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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829939/protein-clustering-shapes-polarity-protein-gradients
#1
Edwin Munro
In this issue of Developmental Cell, Dickinson et al. (2017) and Rodriguez et al. (2017), along with Wang et al. (2017) in Nature Cell Biology, show how PAR protein oligomerization can dynamically couple protein diffusion and transport by cortical flow to control kinase activity gradients and polarity in the C. elegans zygote.
August 21, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829773/caenorhabditis-elegans-atpase-inhibitor-factor-1-if1-mai-2-preserves-the-mitochondrial-membrane-potential-%C3%AE-%C3%AF-m-and-is-important-to-induce-germ-cell-apoptosis
#2
L P Fernández-Cárdenas, E Villanueva-Chimal, L S Salinas, C José-Nuñez, M Tuena de Gómez Puyou, R E Navarro
When the electrochemical proton gradient is disrupted in the mitochondria, IF1 (Inhibitor Factor-1) inhibits the reverse hydrolytic activity of the F1Fo-ATP synthase, thereby allowing cells to conserve ATP at the expense of losing the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm). The function of IF1 has been studied mainly in different cell lines, but these studies have generated contrasting results, which have not been helpful to understand the real role of this protein in a whole organism. In this work, we studied IF1 function in Caenorhabditis elegans to understand IF1´s role in vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827395/cytoskeletal-variations-in-an-asymmetric-cell-division-support-diversity-in-nematode-sperm-size-and-sex-ratios
#3
Ethan S Winter, Anna Schwarz, Gunar Fabig, Jessica L Feldman, André Pires-daSilva, Thomas Müller-Reichert, Penny L Sadler, Diane C Shakes
Asymmetric partitioning is an essential component of many developmental processes. As spermatogenesis concludes, sperm are streamlined by discarding unnecessary cellular into cellular wastebags called residual bodies (RBs). During nematode spermatogenesis, this asymmetric partitioning event occurs shortly after anaphase II, and both microtubules and actin partition into a central RB. Here we use fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy to elucidate and compare the intermediate steps of RB formation in C...
August 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827345/indoles-from-commensal-bacteria-extend-healthspan
#4
Robert Sonowal, Alyson Swimm, Anusmita Sahoo, Liping Luo, Yohei Matsunaga, Ziqi Wu, Jui A Bhingarde, Elizabeth A Ejzak, Ayush Ranawade, Hiroshi Qadota, Domonica N Powell, Christopher T Capaldo, Jonathan M Flacker, Rhienallt M Jones, Guy M Benian, Daniel Kalman
Multiple studies have identified conserved genetic pathways and small molecules associated with extension of lifespan in diverse organisms. However, extending lifespan does not result in concomitant extension in healthspan, defined as the proportion of time that an animal remains healthy and free of age-related infirmities. Rather, mutations that extend lifespan often reduce healthspan and increase frailty. The question arises as to whether factors or mechanisms exist that uncouple these processes and extend healthspan and reduce frailty independent of lifespan...
August 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827289/mip-map-high-throughput-mapping-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-temperature-sensitive-mutants-via-molecular-inversion-probes
#5
Calvin A Mok, Vinci Au, Owen A Thompson, Mark L Edgley, Louis Gevirtzman, John Yochem, Joshua Lowry, Nadin Memar, Matthew R Wallenfang, Dominique Rasoloson, Bruce Bowerman, Ralf Schnabel, Geraldine Seydoux, Donald G Moerman, Robert H Waterston
Mutants remain a powerful means for dissecting gene function in model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans. Massively parallel sequencing has simplified the detection of variants after mutagenesis but determining precisely which change is responsible for phenotypic perturbation remains a key step. Genetic mapping paradigms in C. elegans rely on bulk segregant populations produced by crosses with the problematic Hawaiian wild isolate and an excess of redundant information from whole-genome sequencing (WGS)...
August 21, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826819/a-real-time-biosensor-for-erk-activity-reveals-signaling-dynamics-during-c-%C3%A2-elegans-cell-fate-specification
#6
Claire de la Cova, Robert Townley, Sergi Regot, Iva Greenwald
Kinase translocation reporters (KTRs) are genetically encoded fluorescent activity sensors that convert kinase activity into a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling equilibrium for visualizing single-cell signaling dynamics. Here, we adapt the first-generation KTR for extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) to allow easy implementation in vivo. This sensor, "ERK-nKTR," allows quantitative and qualitative assessment of ERK activity by analysis of individual nuclei and faithfully reports ERK activity during development and neural function in diverse cell contexts in Caenorhabditis elegans...
August 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826674/evolutionarily-conserved-principles-predict-3d-chromatin-organization
#7
M Jordan Rowley, Michael H Nichols, Xiaowen Lyu, Masami Ando-Kuri, I Sarahi M Rivera, Karen Hermetz, Ping Wang, Yijun Ruan, Victor G Corces
Topologically associating domains (TADs), CTCF loop domains, and A/B compartments have been identified as important structural and functional components of 3D chromatin organization, yet the relationship between these features is not well understood. Using high-resolution Hi-C and HiChIP, we show that Drosophila chromatin is organized into domains we term compartmental domains that correspond precisely with A/B compartments at high resolution. We find that transcriptional state is a major predictor of Hi-C contact maps in several eukaryotes tested, including C...
August 10, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822104/comparison-of-the-toxic-effects-of-quinolinic-acid-and-3-nitropropionic-acid-in-c-elegans-involvement-of-the-skn-1-pathway
#8
Ilan Kotlar, Aline Colonnello, María Fernanda Aguilera-González, Daiana Silva Avila, María Eduarda de Lima, Rodolfo García-Contreras, Alma Ortíz-Plata, Félix Alexandre Antunes Soares, Michael Aschner, Abel Santamaría
The tryptophan metabolite, quinolinic acid (QUIN), and the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) are two important tools for toxicological research commonly used in neurotoxic models of excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, energy depletion, and neuronal cell death in mammals. However, their toxic properties have yet to be explored in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) for the establishment of novel, simpler, complementary, alternative, and predictive neurotoxic model of mammalian neurotoxicity...
August 18, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821673/unc-18-and-tomosyn-antagonistically-control-synaptic-vesicle-priming-downstream-of-unc-13-in-c-elegans
#9
Seungmee Park, Na-Ryum Bin, Bin Yu, Raymond Wong, Ewa Sitarska, Kyoko Sugita, Ke Ma, Junjie Xu, Chi-Wei Tien, Arash Algouneh, Ekaterina Turlova, Siyan Wang, Pranay Siriya, Waleed Shahid, Lorraine Kalia, Zhong-Ping Feng, Philippe P Monnier, Hong-Shuo Sun, Mei Zhen, Shangbang Gao, Josep Rizo, Shuzo Sugita
Munc18-1/UNC-18 is believed to prime SNARE-mediated membrane fusion, yet the underlying mechanisms remain enigmatic. Here, we examined how potential gain-of-function mutations of Munc18-1/UNC-18 affect locomotory behavior and synaptic transmission, and how Munc18-1-mediated priming is related to Munc13-1/UNC-13 and Tomosyn/TOM-1, positive and negative SNARE regulators, respectively. We show that a Munc18-1(P335A)/UNC-18(P334A) mutation leads to significantly increased locomotory activity and acetylcholine release in C...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820333/protease-dead-separase-inhibits-chromosome-segregation-and-rab-11-vesicle-trafficking
#10
Xiaofei Bai, Joshua N Bembenek
Separase cleaves cohesin to allow chromosome segregation. Separase also regulates cortical granule exocytosis and vesicle trafficking during cytokinesis, both of which involve RAB-11. We investigated whether separase regulates exocytosis through a proteolytic or non-proteolytic mechanism. In C. elegans, protease-dead separase (SEP-1(PD)::GFP) is dominant negative. Consistent with its role in cohesin cleavage, SEP-1(PD)::GFP causes chromosome segregation defects. As expected, partial depletion of cohesin rescues this defect, confirming that SEP-1(PD)::GFP acts through a substrate trapping mechanism...
August 18, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819099/the-genetic-basis-of-natural-variation-in-a-phoretic-behavior
#11
Daehan Lee, Heeseung Yang, Jun Kim, Shannon Brady, Stefan Zdraljevic, Mostafa Zamanian, Heekyeong Kim, Young-Ki Paik, Leonid Kruglyak, Erik C Andersen, Junho Lee
Phoresy is a widespread form of commensalism that facilitates dispersal of one species through an association with a more mobile second species. Dauer larvae of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans exhibit a phoretic behavior called nictation, which could enable interactions with animals such as isopods or snails. Here, we show that natural C. elegans isolates differ in nictation. We use quantitative behavioral assays and linkage mapping to identify a genetic locus (nict-1) that mediates the phoretic interaction with terrestrial isopods...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818867/exploring-potential-germline-associated-roles-of-the-trim-nhl-protein-nhl-2%C3%A2-through-rnai-screening
#12
Gregory M Davis, Wai Y Low, Joshua W T Anderson, Peter R Boag
TRIM-NHL proteins are highly conserved regulators of developmental pathways in vertebrates and invertebrates. The TRIM-NHL family member, NHL-2 in Caenorhabditis elegans functions as a miRNA cofactor to regulate developmental timing. Similar regulatory roles have been reported in other model systems, with the mammalian orthologue in mice, TRIM32, contributing to muscle and neuronal cell proliferation via miRNA activity. Given the interest associated with TRIM-NHL family proteins, we aimed to further investigate the role of NHL-2 in C...
August 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817787/evaluation-of-the-electron-transfer-flavoprotein-etf-as-an-antibacterial-target-in-burkholderia-cenocepacia
#13
Maria S Stietz, Christina Lopez, Osasumwen Osifo, Marcelo Tolmasky, Silvia T Cardona
There are hundreds of essential genes in multidrug resistant bacterial genomes, but only a few of their products are exploited as antibacterial targets. An example is the electron flavoprotein (ETF) which is required for growth and viability in <i>Burkholderia cenocepacia</i>. Here, we evaluated ETF as an antibiotic target for <i>Burkholderia cepacia</i> complex (Bcc). Depletion of the bacterial ETF during infection of <i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i> significantly extended survival of the nematodes, proving that ETF is essential for survival of <i>B...
August 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817671/immunohistochemical-analysis-reveals-variations-in-proteasome-tissue-expression-in-c-elegans
#14
Elisa Mikkonen, Caj Haglund, Carina I Holmberg
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a crucial part in normal cell function by mediating intracellular protein clearance. We have previously shown that UPS-mediated protein degradation varies in a cell type-specific manner in C. elegans. Here, we use formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded C. elegans sections to enable studies on endogenous proteasome tissue expression. We show that the proteasome immunoreactivity pattern differs between cell types and within subcellular compartments in adult wild-type (N2) C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817611/the-directed-migration-of-gonadal-distal-tip-cells-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-requires-ngat-1-a-%C3%A3-1-4-n-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-enzyme
#15
Joseph Veyhl, Robert J Dunn, Wendy L Johnston, Alexa Bennett, Lijia W Zhang, James W Dennis, Harry Schachter, Joseph G Culotti
Glycoproteins such as growth factor receptors and extracellular matrix have well-known functions in development and cancer progression, however, the glycans at sites of modification are often heterogeneous molecular populations which makes their functional characterization challenging. Here we provide evidence for a specific, discrete, well-defined glycan modification and regulation of a stage-specific cell migration in Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that a chain-terminating, putative null mutation in the gene encoding a predicted β1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, named ngat-1, causes a maternally rescued temperature sensitive (ts) defect in the second phase of the three phase migration pattern of the posterior, but not the anterior, hermaphrodite Distal Tip Cell (DTC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814374/from-bench-laboratory-to-bed-hospital-home-how-to-explore-effective-natural-and-synthetic-pak1-blockers-longevity-promoters-for-cancer-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Hiroshi Maruta, Mok-Ryeon Ahn
PAK family kinases are RAC/CDC42-activated kinases that were first found in a soil amoeba 4 decades ago, and 2 decades later, were discovered in mammals as well. Since then at least 6 members of this family have been identified in mammals. One of them called PAK1 has been best studied so far, mainly because it is essential not only for malignant cell growth and metastasis, but also for many other diseases/disorders such as diabetes (type 2), AD (Alzheimer's disease), hypertension, and a variety of inflammatory or infectious diseases, which definitely shorten our lifespan...
August 9, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811311/linking-the-environment-daf-7-tgf%C3%AE-signaling-and-lag-2-dsl-ligand-expression-in-the-germline-stem-cell-niche
#17
Olga Pekar, Maria C Ow, Kailyn Y Hui, Marcus B Noyes, Sarah E Hall, E Jane Albert Hubbard
The developmental accumulation of proliferative germ cells in the C. elegans hermaphrodite is sensitive to the organismal environment. Previously, we found that the TGFβ signaling pathway links the environment and proliferative germ cell accumulation. Neuronal DAF-7/TGFβ causes a DAF-1/TGFβR signaling cascade in the gonadal distal tip cell (DTC), the germline stem cell niche, where it negatively regulates a DAF-3 SMAD and DAF-5 Sno-Ski. LAG-2, a founding DSL ligand family member, is produced in the DTC and activates the GLP-1/Notch receptor on adjacent germ cells to maintain germline stem cell fate...
August 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810059/targeted-genome-editing-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-using-crispr-cas9
#18
REVIEW
Behnom Farboud
Utilization of programmable nucleases to generate DNA lesions at precise endogenous sequences has transformed the ability to edit genomes from microbes to plants and animals. This is especially true in organisms that previously lacked the means to engineer precise genomic changes, like Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans is a 1 mm long free-living, nonparasitic, nematode worm, which is easily cultivated in a laboratory. Its detailed genetic map and relatively compact genome (~100 megabases) helped make it the first metazoan to have its entire genome sequenced...
August 15, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808962/northern-blot-detection-of-virus-derived-small-interfering-rnas-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-using-nonradioactive-oligo-probes
#19
Tianyun Long, Rui Lu
Northern blot analysis has been widely used as a tool for detection and characterization of specific RNA molecules. When coupled with radioactive probe northern blot allows for robust detection and characterization of small RNA molecules of trace amount. Here, we describe the detection and size characterization of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) in C. elegans using nonradioactive DNA oligo probes in northern blotting. Our protocol allows for the detection and characterization of not only primary vsiRNAs but also secondary vsiRNAs, a class of single-stranded vsiRNAs that has distinct migration pattern, and can be easily adapted to the detection of vsiRNAs in other organisms...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808619/gastrointestinal-parasites-in-captive-and-free-ranging-cebus-albifrons-in-the-western-amazon-ecuador
#20
Sarah Martin-Solano, Gabriel A Carrillo-Bilbao, William Ramirez, Maritza Celi-Erazo, Marie-Claude Huynen, Bruno Levecke, Washington Benitez-Ortiz, Bertrand Losson
Currently, there is a lack of surveys that report the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in the white-headed capuchin monkey (Cebus albifrons). We therefore assessed the presence and richness (= number of different parasite genera) of parasites in C. albifrons in wildlife refuges (n = 11) and in a free-ranging group near a human village (n = 15) in the Ecuadorian Amazon. In the 78 samples collected (median of 3 samples per animal), we identified a total of 6 genera of gastrointestinal parasites, representing protozoa, nematodes, acanthocephalans and cestodes...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
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