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C elegans

Sergio González-Itier, Esteban G Contreras, Juan Larraín, Álvaro Glavic, Fernando Faunes
Insect metamorphosis has been a classic model to understand the role of hormones in growth and timing of developmental transitions. In addition to hormones, transitions in some species are regulated by genetic programs, such as the heterochronic gene network discovered in C. elegans. However, the functional link between hormones and heterochronic genes is not clear. The heterochronic gene lin-28 is involved in the maintenance of stem cells, growth and developmental timing in vertebrates. In this work, we used gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments to study the role of Lin-28 in larval growth and the timing of metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster...
June 13, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Jiatao Huang, Sixi Chen, Li Hu, Huan Niu, Qianqian Sun, Wenna Li, Guoqian Tan, Jianghui Li, LongJin Jin, Jianxin Lyu, Huaibin Zhou
In mammals, mitoferrin-1and mitoferrin-2, two homologous proteins of the mitochondrial solute carrier family are required for iron delivery into mitochondria. However, there is only one kind, called W02B12 (mitoferrin-1 or mfn-1), in Caenorhabditis elegans and its regulatory mechanism is unknown. In this study, we used Caenorhabditis elegans strains CL2006 and GMC101 as models to investigate what role mitoferrin-1 played in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We found that knockdown of mitoferrin-1 by feeding-RNAi treatment extended lifespans of both strains of C...
June 13, 2018: Neuroscience
Robert I Holbrook, Beth Mortimer
Mechanical sensing is important for all organisms, but is the least understood of the senses. As mechanical stimuli come in diverse forms, organisms often have sensors or sensory systems that specialise in a form of mechanical stimuli, such as touch or vibration. Here we tested the hypothesis that the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits a behavioural response to vibration that is distinct from its responses to touch. We show that wild type strain worms respond to sustained low frequency vibration in a manner distinct from the known responses to non-localised mechanical stimuli...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Claire Maynard, Ian Cummins, Jacalyn Green, David Weinkove
BACKGROUND: To prevent folate deficiencies, many countries supplement various foodstuffs with folic acid. This compound is a synthetic oxidised folate that differs from naturally occurring reduced folates in its metabolism and uptake. Notably, safety reviews of folic acid supplementation have not considered interactions with gut bacteria. Here, we use the Caenorhabditis elegans - Escherichia coli animal- microbe model to examine a possible bacterial route for folic acid uptake. It has been assumed that supplements are taken up directly by the worm, especially because E...
June 15, 2018: BMC Biology
Prapaporn Jattujan, Pawanrat Chalorak, Tanapan Siangcham, Kant Sangpairoj, Saksit Nobsathian, Tanate Poomtong, Prasert Sobhon, Krai Meemon
Holothuria scabra is a sea cucumber that is mostly found in the Indo-Pacific region including Thailand. Extracts from many sea cucumbers possess pharmacological activities proposed to benefit human health. In this study, we investigated the anti-oxidant and anti-ageing activities of extracts from H. scabra by using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism. Parts of H. scabra were solvent-extracted and divided into nine fractions including whole body-hexane (WBHE), whole body-ethyl acetate (WBEA), whole body-butanol (WBBU), body wall-hexane (BWHE), body wall-ethyl acetate (BWEA), body wall-butanol (BWBU), viscera-hexane (VIHE), viscera-ethyl acetate (VIEA), and viscera-butanol (VIBU)...
June 11, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Hai-Yin Li, Xian-Wu Lin, Shao-Lei Geng, Wei-Hua Xu
The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily signaling pathway contains two general branches, known as TGF-β and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), that regulate development in animals. It is well known that TGF-β superfamily signaling participates in the regulation of dauer (lifespan extension) in Caenorhabditis elegans, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of lifespan extension in the pathway. Diapause, a programmed developmental arrest in insects, is similar to dauer in C. elegans...
June 11, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Snehal N Chaudhari, Edward T Kipreos
Fused, elongated mitochondria are more efficient in generating ATP than fragmented mitochondria. In diverse C. elegans longevity pathways, increased levels of fused mitochondria are associated with lifespan extension. Blocking mitochondrial fusion in these animals abolishes their extended longevity. The long-lived C. elegans vhl-1 mutant is an exception that does not have increased fused mitochondria, and is not dependent on fusion for longevity. Loss of mammalian VHL upregulates alternate energy generating pathways...
June 14, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Thomas F Schwaha, Stephan Handschuh, Andrew N Ostrovsky, Andreas Wanninger
BACKGROUND: Cyclostome bryozoans are an ancient group of marine colonial suspension-feeders comprising approximately 700 extant species. Previous morphological studies are mainly restricted to skeletal characters whereas data on soft tissues obtained by state-of-the-art methods are still lacking. In order to contribute to issues related to cyclostome ground pattern reconstruction, we analyzed the morphology of the neuromuscular system Cinctipora elegans by means of immunocytochemical staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, histological sections and microCT imaging...
June 14, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Wei-Sheng Wu, Wei-Che Huang, Jordan S Brown, Donglei Zhang, Xiaoyan Song, Hao Chen, Shikui Tu, Zhiping Weng, Heng-Chi Lee
pirScan is a web-based tool for identifying C. elegans piRNA-targeting sites within a given mRNA or spliced DNA sequence. The purpose of our tool is to allow C. elegans researchers to predict piRNA targeting sites and to avoid the persistent germline silencing of transgenes that has rendered many constructs unusable. pirScan fulfills this purpose by first enumerating the predicted piRNA-targeting sites present in an input sequence. This prediction can be exported in a tabular or graphical format. Subsequently, pirScan suggests silent mutations that can be introduced to the input sequence that would allow the modified transgene to avoid piRNA targeting...
April 20, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Yee-Chin Wong, Moataz Abd El Ghany, Raeece N M Ghazzali, Soon-Joo Yap, Chee-Choong Hoh, Arnab Pain, Sheila Nathan
A Burkholderia cenocepacia infection usually leads to reduced survival and fatal cepacia syndrome in cystic fibrosis patients. The identification of B. cenocepacia essential genes for in vivo survival is key to designing new anti-infectives therapies. We used the Transposon-Directed Insertion Sequencing (TraDIS) approach to identify genes required for B. cenocepacia survival in the model infection host, Caenorhabditis elegans . A B. cenocepacia J2315 transposon pool of ∼500,000 mutants was used to infect C...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Guruprasada Reddy Sure, Anusheela Chatterjee, Nikhil Mishra, Vidur Sabharwal, Swathi Devireddy, Anjali Awasthi, Swetha Mohan, Sandhya P Koushika
We investigate the role of axonal transport in regulating neuronal mitochondrial density. We show that the density of mitochondria in the touch receptor neuron (TRN) of adult Caenorhabditis elegans is constant. Mitochondrial density and transport are controlled both by the Kinesin heavy chain and the Dynein-Dynactin complex. However, unlike in other models, the presence of mitochondria in C. elegans TRNs depends on a Kinesin light chain as well. Mutants in the three C. elegans miro genes do not alter mitochondrial density in the TRNs...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bikash Choudhary, Eckhard Mandelkow, Eva-Maria Mandelkow, Ghulam Jeelani Pir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Farhan Kamili, Hang Lu
Microfluidics has proven to be a key tool in quantitative biological research. The C. elegans research community in particular has developed a variety of microfluidic platforms to investigate sensory systems, development, aging, and physiology of the nematode. Critical for the growth of this field, however, has been the implementation of concurrent advanced microscopy, hardware, and software technologies that enable the discovery of novel biology. In this review, we highlight recent innovations in microfluidic platforms used for assaying C...
June 12, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Mizanur Rahman, Jennifer E Hewitt, Frank Van-Bussel, Hunter Edwards, Jerzy Blawzdziewicz, Nathaniel J Szewczyk, Monica Driscoll, Siva A Vanapalli
Muscle strength is a functional measure of quality of life in humans. Declines in muscle strength are manifested in diseases as well as during inactivity, aging, and space travel. With conserved muscle biology, the simple genetic model C. elegans is a high throughput platform in which to identify molecular mechanisms causing muscle strength loss and to develop interventions based on diet, exercise, and drugs. In the clinic, standardized strength measures are essential to quantitate changes in patients; however, analogous standards have not been recapitulated in the C...
June 12, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Bhavya Ravi, Jessica Garcia, Kevin M Collins
Neuron activity accompanies synapse formation and maintenance, but how early circuit activity contributes to behavior development is not well understood. Here, we use the Caenorhabditis elegans egg-laying motor circuit as a model to understand how coordinated cell and circuit activity develops and drives a robust two-state behavior in adults. Using calcium imaging in behaving animals, we find the serotonergic Hermaphrodite Specific Neurons (HSNs) and vulval muscles show rhythmic calcium transients in L4 larvae before eggs are produced...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Christopher W Williams, Jyoti Iyer, Yan Liu, Kevin F O'Connell
CDK11, a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family, has been implicated in a diverse array of functions including transcription, RNA processing, sister chromatid cohesion, spindle assembly, centriole duplication and apoptosis. Despite its involvement in many essential functions, little is known about the requirements for CDK11 and its partner Cyclin L in a developing multicellular organism. Here we investigate the function of CDK11 and Cyclin L during development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Worms express two CDK11 proteins encoded by distinct loci: CDK-11...
June 7, 2018: Developmental Biology
Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante, Maria Gleiciane da Rocha, Glaucia Morgana de Melo Guedes, Jonathas Sales de Oliveira, Géssica Dos Santos Araújo, Jaime David Acosta España, Jamille Alencar Sales, Lara de Aguiar, Manoel de Araújo Neto Paiva, Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, Waldemiro de Aquino Pereira-Neto, Adriana de Queiroz Pinheiro, José Júlio Costa Sidrim, Débora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha
The yeast Malassezia pachydermatis is a component of the microbiota of dogs and cats, however it can cause otitis and seborrheic dermatitis in these animals. The objective of this study was to determine the antifungal susceptibility, and evaluate virulence and pathogenicity of 25 M. pachydermatis strains from animals. Susceptibility to ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, terbinafine, and amphotericin B was evaluated by broth microdilution assay. In addition, biofilm-forming ability, protease, phospholipase, hemolysin and melanin production and adhesion to epithelial cells by this yeast species were assessed...
July 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Marcello Germoglio, Adele Adamo
The evolutionary conserved RAD-51 protein is essential for homologous recombination in the germ line as well as homologous repair of DNA double strand breaks in all eukaryotic cells. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans the rad-51 gene is transcribed into messenger-RNAs potentially coding three alternative protein isoforms. Null rad-51 alleles display embryonic lethality, severe defects in chromosome structure and high level of germ line apoptosis. To dissect its functions, we genetically modified the C. elegans rad-51 gene by CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing technology, obtaining a separation-of-function (sfi-) mutant allele that only disrupts the long transcript isoform...
June 8, 2018: Genetics
Jihye Yeon, Jinmahn Kim, Do-Young Kim, Hyunmin Kim, Jungha Kim, Eun Jo Du, KyeongJin Kang, Hyun-Ho Lim, Daewon Moon, Kyuhyung Kim
Animal locomotion is mediated by a sensory system referred to as proprioception. Defects in the proprioceptive coordination of locomotion result in uncontrolled and inefficient movements. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying proprioception are not fully understood. Here, we identify two transient receptor potential cation (TRPC) channels, trp-1 and trp-2, as necessary and sufficient for proprioceptive responses in C. elegans head steering locomotion. Both channels are expressed in the SMDD neurons, which are required and sufficient for head bending, and mediate coordinated head steering by sensing mechanical stretches due to the contraction of head muscle and orchestrating dorsal head muscle contractions...
June 8, 2018: PLoS Biology
Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, Antonio José de Jesus Evangelista, Rosana Serpa, Ana Raquel Colares de Andrade, Patrícia Bruna Leite Mendes, Jônatas da Silva Franco, Jonathas Sales de Oliveira, Lucas Pereira de Alencar, Jamille Alencar Sales, Lília Maria Carneiro Câmara, Débora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante, José Júlio Costa Sidrim, Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha
AIM: To investigate the direct effect of antibiotics on growth and virulence of the major Candida species associated with invasive infections. MATERIALS & METHODS: Cefepime, imipenem, meropenem, amoxicillin and vancomycin were tested at twofold the peak plasma concentration (2× PP) and the peak plasma concentration (PP). The effects of antibiotics on Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis were investigated by colony counting, flow cytometry, proteolytic activity and virulence in Caenorhabditis elegans...
June 8, 2018: Future Microbiology
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