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Renin angiotensin aldosterone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681584/fate-of-acute-heart-failure-patients-with-mid-range-ejection-fraction
#1
Hye Bin Gwag, Ga Yeon Lee, Jin-Oh Choi, Hae-Young Lee, Jae-Joong Kim, Kyung-Kuk Hwang, Shung Chull Chae, Sang Hong Baek, Seok-Min Kang, Dong-Ju Choi, Byung-Su Yoo, Kye Hun Kim, Hyun-Young Park, Myeong-Chan Cho, Byung-Hee Oh, Eun-Seok Jeon
BACKGROUND: The outcomes of heart failure (HF) with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) have been rarely studied, and follow-up data on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) are scarse.Methods and Results:Patients were selected from a prospective multicenter registry of patients hospitalized for acute HF and then classified in the improved group if they exhibited %LVEF change ≥5 with follow-up LVEF ≥50%. Follow-up LVEF reported at least 90 days after discharge was used for classification...
April 20, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678284/aberrant-g-protein-coupled-hormone-receptor-in-adrenal-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Matthieu St-Jean, Nada El Ghorayeb, Isabelle Bourdeau, André Lacroix
The regulation of cortisol or aldosterone production when ACTH of pituitary origin or the renin-angiotensin systems are suppressed in primary adrenal Cushing's syndrome or in primary aldosteronism is exerted by diverse genetic and molecular mechanisms. In addition to recently identified mutations in various genes implicated in the cyclic AMP or ion channel pathways, steroidogenesis is not really autonomous as it is frequently regulated by the aberrant adrenocortical expression of diverse hormone receptors, particularly G-protein coupled hormone receptors (GPCR) which can substitute for the normal function of ACTH or angiotensin-II...
April 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677050/changes-in-albuminuria-and-renal-outcome-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-hypertension-a-real-life-observational-study
#3
Francesca Viazzi, Antonio Ceriello, Paola Fioretto, Carlo Giorda, Pietro Guida, Giuseppina Russo, Eulalia Greco, Salvatore De Cosmo, Roberto Pontremoli
OBJECTIVES: To assess the predictive role of changes in albuminuria on the loss of renal function under antihypertensive treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: Clinical records from a total of 12 611 patients with hypertension and T2D, attending 100 antidiabetic centers in Italy, with normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline and regular visits during a 4-year period were retrieved and analyzed. We assessed the association between changes in albuminuria status during a 1-year baseline period and time updated blood pressure (BP) and eGFR loss over the subsequent 4-year follow-up...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676623/nicotine-downregulates-the-compensatory-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-angiotensin-type-2-receptor-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system
#4
Xinping Yue, Tyler M Basting, Thomas W Flanagan, Jiaxi Xu, Thomas D Lobell, Nicholas W Gilpin, Jason D Gardner, Eric Lazartigues
RATIONALE: Smoking is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. The importance of the renin-angiotensin system in the development of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease is well established. Angiotensin-II, by means of its type 1 receptor (angiotensin type 1 receptor, AT1 R), promotes increased sympathetic activity, salt and water reabsorption, vasoconstriction, inflammation, and aldosterone and vasopressin release, contributing to tissue fibrosis, endothelium dysfunction, and hypertension...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667438/the-tolerability-and-safety-profile-of-patiromer-a-novel-polymer-based-potassium-binder-for-the-treatment-of-hyperkalemia
#5
Bertram Pitt, Dahlia Garza
Hyperkalemia (HK) occurs often among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and heart failure (HF) and those treated with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASI). Even small deviations from normal potassium levels carry increased risk of mortality. Patiromer is approved for treatment of HK and has been shown in clinical trials to reduce serum potassium among patients with HK and comorbid conditions. Areas covered: We review pooled data from two clinical trials of patiromer in patients with CKD and HK, safety of patiromer in special populations, drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies, and other studies in healthy volunteers...
April 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665833/intervention-using-vitamin-d-for-elevated-urinary-albumin-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-ideal-2-study-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Shahrad Taheri, Muhammad Asim, Hassan Al Malki, Omar Fituri, Manikkam Suthanthiran, Phyllis August
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide. T2DM is associated with serious macro- and microvascular complications. In particular, diabetic kidney disease (DKD), which begins with excessive urinary albumin excretion, has a significant impact on affected individuals and is costly to healthcare services. Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) significantly reduces albuminuria in diabetes, but this effect is not observed in all those treated...
April 17, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661841/angiotensin-ii-short-loop-feedback-is-there-a-role-of-ang-ii-for-the-regulation-of-the-renin-system-in-vivo
#7
Bjoern Neubauer, Julia Schrankl, Dominik Steppan, Katharina Neubauer, Maria Luisa Sequeira-Lopez, Li Pan, R Ariel Gomez, Thomas M Coffman, Kenneth W Gross, Armin Kurtz, Charlotte Wagner
The activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is triggered by the release of the protease renin from the kidneys, which in turn is controlled in the sense of negative feedback loops. It is widely assumed that Ang II (angiotensin II) directly inhibits renin expression and secretion via a short-loop feedback by an effect on renin-producing cells (RPCs) mediated by AT1 (Ang II type 1) receptors. Because the concept of such a direct short-loop negative feedback control, which originates mostly from in vitro experiments, has not yet been systematically proven in vivo, we aimed to test the validity of this concept by studying the regulation of renin synthesis and secretion in mice lacking Ang II-AT1 receptors on RPCs...
April 16, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660263/characteristics-and-long-term-prognosis-of-patients-with-heart-failure-and-mid-range-ejection-fraction-compared-with-reduced-and-preserved-ejection-fraction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Josephine Lauritsen, Finn Gustafsson, Jawdat Abdulla
AIMS: This study aimed to assess by a meta-analysis the clinical characteristics, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and hospitalization of patients with heart failure (HF) with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) compared with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from 12 eligible observational studies including 109 257 patients were pooled. HFmrEF patients were significantly different and occupied a mid-position between HFrEF and HFpEF: mean age 73...
April 16, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660007/uric-acid-is-not-associated-with-diabetic-nephropathy-and-other-complications-in-type-1-diabetes
#9
Sascha Pilemann-Lyberg, Tine Willum Hansen, Frederik Persson, Simone Theilade, Tarunveer Singh Ahluwalia, Jan Frystyk, Peter Rossing
Background: To examine the association between plasma uric acid (UA) and the presence of diabetic complications including diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 1 diabetes. Methods: This study, which is cross-sectional in design, included 676 Caucasian type 1 diabetes patients from the Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen. Participants with UA within the three lowest sex-specific quartiles were compared with participants with levels in the highest quartile...
April 11, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652095/decrease-in-neprilysin-and-vasoconstrictors-and-increase-in-vasodilators-following-bariatric-surgery
#10
Husam Ghanim, Scott Monte, Joseph Caruana, Kelly Green, Sanaa Abuaysheh, Paresh Dandona
Since morbid obesity is associated with congestive cardiac failure and hypertension, and gastric bypass surgery is followed by a reduction in blood pressure and in the risk of congestive cardiac failure, we hypothesized that weight loss following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery in morbidly obese patients is associated with a decrease in plasma concentrations of neprilysin, mediators of renin angiotensin system (RAS), catecholamines and endothelin-1 with an increase in the concentrations of vasodilators...
April 13, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645278/an-evaluation-of-the-pharmacodynamics-safety-and-tolerability-of-the-potassium-binder-rdx7675
#11
Bertram Pitt, Vanessa Zann, Chris Roe, Jeffrey W Jacobs, James P Davidson, Christine Dowd, Padmapriya Kumaraswamy, Fangling Lin, Paul Korner, Robert C Blanks, David P Rosenbaum
Hyperkalemia is common in patients with heart failure or chronic kidney disease, particularly those taking renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, and can cause arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. The most widely used treatment, sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS), limits gastrointestinal potassium absorption, but has poor palatability. RDX7675 (RDX227675) is the calcium salt of a reengineered polystyrene sulfonate-based resin with improved palatability over SPS. The pharmacodynamic effects and safety of RDX7675 were assessed in a phase 1, single-center, randomized, active-controlled study...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627490/genetically-determined-enlargement-of-carotid-body-evaluated-using-computed-angiotomography
#12
Przemysław Jaźwiec, Paweł Gać, Monika Chaszczewska-Markowska, Katarzyna Bogunia-Kubik, Grzegorz Mazur, Rafał Poręba
It has recently been established that carotid bodies play a significant role in the regulation of activities of the cardiovascular system as well as in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension, heart failure and diabetes. Aim of study was to determinate the influence of polymorphisms within genes of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) on the volume of the carotid bodies (CB) in patients with hypertension (HTA). The study group consisted of 77 patients with HTA. All patients were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphisms of genes coding for: angiotensinogen: rs4762, rs5049, rs5051 and rs699; angiotensin-converting enzyme: rs4343; angiotensin receptor type 1 gene (AGTR1): rs5182 and rs5186; and the aldosterone synthase: rs1799998...
April 5, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619635/the-role-of-arterial-hypertension-in-development-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-just-a-risk-factor-or-something-more
#13
REVIEW
Marijana Tadic, Cesare Cuspidi, Athanasios Frydas, Guido Grassi
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is an entity that still raises many questions. The agreement about definition, pathophysiology, and therapeutic approach is still missing. Arterial hypertension is present in majority of patients with HFpEF, and it is still not clear if it represent a risk factor or "sine qua non" condition for HFpEF development. The underlying mechanisms of hypertension and HFpEF involve the same biohumoral systems: renin-angiotensin-aldosterone, sympathetic nervous system, and oxidative stress...
April 4, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618841/greater-reductions-in-plasma-aldosterone-with-aliskiren-in-hypertensive-patients-with-higher-soluble-pro-renin-receptor-level
#14
Kanako Bokuda, Satoshi Morimoto, Yasufumi Seki, Midori Yatabe, Daisuke Watanabe, Junichi Yatabe, Takashi Ando, Satoru Shimizu, Hiroshi Itoh, Atsuhiro Ichihara
The (pro)renin receptor is important in the regulation of the tissue renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The benefits and safety of single-aliskiren treatment without other renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors remain unclear. The serum level of the soluble form of the (pro)renin receptor is thought to be a biomarker reflecting the activity of the tissue renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. We investigated the effects of single renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade with aliskiren on renal and vascular functions and determined if serum level of the soluble (pro)renin receptor was a predictor of aliskiren efficacy in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease...
April 4, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610128/renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-inhibitors-for-right-ventricular-dysfunction-in-tetralogy-of-fallot-quo-vadis
#15
EDITORIAL
Sushma Reddy, Daniel Bernstein, Jane W Newburger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609870/-prevalence-and-relations-of-orthostatic-hypotension-in-patients-80-years-old-and-over-from-a-primary-care-unit
#16
Francisco Javier Formigo Couceiro, Marta Pena Seijo, Antonio Pose Reino, José Manuel Mayán Santos, Francisco Javier Ayape Amigot, Jesús Sueiro Justel
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of orthostatic hypotension (OH) in patients 80 years old and over attending a primary care unit. To relate OH to the most prevalent pathologies and to the most used drugs. DESIGN: Transversal observational study. LOCATION: Primary care unit, Santiago de Compostela. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty one patients 80 years old or over representative of a primary care unit were recruited. Ten patients were excluded...
March 30, 2018: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606261/prognosis-and-treatment-of-diabetic-nephropathy-recent-advances-and-perspectives
#17
Peter Rossing, Frederik Persson, Marie Frimodt-Møller
Approximately 20 to 40% of patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes develop diabetic kidney disease. It is a clinical syndrome characterized by persistent albuminuria (>300mg/24h, or 300mg/g creatinine), a relentless decline in glomerular filtration rate, raised arterial blood pressure and enhanced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The natural course of classical diabetic nephropathy is initially microalbuminuria or moderately increased urine albumin excretion (30-300mg/g creatinine). Untreated microalbuminuria may then rise gradually, reaching severely increased albuminuric (macroalbuminuria) over 5 to 15 years...
April 2018: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602760/preventing-the-development-and-progression-of-diabetic-kidney-disease-where-do-we-stand
#18
REVIEW
Georgios Zagkotsis, Maria Markou, Eleni Paschou, Panagiota Papanikolaou, Nikos Sabanis
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a major factor associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality and morbidity in patients with diabetes. Current standard therapy includes intensive management of hyperglycemia and blood pressure control with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers. Despite the implementation of this strategy, DKD remains the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), mainly because of the increasing burden of diabetes mellitus. The aim of this review is to evaluate the available evidence, focusing on the benefit of current treatment in the development and progression of DKD...
March 22, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601411/antihypertensive-drug-use-in-resistant-and-nonresistant-hypertension-and-in-controlled-and-uncontrolled-resistant-hypertension
#19
Alejandro de la Sierra, Pedro Armario, Anna Oliveras, José R Banegas, Manuel Gorostidi, Ernest Vinyoles, Juan J de la Cruz, Julián Segura, Luis M Ruilope
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH) is associated with particular clinical features, nonadherence, and suboptimal treatment. We assessed possible associations of antihypertensive drug classes, specific agents inside each class, and types of combinations, with the presence of non-TRH vs. TRH, and with controlled vs. uncontrolled TRH. METHODS: Comparisons were done in 14 264 patients treated with three drugs (non-TRH: 2988; TRH: 11 276) and in 6974 treated with at least four drugs (controlled TRH: 1383; uncontrolled TRH: 5591)...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600408/independent-regulation-of-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-in-the-kidney
#20
REVIEW
Akira Nishiyama, Hiroyuki Kobori
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays important roles in regulating renal hemodynamics and functions, as well as in the pathophysiology of hypertension and renal disease. In the kidney, angiotensin II (Ang II) production is controlled by independent multiple mechanisms. Ang II is compartmentalized in the renal interstitial fluid with much higher concentrations than those existing in the circulation. Inappropriate activation of the intrarenal RAAS is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of hypertension and renal injury...
March 29, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
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