the nearest-neighbor energy of the 4×4 Ising model. Using its success at this task, we motivate the study of the larger 8×8 Ising model, showing that the deep neural network can learn the nearest-neighbor Ising Hamiltonian after only seeing a vanishingly small fraction of configuration space. Additionally, we show that the neural network has learned both the energy and magnetization operators with sufficient accuracy to replicate the low-temperature Ising phase transition...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774584/-i-can-see-fine-patient-knowledge-of-eye-care
#2
Elizabeth L Irving, Alisa M Sivak, Marlee M Spafford
PURPOSE: To learn more about the perceptions and attitudes toward eye care of members of the public - in particular, their knowledge of the purpose, components and providers of eye examinations, their ability to self-monitor ocular status and their awareness of major sight threatening eye conditions. METHODS: This study used the qualitative research strategy, grounded theory. Participants were recruited via poster and social media. Two researchers, one with optometric knowledge and one without, moderated seven 60- to 90-min, semi-structured focus group discussions, which were audiotaped and transcribed...
May 17, 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770551/implementing-community-participation-via-interdisciplinary-teams-in-primary-care-an-irish-case-study-in-practice
#3
Edel Tierney, Rachel McEvoy, Ailish Hannigan, Anne E MacFarlane
BACKGROUND: Community participation in primary care is enshrined in international and Irish health policy. However, there is a lack of evidence about how stakeholders work collectively to implement community participation within interdisciplinary teams; community perspectives are rarely captured, and a theoretical underpinning for implementation of community participation in primary care is absent. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a theoretically informed, multiperspectival empirical analysis of the implementation of community participation via primary care teams (PCTs) in Ireland...
May 16, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770243/mobile-technology-in-undergraduate-nursing-education-a-systematic-review
#4
Hyejung Lee, Haeyoung Min, Su-Mi Oh, Kaka Shim
Objectives: This study aimed to identify and systematically review the literature on the use of mobile technology in nursing education. The research findings could evidence the effectiveness of mobile technology in undergraduate nursing students' learning outcomes. Methods: Computerized searches were conducted using the Ovid-MEDLINE, Ovid-EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and CINAHL databases for relevant primary studies and limited to those between 2000 and February 2018...
April 2018: Healthcare Informatics Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765260/attitude-and-perception-of-undergraduate-medical-students-toward-the-problem-based-learning-in-chitwan-medical-college-nepal
#5
Ram Lochan Yadav, Rano Mal Piryani, Gopendra Prasad Deo, Dev Kumar Shah, Laxmi Kumari Yadav, Md Nazrul Islam
Background: Problem-based learning (PBL) was introduced into Basic Medical Sciences early in the 1980s at Tribhuvan University (TU), Nepal, followed by other universities where didactic lecture method was still followed as the main teaching strategy. Despite gaining its popularity worldwide as integrated teaching learning method, PBL is not given importance in Nepal. This study aimed to assess the attitude and perceptions of undergraduate medical students regarding learning outcomes of PBL and to know their views about role and qualities of effective tutors for its successful implementation...
2018: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764630/faculty-motivations-to-use-active-learning-among-pharmacy-educators
#6
Nicole Rockich-Winston, Brian C Train, Michael J Rudolph, Chris Gillette
INTRODUCTION: Faculty motivations to use active learning have been limited to surveys evaluating faculty perceptions within active learning studies. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the relationship between faculty intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and demographic variables and the extent of active learning use in the classroom. METHODS: An online survey was administered to individual faculty members at 137 colleges and schools of pharmacy across the United States...
March 2018: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763744/characterization-of-electroencephalography-signals-for-estimating-saliency-features-in-videos
#7
Zhen Liang, Yasuyuki Hamada, Shigeyuki Oba, Shin Ishii
Understanding the functions of the visual system has been one of the major targets in neuroscience formany years. However, the relation between spontaneous brain activities and visual saliency in natural stimuli has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we developed an optimized machine learning-based decoding model to explore the possible relationships between the electroencephalography (EEG) characteristics and visual saliency. The optimal features were extracted from the EEG signals and saliency map which was computed according to an unsupervised saliency model ( Tavakoli and Laaksonen, 2017)...
May 12, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760527/prefrontal-cortex-as-a-meta-reinforcement-learning-system
#8
Jane X Wang, Zeb Kurth-Nelson, Dharshan Kumaran, Dhruva Tirumala, Hubert Soyer, Joel Z Leibo, Demis Hassabis, Matthew Botvinick
Over the past 20 years, neuroscience research on reward-based learning has converged on a canonical model, under which the neurotransmitter dopamine 'stamps in' associations between situations, actions and rewards by modulating the strength of synaptic connections between neurons. However, a growing number of recent findings have placed this standard model under strain. We now draw on recent advances in artificial intelligence to introduce a new theory of reward-based learning. Here, the dopamine system trains another part of the brain, the prefrontal cortex, to operate as its own free-standing learning system...
May 14, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760524/what-does-dopamine-mean
#9
REVIEW
Joshua D Berke
Dopamine is a critical modulator of both learning and motivation. This presents a problem: how can target cells know whether increased dopamine is a signal to learn or to move? It is often presumed that motivation involves slow ('tonic') dopamine changes, while fast ('phasic') dopamine fluctuations convey reward prediction errors for learning. Yet recent studies have shown that dopamine conveys motivational value and promotes movement even on subsecond timescales. Here I describe an alternative account of how dopamine regulates ongoing behavior...
May 14, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757732/person-re-identification-with-metric-learning-using-privileged-information
#10
Xun Yang, Meng Wang, Dacheng Tao
Despite the promising progress made in recent years, person re-identification remains a challenging task due to complex variations in human appearances from different camera views. This paper presents a logistic discriminant metric learning method for this challenging problem. Different with most existing metric learning algorithms, it exploits both original data and auxiliary data during training, which is motivated by the new machine learning paradigm-learning using privileged information. Such privileged information is a kind of auxiliary knowledge, which is only available during training...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757387/e-learning-on-antibiotic-prescribing-the-role-of-autonomous-motivation-in-participation-a-prospective-cohort-study
#11
Martine G Caris, Jonne J Sikkens, Rashmi A Kusurkar, Michiel A van Agtmael
Objectives: E-learning is increasingly used in education on antimicrobial stewardship, but participation rates are often low. Insight into factors that affect participation is therefore needed. Autonomous motivation is associated with higher achievements in medical education and could also play a role in e-learning participation. We therefore aimed to investigate the role of residents' autonomous motivation in their participation in e-learning on antibiotic prescribing. Methods: We performed a multicentre cohort study in two academic and two teaching hospitals...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756654/effect-of-reward-type-on-object-discrimination-learning-in-socially-monogamous-coppery-titi-monkeys-callicebus-cupreus
#12
Sara M Freeman, Nancy Rebout, Karen L Bales
Highly valued food items are often used as rewards to reinforce an animal's behavior. For social species, social interaction is rewarding and can drive an individual's behavior as well. In the currently study, we wanted to compare the efficacy of a food reward and a social reward on object discrimination learning in socially monogamous titi monkeys. We hypothesized that titi monkeys would perform more accurately for a social reward (their pair mate) than for a food reward (a highly desired food item). Eleven adult titi monkeys were tested with a two-object visual discrimination task for both types of reward...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754253/young-macaques-macaca-fascicularis-preferentially-bias-attention-towards-closer-older-and-better-tool-users
#13
Amanda W Y Tan, Charlotte K Hemelrijk, Suchinda Malaivijitnond, Michael D Gumert
Examining how animals direct social learning during skill acquisition under natural conditions, generates data for examining hypotheses regarding how transmission biases influence cultural change in animal populations. We studied a population of macaques on Koram Island, Thailand, and examined model-based biases during interactions by unskilled individuals with tool-using group members. We first compared the prevalence of interactions (watching, obtaining food, object exploration) and proximity to tool users during interactions, in developing individuals (infants, juveniles) versus mature non-learners (adolescents, adults), to provide evidence that developing individuals are actively seeking information about tool use from social partners...
May 12, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754105/motivational-factors-influencing-nurses-to-undertake-postgraduate-hospital-based-education
#14
Danny Kinsella, Margaret Fry, Alison Zecchin
Specialist postgraduate education improves patient health outcomes, and assists in meeting the emerging specialisation of nursing practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the motivational factors that influence nurses' engagement with hospital-based postgraduate education. The research design was descriptive and exploratory, using a survey method. The survey consisted of demographic details, the Participation Reasons Scale (PRS) and open-ended questions. Thirty-four participants (100%) completed the survey...
May 1, 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753886/cocaine-impairs-serial-feature-negative-learning-and-blood-brain-barrier-integrity
#15
Terry Davidson, Sara Hargrave, David Kearns, Matthew Clasen, Sabrina Jones, Alison Wakeford, Camille Sample, Anthony Riley
Previous research has shown that diets high in fat and sugar [a.k.a., Western diets (WD)] can impair performance of rats on hippocampal-dependent learning and memory problems, an effect that is accompanied by selective increases in hippocampal blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Based on these types of findings, it has been proposed that overeating of a WD (and its resulting obesity) may be, in part, a consequence of impairments in these anatomical substrates and cognitive processes. Given that drug use (and addiction) represents another behavioral excess, the present experiments assessed if similar outcomes might occur with drug exposure by evaluating the effects of cocaine administration on hippocampal-dependent memory and on the integrity of the BBB...
May 10, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751361/the-behavioral-pediatrics-feeding-assessment-scale-is-a-reliable-and-valid-tool-for-greek-children
#16
Katerina S L T Sdravou, Athanasios Evangeliou, Kyriaki Tentzidou, Fotini Sotiriadou, Eleanna Stasinou, Maria Fotoulaki
Development of normal feeding is a highly complex sensorimotor process that depends upon the integration of neurological maturation, internal motivation and experiential learning (1-3). Disruption of the child's feeding process can lead to feeding problems during infancy and early childhood. One of the most widely used and validated scales for measuring whether a child's feeding problem has clinical significance is the Behavioral Pediatric Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS) (4). The objective of this study was to translate the BPFAS into Greek and culturally adapt the scale to evaluate the psychometric properties among the Greek parents of normally developing children...
May 11, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749857/participants-decision-to-enroll-in-cohort-studies-with-biobanks-quantitative-insights-from-two-german-studies
#17
Hélène Nobile, Pascal Borry, Tobias Pischon, Astrid Steinbrecher, Heiner Boeing, Matthäus Vigl, Manuela M Bergmann
AIM: To understand participants' actual motivations to enroll in cohort studies with biobanks. METHODS: Participants of two such studies currently ongoing in Germany were invited to fill in a questionnaire about their decision to enroll. RESULTS: From the 623 questionnaires completed, contributing to scientific knowledge appeared as a main motive for enrollment, followed by learning about personal health status and receiving personal medical advice...
November 2017: Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748165/using-mobile-health-gamification-to-facilitate-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-skills-practice-in-child-anxiety-treatment-open-clinical-trial
#18
Gede Pramana, Bambang Parmanto, James Lomas, Oliver Lindhiem, Philip C Kendall, Jennifer Silk
BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioral therapy is an efficacious treatment for child anxiety disorders. Although efficacious, many children (40%-50%) do not show a significant reduction in symptoms or full recovery from primary anxiety diagnoses. One possibility is that they are unwilling to learn and practice cognitive behavioral therapy skills beyond therapy sessions. This can occur for a variety of reasons, including a lack of motivation, forgetfulness, and a lack of cognitive behavioral therapy skills understanding...
May 10, 2018: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747094/determining-the-opinions-of-the-first-year-nursing-students-about-clinical-practice-and-clinical-educators
#19
Emine Kol, Serpil İnce
The clinical experience prepares nursing students to become competent and professional practitioners. The evaluation of the clinical learning environment is important to determine if the clinical experience and clinical instructor provide essential learning opportunities as well as a supportive environment. This study aimed to determine the opinions of first-year nursing students about their instructors and clinical practice in the clinical education setting. The sample of the study consists of 227 students from Akdeniz University Nursing Faculty enrolled in the 'Nursing Basics' course...
May 1, 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746695/finding-the-forgotten-motivating-military-veterans-to-register-with-a-primary-healthcare-practice
#20
Alan Finnegan, Robin Jackson, Robin Simpson
Introduction: In the UK, primary healthcare practices choose from a series of Read codes to detail certain characteristics onto a patient's medical documentation. One of these codes is for military veterans indicating a history relating to military service. However, veterans are poor at seeking help, with research indicating that this code is only applied in 7.9% of cases. Clinical staff have a clear role in motivating veterans to declare their ex-Forces status or register with a primary healthcare center...
May 9, 2018: Military Medicine
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