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Shurong Li, Shufang Fu, Yichen Xiao, Gaosi Xu
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and severe complication of cardiac surgery, and related rates of both hospitalization and long-term mortality are increasing. A number of studies have explored the preventive effects of perioperative pharmacological therapy on AKI after cardiac surgery. However, the mechanisms of AKI are multifaceted, and no universal treatment has been confirmed as beneficial. We review and analyze several current perioperative pharmacological therapies for AKI after cardiac surgery to identify promising preventive strategies...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
Pedro H F Gois, Daniele Canale, Rildo A Volpini, Daniela Ferreira, Mariana M Veras, Vinicius Andrade-Oliveira, Niels O S Câmara, Maria H M Shimizu, Antonio C Seguro
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the most severe complication of rhabdomyolysis. Allopurinol (Allo), a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, has been in the spotlight in the last decade due to new therapeutic applications related to its potent antioxidant effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Allo in the prevention and treatment of rhabdomyolysis-associated AKI. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: saline control group; prophylactic Allo (300mg/L of drinking water, 7 days); glycerol (50%, 5ml/kg, IM); prophylactic Allo + glycerol; and therapeutic Allo (50mg/Kg, IV, 30minutes after glycerol injection) + glycerol...
October 18, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Melis Kant, Merve Akış, Mehmet Çalan, Tuğba Arkan, Fırat Bayraktar, Miral Dizdaroglu, Hüray İşlekel
Prediabetes is the preclinical stage of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with intermediate state of hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia results in a state of oxidative stress, which may contribute to the production of insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction and long-term complications of diabetes. Novel approaches are required for prevention and treatment of diabetes. New biomarkers that can be used in risk stratification and therapy control as supplementary to current parameters are needed. These biomarkers may facilitate a more individualized and sufficient treatment of diabetes...
September 26, 2016: DNA Repair
Kenichiro Sato, Noritoshi Arai, Aki Omori, Ayumi Hida, Akio Kimura, Sousuke Takeuchi
PURPOSE: Hyperammonaemia is frequently observed in patients who have experienced convulsive seizures. Although excessive muscle contraction is presumed to be responsible for the elevated levels of ammonia, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The present study aimed to identify the independent factors associated with ammonia elevation using large-scale multivariate analysis. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 379 adult patients who had been transported to our emergency department and treated for unprovoked convulsive seizures between August 2010 and September 2015...
October 6, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Charat Thongprayoon, Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Narat Srivali, Andrew M Harrison, Wonngarm Kittanamongkolchai, Kevin L Greason, Kianoush B Kashani
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of post-procedural acute kidney injury (AKI) and other renal outcomes in patients undergoing transapical (TA) and transfemoral (TF) approaches for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). METHODS: All consecutive adult patients undergoing TAVR for aortic stenosis from 1 January 2008 to 30 June 2014 at a tertiary referral hospital were included. AKI was defined based on Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria...
October 21, 2016: Renal Failure
Hitesh Soni, Adebowale Adebiyi
Apoptosis of renal tubular and glomerular cells during kidney disease involves activation of Fas ligand (FasL)-dependent death pathway. The significance of FasL in neonates with septic acute kidney injury (AKI) is unresolved, but an increase in renal FasL production, and/or infiltration of circulating FasL into the kidneys may occur following initial septic insult. Here, we examined whether soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) levels are altered during early phase of septic AKI in neonates. Six hours of polymicrobial sepsis elicited by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) (a bacteremia and sepsis marker) concentration in anesthetized and mechanically ventilated neonatal pigs...
October 21, 2016: Renal Failure
Vina Tresa, Afshan Yaseen, Ali Asghar Lanewala, Seema Hashmi, Sabeeta Khatri, Irshad Ali, Muhammed Mubarak
BACKGROUND: The reported prevalence rates and etiologies of acute kidney injury (AKI) are quite variable in different regions of the world. The current study was planned to determine the etiology, clinical profile, and short-term outcome of pediatric AKI at our hospital. METHODS: A prospective, observational study was carried out from April 2014 to March 2015. All pediatric patients (1 month to ≤15 years) diagnosed as AKI using modified pRIFLE criteria were studied and followed for 3 months to document short-term outcome...
October 21, 2016: Renal Failure
Aki S Havulinna, Marko Sysi-Aho, Mika Hilvo, Dimple Kauhanen, Reini Hurme, Kim Ekroos, Veikko Salomaa, Reijo Laaksonen
OBJECTIVE: Ceramides are molecular lipids implicated in apoptosis, inflammation, obesity, and insulin resistance. An earlier study reported that ceramides were associated with fatal outcome among patients with coronary heart disease. Here, we examined whether ceramides are associated with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) among apparently healthy individuals. APPROACH AND RESULTS: FINRISK 2002 is a population-based risk factor survey, which recruited men and women aged 25 to 74 years...
October 20, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Chia-Sheng Chao, Chien-Sung Tsai, Yee-Phoung Chang, Jian-Ming Chen, Hsien-Kuo Chin, Shyh-Chyun Yang
Hyperin, a flavonoid compound found in Ericaceae, Guttiferae, and Celastraceae, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of hyperin on cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in mice. The renal tissue damage induced by cisplatin was detected by H&E staining. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were also detected. Further, the effects of hyperin on cisplatin-induced TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were detected by ELISA...
October 17, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
J C Menon, J K Joseph, M P Jose, B L Dhananjaya, O V Oommen
INTRODUCTION: Snakebite is an occupational hazard causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly so in tropical countries like India. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to (i) review the demographic, clinical and laboratory findings in patients (1051) admitted with venomous snakebite (ii) to correlate mortality, morbidity and duration of hospital stay with clinical signs, symptoms and laboratory parameters. METHODS: A retrospective study of 1051 patients treated for snakebite over 10 years (2000 - 2009) in Little Flower Hospital, Angamaly, Kerala...
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Stefano Romagnoli, Zaccaria Ricci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Satoshi Izumi, Guang Hong, Koh Iwasaki, Masayuki Izumi, Yusuke Matsuyama, Mirei Chiba, Takashi Toda, Tada-Aki Kudo
The taste detection system for oral fatty acid may be related to obesity. In addition, sleep is intrinsically and closely related to food intake and metabolism. However, the association of gustatory salivation with body mass index (BMI), daytime sleepiness, or sleep habits is largely unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between gustatory salivation and BMI, Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS, a daytime sleepiness scale) or sleep habits among 26 healthy young individuals (20 males and 6 females; mean age: 26...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Olga Ruiz-Andres, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño, Juan Antonio Moreno, Marta Ruiz-Ortega, Adrian Mario Ramos, Ana Belén Sanz, Alberto Ortiz
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated to an increased risk of death, CKD progression and acute kidney injury (AKI) even from early stages, when glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is preserved. The link between early CKD and these risks is unclear, since there is no accumulation of uremic toxins. However, pathological albuminuria and kidney inflammation are frequent features of early CKD and the production of kidney protective factors may be decreased. Indeed, Klotho expression is already decreased in CKD category G1 (normal GFR)...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Xingui Dai, Tao Li, Zhenhua Zeng, Chunlai Fu, Shengbiao Wang, Yeping Cai, Zhongqing Chen
BACKGROUND: It is known that continuous venonenous hemofiltration (CVVH) does not affect the plasma level of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (pNGAL) in acute kidney injury (AKI) patients. However, because of the unique pathophysiology underlying AKI caused by sepsis, the effect of CVVH on pNGAL in this clinical setting is less certain. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CVVH on pNGAL in sepsis-induced AKI patients. METHODS: Between August 1, 2014, and December 31, 2014, 42 patients with sepsis-induced AKI underwent CVVH in the general intensive care unit of our institution and were consecutively enrolled in this study...
October 19, 2016: BMC Nephrology
Esther Peters, Bülent Ergin, Asli Kandil, Ebru Gurel-Gurevin, Andrea van Elsas, Rosalinde Masereeuw, Peter Pickkers, Can Ince
Two small clinical trials indicated that administration of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (AP) improves renal function in critically ill patients with sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI), for which the mechanism of action is not completely understood. Here, we investigated the effects of a newly developed human recombinant AP (recAP) on renal oxygenation and hemodynamics and prevention of kidney damage and inflammation in two in vivo AKI models. To induce AKI, male Wistar rats (n=18) were subjected to renal ischemia (30min) and reperfusion (I/R), or sham-operated...
October 16, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Takuya Takeichi, Kazumitsu Sugiura, Toshifumi Nomura, Taiko Sakamoto, Yasushi Ogawa, Naoki Oiso, Yuko Futei, Aki Fujisaki, Akiko Koizumi, Yumi Aoyama, Kimiko Nakajima, Yutaka Hatano, Kei Hayashi, Akemi Ishida-Yamamoto, Sakuhei Fujiwara, Shigetoshi Sano, Keiji Iwatsuki, Akira Kawada, Yasushi Suga, Hiroshi Shimizu, John A McGrath, Masashi Akiyama
Importance: We found CARD14 mutations (2 de novo novel mutations and another previously reported mutation) in 3 of 3 patients with pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) type V, but not in patients with PRP of other types. Our findings, combined with the published literature, suggest that type V PRP, both familial and sporadic, can be caused by CARD14 mutations. Detailed clinical observation revealed that all 3 patients displayed unique patchy macular brown hyperpigmentation. Objective: To further determine how often patients with PRP have pathogenic mutations in CARD14 and to elucidate which clinical subtype of PRP is caused by CARD14 mutations...
October 19, 2016: JAMA Dermatology
Chris Amdisen, Anna K Keller, Rie Schultz Hansen, Rikke Nørregaard, Søren Palmelund Krag, Ulla Møldrup, Michael Pedersen, Bente Jespersen, Henrik Birn
INTRODUCTION: Ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R-I) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) and is associated with increased mortality. Danegaptide is a selective modifier of the gap junction protein connexion 43. It has cytoprotective as well as anti-arrhythmic properties and has been shown to reduce the size of myocardial infarct in pigs. The aim of this study was to investigate the ischemia-protective effect of Danegaptide in a porcine renal I/R-I model with two weeks follow up...
2016: PloS One
Osama Mosa, Milan Skitek, Ales Jerin
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is still a headache for clinicians and scientists as a possible reason for increased death among intensive care unit (ICU) patients after invasive cardiac surgery. Furthermore, the diagnostic process for AKI using conventional biomarkers is not sufficient to ensure early warning of this condition because of the morbid influence of non-renal factors that definitively delay the time for the prognosis. These imposed limitations have led to significant amounts of research targeted towards identifying novel biomarkers for AKI with a sustained degree of sensitivity and specificity...
October 13, 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
Paolo Angeli, Dimitri Bezinover, Gianni Biancofiore, Anja Bienholz, James Findlay, Catherine Paugam Burtz, Koen Reyntjens, Tetsuro Sakai, Fuat H Saner, Dana Tomescu, Gebhard Wagener, Emmanuel Weiss
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with high perioperative mortality. A series of AKI research breakthroughs are worth mentioning. First, in 2003, serum and urine biomarkers specific to AKI were identified. These biomarkers have contributed to early detection, prevention, and treatment of AKI. In 2004, AKI severity was defined with the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage kidney disease (RIFLE) criteria, which was developed by the International Consensus Conference Workgroup of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative...
October 19, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
Nobuo Kimizuka, Nobuhiro Yanai, Masa-Aki Morikawa
Self-assembly of functional molecules into ordered molecular assemblies and fulfillment of potentials unique to their nano-to-mesoscopic structures have been one of the central challenges in chemistry. This Feature Article provides an overview of recent progress in the field of molecular self-assembly with the focus on the triplet-triplet annihilation-based photon upconversion (TTA-UC) and supramolecular storage of photon energy. Based on the integration of molecular self-assembly and photon energy harvesting, triplet energy migration-based TTA-UC has been achieved in varied molecular systems...
October 19, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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