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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465871/-treatment-of-hyperkalemia-2-0-version
#1
Caroline Blanc, Pierre-Yves Martin
Hyperkaliaemia is a serious electrolyte disorder that is favored by many comorbidities, such as chronic renal failure or some treatments such as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers. The new oral treatments by chelation of intestinal potassium have demonstrated : 1) their effectiveness in the management of serum potassium by maintaining the treatments at optimal dosages ; 2) their safety of use by the absence of serious side effect and 3) the ease of use with a daily intake.
February 21, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462546/role-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-in-hepatic-fibrosis-and-portal-hypertension
#2
Kwang Yong Shim, Young Woo Eom, Moon Young Kim, Seong Hee Kang, Soon Koo Baik
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important regulator of cirrhosis and portal hypertension. As hepatic fibrosis progresses, levels of the RAS components angiotensin (Ang) II, Ang-(1-7), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) are increased. The primary effector Ang II regulates vasoconstriction, sodium homoeostasis, fibrosis, cell proliferation, and inflammation in various diseases, including liver cirrhosis, through the ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis in the classical RAS. The ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor and ACE2/Ang-(1-9)/AT2R axes make up the alternative RAS and promote vasodilation, antigrowth, proapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects; thus, countering the effects of the classical RAS axis to reduce hepatic fibrogenesis and portal hypertension...
February 21, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459239/diabetes-hypertension-and-cardiovascular-disease-clinical-insights-and-vascular-mechanisms
#3
REVIEW
John R Petrie, Tomasz J Guzik, Rhian M Touyz
Hypertension and type 2 diabetes are common comorbidities. Hypertension is twice as frequent in patients with diabetes compared with those who do not have diabetes. Moreover, patients with hypertension often exhibit insulin resistance and are at greater risk of diabetes developing than are normotensive individuals. The major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes is cardiovascular disease, which is exacerbated by hypertension. Accordingly, diabetes and hypertension are closely interlinked because of similar risk factors, such as endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation, arterial remodelling, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, and obesity...
December 11, 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455241/cox-2-derived-pge-2-triggers-hyperplastic-renin-expression-and-hyperreninemia-in-aldosterone-synthase-deficient-mice
#4
Christian Karger, Katharina Machura, André Schneider, Christian Hugo, Vladimir T Todorov, Armin Kurtz
Pharmacological inhibition or genetic loss of function defects of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) causes compensatory renin cell hyperplasia and hyperreninemia. The triggers for the compensatory stimulation of renin synthesis and secretion in this situation may be multimodal. Since cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in the macula densa is frequently increased in states of a defective RAAS, we have investigated a potential role of COX-2 and its derived prostaglandins for renin expression and secretion in aldosterone synthase-deficient mice (AS-/- ) as a model for a genetic defect of the RAAS...
February 17, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449503/early-renin-angiotensin-system-blockade-improved-short-term-and-longterm-renal-outcomes-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients-with-antiphospholipid-associated-nephropathy
#5
Cai Yue, Guanhong Li, Yubing Wen, Xuemei Li, Ruitong Gao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the renal protective effects of early renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASI) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with antiphospholipid-associated nephropathy (aPLN). METHODS: Medical data of 57 SLE patients with biopsy-proven aPLN were analyzed. Early RAAS blockade was defined as administration of RASI within 3 months after kidney biopsy and continued for ≥ 12 months...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449364/diabetic-cardiomyopathy-an-update-of-mechanisms-contributing-to-this-clinical-entity
#6
REVIEW
Guanghong Jia, Michael A Hill, James R Sowers
Heart failure and related morbidity and mortality are increasing at an alarming rate, in large part, because of increases in aging, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. The clinical outcomes associated with heart failure are considerably worse for patients with diabetes mellitus than for those without diabetes mellitus. In people with diabetes mellitus, the presence of myocardial dysfunction in the absence of overt clinical coronary artery disease, valvular disease, and other conventional cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension and dyslipidemia, has led to the descriptive terminology, diabetic cardiomyopathy...
February 16, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445908/gender-differences-in-epidemiology-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-hypertension
#7
REVIEW
Paolo Di Giosia, Paolo Giorgini, Cosimo Andrea Stamerra, Marco Petrarca, Claudio Ferri, Amirhossein Sahebkar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to examine gender differences in both the epidemiology and pathophysiology of hypertension and to explore gender peculiarities on the effects of antihypertensive agents in decreasing BP and CV events. RECENT FINDINGS: Men and women differ in prevalence, awareness, and control rate of hypertension in an age-dependent manner. Studies suggest that sex hormones changes play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of hypertension in postmenopausal women...
February 14, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442523/patterns-of-heart-failure-symptoms-are-associated-with-self-care-behaviors-over-6-months
#8
Jonathan P Auld, James O Mudd, Jill M Gelow, Karen S Lyons, Shirin O Hiatt, Christopher S Lee
BACKGROUND: Both heart failure symptoms and self-care are associated with patient outcomes. Although it is thought that symptoms drive self-care, there is limited evidence to support this assumption over time. AIMS: To determine whether patterns of physical symptoms are significantly associated with heart failure self-care over time. METHOD: Latent mixture analysis was used to identify subgroups based on physical symptoms of dyspnea, sleepiness and edema (using the heart failure somatic perception and Epworth sleepiness scales)...
February 1, 2018: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436482/the-angiotensin-type-2-receptor-in-%C3%A2-human-adrenocortical-zona-glomerulosa-and-in-aldosterone-producing-adenoma-low-expression-and-no-functional-role
#9
Paul Emmanuel Vanderriele, Brasilina Caroccia, Teresa Maria Seccia, Maria Piazza, Livia Lenzini, Francesca Torresan, Maurizio Iacobone, Thomas Unger, Gian Paolo Rossi
The angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the angiotensin-(1-7) receptor (MasR) play a cardiovascular protective role by counter-regulating angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R)-mediated effects, but whether this involves blunting of adrenocortical hormone secretion is unknown. We investigated the presence of AT1R, AT2R and MasR in aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA), a condition featuring hyperaldosteronism, and in APA-adjacent tissue. The effect of C21, an AT2R agonist, on CYP11B1 (cortisol synthase) and CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase) gene expression in NCI-H295R and HAC15 cell lines, and in APA and APA-adjacent tissue was also assessed using the AT1R antagonist irbesartan to ascertain the specificity of C21 effect...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436384/increasing-mortality-in-adults-with-diabetes-and-low-estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-in-the-absence-of-albuminuria
#10
Holly Kramer, Robert E Boucher, David Leehey, Linda Fried, Guo Wei, Tom Greene, Sylvia E Rosas, Richard Cooper, Guichan Cao, Srinivasan Beddhu
OBJECTIVE: Improved blood pressure control and use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers has altered the clinical presentation or phenotype of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in U.S. adults with diabetes. These changes may influence mortality. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1988-2006 were used to examine mortality trends in adults with diabetes, defined as physician diagnosis, fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, hemoglobin A 1c >6...
February 7, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433578/resistant-hypertension-on-treatment-reshypot-sequential-nephron-blockade-compared-to-dual-blockade-of-the-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-plus-bisoprolol-in-the-treatment-of-resistant-arterial-hypertension-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Elizabeth do Espirito Santo Cestário, Letícia Aparecida Barufi Fernandes, Luiz Tadeu Giollo-Júnior, Jéssica Rodrigues Roma Uyemura, Camila Suemi Sato Matarucco, Manoel Idelfonso Paz Landim, Luciana Neves Cosenso-Martin, Lúcia Helena Bonalume Tácito, Heitor Moreno, José Fernando Vilela-Martin, Juan Carlos Yugar-Toledo
BACKGROUND: Resistant hypertension is characterized when the blood pressure (BP) remains above the recommended goal after taking three antihypertensive drugs with synergistic actions at their maximum recommended tolerated doses, preferably including a diuretic. Identifying the contribution of intravascular volume and serum renin in maintaining BP levels could help tailor more effective hypertension treatment, whether acting on the control of intravascular volume or sodium balance, or acting on the effects of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) on the kidney...
February 12, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429439/clinical-characteristics-and-causes-of-heart-failure-adherence-to-treatment-guidelines-and-mortality-of-patients-with-acute-heart-failure-experience-at-groote-schuur-hospital-cape-town-south-africa
#12
P Z Szymanski, M Badri, B M Mayosi
BACKGROUND: There is limited information on acute heart failure (AHF) and its treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics and causes of heart failure (HF), adherence to HF treatment guidelines, and mortality of patients with AHF presenting to Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH), Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: This sub-study of The Sub-Saharan Africa Survey of Heart Failure (THESUS-HF) was a prospective and observational survey that focused on the enrolment and follow-up of additional patients with AHF presenting to GSH and entered into the existing registry after publication of the primary THESUS-HF article in 2012...
February 1, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425341/fibroblast-growth-factor-23-is-induced-by-an-activated-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-in-cardiac-myocytes-and-promotes-the-pro-fibrotic-crosstalk-between-cardiac-myocytes-and-fibroblasts
#13
Maren Leifheit-Nestler, Felix Kirchhoff, Julia Nespor, Beatrice Richter, Birga Soetje, Michael Klintschar, Joerg Heineke, Dieter Haffner
Background: Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is discussed as a new biomarker of cardiac hypertrophy and mortality in patients with and without chronic kidney disease (CKD). We previously demonstrated that FGF23 is expressed by cardiac myocytes, enhanced in CKD and induces cardiac hypertrophy via activation of FGF receptor 4 independent of its co-receptor klotho. The impact of FGF23 on cardiac fibrosis is largely unknown. Methods: By conducting a retrospective case-control study including myocardial autopsy samples from 24 patients with end-stage CKD and in vitro studies in cardiac fibroblasts and myocytes, we investigated the pro-fibrotic properties of FGF23...
February 7, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412700/lineage-tracing-aged-mouse-kidneys-shows-lower-number-of-cells-of-renin-lineage-and-reduced-responsiveness-to-raas-inhibition
#14
Hiroko Hamatani, Diana G Eng, Natalya V Kaverina, Kenneth W Gross, Benjamin Freedman, Jeffrey W Pippin, Stuart J Shankland
Blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) remains a mainstay of therapy in hypertension and glomerular diseases. With the population aging, our understanding of renin producing cells in kidneys with advanced age is more critical than ever. Accordingly, we administered tamoxifen to Ren1cCreERxRs-tdTomato-R mice to permanently fate map cells of renin lineage (CoRL). The number of Td-tomato labeled CoRL decreased significantly in aged mice (24m of age) compared to young mice (3.5m of age), as did renin mRNA levels...
February 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412115/genetic-variations-and-subclinical-markers-of-carotid-atherosclerosis-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Sara Mankoc Ramus, Danijel Petrovic
Atherosclerosis and its cardiovascular complications are the main cause of death in diabetic patients. Patients with diabetes mellitus have a greater than 10-fold risk of cardiovascular disease in their lifetime. The carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), a surrogate marker for the presence and progression of atherosclerosis, predicts future cardiovascular events in asymptomatic subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This review focuses on genetic variants that contribute to the pathobiology of subclinical atherosclerosis in the setting of T2DM...
February 5, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411335/evolving-role-of-natriuretic-peptides-from-diagnostic-tool-to-therapeutic-modality
#16
Ines Pagel-Langenickel
Natriuretic peptides (NP) are widely recognized as key regulators of blood pressure, water and salt homeostasis. In addition, they play a critical role in physiological cardiac growth and mediate a variety of biological effects including antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects in other organs and tissues. The cardiac release of NPs ANP and BNP represents an important compensatory mechanism during acute and chronic cardiac overload and during the pathogenesis of heart failure where their actions counteract the sustained activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and other neurohormonal systems...
February 7, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410348/caloric-restriction-improves-glucose-homeostasis-yet-increases-cardiometabolic-risk-in-caveolin-1-deficient-mice
#17
Korapat Mayurasakorn, Nurul Hasanah, Tsuyoshi Homma, Mika Homma, Isis Katayama Rangel, Amanda E Garza, Jose R Romero, Gail K Adler, Gordon H Williams, Luminita H Pojoga
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The plasma membrane protein caveolin-1 (CAV-1) has been shown to be involved in modulating glucose homeostasis and the actions of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Caloric restriction (CR) is widely accepted as an effective therapeutic approach to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce the severity of diabetes. Recent data indicate that polymorphisms of the CAV-1 gene are strongly associated with insulin resistance, hypertension and metabolic abnormalities in non-obese individuals...
February 1, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410030/lmrbpp9-a-synthetic-bradykinin-potentiating-peptide-from-lachesis-muta-rhombeata-venom-that-inhibits-the-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-activity-in-vitro-and-reduces-the-blood-pressure-of-hypertensive-rats
#18
Ernesto Lopes Pinheiro-Júnior, Johara Boldrini-França, Luciana Mattoso Pires de Campos Araújo, Norival Alves Santos-Filho, Lusiane Maria Bendhack, Eduardo Maffud Cilli, Eliane Candiani Arantes
Bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs) are an important group of toxins present in Lachesis muta rhombeata venom. They act directly at renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, through the inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). This action may contribute to the hypotensive shock observed during the envenoming by this species. Thus, the main goal of this study was the solid-phase synthesis of a BPP found in L. m. rhombeata venom and its in vitro and in vivo characterization in relation to ACE inhibition and hypotensive activity, respectively...
February 2, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408981/excessive-adiposity-and-metabolic-dysfunction-relate-to-reduced-natriuretic-peptide-during-raas-activation-in-hiv
#19
Caitlin A Murphy, Kathleen V Fitch, Meghan Feldpausch, Patrick Maehler, Kimberly Wong, Martin Torriani, Gail K Adler, Steven K Grinspoon, Suman Srinivasa
Purpose: Natriuretic peptides (NPs) negatively feedback on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and play a critical role in preserving cardiac structure and maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Well-treated HIV-infected individuals are at risk for fat redistribution and demonstrate evidence of RAAS dysregulation, which relates to metabolic dysfunction. We investigated circulating NPs in relation to RAAS physiology and metrics of body composition for the first time in HIV. Methods: We assessed atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and amino terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) during acute activation of the RAAS using a low sodium controlled diet among 20 HIV-infected and 10 non-HIV-infected individuals well-phenotyped for body composition...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401665/the-impact-of-vitamin-d-in-the-treatment-of-essential-hypertension
#20
REVIEW
Christian Legarth, Daniela Grimm, Markus Wehland, Johann Bauer, Marcus Krüger
The aim of this review is to investigate, whether there is a possible link between vitamin D supplementation and the reduction of blood pressure in hypertensive patients. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is known for being deeply involved in cardiovascular tonus and blood pressure regulation. Hence, many of the pharmaceutical antihypertensive drugs inhibit this system. Interestingly, experimental studies in mice have indicated that vitamin D supplementation significantly lowers renin synthesis and blood pressure...
February 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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