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Renin angiotensin aldosterone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240788/enhanced-heart-failure-mortality-and-renin-activation-in-female-mice-with-experimental-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#1
Ranjana Tripathi, Ryan Sullivan, Tai-Hwang M Fan, Dong Wang, Yao Sun, Guy L Reed, Inna P Gladysheva
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the major cause of heart failure affecting both women and men. Limited clinical studies show conflicting data in sex-related differences in the progression of dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure (HF) outcomes. We examined the comparative sex-related progression of cardiomyopathy and the development of HF (at 4, 7, 13 weeks of age) in a well-established, transgenic mouse model of DCM that recapitulates the progressive stages of human HF. By 13 weeks of age, female mice with DCM had more severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction, left ventricular dilation and wall thinning (P<0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240784/effects-of-calcium-channel-blockers-comparing-to-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-and-angiotensin-receptor-blockers-in-patients-with-hypertension-and-chronic-kidney-disease-stage-3-to-5-and-dialysis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Yen-Chung Lin, Jheng-Wei Lin, Mai-Szu Wu, Kuan-Chou Chen, Chiung-Chi Peng, Yi-No Kang
BACKGROUND: Calcium channel blocker (CCB) or two renin angiotensin aldosterone system blockades (RAAS), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), are major potent and prevalently used as initial antihypertensive agents for mild to moderate hypertension, but no uniform agreement as to which antihypertensive drugs should be given for initial therapy, especially among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing CCBs and the two RAAS blockades for hypertensive patients with CKD stage 3 to 5D...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238217/effects-of-voluntary-exercise-on-blood-pressure-angiotensin-ii-aldosterone-and-renal-function-in-two-kidney-one-clip-hypertensive-rats
#3
Brian M Waldman, Robert A Augustyniak, Haiping Chen, Noreen F Rossi
Spontaneous dynamic exercise promotes sympathoinhibition and decreases arterial pressure in two-kidney, one-clip (2K-1C) hypertensive rats. Renal sympathetic nerves stimulate renin secretion and increase renal tubular sodium reabsorption. We hypothesized that daily voluntary wheel running exercise by 2K-1C rats will decrease mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma angiotensin II (Ang II), and aldosterone as well as normalize urinary sodium and potassium excretion independent of changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR)...
2017: Integrated Blood Pressure Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237382/renin-activity-and-aldosterone-assay-among-nigerians-with-hypertension-and-normotension-an-insight-into-normative-values-and-clinical-correlates
#4
Adeseye Abiodun Akintunde, Afolabi Salawu, Boluwatife Adeniyi
OBJECTIVES: Plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone tend to differ between Blacks and Caucasians and studies are very scarce among Africans. We therefore aimed to determine the normative value of plasma renin activity and serum aldosterone among school teachers in Nigeria with normal blood pressure compared with their hypertensive counterparts and relevant clinical/demographic associations. METHODS: Plasma renin activity and serum aldosterone were measured using the kits provided by Diagnostic Biochem, Canada among randomly selected school teachers recruited as part of a study to assess their total cardiovascular risks...
December 13, 2017: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227582/role-of-the-sodium-hydrogen-exchanger-in-mediating-the-renal-effects-of-drugs-commonly-used-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#5
REVIEW
Milton Packer
Diabetes is characterized by an increased activity of the sodium-hydrogen exchanger (NHE) in the glomerulus and renal tubules, which contributes importantly to the development of nephropathy. Despite the established role played by the exchanger in experimental studies, it has not been specifically targeted by those seeking to develop novel pharmacological treatments for diabetes. This review demonstrates that many existing drugs that are commonly prescribed to patients with diabetes act on the NHE1 and NHE3 isoforms in the kidney...
December 11, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225804/angiotensinogen-as-a-biomarker-of-acute-kidney-injury
#6
REVIEW
Sheeba Habeeb Ba Aqeel, Alejandro Sanchez, Daniel Batlle
Early recognition of acute kidney injury (AKI) is critical to prevent its associated complications as well as its progression to long term adverse outcomes like chronic kidney disease. A growing body of evidence from both laboratory and clinical studies suggests that inflammation is a key factor contributing to the progression of AKI regardless of the initiating event. Biomarkers of inflammation are therefore of interest in the evaluation of AKI pathogenesis and prognosis. There is evidence that the renin angiotensin aldosterone system is activated in AKI, which leads to an increase in angiotensin II (Ang II) formation within the kidney...
December 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220406/excessively-low-salt-diet-damages-the-heart-through-activation-of-cardiac-pro-renin-receptor-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-and-sympatho-adrenal-systems-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#7
Chihiro Okamoto, Yuka Hayakawa, Takuma Aoyama, Hisaaki Komaki, Shingo Minatoguchi, Masamitsu Iwasa, Yoshihisa Yamada, Hiromitsu Kanamori, Masanori Kawasaki, Kazuhiko Nishigaki, Atsushi Mikami, Shinya Minatoguchi
OBJECTIVE: A high salt intake causes hypertension and leads to cardiovascular disease. Therefore, a low salt diet is now recommended to prevent hypertension and cardiovascular disease. However, it is still unknown whether an excessively low salt diet is beneficial or harmful for the heart. METHODS: Wistar Kyoto rats (WKYs) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) received normal salt chow (0.9% salt diet) and excessively low salt chow (0.01% salt diet referred to as saltless diet) for 8 weeks from 8 to 16 weeks of age...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207547/predicted-release-and-analysis-of-novel-ace-i-renin-and-dpp-iv-inhibitory-peptides-from-common-oat-avena-sativa-protein-hydrolysates-using-in-silico-analysis
#8
Stephen Bleakley, Maria Hayes, Nora O' Shea, Eimear Gallagher, Tomas Lafarga
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in regulating hypertension by controlling vasoconstriction and intravascular fluid volume. RAAS itself is largely regulated by the actions of renin (EC 3.4.23.15) and the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I; EC 3.4.15.1). The enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV; EC 3.4.14.5) also plays a role in the development of type-2 diabetes. The inhibition of the renin, ACE-I, and DPP-IV enzymes has therefore become a key therapeutic target for the treatment of hypertension and diabetes...
December 4, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207385/real-or-perceived-hyperkalemia-is-a-major-deterrent-for-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-inhibition-in-heart-failure
#9
Peter A McCullough, Janani Rangaswami
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204251/roles-and-mechanisms-of-herbal-medicine-for-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-current-status-and-perspective
#10
REVIEW
Jinfan Tian, Yingke Zhao, Yanfei Liu, Yue Liu, Keji Chen, Shuzheng Lyu
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is one of the major complications among patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is featured by left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, and damaged left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions. The pathophysiological mechanisms include metabolic-altered substrate metabolism, dysfunction of microvascular, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation, oxidative stress, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired Ca2+ handling...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202826/autonomic-nervous-system-involvement-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#11
REVIEW
Mylène Vaillancourt, Pamela Chia, Shervin Sarji, Jason Nguyen, Nir Hoftman, Gregoire Ruffenach, Mansoureh Eghbali, Aman Mahajan, Soban Umar
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic pulmonary vascular disease characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) leading to right ventricular (RV) failure. Autonomic nervous system involvement in the pathogenesis of PAH has been demonstrated several years ago, however the extent of this involvement is not fully understood. PAH is associated with increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation, decreased heart rate variability, and presence of cardiac arrhythmias. There is also evidence for increased renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation in PAH patients associated with clinical worsening...
December 4, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201909/quantitative-serum-proteomic-analysis-of-essential-hypertension-using-itraq-technique
#12
Jing-Wen Xu, Yun-Lun Li, Shi-Jun Zhang, Wen-Qing Yang, Wen-Ting Nie, Hai-Qiang Jiang
Essential hypertension (EH) is a risk factor for some severe diseases. This study aimed to screen out serum special proteins and seek interaction between them, which would provide new therapeutic targets and elucidate the comprehensive pathophysiological mechanism for EH. Patients with EH (Group A, n = 47) and healthy controls (HC) (Group B, n = 47) were recruited in this study. Serums from the two groups were analyzed with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation coupled two-dimensional liquid chromatography followed by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry technique, while the candidate special proteins were verified with ELISA and western blot...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190150/intravenous-saline-administration-in-patients-with-severe-acquired-brain-injury-and-orthostatic-intolerance-for-tilt-table-mobilization
#13
Christian Riberholt, Niels Olesen, Peter Hovind, Jesper Mehlsen, Tue Hvass Petersen
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of intravenous saline administration on orthostatic hypotension (OH) during head up tilt (HUT) and the change in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system before and after HUT in patients with severe acquired brain injury (ABI). RESEARCH DESIGN: The study is designed as an observational study. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Fourteen patients with ABI, low level of consciousness and OH were monitored before, during and after HUT with non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement, and transcranial Doppler determination of middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity...
November 30, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188356/-antihypertensive-therapy-in-the-elderly
#14
REVIEW
J Schrader, B Schrader
Arterial hypertension is the most common modifiable risk factor for cerebrovascular and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in old age. The prevention of cognitive brain disorders is also a therapeutic goal of long-term treatment of hypertension. Older patients also have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and therefore benefit from a relatively moderate reduction in blood pressure. With respect to the high prevalence of hypertension in old age and the increasing incidence with time, the therapy of hypertension is becoming increasingly more important to achieve an improved prognosis for patients along with a reduction of costs...
November 29, 2017: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187381/crrl269-a-novel-designer-and-renal-enhancing-pgc-a-peptide-activator
#15
Yang Chen, Gail J Harty, Brenda K Huntley, Seethalakshmi R Iyer, Denise M Heublein, Gerald E Harders, Laura M G Meems, Shuchong Pan, S Jeson Sangaralingham, Tomoko Ichiki, John C Burnett
AIMS: The natriuretic peptides (NPs) b-type NP (BNP) and urodilatin (URO) exert renal protective properties via the particulate guanylyl cyclase A receptor (pGC-A). As a potential renal enhancing strategy, we engineered a novel designer peptide that we call CRRL269. CRRL269 was investigated in human cell lines and in normal canines to define potential cardiorenal enhancing actions. The mechanism of its cardiorenal selective properties was also investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: In vitro NP receptor activity was quantified with 3', 5' cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) generation...
November 29, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187194/treatment-effects-of-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-blockade-on-kidney-failure-and-mortality-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients
#16
Phisitt Vejakama, Atiporn Ingsathit, Gareth J McKay, Alexander P Maxwell, Mark McEvoy, John Attia, Ammarin Thakkinstian
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a leading cause of death before and after onset of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Knowing treatments that can delay disease progression will lead to reduced mortality. We therefore aimed to estimate the effectiveness of renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade on CKD progression. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective CKD cohort at Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand from 1997 to 2011. ESRD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <15 ml/min/1...
November 29, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186291/sex-differences-in-the-behavioral-desensitization-of-water-intake-observed-after-repeated-central-injections-of-angiotensin-ii
#17
Jessica Santollo, K Linnea Volcko, Derek Daniels
Previous in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate that the angiotensin type 1 receptor rapidly desensitizes after exposure to angiotensin II (AngII). Behaviorally, this likely underlies the reduced drinking observed after acute repeated central injections of AngII. To date, this phenomenon has been studied exclusively in male subjects. Because there are sex differences in the dipsogenic potency of AngII, we hypothesized that sex differences also exist in desensitization caused by AngII. As expected, when male rats were pretreated with AngII, they drank less water after a test injection of AngII than did rats pretreated with vehicle...
November 24, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184046/decoding-resistant-hypertension-signalling-pathways
#18
REVIEW
Ricardo Cambraia Parreira, Leandro Heleno Guimarães Lacerda, Rebecca Vasconcellos, Swiany Silveira Lima, Anderson Kenedy Santos, Vanessa Fontana, Valéria Cristina Sandrim, Rodrigo Ribeiro Resende
Resistant hypertension (RH) is a clinical condition in which the hypertensive patient has become resistant to drug therapy and is often associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several signalling pathways have been studied and related to the development and progression of RH: modulation of sympathetic activity by leptin and aldosterone, primary aldosteronism, arterial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction and variations in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). miRNAs comprise a family of small non-coding RNAs that participate in the regulation of gene expression at post-transcriptional level...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182374/lack-of-association-of-mirsnp-rs11174811-in-avpr1a-gene-with-arterial-blood-pressure-and-hypertension-in-south-indian-population
#19
Linda Koshy, S V Vijayalekshmi, S Harikrishnan, Kutty V Raman, V T Jissa, A Jayakumaran Nair, A Gangaprasad, G M Nair, P R Sudhakaran
Epigenetic regulation of arterial blood pressure mediated through mirSNPs in renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) genes is a less explored hypothesis. Recently, the mirSNP rs11174811 in the 3'UTR of the AVPR1A gene was associated with higher arterial blood pressure in a large study population from the Study of Myocardial Infarctions Leiden (SMILE). The aim of the present study was to replicate the association of mirSNP rs11174811 with blood pressure outcomes and hypertension in a south Indian population...
November 28, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181390/gender-differences-in-the-progression-of-experimental-chronic-kidney-disease-induced-by-chronic-nitric-oxide-inhibition
#20
Camilla Fanelli, Humberto Dellê, Rita Cassia Cavaglieri, Wagner Vasques Dominguez, Irene L Noronha
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is considered a public health problem, assuming epidemic proportions worldwide. In this context, the preponderance of CKD prevalence in male over age-matched female patients is of note. In the present study, we investigated the impact of the gender on the development of experimental CKD induced by chronic nitric oxide (NO) inhibition in Wistar male and female rats through the administration of L-NAME. CKD model induced by L-NAME is characterized by systemic vasoconstriction, resulting in severe hypertension, albuminuria, renal ischemia, glomerulosclerosis, interstitial expansion, and macrophage infiltration...
2017: BioMed Research International
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