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"hepatitis e"

Nara Rubia de Freitas, Edna Braz Rocha de Santana, Ágabo Macedo da Costa E Silva, Sueli Meira da Silva, Sheila Araújo Teles, Noemi Rovaris Gardinali, Marcelo Alves Pinto, Regina Maria Bringel Martins
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has a worldwide distribution and represents an important cause of acute hepatitis. This study aims to investigate the occurrence of HEV infection and factors associated with this infection in patients with acute non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis in Central Brazil. From April 2012 to October 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 379 patients with acute non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis in the City of Goiania, Central Brazil. Serum samples of all patients were tested for serological markers of HEV infection (anti-HEV IgM and IgG) by ELISA...
October 13, 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Hélène Gilgenkrantz, Jérôme Gouttenoire, Vincent Mallet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Daniel Todt, Stephanie Walter, Richard J P Brown, Eike Steinmann
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), an important agent of viral hepatitis worldwide, can cause severe courses of infection in pregnant women and immunosuppressed patients. To date, HEV infections can only be treated with ribavirin (RBV). Major drawbacks of this therapy are that RBV is not approved for administration to pregnant women and that the virus can acquire mutations, which render the intra-host population less sensitive or even resistant to RBV. One of the proposed modes of action of RBV is a direct mutagenic effect on viral genomes, inducing mismatches and subsequent nucleotide substitutions...
October 13, 2016: Viruses
Ebba Elisabeth Mannheimer, Lene Holm Harritshøj, Terese Lea Katzenstein
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection among pregnant women is severe, often leading to fulminant hepatic failure and death, with mortality rates up to 15-25%. Studies suggest that differences in genotypes/subgenotypes, hormonal and immunological changes during pregnancy may contribute to the severe consequences for pregnant women with HEV. Although the increased mortality among pregnant women predominantly is seen in developing countries where genotype 1 is endemic, there are also large differences in mortality among pregnant women within these countries...
October 10, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Jun Zhang, Qinjian Zhao, Ningshao Xia
Hepatitis E has been increasingly recognized as an underestimated global disease burden in recent years. Subpopulations with more serious infection-associated damage or death include pregnant women, patients with basic liver diseases, and elderly persons. Vaccine would be the most effective means for prevention of HEV infection. The lack of an efficient cell culture system for HEV makes the development of classic inactive or attenuated vaccine infeasible. Hence, the recombinant vaccine approaches are explored deeply...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Wei Hui, Linlin Wei, Zhuo Li, Xinhui Guo
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are the most common cause of acute hepatitis, but they can also take a chronic course. There is no specific therapy for acute hepatitis, and current treatment is supportive. Choosing ribavirin as the first-line therapy for chronic HEV is advisable, especially in solid organ transplant patients. Pegylated interferon-α has been used successfully for treatment of hepatitis E but is associated with major side effects. Cholestasis is one of the most common, but devastating, manifestations in hepatitis E...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Chenyan Zhao, Youchun Wang
Serological and nucleic acid tests for detecting hepatitis E virus (HEV) have been developed for both epidemiologic and diagnostic purposes. The laboratory diagnosis of HEV infection depends on the detection of HEV antigen, HEV RNA, and serum antibodies against HEV (immunoglobulin [Ig]A, IgM, and IgG). Anti-HEV IgM antibodies can be detected during the acute phase of the illness and can last approximately 4 or 5 months, representing recent exposure, whereas anti-HEV IgG antibodies can last more than 10 years, representing remote exposure...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Shaojie Xin, Long Xiao
The clinical manifestations of hepatitis E are similar to those of other types of viral hepatitis. While acute hepatitis E is usually self-limited, pregnant women and chronic liver disease patients suffering from acute hepatitis E usually present with severe clinical manifestations that may develop into fulminant hepatic failure. Chronic HEV infection is typically only seen in organ transplant patients; most HEV cases are asymptomatic and rarely display jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, fever, fatigue, or ascites...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Lin Wang, Ling Wang
Animal models are one of the most important tools in the study of human hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. They are particularly important in light of the major limitations of the cell culture system for HEV. Besides nonhuman primates, which are extremely valuable because of their susceptibility to HEV genotypes 1-4, animals like swine, rabbit, and chicken are also potential models for studies of pathogenesis, cross-species infection, and the molecular biology of HEV. Identification of the most useful animal model for human HEV infection studies is crucial to further investigations into this ubiquitous yet poorly understood virus...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yihua Zhou
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute self-limiting hepatitis in most cases and chronic infection in rare circumstances. It is believed to be noncytopathic, so immunologically mediated events should play important roles in its pathogenesis and infection outcomes. The anti-HEV antibody response was clarified when the major antigenic determinants on the ORF2 polypeptide were determined, which are located in its C-terminal portion. This subregion also forms the conformational neutralization epitopes. Robust anti-HEV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG responses usually develop 3-4 weeks after infection in experimentally infected nonhuman primates...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yansheng Geng, Youchun Wang
Transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV) occurs predominantly by the fecal-oral route. Large epidemics of hepatitis E in the developing countries of Asia and Africa are waterborne and spread through contaminated drinking water. The reservoir of HEV in developed countries is believed to be in animals with zoonotic transmission to humans, possibly through direct contact or the consumption of undercooked contaminated meat. HEV transmission through blood and vertical transmission have also been reported.
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yulin Zhang, Wanyun Gong, Hang Zeng, Ling Wang
Comparative analysis of the genomic sequences of multiple hepatitis E virus (HEV) isolates has revealed extensive genomic diversity among them. Recently, a variety of genetically distinct HEV variants have also been isolated and identified from large numbers of animal species, including birds, rabbits, rats, ferrets, bats, cutthroat trout, and camels, among others. Furthermore, it has been reported that recombination in HEV genomes takes place in animals and in human patients. Also, chronic HEV infection in immunocompromised individuals has revealed the presence of viral strains carrying insertions from human genes...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Frederik Widén
Hepatitis E (HE) virus infection is not limited to spread from human to human but also occurs between animals and more importantly as zoonotic spread from animals to humans. Genotyping of strains from hepatitis E virus-infected patients has revealed that these infections are not all caused by genotypes 1 or 2 but often by genotypes 3 or 4. Therefore, it is important to understand the striking difference between the spread of genotypes 1 and 2 in countries with poor sanitary standards and the spread of genotypes 3 and 4 in countries with good sanitary standards...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yansheng Geng, Youchun Wang
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is globally prevalent with relatively high percentages of anti-HEV immunoglobulin G-positive individuals in the populations of developing and developed countries. There are two distinct epidemiologic patterns of hepatitis E. In areas with high disease endemicity, primarily developing countries in Asia and Africa, this disease is caused mainly by genotype 1 or 2 HEV, both of which transmit predominantly through contaminated water and occur as either outbreaks or as sporadic cases of acute hepatitis...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yan Zhou, Chenyan Zhao, Yabin Tian, Nan Xu, Youchun Wang
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a non-enveloped virus containing a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome of 7.2 kb, which consists of a 5' noncoding region, three open reading frames (ORFs), and a 3' noncoding region. ORF1 is diverse between genotypes and encodes the nonstructural proteins, which include the enzymes needed for virus replication. In addition to its role in virus replication, the function of ORF1 is relevant to viral adaption in cultured cells and may also relate to virus infection and HEV pathogenicity...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Youchun Wang, Chenyan Zhao, Ying Qi, Yansheng Geng
Since the sequence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) was determined from a patient with enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis in 1989, similar sequences have been isolated from many different animals, including pigs, wild boars, deer, rabbits, bats, rats, chicken, and trout. All of these sequences have the same genomic organization, which contains open reading frames (ORFs) 1, 2, and 3, although their genomic sequences are variable. Some have proposed that they be classified as new family, Hepeviridae, which would be further divided into different genera and species according to their sequence variability...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Gülsüm İclal Bayhan, Kaan Demiören, Hüseyin Güdücüoğlu
AIM: Hepatitis E virus is an etiological agent of hepatitis which is transmitted enterically and may lead to water-born outbreaks. Although it is mainly transmitted by the fecal-oral route, it is estimated that many cases are associated with zoonotic transmission in developing countries. In this study, we aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of hepatitis E in the childhood age group in the province of Van and to demonstrate the relationship between seroprevalence and demographic properties, residential house/region, water supply used at home, dealing with livestock and history of surgery...
September 2016: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
Andrew G Kelly, Natalie E Netzler, Peter A White
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an enteric, single-stranded, positive sense RNA virus and a significant etiological agent of hepatitis, causing sporadic infections and outbreaks globally. Tracing the evolutionary ancestry of HEV has proved difficult since its identification in 1992, it has been reclassified several times, and confusion remains surrounding its origins and ancestry. RESULTS: To reveal close protein relatives of the Hepeviridae family, similarity searching of the GenBank database was carried out using a complete Orthohepevirus A, HEV genotype I (GI) ORF1 protein sequence and individual proteins...
October 12, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Kenzo Yonemitsu, Yutaka Terada, Ryusei Kuwata, Dung Nguyen, Nobuyuki Shiranaga, Satomi Tono, Tomoka Matsukane, Mayumi Yokoyama, Kazuo Suzuki, Hiroshi Shimoda, Ai Takano, Masahiko Muto, Ken Maeda
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of hepatitis E, a food- and water-borne disease. In developed countries, consumption of meats from pigs, wild boars and deer is a major source of infection. Although HEV and HEV-related viruses have been detected in many animal species, their zoonotic potential and prevalence has not been completely understood. To detect anti-HEV antibody in mammalian species, a simple enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was established using extract from cells expressing HEV capsid protein and protein A/G as an antigen and a reagent for detection of antibody...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
A Nautiyal, N P Singh, A Sengupta, A Mohabey, H R Shah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
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