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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053679/measuring-the-effect-of-chemicals-on-the-growth-and-reproduction-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#1
So Young Lee, Kyungsu Kang
Toxicological evaluation is crucial for understanding the effects of chemicals on living organisms in basic and applied biological science fields. A non-mammalian soil round worm, Caenorhabditis elegans, is a valuable model organism for toxicology studies due to its convenience and lack of animal ethics issues compared with mammalian animal systems. In this protocol, a detailed procedure of toxicological evaluation of chemicals in C. elegans is described. A clinical anticancer drug, etoposide, which targets human topoisomerase II and inhibits DNA replication of human cancer cells, was selected as a model testing chemical...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050943/mir-67-regulates-p-aeruginosa-avoidance-behavior-in-c-elegans
#2
Yi-Cheng Ma, Lu Zhang, Li-Li Dai, Rahat Ullah Khan, Cheng-Gang Zou
Pathogen avoidance behaviors are found throughout the animal kingdom and are important for animal's survival in nature. As a free-living nematode, C. elegans is exposed to a variety of microorganisms, including toxic or pathogenic bacteria, in soil. C. elegans can develop efficient avoidance responses to pathogenic bacteria to minimize the infection risk. However, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in pathogen avoidance in C. elegans remains unclear. In this report, we showed that the miRNA mir-67 was involved in a behavioral avoidance response to P...
October 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049853/nutrient-driven-o-glcnac-in-proteostasis-and-neurodegeneration
#3
REVIEW
Ilhan Akan, Stephanie Olivier-Van Stichelen, Michelle R Bond, John A Hanover
Proteostasis is essential in the mammalian brain where post-mitotic cells must function for decades to maintain synaptic contacts and memory. The brain is dependent on glucose and other metabolites for proper function and is spared from metabolic deficits even during starvation. In this review, we outline how the nutrient sensitive nucleocytoplasmic posttranslational modification O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) regulates protein homeostasis. The O-GlcNAc modification is highly abundant in the mammalian brain, and has been linked to proteopathies, including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048526/comparative-transcriptomics-of-steinernema-and-caenorhabditis-single-embryos-reveals-orthologous-gene-expression-convergence-during-late-embryogenesis
#4
Marissa Macchietto, Dristi Angdembey, Negar Heidarpour, Lorrayne Serra, Bryan Rodriguez, Nicole El-Ali, Ali Mortazavi
Cells express distinct sets of genes in a precise spatio-temporal manner during embryonic development. There is a wealth of information on the deterministic embryonic development of Caenorhabditis elegans, but much less is known about embryonic development in nematodes from other taxa, especially at the molecular level. We are interested in insect pathogenic nematodes from the genus Steinernema as models of parasitism and symbiosis as well as a satellite model for evolution in comparison to C. elegans. To explore gene expression differences across taxa, we sequenced the transcriptomes of single embryos of two Steinernema species and two Caenorhabditis species at 11 stages during embryonic development and found several interesting features...
October 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048250/inhibition-of-abeta-proteotoxicity-by-paeoniflorin-in-i-caenorhabditis-elegans-i-through-regulation-of-oxidative-and-heat-shock-stress-responses
#5
Liping Ai, Fan Yang, Jie Song, Yan Chen, Lingyun Xiao, Qiangqiang Wang, Liangyi Wang, Haifeng Li, Tao Lei, Zebo Huang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common form of dementia and amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) aggregation is considered to be one of its main causes. Paeoniflorin has been previously shown to attenuate cognitive damage inflicted by exogenous Aβ protein. Using transgenic <i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i> models expressing human Aβ1-42, we demonstrate here that paeoniflorin can delay progressive paralysis caused by endogenous Aβ expression and reduce the amount of toxic Aβ oligomers in vivo although it has no effect on Aβ aggregation <i>in vitro</i>...
October 19, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047458/recordings-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-locomotor-behaviour-following-targeted-ablation-of-single-motorneurons
#6
Yee Lian Chew, Denise S Walker, Emma K Towlson, Petra E Vértes, Gang Yan, Albert-László Barabási, William R Schafer
Lesioning studies have provided important insight into the functions of brain regions in humans and other animals. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, with a small nervous system of 302 identified neurons, it is possible to generate lesions with single cell resolution and infer the roles of individual neurons in behaviour. Here we present a dataset of ~300 video recordings representing the locomotor behaviour of animals carrying single-cell ablations of 5 different motorneurons. Each file includes a raw video of approximately 27,000 frames; each frame has also been segmented to yield the position, contour, and body curvature of the tracked animal...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046707/comparative-cytogenetic-analysis-of-marine-palaemon-species-reveals-a-x1x1x2x2-x1x2y-sex-chromosome-system-in-palaemon-elegans
#7
Zeltia Torrecilla, Andrés Martínez-Lage, Alejandra Perina, Enrique González-Ortegón, Ana M González-Tizón
BACKGROUND: The maintenance of species and the promotion of speciation are closely related to chromosomal rearrangements throughout evolution. Decapoda represents the most species-rich order among crustaceans and, despite its ecological and economic importance, little is known about decapod karyology. We aim at cytogenetically characterizing two sympatric prawn species. RESULTS: Analysis of mitotic metaphases and meiotic diakinesis of the common prawn Palaemon serratus and the rockpool prawn P...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045848/single-molecule-sequencing-reveals-the-chromosome-scale-genomic-architecture-of-the-nematode-model-organism-pristionchus-pacificus
#8
Christian Rödelsperger, Jan M Meyer, Neel Prabh, Christa Lanz, Felix Bemm, Ralf J Sommer
The nematode Pristionchus pacificus is an established model for integrative evolutionary biology and comparative studies with Caenorhabditis elegans. While an existing genome draft facilitated the identification of several genes controlling various developmental processes, its high degree of fragmentation complicated virtually all genomic analyses. Here, we present a de novo genome assembly from single-molecule, long-read sequencing data consisting of 135 P. pacificus contigs. When combined with a genetic linkage map, 99% of the assembly could be ordered and oriented into six chromosomes...
October 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045470/structural-and-functional-analysis-of-smo-1-the-sumo-homolog-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#9
Parag Surana, Chandrakala M Gowda, Vasvi Tripathi, Limor Broday, Ranabir Das
SUMO proteins are important post-translational modifiers involved in multiple cellular pathways in eukaryotes, especially during the different developmental stages in multicellular organisms. The nematode C. elegans is a well known model system for studying metazoan development and has a single SUMO homolog, SMO-1. Interestingly, SMO-1 modification is linked to embryogenesis and development in the nematode. However, high-resolution information about SMO-1 and the mechanism of its conjugation is lacking. In this work, we report the high-resolution three dimensional structure of SMO-1 solved by NMR spectroscopy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045391/network-control-principles-predict-neuron-function-in-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-connectome
#10
Gang Yan, Petra E Vértes, Emma K Towlson, Yee Lian Chew, Denise S Walker, William R Schafer, Albert-László Barabási
Recent studies on the controllability of complex systems offer a powerful mathematical framework to systematically explore the structure-function relationship in biological, social, and technological networks. Despite theoretical advances, we lack direct experimental proof of the validity of these widely used control principles. Here we fill this gap by applying a control framework to the connectome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, allowing us to predict the involvement of each C. elegans neuron in locomotor behaviours...
October 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043382/cell-transfer-of-information-via-mir-loaded-exosomes-a-biophysical-approach
#11
C Potrich, L Lunelli, V Vaghi, L Pasquardini, C Pederzolli
A new communication route among cells was reported in recent years, via extracellular vesicles and their cargo. Exosomes in particular are attracting increasing interest as privileged mediators of this cell communication route. The exosome-mediated transfer of nucleic acids, especially of microRNAs, is particularly promising for their use both as biomarkers of pathologies and as a therapeutic tool. Here, a simplified model of interaction among cells, microRNAs and vesicles is studied using a biophysical approach...
October 17, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043078/a-gap-that-divides
#12
REVIEW
Angika Basant, Michael Glotzer
Cytokinesis in metazoan cells is mediated by an actomyosin-based contractile ring that assembles in response to activation of the small GTPase RhoA. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor that activates RhoA during cytokinesis, ECT-2, is highly regulated. In most metazoan cells, with the notable exception of the early Caenorhabditis elegans embryo, RhoA activation and furrow ingression require the centralspindlin complex. This exception is due to the existence of a parallel pathway for RhoA activation in C...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042483/olfactory-experience-primes-the-heat-shock-transcription-factor-hsf-1-to-enhance-the-expression-of-molecular-chaperones-in-c-elegans
#13
Felicia K Ooi, Veena Prahlad
Learning, a process by which animals modify their behavior as a result of experience, enables organisms to synthesize information from their surroundings to acquire resources and avoid danger. We showed that a previous encounter with only the odor of pathogenic bacteria prepared Caenorhabditis elegans to survive exposure to the pathogen by increasing the heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1)-dependent expression of genes encoding molecular chaperones. Experience-mediated enhancement of chaperone gene expression required serotonin, which primed HSF-1 to enhance the expression of molecular chaperone genes by promoting its localization to RNA polymerase II-enriched nuclear loci, even before transcription occurred...
October 17, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041955/pluripotent-nontumorigenic-multilineage-differentiating-stress-enduring-cells-muse-cells-a-seven-year-retrospective
#14
REVIEW
Samantha C Fisch, María L Gimeno, Julia D Phan, Ariel A Simerman, Daniel A Dumesic, Marcelo J Perone, Gregorio D Chazenbalk
Multilineage differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells, discovered in the spring of 2010 at Tohoku University in Sendai, Japan, were quickly recognized by scientists as a possible source of pluripotent cells naturally present within mesenchymal tissues. Muse cells normally exist in a quiescent state, singularly activated by severe cellular stress in vitro and in vivo. Muse cells have the capacity for self-renewal while maintaining pluripotent cell characteristics indicated by the expression of pluripotent stem cell markers...
October 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038748/virulence-test-using-nematodes-to-prescreen-nocardia-species-capable-of-inducing-neurodegeneration-and-behavioral-disorders
#15
Claire Bernardin Souibgui, Anthony Zoropogui, Jeremy Voisin, Sebastien Ribun, Valentin Vasselon, Petar Pujic, Veronica Rodriguez-Nava, Patrick Belly, Benoit Cournoyer, Didier Blaha
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a disorder characterized by dopaminergic neuron programmed cell death. The etiology of PD remains uncertain-some cases are due to selected genes associated with familial heredity, others are due to environmental exposure to toxic components, but over 90% of cases have a sporadic origin. Nocardia are Actinobacteria that can cause human diseases like nocardiosis. This illness can lead to lung infection or central nervous system (CNS) invasion in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037439/caenorhabditis-elegans-dosage-compensation-insights-into-condensin-mediated-gene-regulation
#16
REVIEW
Sarah Elizabeth Albritton, Sevinç Ercan
Recent work demonstrating the role of chromosome organization in transcriptional regulation has sparked substantial interest in the molecular mechanisms that control chromosome structure. Condensin, an evolutionarily conserved multisubunit protein complex, is essential for chromosome condensation during cell division and functions in regulating gene expression during interphase. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a specialized condensin forms the core of the dosage compensation complex (DCC), which specifically binds to and represses transcription from the hermaphrodite X chromosomes...
October 13, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036691/nuclear-localized-c9orf72-associated-arginine-containing-dipeptides-exhibit-age-dependent-toxicity-in-c-elegans
#17
Paige Rudich, Carley Snoznik, Simon C Watkins, John Monaghan, Udai Bhan Pandey, Todd Lamitina
A hexanucleotide repeat expansion mutation in the C9orf72 gene represents a prevalent genetic cause of several neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Non-canonical translation of this repeat gives rise to several distinct dipeptide protein species that could play pathological roles in disease. Here, we show in the model system C. elegans that expression of the arginine-containing dipeptides, but not alanine-containing dipeptides, produces toxic phenotypes in multiple cellular contexts, including motor neurons...
September 27, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036592/gain-and-loss-of-small-rna-classes-characterization-of-small-rnas-in-the-parasitic-nematode-family-strongyloididae
#18
Anja Holz, Adrian Streit
The nematode family Strongyloididae is of particular interest because it contains important parasites of medical and veterinary relevance. In addition, species of this family can form parasitic and free-living generations and it also occupies an interesting phylogenetic position within the nematodes. Nematodes differ in several ways from other taxa with respect to their small non-coding RNAs. Recent comparative studies revealed that there is also considerable variability within the nematodes. However, no Strongyloididae species or close relative was included in these studies...
September 25, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035734/comparison-of-constitutive-and-thiabendazole-induced-expression-of-five-cytochrome-p450-genes-in-fourth-stage-larvae-of-haemonchus-contortus-isolates-with-different-drug-susceptibility-identifies-one-gene-with-high-constitutive-expression-in-a-multi-resistant
#19
Esra Yilmaz, Sabrina Ramünke, Janina Demeler, Jürgen Krücken
Benzimidazoles (BZs) remain amongst the most widely used anthelmintic drug classes against gastro-intestinal nematode infections, although their efficacy is increasingly compromised by resistance. The primary underlying mechanisms for BZ resistance are single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the isotype 1 β-tubulin gene causing the substitutions F167Y, E198A or F200Y. However, resistance is believed to be multi-genic and previous studies have shown that isolates carrying 90-100% F200Y can vary considerably in their resistance level in the egg hatch assay (EHA)...
October 7, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033363/convergent-transcriptional-programs-regulate-camp-levels-in-c-%C3%A2-elegans-gabaergic-motor-neurons
#20
Bin Yu, Xiaolin Wang, Shuai Wei, Tao Fu, Emmanuel Enoch Dzakah, Ahmed Waqas, Walter W Walthall, Ge Shan
Both transcriptional regulation and signaling pathways play crucial roles in neuronal differentiation and plasticity. Caenorhabditis elegans possesses 19 GABAergic motor neurons (MNs) called D MNs, which are divided into two subgroups: DD and VD. DD, but not VD, MNs reverse their cellular polarity in a developmental process called respecification. UNC-30 and UNC-55 are two critical transcription factors in D MNs. By using chromatin immunoprecipitation with CRISPR/Cas9 knockin of GFP fusion, we uncovered the global targets of UNC-30 and UNC-55...
October 11, 2017: Developmental Cell
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