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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227002/3d-limb-movement-tracking-and-analysis-for-neurological-dysfunctions-of-neonates-using-multi-camera-videos
#1
Irene Yu-Hua Gu, Grzegorz Sowulewski, Yixiao Yun, Anders Flisberg, Magnus Thordstein, Irene Yu-Hua Gu, Grzegorz Sowulewski, Yixiao Yun, Anders Flisberg, Magnus Thordstein, Irene Yu-Hua Gu, Grzegorz Sowulewski, Anders Flisberg, Yixiao Yun, Magnus Thordstein
Central nervous system dysfunction in infants may be manifested through inconsistent, rigid and abnormal limb movements. Detection of limb movement anomalies associated with such neurological dysfunctions in infants is the first step towards early treatment for improving infant development. This paper addresses the issue of detecting and quantifying limb movement anomalies in infants through non-invasive 3D image analysis methods using videos from multiple camera views. We propose a novel scheme for tracking 3D time trajectories of markers on infant's limbs by video analysis techniques...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216331/development-of-a-four-dimensional-monte-carlo-dose-calculation-system-for-real-time-tumor-tracking-irradiation-with-a-gimbaled-x-ray-head
#2
Yoshitomo Ishihara, Mitsuhiro Nakamura, Yuki Miyabe, Nobutaka Mukumoto, Yukinori Matsuo, Akira Sawada, Masaki Kokubo, Takashi Mizowaki, Masahiro Hiraoka
PURPOSE: To develop a four-dimensional (4D) dose calculation system for real-time tumor tracking (RTTT) irradiation by the Vero4DRT. METHODS: First, a 6-MV photon beam delivered by the Vero4DRT was simulated using EGSnrc. A moving phantom position was directly measured by a laser displacement gauge. The pan and tilt angles, monitor units, and the indexing time indicating the phantom position were also extracted from a log file. Next, phase space data at any angle were created from both the log file and particle data under the dynamic multileaf collimator...
February 16, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210618/an-optimized-procedure-for-the-site-directed-labeling-of-ngf-and-prongf-for-imaging-purposes
#3
Pierluigi Di Matteo, Mariantonietta Calvello, Stefano Luin, Laura Marchetti, Antonino Cattaneo
Neurotrophins are growth factors of fundamental importance for the development, survival and maintenance of different neuronal and non-neuronal populations. Over the years, the use of labeled neurotrophins has helped in the study of their biological functions, leading to a better understanding of the processes that regulate their transport, traffic, and signaling. However, the diverse and heterogeneous neurotrophin labeling strategies adopted so far have often led to poorly reproducible protocols and sometimes conflicting conclusions...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196962/spatial-and-temporal-analysis-of-alphavirus-replication-and-assembly-in-mammalian-and-mosquito-cells
#4
Joyce Jose, Aaron B Taylor, Richard J Kuhn
Sindbis virus (SINV [genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae]) is an enveloped, mosquito-borne virus. Alphaviruses cause cytolytic infections in mammalian cells while establishing noncytopathic, persistent infections in mosquito cells. Mosquito vector adaptation of alphaviruses is a major factor in the transmission of epidemic strains of alphaviruses. Though extensive studies have been performed on infected mammalian cells, the morphological and structural elements of alphavirus replication and assembly remain poorly understood in mosquito cells...
February 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193017/single-particle-tracking-of-peptides-modified-nanocargo-on-lipid-membrane-revealing-bulk-mediated-diffusion
#5
Lin Wei, Zhongju Ye, Yueling Xu, Bo Chen, Edward S Yeung, Lehui Xiao
Understanding the detailed diffusion behavior of the nanocargo on lipid membrane can afford deep insight into the surface chemistry controlled translocation mechanism for the rational design of an efficient delivery system. By tracking the diffusion trajectory of transacting activator of transcription (TAT, a cell penetrating peptide) peptides-modified nanocargo on lipid membrane, bulk-mediated (intermittent hopping) diffusion was observed for the first time after a blended modification of TAT peptides and polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules onto the nanoparticle surface...
December 20, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192297/controlling-and-tracking-of-colloidal-nanostructures-through-two-photon-fluorescence
#6
Dipankar Mondal, Debabrata Goswami
Multiphoton absorbing dye-coated trapped spherical bead at the focal plane of femtosecond optical tweezers shows nonlinear optical (NLO) phenomena. One such NLO process of two-photon fluorescence (TPF) has been used for the background-free imaging of a femtosecond laser-trapping event. Due to the high peak powers of femtosecond laser pulses with low average powers, it is possible to not only trap single nanospheres, but encourage optically directed self-assembly. The TPF signatures of trapped particles show evidence of such a directed self-assembly process which, in turn, can provide information about the structural dynamics during the process of cluster formation...
October 7, 2016: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161540/genome-organization-in-the-nucleus-from-dynamic-measurements-to-a-functional-model
#7
REVIEW
Anat Vivante, Eugene Brozgol, Irena Bronshtein, Yuval Garini
A biological system is by definition a dynamic environment encompassing kinetic processes that occur at different length scales and time ranges. To explore this type of system, spatial information needs to be acquired at different time scales. This means overcoming significant hurdles, including the need for stable and precise labeling of the required probes and the use of state of the art optical methods. However, to interpret the acquired data, biophysical models that can account for these biological mechanisms need to be developed...
February 1, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151680/single-semiconductor-nanocrystals-under-compressive-stress-reversible-tuning-of-the-emission-energy
#8
Tobias Fischer, Sven Stöttinger, Gerald Hinze, Anne Bottin, Nan Hu, Thomas Basché
The photoluminescence of individual CdSe/CdS/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals has been investigated under external forces. After mutual alignment of a correlative atomic force and confocal microscope, individual particles were colocalized and exposed to a series of force cycles by using the tip of the AFM cantilever as a nanoscale piston. Thus, force-dependent changes of photophysical properties could be tracked on a single particle level. Remarkably, individual nanocrystals either shifted to higher or to lower emission energies with no indications of multiple emission lines under applied force...
February 6, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151646/three-dimensional-localization-of-single-molecules-for-super-resolution-imaging-and-single-particle-tracking
#9
Alex von Diezmann, Yoav Shechtman, W E Moerner
Single-molecule super-resolution fluorescence microscopy and single-particle tracking are two imaging modalities that illuminate the properties of cells and materials on spatial scales down to tens of nanometers or with dynamical information about nanoscale particle motion in the millisecond range, respectively. These methods generally use wide-field microscopes and two-dimensional camera detectors to localize molecules to much higher precision than the diffraction limit. Given the limited total photons available from each single-molecule label, both modalities require careful mathematical analysis and image processing...
February 2, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139723/single-%C3%AE-particle-irradiation-permits-real-time-visualization-of-rnf8-accumulation-at-dna-damaged-sites
#10
Giovanna Muggiolu, Michal Pomorski, Gérard Claverie, Guillaume Berthet, Christine Mer-Calfati, Samuel Saada, Guillaume Devès, Marina Simon, Hervé Seznec, Philippe Barberet
As well as being a significant source of environmental radiation exposure, α-particles are increasingly considered for use in targeted radiation therapy. A better understanding of α-particle induced damage at the DNA scale can be achieved by following their tracks in real-time in targeted living cells. Focused α-particle microbeams can facilitate this but, due to their low energy (up to a few MeV) and limited range, α-particles detection, delivery, and follow-up observations of radiation-induced damage remain difficult...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131772/in%C3%A2-vitro-actin-motility-velocity-varies-linearly-with-the-number-of-myosin-impellers
#11
Y Wang, T P Burghardt
Cardiac myosin is the motor powering the heart. It moves actin with 3 step-size varieties generated by torque from the myosin heavy chain lever-arm rotation under the influence of myosin essential light chain whose N-terminal extension binds actin. Proposed mechanisms adapting myosin mechanochemical characteristics on the fly sometimes involve modulation of step-size selection probability via motor strain sensitivity. Strain following the power stroke, hypothetically imposed by the finite actin detachment rate 1/ton, is shown to have no effect on unloaded velocity when multiple myosins are simultaneously strongly actin bound in an in vitro motility assay...
January 25, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128492/beyond-attachment-roles-of-dc-sign-in-dengue-virus-infection
#12
Ping Liu, Marc Ridilla, Pratik Patel, Laurie Betts, Emily Gallichotte, Lidea Shahidi, Nancy L Thompson, Ken Jacobson
DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin expressed on the plasma membrane by human immature dendritic cells, is a receptor for numerous viruses including Ebola, SARS, and dengue. A controversial question has been whether DC-SIGN functions as a complete receptor for both binding and internalization of dengue virus (DENV) or whether it is solely a cell surface attachment factor, requiring either hand-off to another receptor or a co-receptor for internalization. To examine this question, we used four cell types: human immature dendritic cells and NIH3T3 cells expressing either wild type DC-SIGN or two internalization-deficient DC-SIGN mutants, in which either the three cytoplasmic internalization motifs are silenced by alanine substitutions or the cytoplasmic region is truncated...
January 27, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126388/impact-of-coal-carrying-trains-on-particulate-matter-concentrations-in-south-delta-british-columbia-canada
#13
K Akaoka, I McKendry, J Saxton, P W Cottle
Transport of coal by train through residential neighborhoods in Metro Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada may increase the possibility of exposure to particulate matter at different size ranges, with concomitant potential negative health impacts. This pilot study identifies and quantifies train impacts on particulate matter (PM) concentrations at a single location. Field work was conducted during August and September 2014, with the attributes of a subset of passing trains confirmed visually, and the majority of passages identified with audio data...
January 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124711/direct-visualization-of-particle-attachment-to-a-pendant-drop
#14
C Li, J A Simmons, M Moradiafrapoli, J O Marston
An experimental investigation is carried out into the attachment of a single particle to a liquid drop. High-speed videography is used to directly visualize the so-called 'snap-in' effect which occurs rapidly over sub-millisecond timescales. Using high-magnification, the evolution of the contact line around the particle is tracked and dynamic features such as the contact angle, wetted radius and force are extracted from these images to help build a fundamental understanding of the process. By examining the wetted length in terms of an arc angle, ϕ, it is shown that the early wetting stage is an inertial-dominated process and best described by a power law relation, i...
January 26, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113438/improving-biochemical-named-entity-recognition-performance-using-pso-classifier-selection-and-bayesian-combination-method
#15
Abbas Akkasi, Ekrem Varoglu
Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a basic step for large number of consequent text mining tasks in the biochemical domain. Increasing the performance of such recognition systems is of high importance and always poses a challenge. In this study, a new community based decision making system is proposed which aims at increasing the efficiency of NER systems in the chemical/drug name context. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is chosen as the expert selection strategy along with the Bayesian combination method to merge the outputs of the selected classifiers as well as evaluate the fitness of the selected candidates...
May 18, 2016: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107406/classification-and-segmentation-of-nanoparticle-diffusion-trajectories-in-cellular-micro-environments
#16
Thorsten Wagner, Alexandra Kroll, Chandrashekara R Haramagatti, Hans-Gerd Lipinski, Martin Wiemann
Darkfield and confocal laser scanning microscopy both allow for a simultaneous observation of live cells and single nanoparticles. Accordingly, a characterization of nanoparticle uptake and intracellular mobility appears possible within living cells. Single particle tracking allows to measure the size of a diffusing particle close to a cell. However, within the more complex system of a cell's cytoplasm normal, confined or anomalous diffusion together with directed motion may occur. In this work we present a method to automatically classify and segment single trajectories into their respective motion types...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106191/the-frequency-dependent-response-of-single-aerosol-particles-to-vapour-phase-oscillations-and-its-application-in-measuring-diffusion-coefficients
#17
Thomas C Preston, James F Davies, Kevin R Wilson
A new method for measuring diffusion in the condensed phase of single aerosol particles is proposed and demonstrated. The technique is based on the frequency-dependent response of a binary particle to oscillations in the vapour phase of one of its chemical components. We discuss how this physical situation allows for what would typically be a non-linear boundary value problem to be approximately reduced to a linear boundary value problem. For the case of aqueous aerosol particles, we investigate the accuracy of the closed-form analytical solution to this linear problem through a comparison with the numerical solution of the full problem...
February 1, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094297/high-throughput-quantitation-of-inorganic-nanoparticle-biodistribution-at-the-single-cell-level-using-mass-cytometry
#18
Yu-Sang Sabrina Yang, Prabhani U Atukorale, Kelly D Moynihan, Ahmet Bekdemir, Kavya Rakhra, Li Tang, Francesco Stellacci, Darrell J Irvine
Inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) are studied as drug carriers, radiosensitizers and imaging agents, and characterizing nanoparticle biodistribution is essential for evaluating their efficacy and safety. Tracking NPs at the single-cell level with current technologies is complicated by the lack of reliable methods to stably label particles over extended durations in vivo. Here we demonstrate that mass cytometry by time-of-flight provides a label-free approach for inorganic nanoparticle quantitation in cells. Furthermore, mass cytometry can enumerate AuNPs with a lower detection limit of ∼10 AuNPs (3 nm core size) in a single cell with tandem multiparameter cellular phenotyping...
January 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088300/cytoplasmic-rna-protein-particles-exhibit-non-gaussian-subdiffusive-behavior
#19
Thomas J Lampo, Stella Stylianidou, Mikael P Backlund, Paul A Wiggins, Andrew J Spakowitz
The cellular cytoplasm is a complex, heterogeneous environment (both spatially and temporally) that exhibits viscoelastic behavior. To further develop our quantitative insight into cellular transport, we analyze data sets of mRNA molecules fluorescently labeled with MS2-GFP tracked in real time in live Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. As shown previously, these RNA-protein particles exhibit subdiffusive behavior that is viscoelastic in its origin. Examining the ensemble of particle displacements reveals a Laplace distribution at all observed timescales rather than the Gaussian distribution predicted by the central limit theorem...
February 7, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081290/membrane-microdomains-and-the-cytoskeleton-constrain-athir1-dynamics-and-facilitate-the-formation-of-an-athir1-associated-immune-complex
#20
Xueqin Lv, Yanping Jing, Jianwei Xiao, Yongdeng Zhang, Yingfang Zhu, Russell Julian, Jinxing Lin
Arabidopsis hypersensitive induced reaction (AtHIR) proteins function in plant innate immunity. However, the underlying mechanisms by which AtHIRs participate in plant immunity remain elusive. Here, using VA-TIRFM and FLIM-FRET, we revealed that AtHIR1 is present in membrane microdomains and co-localizes with the membrane microdomain marker REM1.3. Single-particle tracking analysis revealed that membrane microdomains and the cytoskeleton, especially microtubules, restrict the lateral mobility of AtHIR1 at the plasma membrane and facilitate its oligomerization...
January 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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