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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650631/effect-of-the-biphenyl-neolignan-honokiol-on-a%C3%AE-42-induced-toxicity-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-a%C3%AE-42-fibrillation-cholinesterase-activity-dpph-radicals-and-iron-ii-chelation
#1
Srinivas Kantham, Stephen Chan, Gawain McColl, Jared Miles, Suresh Kumar Veliyath, Girdhar Singh Deora, Satish N Dighe, Samira Khabbazi, Marie-Odile Parat, Benjamin P Ross
The biphenyl neolignan honokiol is a neuroprotectant which has been proposed as a treatment for central nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The death of cholinergic neurons in AD is attributed to multiple factors, including: accumulation and fibrillation of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) within the brain; metal ion toxicity; and oxidative stress. In this study, we used a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans model expressing full length Aβ42 as a convenient in vivo system for examining the effect of honokiol against Aβ-induced toxicity...
June 26, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649202/neuronal-chemosensation-and-osmotic-stress-response-converge-in-the-regulation-of-aqp-8-in-c-elegans
#2
Carla Igual Gil, Mirko Jarius, Jens P von Kries, Anne-Katrin Rohlfing
Aquaporins occupy an essential role in sustaining the salt/water balance in various cells types and tissues. Here, we present new insights into aqp-8 expression and regulation in Caenorhabditis elegans. We show, that upon exposure to osmotic stress, aqp-8 exhibits a distinct expression pattern within the excretory cell compared to other C. elegans aquaporins expressed. This expression is correlated to the osmolarity of the surrounding medium and can be activated physiologically by osmotic stress or genetically in mutants with constitutively active osmotic stress response...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648844/novel-functions-for-the-rna-binding-protein-etr-1-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-reproduction-and-engulfment-of-germline-apoptotic-cell-corpses
#3
Ruby Boateng, Ken C Q Nguyen, David H Hall, Andy Golden, Anna K Allen
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are essential regulators of gene expression that act through a variety of mechanisms to ensure the proper post-transcriptional regulation of their target RNAs. RBPs in multiple species have been identified as playing crucial roles during development and as having important functions in various adult organ systems, including the heart, nervous, muscle, and reproductive systems. ETR-1, a highly conserved ELAV-Type RNA-binding protein belonging to the CELF/Bruno protein family, has been previously reported to be involved in C...
June 22, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648843/identification-of-regulators-of-germ-stem-cell-enwrapment-by-its-niche-in-c-elegans
#4
Lara M Linden, Kacy L Gordon, Ariel M Pani, Sara G Payne, Aastha Garde, Dane Burkholder, Qiuyi Chi, Bob Goldstein, David R Sherwood
Many stem cell niches contain support cells that increase contact with stem cells by enwrapping them in cellular processes. One example is the germ stem cell niche in C. elegans, which is composed of a single niche cell termed the distal tip cell (DTC) that extends cellular processes, constructing an elaborate plexus that enwraps germ stem cells. To identify genes required for plexus formation and to explore the function of this specialized enwrapping behavior, a series of targeted and tissue-specific RNAi screens were performed...
June 22, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648677/cell-type-specific-transcriptome-profiling-in-c-elegans-using-the-translating-ribosome-affinity-purification-technique
#5
Xicotencatl Gracida, John A Calarco
Organs and specific cell types execute specialized functions in multicellular organisms, in large part through customized gene expression signatures. Thus, profiling the transcriptomes of specific cell and tissue types remains an important tool for understanding how cells become specialized. Methodological approaches to detect gene expression differences have utilized samples from whole animals, dissected tissues, and more recently single cells. Despite these advances, there is still a challenge and a need in most laboratories to implement less invasive yet powerful cell-type specific transcriptome profiling methods...
June 22, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646875/genome-analysis-of-diploscapter-coronatus-insights-into-molecular-peculiarities-of-a-nematode-with-parthenogenetic-reproduction
#6
Hideaki Hiraki, Hiroshi Kagoshima, Christopher Kraus, Philipp H Schiffer, Yumiko Ueta, Michael Kroiher, Einhard Schierenberg, Yuji Kohara
BACKGROUND: Sexual reproduction involving the fusion of egg and sperm is prevailing among eukaryotes. In contrast, the nematode Diploscapter coronatus, a close relative of the model Caenorhabditis elegans, reproduces parthenogenetically. Neither males nor sperm have been observed and some steps of meiosis are apparently skipped in this species. To uncover the genomic changes associated with the evolution of parthenogenesis in this nematode, we carried out a genome analysis. RESULTS: We obtained a 170 Mbp draft genome in only 511 scaffolds with a N50 length of 1 Mbp...
June 24, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646043/an-efficient-flp-based-toolkit-for-spatiotemporal-control-of-gene-expression-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Celia María Muñoz-Jiménez, Cristina Ayuso, Agnieszka Dobrzynska, Antonio Torres, Patricia de la Cruz Ruiz, Peter Askjaer
Site-specific recombinases are potent tools to regulate gene expression. In particular, the Cre and FLP enzymes are widely used to either activate or inactivate genes in a precise spatiotemporal manner. Both recombinases work efficiently in the popular model organism Caenorhabditis elegans but their use in this nematode is still only sporadic. To increase the utility of the FLP system in C. elegans we have generated a series of single-copy transgenic strains that stably express an optimized version of FLP in specific tissues or by heat induction...
June 23, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645918/phosphorylation-of-argonaute-proteins-affects-mrna-binding-and-is-essential-for-microrna-guided-gene-silencing-in%C3%A2-vivo
#8
Miguel Quévillon Huberdeau, Daniela M Zeitler, Judith Hauptmann, Astrid Bruckmann, Lucile Fressigné, Johannes Danner, Sandra Piquet, Nicholas Strieder, Julia C Engelmann, Guillaume Jannot, Rainer Deutzmann, Martin J Simard, Gunter Meister
Argonaute proteins associate with microRNAs and are key components of gene silencing pathways. With such a pivotal role, these proteins represent ideal targets for regulatory post-translational modifications. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we find that a C-terminal serine/threonine cluster is phosphorylated at five different residues in human and Caenorhabditis elegans In human, hyper-phosphorylation does not affect microRNA binding, localization, or cleavage activity of Ago2. However, mRNA binding is strongly affected...
June 23, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645154/alg-5-is-a-mirna-associated-argonaute-required-for-proper-developmental-timing-in-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-germline
#9
Kristen C Brown, Joshua M Svendsen, Rachel M Tucci, Brooke E Montgomery, Taiowa A Montgomery
Caenorhabditis elegans contains 25 Argonautes, of which, ALG-1 and ALG-2 are known to primarily interact with miRNAs. ALG-5 belongs to the AGO subfamily of Argonautes that includes ALG-1 and ALG-2, but its role in small RNA pathways is unknown. We analyzed by high-throughput sequencing the small RNAs associated with ALG-5, ALG-1 and ALG-2, as well as changes in mRNA expression in alg-5, alg-1 and alg-2 mutants. We show that ALG-5 defines a distinct branch of the miRNA pathway affecting the expression of genes involved in immunity, defense, and development...
June 22, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644982/assessment-of-sublethal-endpoints-after-chronic-exposure-of-the-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans-to-palladium-platinum-and-rhodium
#10
Gerhard Schertzinger, Sonja Zimmermann, Daniel Grabner, Bernd Sures
The aim of this study was to investigate chronic effects of the platinum-group elements (PGE) palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt) and rhodium (Rh) on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Aquatic toxicity testing was carried out according to ISO 10872 by determining 96 h EC50 values for sublethal endpoints, including growth, fertility and reproduction. Single PGE standard solutions were used as metal source. Based on the EC50 values for Pt, reproduction (96 h EC50 = 497 μg/L) was the most sensitive endpoint followed by fertility (96 h EC50 = 726 μg/L) and growth (96 h EC50 = 808 μg/L)...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644434/ageing-and-hypoxia-cause-protein-aggregation-in-mitochondria
#11
Daniel M Kaufman, Xia Wu, Barbara A Scott, Omar A Itani, Marc R Van Gilst, James E Bruce, C Michael Crowder
Aggregation of cytosolic proteins is a pathological finding in disease states, including ageing and neurodegenerative diseases. We have previously reported that hypoxia induces protein misfolding in Caenorhabditis elegans mitochondria, and electron micrographs suggested protein aggregates. Here, we seek to determine whether mitochondrial proteins actually aggregate after hypoxia and other cellular stresses. To enrich for mitochondrial proteins that might aggregate, we performed a proteomics analysis on purified C...
June 23, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643264/genome-editing-of-c-elegans
#12
Takuma Sugi
Caenorhabditis elegans, a 1 mm long free-living nematode, is a traditional model animal for genetic investigations of various biological processes. Characteristic features that make C. elegans a powerful model of choice for eukaryotic genetic studies include its rapid life cycle, well-annotated genome, simple morphology, and transparency. Recently, genome editing technologies have been increasingly used in C. elegans, thereby facilitating their genetic analyses. Here, I introduce a protocol frequently used in C...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643248/computational-prediction-of-crispr-cas9-target-sites-reveals-potential-off-target-risks-in-human-and-mouse
#13
Qingbo Wang, Kumiko Ui-Tei
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) system is a prominent genome engineering technology. In the CRISPR/Cas system, the RNA-guided endonuclease Cas protein introduces a DNA double-stranded break at the genome position recognized by a guide RNA (gRNA) based on complementary base-pairing of about 20-nucleotides in length. The 8- or 12-mer gRNA sequence in the proximal region is especially important for target recognition, and the genes with sequence complementarity to such regions are often disrupted...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643160/residual-ground-water-levels-of-the-neonicotinoid-thiacloprid-perturb-chemosensing-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#14
Hannah Hopewell, Kieran G Floyd, Daniel Burnell, John T Hancock, Joel Allainguillaume, Michael R Ladomery, Ian D Wilson
This study investigated the neurological effects of residual ground-water levels of thiacloprid on the non-target organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Nematodes treated with thiacloprid showed a dose-dependent and significantly increased twitch response at concentrations above 50 ng mL(-1) that disabled their forward locomotion in liquid culture. In comparison with untreated controls, 10 ng mL(-1) thiacloprid perturbed the chemosensory ability of C. elegans such that the nematodes no longer demonstrated positive chemotaxis towards a NaCl chemo-attractant, reducing their chemotaxis index from +0...
June 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642382/a-global-brain-state-underlies-c-elegans-sleep-behavior
#15
Annika L A Nichols, Tomáš Eichler, Richard Latham, Manuel Zimmer
How the brain effectively switches between and maintains global states, such as sleep and wakefulness, is not yet understood. We used brainwide functional imaging at single-cell resolution to show that during the developmental stage of lethargus, the Caenorhabditis elegans brain is predisposed to global quiescence, characterized by systemic down-regulation of neuronal activity. Only a few specific neurons are exempt from this effect. In the absence of external arousing cues, this quiescent brain state arises by the convergence of neuronal activities toward a fixed-point attractor embedded in an otherwise dynamic neural state space...
June 23, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640690/a-new-layer-of-rrna-regulation-by-small-interference-rnas-and-the-nuclear-rnai-pathway
#16
Xufei Zhou, Xiangyang Chen, Yun Wang, Xuezhu Feng, Shouhong Guang
Ribosome biogenesis drives cell growth and proliferation, but mechanisms that modulate this process remain poorly understood. For a long time, small ribosomal RNA sequences have been widely treated as non-specific degradation products and neglected as garbage sequences. Recently, we identified a new class of antisense ribosomal siRNAs (risiRNAs) that downregulate pre-rRNA through the nuclear RNAi pathway in C. elegans. risiRNAs exhibit sequence characteristics similar to 22G RNA while complement to 18S and 26S rRNA...
June 22, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639938/a-pilot-study-of-large-scale-production-of-mutant-pigs-by-enu-mutagenesis
#17
Tang Hai, Chunwei Cao, Haitao Shang, Weiwei Guo, Yanshuang Mu, Shulin Yang, Ying Zhang, Qiantao Zheng, Tao Zhang, Xianlong Wang, Yu Liu, Qingran Kong, Kui Li, Dayu Wang, Meng Qi, Qianlong Hong, Rui Zhang, Xiupeng Wang, Qitao Jia, Xiao Wang, Guosong Qin, Yongshun Li, Ailing Luo, Weiwu Jin, Jing Yao, Jiaojiao Huang, Hongyong Zhang, Menghua Li, Xiangmo Xie, Xuejuan Zheng, Kenan Guo, Qinhua Wang, Shibin Zhang, Liang Li, Fei Xie, Yu Zhang, Xiaogang Weng, Zhi Yin, Kui Hu, Yimei Cong, Peng Zheng, Hailong Zou, Leilei Xin, Jihan Xia, Jinxue Ruan, Hegang Li, Weiming Zhao, Jing Yuan, Zizhan Liu, Weiwang Gu, Ming Li, Yong Wang, Hongmei Wang, Shiming Yang, Zhonghua Liu, Hong Wei, Jianguo Zhao, Qi Zhou, Anming Meng
N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis is a powerful tool to efficiently generate large scale of mutants and discover genes with novel functions at the whole-genome level in C. elegans, flies, zebrafish and mice, but has never been tried in large model animals. In the current study, we reported a successful systematic three-generation ENU mutagenesis screening in pigs with the establishment of Chinese Swine Mutagenesis Consortium. A total of 6,770 G1 and 6,800 G3 pigs were screened, 36 dominant and 91 recessive novel pig families with various phenotypes were established...
June 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638078/the-stress-response-factor-daf-16-foxo-is-required-for-multiple-compound-families-to-prolong-the-function-of-neurons-with-huntington-s-disease
#18
Francesca Farina, Emmanuel Lambert, Lucie Commeau, François-Xavier Lejeune, Nathalie Roudier, Cosima Fonte, J Alex Parker, Jacques Boddaert, Marc Verny, Etienne-Emile Baulieu, Christian Neri
Helping neurons to compensate for proteotoxic stress and maintain function over time (neuronal compensation) has therapeutic potential in aging and neurodegenerative disease. The stress response factor FOXO3 is neuroprotective in models of Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease and motor-neuron diseases. Neuroprotective compounds acting in a FOXO-dependent manner could thus constitute bona fide drugs for promoting neuronal compensation. However, whether FOXO-dependent neuroprotection is a common feature of several compound families remains unknown...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637841/protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-%C3%AE-mediates-the-sema3a-induced-cortical-basal-dendritic-arborization-through-the-activation-of-fyn-tyrosine-kinase
#19
Fumio Nakamura, Takako Okada, Maria Shishikura, Noriko Uetani, Masahiko Taniguchi, Takeshi Yagi, Yoichiro Iwakura, Toshio Ohshima, Yoshio Goshima, Stephen M Strittmatter
Leukocyte common antigen related (LAR) class protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are critical for axonal guidance; however, their relation to specific guidance cues is poorly defined. We here show that PTP-3, LAR homologue in C. elegans, is involved in axon guidance regulated by Sema2A-signaling. PTPδ, one of vertebrate LAR class PTPs, participates in Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse response of primary cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons from M. musculus embryos. In vivo, however, the contribution of PTPδ in Sema3A-regualted axon guidance was minimal...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637747/f-actin-prevents-interaction-between-sperm-dna-and-the-oocyte-meiotic-spindle-in-c-elegans
#20
Michelle T Panzica, Harold C Marin, Anne-Cecile Reymann, Francis J McNally
Fertilization occurs during female meiosis in most animals, which raises the question of what prevents the sperm DNA from interacting with the meiotic spindle. In this study, we find that Caenorhabditis elegans sperm DNA stays in a fixed position at the opposite end of the embryo from the meiotic spindle while yolk granules are transported throughout the embryo by kinesin-1. In the absence of F-actin, the sperm DNA, centrioles, and organelles were transported as a unit with the yolk granules, resulting in sperm DNA within 2 µm of the meiotic spindle...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
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